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Quality of Thought

Descriptors




Excellent: Exceptional, complete, clear, exceeds performance indicators
Good: Excellent, complete, meets performance indicators
Average: Approaching performance indicators, missing some detail, not fully developed
Fair: Developing competence, vague, weak, needs more detail
Poor: Not present

Category

Category Description

Q1 - Q 2 (5 points each), Q3-Q6 (3 points
Each Question each) Q 7 (6 points) Q 8 (3 points)Q8 (3
(95 points all) points) Q9 (8 points) Q10-Q25 (3 points
each) and Q26 (8 points) points.
Student’s answers are free of grammatical
Grammar &
errors and is written in a manner where a
Writing Style
college level reader can grasp the essay’s
(5 points)
meaning/argument in a single rapid reading.

Descriptor

Points
Awarded/Max.
Points

. 6) How do the data fit together: The researcher arranges the data into a logical organizational structure? 7) The data speak: The researcher analyzes and interprets the data to determine their meaning. includes: A) Talking about a research design or plan. research design is planning. 2) The basic format of the quantitative research process includes (in part). The research design or plan provides the overall structure for the procedures the researcher follows. . Nothing helps a research efort be successful so much as carefully planning the overall design. the data the researcher collects. a question arises that has no known resolution. according to your textbook. . 2) It’s a matter of words: The researcher converts the question to a clearly stated research problem. Simply put. You will be much more efficient and efective as a researcher if you identify your resources. or . 8) It’s either . and the data analyses the researcher conducts. 5) Data! Hard data! And nothing but the data: The researcher collects data that potentially relate to the problem.1) A good research plan. your procedures. and the forms that your data will take —always with the central goal of solving your research problem in mind—at the very beginning of your project. 4) The search is on! The researcher searches the literature for ideas that shed light on the problem and for strategies that may help to address it. 3) It’s worth a guess! : The researcher poses a temporary hypothesis or series of hypotheses. in chronological order: A) The basic format of the quantitative research process includes : 1) A question is posed: In the mind of the researcher. . More research efort is wasted by going of half-prepared—with only a vague set of ideas and procedures—than in any other way. . Either they support the hypotheses or they do not.: Either the data seemingly resolve the research problem or they do not.

Her book was widely read by other anthropologists. collecting data under the same circumstances and within the same parameters you have used. and . who is an expert in Navaho weaving. you are a director and producer—an agent whose function is to collect. organize. 5) Jack. achieve results comparable to those you have obtained. has been living in an Incan village for three years. an anthropologist. universality means: A) Universality: The research project should be one that might be carried out by any competent person. For Olivia. observing weaving constitutes a primary data or secondary data A) Primary Data: 6) Jackie wrote a book about her experience as an anthropologist living in an Incan village for three years and becoming an expert weaver. 4) When considering general criteria for high-quality research projects.3) When considering general criteria for high-quality research projects. During that time Jack has become expert in Incan weaving by observing and imitating the master weavers in the community. the researcher has to answer questions about the data. equally knowledge-able individual might take your place and complete the project with essentially the same results. As a researcher. a. For Jack. including Olivia. reliability means: A) Replication: The research should be repeatable. Jackie’s book constitutes a primary data or secondary data A) Secondary data: 7) In planning for data collection. Identify them. and report what the collected data seem to indicate— but another. Any other competent researcher should be able to take your problem and.

“Well. and postal code! Suppose a nurse or a nutritionist is doing a research study about Walter Olin Atwater. On a sheet of paper. and what are their characteristics? 2. How will the data be obtained? To know where the data are located is not enough. But then we ask a basic question: “Where will you get the data to resolve the problem?” Some students look bewildered and remain speechless or else mutter something such as. but in fact a specific. Where are the data on Atwater located? The researcher can go no further until that basic question is answered. whose work has been instrumental in establishing the science of human nutrition in the United States. but precisely where? If you are doing a study of documents. you need to know how you might . what data do you need. they must be available somewhere.b. What data are needed? This question may seem like an overly simple one.” Not somewhere. definitive answer is fundamental to any research efort. 1. where are the documents you need? At exactly which library and in what collection will you find them? What society or what organization has the files you must examine? Where are these organizations located? Specify geographically—by town. what data are mandatory? What is their nature? Are they historical documents? Interview excerpts? Questionnaire responses? Observations? Measurements made before and after an experimental intervention? Specifically. 3. Where are the data located? Those of us who have taught courses in research methodology are constantly awed by the fascinating problems that students identify for research projects. street address. write the answers to the following questions: To resolve the problem. Why it is important to answer them A) a) Basic to any research project are four fundamental questions about the data.

scales. but an equally important question is. you must obviously rethink the nature of your problem. You have the data in hand. Will you be able to get data that might adequately provide a solution to the problem? And if so. the researcher must answer these questions specifically and concretely. 4. Now go back and look carefully at how you have worded your research problem. Clear answers can help bring any research planning and design into focus. and so on. gauges. In research. a next important step is to consider how you might best measure what you observe. might they reasonably lend themselves to interpretations that shed light on the problem? If the answer to either of these questions is no. 8) Define Measurement exactly as given in your textbook. If instead. b) To avoid serious trouble later on. obtaining the information you need might not be as easy as you think. The three former hurdles have been overcome. How will the data be interpreted? This is perhaps the most important question of all.acquire them. confidentiality agreements. A) We think of measurement in terms of such objects as rulers. With privacy laws. how will you get them? Careful attention to this question marks the diference between a viable research project and a pipe dream. measurement takes on a somewhat diferent meaning “Measurement is limiting the data of any phenomenon— substantial or insubstantial — so that those data may be . and thermometers. But you must also spell out precisely what you intend to do with the data to solve the research problem or one of its sub problems. You may indeed know what data you need and where you can find them. both answers are yes.

it is not. on the surface.interpreted and. 2) Content validity is the extent to which a measurement instrument is a representative sample of the content area (domain) being measured. an instrument looks like it is measuring a particular characteristic. ultimately. each of which is important in diferent situations: 1) Face validity is the extent to which. 9) a. compared to a particular qualitative or quantitative standard”. . Identify the diferent forms of this validity. A measurement instrument has high content validity if its items or questions reflect the various parts of the content domain in appropriate proportions and if it requires the particular behaviors and skills that are central to that domain. in and of itself. the knowledge students have learned during classroom instruction or the job skills workers have acquired in a training program. a terribly dependable indicator that an instrument is truly measuring what the researcher wants to measure. b. b) The validity of a measurement instrument can take several diferent forms. But because it relies entirely on subjective judgment. Content validity is often a consideration when a researcher wants to assess people’s achievement in some area—for instance. Define Validity of the measurement instruments as given in your textbook. Face validity is often useful for ensuring the cooperation of people who are participating in a research study. A) a) The validity of a measurement instrument is the extent to which the instrument measures what it is intended to measure.

presumably related measure (the latter measure is. the validity of instrument in specific to the situation. love—all of these are constructs. the criterion). Motivation.multimethod approach 3. racial prejudice. 4) Construct validity is the extent to which an instrument measures a characteristic that cannot be directly observed but is assumed to exist based on patterns in people’s behavior (such a characteristic is a construct). a personality test designed to assess a person’s shyness or outgoingness has criterion validity if its scores correlate with other measures of a person’s general sociability. measure the construct in question. For example. 1. In other words. in fact. in that none of them can be directly observed and measured. Judgment by a panel experts . c. in this case. they should obtain some kind of evidence that their approach does. An instrument designed to measure a salesperson’s efectiveness on the job should correlate with the number of sales the individual actually makes during the course of a business week. Table of specification 2. Why there are diferent forms of validity? A) It is critical to note that the validity of any measurement instrument can be vary considerably depending on the purpose for which it is being used. When researchers ask questions. Multitrait .3) Criterion validity is the extent to which the results of an assessment instrument correlate with another. present tasks. creativity. or observe behaviors as a way of assessing an underlying construct.

A) Face Validity 11) A researcher decides to use a high school sample to test the relationship between her new measure of empathy and a wellestablished measure of interpersonal sensitivity. which supports the ______ of the new instrument. Sean’s confusion indicates a lack of ______ regarding the task. A) Criterion validity . He is left somewhat confused when. A) Criterion validity 12) A researcher designed a new questionnaire to measure political conservatism. he is asked to complete a questionnaire about commonly purchased grocery items. he asks people leaving their polling place on election day to report their degree of political conservatism on a scale of 1 (low) to 10 (high) and then complete his questionnaire. Results show that people who identified themselves as political conservatives also had the highest scores on his questionnaire. To test out his new instrument. a high school wrestler. This is an indication of the ______ of the new instrument. She finds that the two instruments are highly related.10) Sean. has agreed to participate in a study of cardiovascular conditioning. at the first research session.

Identify the diferent forms of this reliability A) Reliability is the consistency with which a measuring instrument yields a certain. reliability takes diferent forms: 1) Interrater reliability is the extent to which two or more individuals evaluating the same product or performance give identical judgments.13) Define Reliability of the Measurement Instruments as given in your textbook.. instruments that measure physical phenomena aren’t necessarily completely reliable. 14) Dick and Jane are studying aggression among preschool children. 2) Test-retest reliability is the extent to which a single instrument yields the same results for the same people on two diferent occasions. As we have just seen in our waist-measuring situation. they each watch a videotape of four . Separately. 4) Internal consistency reliability is the extent to which all of the items within a single instrument yield similar results.g. consistent result when the entity being measured hasn’t changed. Like validity. 3) Equivalent forms reliability is the extent to which two diferent versions of the same instrument (e. “Form A” and “Form B” of a scholastic aptitude test) yield similar results.

Drive is testing a 10-question measure of achievement motivation. He notes that if his respondents agree with the first question. they tend of disagree with the other nine. then again in early May. if his respondents disagree with the first question. This is an example of ______ reliability. By comparing the two sets of scores. Likewise. She administers a survey of civic mindedness to a senior citizens group in early April. By . the professor can assess the ______ reliability of her measure of civic-mindedness A) Test-retest reliability 17) Professor Pickle is studying civic-mindedness among senior citizens. This is an indication of good ______ reliability A) Internal consistency reliability 16) Professor Pickle is studying civic-mindedness among senior citizens. A) Interpreter reliability 15) Dr. They compare their completed ratings and are pleased to note they are highly similar. She administers a survey of civic mindedness to a senior citizens group and then she asks Professor Jones to develop and administer another survey to measure the same.children interacting in a playroom and then rate each child on the level of aggression displayed during the play session. they tend to also agree with the other nine.

g.retest reliability 19) Identify three of the techniques for strengthening the internal validity of a study. teachers.comparing the two sets of scores. In a situation where two or more diferent interventions are being compared. A) The three of the techniques for strengthening the internal validity of a study 1) A controlled laboratory study. An experiment is conducted in a laboratory setting so that environmental conditions can be carefully regulated. a) Test. research assistants) know which intervention each participant is receiving. In one case. Such lack of knowledge (“blindness”) decreases the likelihood that people’s expectations for outcomes might influence the actual outcomes. People are observed in such a way that they do not know 4) their actions are being recorded. Dr Moumen is assessing the -------------.. 2) A double-blind experiment. neither the participants in the study nor the people administering the interventions (e. a university library measured student and faculty use of diferent parts of the library by looking at wear- .reliability of measuring the concepts of research methods. the professor can assess the ______ reliability of her measure of civic-mindedness. 3) Unobtrusive measures. 18) When Dr Moumen divides his class into two groups and used diferent form of his quizzes to each group. We ofer two real-life examples to illustrate. The results of the quizzes of the two groups are similar.

salamanders. 1982). although it may not have the tight controls of a laboratory project. however: They provide an artificial setting that may be quite diferent from real-life circumstances. Triangulation is also common in mixed-methods designs. researchers might take pieces of granite from anywhere in the world and assume that their findings based . in which both quantitative and qualitative data are collected to answer a single research question. National Park Service looked at hikers’ frequency of using diferent hiking trails by installing electronic counters in hard-to-notice locations beside the trails (R. 2) A representative sample.) For example. researchers for the U. Whenever researchers seek to learn more about a particular category of objects or creatures— whether they are studying rocks. the extent to which the conclusions drawn can be generalized. A) The external validity of a research study is the extent to which its results apply to situations beyond the study itself—in other words. or human beings —they often study a sample from that category and then draw conclusions about the category as a whole. Laboratory studies have a downside. for instance. to study the properties of granite. (Note that ethical issues sometimes arise when we observe people without their permission. then look for common themes that appear in the data gleaned from both methods. This approach is especially common in qualitative research. Following are three commonly used strategies that enhance the external validity of a research project: 1) A real-life setting. Multiple sources of data are collected with the hope that they will all 6) converge to support a particular hypothesis or theory. In another situation. 20) Identify three of the techniques for strengthening the external validity of a study. may be more valid in the sense that it yields results with broader applicability to other real-world. Earlier we mentioned that researchers sometimes use laboratory experiments to help them control the environmental conditions in which a study takes place.S. K. 5) Triangulation. a researcher might engage in many informal observations in the field and conduct in-depth interviews. Ormrod & Trahan. (Here is a classic example of inductive reasoning. Research that is conducted in the outside world.and-tear patterns on the carpet.

educational opportunities. Imagine that one researcher draws a conclusion from a particular study in a specific context. The same might hold true for salamanders if researchers limit their conclusions to the particular species of salamander they have studied. Davenport need internal review board (IRB) approval for this study? A) Yes . personality characteristics. Davenport wants to conduct a study of whether high school students learn more efficiently while seated at a desk compared to in an easy chair. 21) The requirement to keep information provided by research participants confidential applies _____________________________ A) Yes.on those pieces might be generalizable to granite found in other locations. childrearing practices. 3) Replication in a diferent context. Does Dr. and so on. they may not be able to generalize their findings to people with a very diferent set of characteristics. Ideally. Participants will be seniors in local high school history classes. taken together. She hopes to publish her findings in the History Teacher Quarterly. and another researcher who conducts a similar study in a very diferent context reaches the same conclusion. The human race is incredibly diverse in terms of culture. Human beings are another matter. these studies. and perhaps additional researchers also conduct similar studies in dissimilar contexts and. the information to keep confidential to all persons under circumstances. researchers want participants in a research study to be a representative sample of the population about which they wish to draw conclusions. Under such circumstances. again. then. draw the same conclusion. provide evidence that the conclusion has validity and applicability across diverse contexts and situations. 23) Dr. 22) When is altering of data is allowable? A) The altering of data is allowable under no circumstances. To the extent that researchers restrict their research to people with a particular set of characteristics.

Greenhill conduct a ______ study. and she wants to see if the findings hold true with a group of high school history students. as a researcher she is uneasy with a lack of structure. You recommend that Dr.24) Dr. Greenhill wants to know how it is that some early adolescents come to make a connection between their personal lifestyle and environmental problems. qualitative quantitative or b. Davenport wants to conduct a study of whether high school students learn more efficiently while seated at a desk compared to in an easy chair.” You recommend that Dr. quantitative or b. a. among those who see the connection. Davenport conduct a ______ study. . why do some become committed to environmentalism while others do not? Dr. while others don’t. A) Qualitative 26) Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. a. a. One question asks students to report whether they are currently living in an “urban. She knows there is a large research literature regarding similar influences on learning.” or “rural” setting. Moreover.” “suburban. qualitative A) Quantitative 25) Dr. Furthermore. Greenwald looks forward to probing the thoughts of young teens on these issues and trying to see the questions and issues through “14-year-old eyes.

It includes a 7-point scale where 1 is “not at all conservative” and 7 is “extremely conservative.” Identify the type of scale of each question: A) a.” “some college. One question asks students to report their age in years. One question asks students to report their highest level of education by choosing from these options: “some high school. Ratio Scale c.” or “completed 4-year college degree. Nominal Scale b. One question asks students to report how politically conservative they are. c.” d.” “completed high school.b. Nominal Scale d. Interval Scale .