You are on page 1of 17

Development of Musculoskeletal System

Posted on September 26, 2010 by terrichan
Read up Foundation 1 Embryology & 1st aid basic sciences.


Skeletal system develops from:

Paraxial mesoderm
o forms somites
 a segmented series of blocks on each side of neural tube
 somites form:
 vertebral column
 muscles of axial skeleton
 body wall
 head
Lateral plate mesoderm (somatic layer)
o forms:
 pelvic
 pectoral girdle
 long bones (of limbs)

    1st pair of somites appear on the 20th day o at cervical region formation of the somites o cranial-caudally o 3 somites per day o By the 5th week. have 44 pairs  Occipital – 4  1st pair disappear at 4th week  Cervical – 8  Thoracic – 12  Lumbar – 5  Sacral – 7  Coccygeal – 8 to 10  Last 7 pairs disappear at 4th week Ventromedial: sclerotome o mesoderm of sclerotome  surrounds neural tube & notochord  forms vertebral column Dorsolateral: dermo-myotome o dermatome  forms skin o myotome  forms muscle .

 Sclerotomic blocks o separated by intersegmental arteries o caudal part of each segment proliferate  caudal half of one sclerotome binds to cranial half of next one (see image below)  therefore body of vertebrae is of intersegmental origin (segmented) .

  Messenchymal cells between cranial and caudal half of sclerotome o form intervertebral disc  annulus fibrosus (purple) The remains of notochord o forms nucleuss pulposus Developmental abnormalities .

Neural tube defect   diagnostic: o maternal alpha-fetoprotein prevention .

o   folic acid supplementation Neural crest cells o forms mesoderm of head  which forms bones of face & skull Occipital somites o forms cranial vault & base of skull Types of ossification (skull) Membranous (messenchyme –> bone)  Neurocranium (inner part of skull) o forms cranial cavity  houses the brain o membranous part of neurocranium  fontanelles  flat ones of cranial vault sutures  enables baby’s skull to enlarge to accommodate growing brain  failure of formation  brain exposed to amnion causing degeneration  anencephaly  with herniation of brain  cranial meningocele .

  Viscerocranium (outer part of skull) o facial skeleton  from 1st & 2nd pharyngeal arches Chondrocranium o base of skull Cells of somites migrate to form precursors of:   limb bud body wall musculature but retains nerves from segment of origin (?). .

By the end of 4th week. limbs  C/T from somatic mesoderm thickened ectoderm at distal border of limb bud (at the tip) o Apical ectodermal ridge (AER)  induces the pattern of the limb  differentiation of  limb bone  cartilage  muscle  if defected  fingers/toes may not form properly . body wall.   limb buds out pocket o from ventral body wall o start from a mesoderm core  derived from somatic layer of lateral plate mesoderm o upper limb buds appear 1st o lower limb buds appear 2 days later o mesenchyme in bud condenses  6th week – 1st cartilage model  7th week – 1st limb muscles at base of limb bud  pattern of muscle depends on connective tissue into which myoblasts migrate  head region  C/T from neural crest cells  axial.


 limbs rotate in the opposite direction o upper limb: 90% lateral  extensor muscles  lateral & posterior surface  thumb  lateral side (anatomical position) o lower limb: 90% medial  extensor muscles  anterior surface  great toe  medial side (anatomical position) Bone growth with age .At the 7th week.


Muscle development .

Prospective muscle cells   Epimere o extensors of vertebral column o innervated by: dorsal rami of spinal nerve Hypomere o limb and body muscle wall o innervated by: ventral rami of spinal nerve .

o o Anomalies thoracic hypomere  splits into 3 layers  external intercostal  internal intercostal  innermost intercostal abdominal hypomere  splits into 3 layers  external oblique  internal oblique  transversus abdominis .

limbs shorted than trunk. small face.Dwarfism   9 members of fibroblast growth factors & fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) o regulate cellular events in proliferation and differentiation FGFR-3 o expressed in cartilage growth plates in long bones o mutation in p-arm of chromosome 4  autosomal dominant – hereditary  amino acid substitution  proliferation on chondrocytes in epiphyseal plate is disturbed  achondroplasia  most common causes of dwarfism  large head. bowed .

   Amelia o complete absense of limbs Meromelia o partial absense of limbs Phocomelia o long bones absense o rudimentary hands & feet Causes:    hereditary drug induced mothers on thalidomide o teratogen damage  mostly 3rd – 8th week .

     Polydactyly o extra digits Ectrodactyly o absence of digits Syndactyly o abnormal fusion  caused by: anti-convulsant phenytoin Lobster claw deformity o cleft hand & foot Congenital hip dislocation o due to underdevelopment of acetabulum & head of femur o mostly female .