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Pineapple Post Harvest Quality

Requirements

XVIII. Harvesting operation
The harvesting operation is the end result of all agricultural practices implemented during
the crop cycle of the plantation. The end product or the pineapple fruit will be best if the
proper steps have been followed. These steps are:
Planting material quality:
→Certified MD 2 variety
→Excellent planting material treatment
→Plant density adjusted to market demands
→Specific fertilizer programme
→Integrated pest and disease management programme
→Good agricultural practices
The importance of good harvesting practices cannot be over emphasised.
It is the final step in the growing period of the fruit and it is the first time that the fruit will be
handled individually across the fields. The handling of the fruit should be made with extreme
care because the MD2 variety is highly susceptible to BRUISING and cannot withstand rough
handling, and should therefore be carried gently. In each step of the post harvest process, the
fragility of the MD2 fruit and the problems in quality that can arise from poor handling should be
kept in mind.
USE OF MACHINERY
Harvesting is done regularly with special machines to minimise bruises. The harvesting machine
moves by itself but has to be pulled by a tractor of 70 to 80 HP with a cart attached to it to collect
the fruit in the bins.
There are different designs; one is made with three conveyor belts that collect the fruit directly
from the harvester who picks the fruit by hand from the plant. The fruit is then transported by
the belt to another conveyor that lifts the fruit towards the loading area. Fruit is selected and
transferred to the cart or truck and loaded by hand into the cart in an upside down position, with
the crown supporting the rest of the fruit, arranged in such a manner so as to avoid bruising.
Some recent modifications include a harvesting machine with one single conveyor belt that
works on one side of the block while the trucks with the bins collect the fruit on the opposite
side.
After the fruit is placed gently and the bins are fully loaded, the hauling of the fruit to the
packing station begins by transporting the bins. The roads should be kept in good condition to
avoid bruising. Good road maintenance is therefore very important to ensure the good quality
demanded by the market. The fruit must be delivered to the packing station as soon as
possible without rushing, and not more than 6 to 8 hours before the cooling process begins.

Good internal and external roads are of utmost importance. In spite of the mechanisation,
manual harvesting can be done in small areas as is the tradition in Ghana, if the concept of
quality for MD2 is understood fully by the farmer and labourers, if training is provided and if all
the rest of operations are mechanised.

XIX. Post harvest handling guideline
A. PROCESSING AT THE PACKING house
After harvest, the fruit must be carried to the packing house very slowly to ensure that no
bruising will occur. Once the fruit reaches the packing house, it has to go through different
stages of handling that should be well monitored and recorded to ensure the traceability of
fruits intended for display on market shelves.
RECORDS
It is necessary to keep track of each step in the operation, the productivity of each block, the
quality of the fruit recovery and shrinkage. The records to keep are:
1. Harvested area: block, section or lot
The traceability process starts at this point and all of the data regarding the origin of the fruit is
collected from records indicating the type and
kind of planting material, and treatments to the planting material, plants and fruit up to harvest
time.
2. Date and time of harvest
The fruit is processed according to the number of hours after harvesting to ensure that the
cooling process will start with the earliest harvested fruit.
The quality control starts by sampling 2% of the fruit in each bin upon arrival at the packing
plant to evaluate damages caused by harvest or transport, and the internal condition of the fruit.
B. FRUIT HANDLING AT THE FLOTATION TANKS AND PACKAGING

The fruit should always be packed and refrigerated as fast as the facilities permit, ideally
within 6 to 8 hours but never over a maximum of 18 hours after harvesting.

In the most advanced and modern designs for packing house, the bins loaded with fruit
from the fields are unloaded mechanically with lifters and placed directly into flotation
tanks filled with chlorinated water at 100 ml/100 l concentration.

The overripe fruit known as sinkers will separate by itself, facilitating handling and
sorting. The chlorinated water will avoid contamination of diseases from infected ones
and will remove some dirt, but will not wash soil and other residues off totally, or remove
mealybug traces on the fruit. This pest is widespread in Ghana and must be considered
very damaging if not properly controlled at the packing plant.
The water tanks have water pumps that push the fruit onto a conveyor belt that carries
the fruit towards the selection line.

In the process the fruit temperature goes down and nobody touches the fruit by hand
ensuring the quality.
 There are other means that can be used in small plantings without facilities such as
those found in Ghana. The procedure could be done by hand with extreme care to avoid
damage to the fruit, and must start with the manual unloading of the fruit from the
trailers, selecting and dipping the sorted fruit into a wax solution mixed with fungicide,
followed by packing.
 This variation in the handling of the fruit does not require big investments and eliminates
the use of water.
C. FRUIT SELECTION

Once inside the packing house the fruit selection process is initiated according to the
quality standards required by the market, which are generally taking into account all
defects in the fruit, bruising damages and colour grade.

The criteria for the selection of the fruit and reasons for rejecting are described
separately.

Fruit selection
D. WAXING PROCESS

The respiration of the fruit after harvest continues and the rate increases as the
temperature rises, and goes down if the temperature is reduced. The shelf life increases
when the respiration rate is low, therefore temperatures must be kept at a low level. The
addition of waxes to further reduce the respiration rate and keep the fruit fresh is also
necessary.

Wax is added to the fruit after the selection process to ensure that the internal and
external quality is preserved and will re ach the customer at the supermarket in the same
condition as it was at packing time. In mechanised packing plants, the fruit is drenched
automatically with the mixture of waxes when it is transported by a conveyor belt
towards the packing area.

In the case of small operations and lack of facilities as in Ghana, this treatment can be
done by dipping. The recommended products and dosages are:

WAX : see the local recommendation
TRIADIMEFON 0.142 kg (0.31 pound)
WATER 190 litres (50 gallon)

The mixture should be reinforced as it is used, and after 3 hours of use the mixture has
to be replaced completely for best results. Some markets and dealers, mostly in the
USA, request an insecticide application directed to the crown that cannot be mixed with
the wax solution.

DRYING
While the fruit is transported on the conveyor belt, it is subjected to a drying process which
basically has the effect of fans blowing air onto the fruit along the line.

Packagers should always be able to keep the correct weight per box. The time required to reach the desired temperature will depend on the kind of cooling system used. amount of fruit per box. G. Fruit size should be uniform for each unit in every box and never mixed.  After the harvest. they are placed inside the cooling room as soon as possible in order to preserve the quality and ensure the customer that the good flavour. colour. the cooling can be done using refrigerated containers. WEIGHTING AND T AGGING After the fruit has been selected and screened.  After the fruit pallets are assembled. The colour code should be the same for all fruit in each box and never mixed. The recommended cooling temperature for the fruit must be from 7 to 8 degrees Celsius or 45 degrees Fahrenheit. F.  After the fruit is cooled down at the pack house. it is placed in refrigerated containers which transport the fruit to the port where the fruit continues to be refrigerated until it is . Extreme care must be exercised by a labour force well trained and experienced in the operation to avoid mistakes in weight. All work is done manually and includes the tagging of each fruit. aroma and appearance selected at the packing house will not change. and sometimes an extra divider is also used in between lines to maintain the rigid structure of the load and to avoid bruising. Low temperatures help to maintain the respiration rate at a minimum. PACKAGING. the following step is to separate the pieces by size. sizes and packing pattern. but in most cases will take at least 24 hours for best results. Boxes should not be overweight or underweight. as mentioned above.TAGGING The next step is to tag the fruit with the respective company seal.  When the farm does not have facilities or lacks electricity. COOLING PROCESS  As indicated previously. the fruit should be placed inside the cold room in the shortest period of time. BOX SIZE  Most international markets demand 12kg gross weight per box especially for MD2. The fruit is very susceptible to temperature changes and the respiration rate is influenced by an increase or decrease in temperature.cooled in the water tanks located at the entrance of the packing plant. An average of 6 to 8 hours after harvest is most desirable to attain the best quality.  It is normally required that the first four lines in the pallet be reinforced in every corner.  The fruit is warm when it comes from the field and could be pre. the temperature must be controlled to maintain the longest possible shelf life of the fruit on supermarket shelves. increasing the shelf life and preserving the fruit quality. The traditional weight of 40 pounds per box is avoided for MD2 packaging due to the susceptibility of the variety to bruising.

The defects in the fruit are evaluated in the packing station and the degree of damage will dictate if it is accepted or rejected for packing. Disinfecting is also needed to keep the area free from diseases. SANITATION at the packing house    The fruit is produced for human consumption and the packing area should be kept clean and disinfected at all times. The floors. SUBJECTIVE QUALITY has to do with the evaluation and appearance of the end product in the box ready for export.regulations must be implemented in each step of the operation. sizes. cold room. etc. should be washed with chlorinated water in a 1. all requirements of EU. Furthermore. . Two aspects are considered in the concept of quality: the preventive quality and the subjective quality. etc. and starts with land preparation. toilets. which favours the development of fungal diseases. All agricultural practices should be on schedule and well managed in order to achieve the goal to produce high-quality fruit. store rooms. Quality and quality control Quality is the summary of good agricultural practices conducted according to the market demands and regulations. iron and cement buildings and structures are therefore preferred. the result will be good productivity with good quality.finally loaded onto the ship where it is also refrigerated for transport to the market display . conveyor belts. number of units and the condition of the box itself into consideration. If they are properly planned and managed.5 % solution. planting material selection. XX. tanks. which takes the uniformity of colour. Steel. PREVENTIVE QUALITY involves all the production process from planting to harvest. Wood is not recommended for structures and floors because it retains humidity.

with sunburn. Mechanical Any damage from machinery used in the production process for cultivation. bruising. i. rain. opened and checked inside to evaluate and determine the extent and origin of the damage to the pulp.  The external damages are those that affect the quality and appearance of the fruit and can be visually detected and evaluated. unknown genetic parent material etc. Thecla. etc. ENVIRONMENT Weather. Mealybugs  The damage caused by Pseudococcidae can be eliminated at the selection line by washing all residues and stains left by insects with brushes. poor planting material selection.e.  Animals Damage caused by any animal feeding on any part of the fruit. . i. borers.  The internal damages are the defects that cannot be observed from the outside so that the fruit has to be sampled. etc. A.  Diseases Bacterial and fungal attacks cause rotting of the inside and outside of the fruit.  Handling Damage caused by rough handling of the fruit at any stage of the production cycle. as is the case.  Crop damage The result of poor agricultural practices such as burning due to herbicides and fertilisers. sunlight. neck. causing wounds and bruises in the peel and pulp of the fruit. etc. iii. ii.XXI. ORIGIN OF DEFECTS The causes of defects are of different origins and can be classified as follows: i.. totally damaging the fruit's appearance and flavour. GENETIC  The damage which results from mutations. B. cripple. dust. affect the fruit skin and flesh. such as with rodents. for example. DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTS i. dirt.e. Fruit defects Two different kinds of fruit defects are evaluated: the external and internal damages. abnormal crowns.

. the fruit is discarded. Abnormal crown size Large or small crowns that appear in some fruit due to nutritional problems.  There is zero tolerance for this damage. Rosette crowns This is caused by a nutritional disorder that produces stunted small crowns. It is evaluated visually. If the size of the crown is below 0. sometimes with several of them growing together. The evaluation is visual. ii. e. All fruit below or over that size is rejected. can severely damage the crown. it is better not to use this system for MD2.5 times the size of the fruit. Crowns with an inclination angle of more than 30 degrees are discarded. c. However. In Ghana this problem is relevant with in vitro plants. or less than 0. Tolerance of damage in the crown ranges from 15 to 25 % of the area affected depending on customer acceptance. The evaluation is visual. MD2 fruit crowns are highly susceptible to this damage. The work is all done by hand before the waxing process. transport. involving a lot of labour. and physiological problems. and material with this characteristic should be eliminated when evaluated visually. Evaluation is visual. d. b. The problem is more evident in second crop plantations. and contact with other fruits. Multiple crowns Fruits with more than one crown are evaluated visually and rejected.5 times the fruit size.5 times. or a special job known as pull crown is applied by removing the central part of the crown to meet the standard size. shade. f. Crippled fruit A physiological disorder that produces a cleavage on the side of the fruit resembling a split peel. Crown damage   Any bruising and friction of the fruit during harvest. conveyor belts etc. a. Spiny crowns This is a genetic defect and is the result of poor selection of the planting material. are measured and sorted out. Tilted crowns Phototropism causes bending or tilted crowns in the fruit. The correct crown size should not be over 1.

It is evaluated visually and there are several criteria for acceptance depending on the market. Rodents They feed on the young fruit causing severe wounds. which can be observed from the outside as exudates or gummosis. Borers Mainly caused by Metamasius sp.g. with eyes affected. The insect larvae feed on the fruit at a very early stage of growth forming gulls and caves inside the pulp and deformities in the skin. which feeds on the base of the fruit. producing brown spots. the colour changes to dark brown and cracks are formed on the borders of the fruitlets. but as the damage increases. Fruit alongside roads and drains are the most affected. d. INSECT AND DISEASE DAMAGES TO THE FRUIT a. but it is included in this paper due to the importance it has in production and quality elsewhere. scarring and perforations that will eventually be rejected at the packing station by the quality control inspectors due to the poor appearance. up to a maximum of 3 fruit eyes damaged with sunburn can be tolerated and packed. Both diseases cause rotting and severe discolouration of peel and pulp. Bottle neck A growth malformation around the base of the junction between the fruit and the crown. Toppling and missing plants are the cause for sunburnt fruit inside the plantation. . h. All fruit has to be evaluated closely and rejected if any presence of damage is observed. All damaged fruit is rejected. Evaluation is visual. Bottle shape This originates from the use of Ethephon when forcing. FRUIT DAMAGE CAUSED BY DISEASES Fruits can be seriously damaged internally and externally by attacks caused by bacteria such as Thielaviospis and fungus such as Phytophthora. The wounds will produce exudates or gummosis as in the case of Thecla and is easily observed. Post harvest treatment and cooling helps to prevent the spread of these diseases after packing and during transport. At first the peel turns yellowish. Thecla One of the most feared attacks on the fruit in the pineapple industry is the one caused by Thecla ( Strymon basilides). Sunburn The exposure of the fruit to excessive sunlight will eventually burn the peel. D. At present we could not detect any presence of the insect in GHANA. C. Depending on customer acceptance. b. c.

5 pounds and less than 2. Sometimes small amounts of the underweight fruit are requested by the European markets.Bruising The extra care that MD2 requires in handling cannot be over emphasised. The evaluation is visual. The high susceptibility of this variety to bruising of the flesh could easily become the major problem with respect to quality and shrinkage. This weakness must be considered in every step of the operation in order to take corrective measures. Malformed fruit These are fruits with a conical and irregular shape unlike the well-defined MD2 square and rounded uniform shape. since the malformation damage is less than that caused by Ethephon. . no bruising should be accepted. Overweight and underweight fruit Fruit weighing over 6. The use of Ethylene gas is highly recommended to eliminate this problem but if not available then calcium carbide may be used. The regular square shape of MD2 can be affected by the floral induction treatment when Ethephon is used. The evaluation is done by weighing the fruit.5 pounds is seldom exported. There is some slight and medium tolerance of the severity of damage but to obtain the best quality. Most of the malformed fruit cannot be used for export and only very slight damage is accepted by some customers.

1. large Stalk Length/ Cut Condition of fruit Appearance of fruit Damage/ Injury TRACEABILITY#: STANDARD 1 FRUIT PER HOUR 1. free from: .rotting .severe bruising .Soil EXHIT #P.sun-scorch .pest damage affecting flesh NONE NONE Clean.water soaking .5 cm/ TRANSVERSELY CUT INTACT WITH OR WITHOUT CROWN FRESH IN APPEARANCE INCLUDING CROWN NONE Cracks Affecting Flesh NONE Damage Exposing Interior NONE Damaged: .5 .01/1 QA-P1/014 Controlled .5 KG Not > 2. medium.mould .QUALITY AUDIT – PINEAPPLE POST HARVEST PACKING CONFIGURATION: DATE/SHIFT: DESTINATION PARAMETERS Samples Taken Weight/ kg Size of Fruit – small.65 LARGE > 1.

Internal water damage .Internal breakdown .7% .Phytoptera infection .Mould on cut stem. bottom stalk .Off taste Colour NONE Titrateable Acidity C2 to C4 (See Notes) 0. or peel-colour index.0% The following colour classification. COMMENTS: CHECKED BY: QUALITY SUPERVISOR .Translucent flesh .Red/ Pink skin .1.Fermented taste .Severe bruising Abnormal External Moisture NONE Foreign Smell or Taste NONE NONE Brix Level (Refractomer) 14 o – 17 o Over-Ripe Fruit: . may be used in trade: C0 – Totally green exterior C1 – Beginning to turn yellow/orange on one quarter of the fruit surface C2 – Yellow/orange on one half of the fruit surface C3 – Yellow/orange on two thirds of the fruit surface C4 – Totally orange/yellow fruit.- Dust Chemical residue Foreign matter Pests Gummosis NONE Infestation from: .

UNECE Standard on the marketing and commercial quality control of Pineapples Explanatory Brochure .

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UNECE Standard on the marketing and commercial quality control of Pineapples Explanatory Brochure .

New York and Geneva. 2013 .

org ECE/TRADE/398 Copyright© United Nations. They are used by governments.49).org/trade/agr/standard/fresh/ ffv-standardse.unece. territory. city or area or of its authorities. or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.org/trade/agr/welcome. including fresh fruit and vegetables. importers and exporters. cut flowers. eggs and egg products. dry and dried produce. Geneva 10. seed potatoes. For more information. It addresses producers and traders. please visit our website: www. which was officially adopted in November 2012. It corresponds to the latest edition of the UNECE Standard for Pineapples (FFV. but acknowledgement is requested. as well as international organizations. 2013 All rights reserved .unece. These international standards facilitate trade. meat. All material may be freely quoted or reprinted.html The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the United Nations Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country. Please contact the following address with any comments or enquiries: Agricultural Standards Unit United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Palais des Nations CH-1211. as well as inspection authorities. Mention of company names or commercial products does not imply endorsement by the United Nations. producers. They cover a wide range of agricultural products. improve profitability and protect consumer interests. thereby facilitating international as well as national trade. The Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples has been developed to harmonize the interpretation of the standard. traders.html All members of the United Nations can participate on an equal footing in the activities of the Working Party on Agricultural Quality Standards. Subsequent revisions to the standard will be placed on the website at: www. Switzerland e-mail: agristandards@unece. encourage high-quality production.Note Commercial quality standards for agricultural produce are developed and approved by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe through its Working Party on Agricultural Quality Standards.

..........................................................................57 V............................................................... The entire text of the standard without the interpretative text appears in .......... Provisions concerning Tolerances................................................................................61 VI......................................................................................... 75 The official text of the standard is indicated in blue bold type............... References to photos representing the visual interpretation are printed in black bold......... Provisions concerning Sizing.............. 5 III..... 53 IV.....................................................................49 concerning the marketing and commercial quality control of pineapples............. 71 Annex II: UNECE Standard FFV........Contents I............................................. 1 II....................................................... 67 Annex I: Brief summary of pineapple production............................................................................................. Definition of Produce..... the interpretative text of the standard is indicated in black..................... Provisions concerning Marking.................................................................................................................... Provisions concerning Presentation.............Provisions concerning Quality......................................

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Definition of Produce .

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pale-yellow or white .Size of the fruit. ovoid or conical . Examples of commercially grown varieties are shown in Photo 1. orange-yellow.) Merr. medium or large-sized fruit .Flesh maturity: more or less distinct .Shape of the eyes: flat or bulging . trapezoid.Shape of the fruit: cylindrical. Interpretation: Pineapple varieties are characterized by: . yellow or green. barrel-shaped. when ripe: deep-yellow.I. when fully developed: small. pineapples for ornamental use or industrial processing being excluded. 3 Photo 1 Definition of produce – examples of commercially grown varieties (from left to righ Smooth Cayenne Queen Victoria MD2 Sugar Loaf . Definition of Produce This standard applies to pineapples of varieties (cultivars) grown from Ananas comosus (L.Skin colour.Flesh colour.Leaves of the crown: with smooth or spiny edges . when mature and depending on climatic conditions in the growing region: orange-red. to be supplied fresh to the consumer.

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Provisions concerning Quality .

Examples related to the minimum requirement “intact” are shown in Photos 2-4. products may show in relation to the requirements of the standard: . Split bracts are not considered a defect as the flesh is not damaged. However.intact. Minimum requirements 6 In all classes. or deliver or market them in any manner other than in conformity with this standard.a slight lack of freshness and turgidity . The holder/seller shall be responsible for observing such conformity. a slight deterioration due to their development and their tendency to perish. Pineapples with mechanical damage.for products graded in classes other than the “Extra” Class. the pineapples must be: . unhealed injuries or cracks exposing the interior of the produce are not allowed. special attention should be paid to ensuring that the minimum requirements have been met. if present. . if applied at stages following export. The holder/seller of products may not display such products or offer them for sale.II. Advice: At the packing stage. subject to the special provisions for each class and the tolerances allowed. Provisions concerning Quality The purpose of the standard is to define the quality requirements for pineapples at the exportcontrol stage after preparation and packaging. with or without crown. Produce with any progressive defects will deteriorate during transportation and distribution. the crown may be reduced or trimmed Interpretation: Pineapples must not have any damage or injury affecting the integrity of the produce.

Split bracts — allowed in all cla .Photo 2 Minimum requirement: “intact”.

Cracks affecting the flesh — not 7 .Provisions concerning Quality Photo 3 Minimum requirement: “intact”.

Damage exposing the interior of the fruit — not allowe .UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples 8 Photo 4 Minimum requirement: “intact”.

wilted or damaged leaves. Done correctly. this leaves no visible scar and requires no special subsequent treatment. “Reducing” of the crown refers to the mechanical destruction of the apical growing point in the heart of the crown during the growth period at about two months from harvest by means of a gouge or similar instrument. It may be reduced or trimmed. must be intact. “Removing” the crown in its entirety is allowed provided the cut is clean. the crown may be reduced or trimmed”. 9 Photo 5 Minimum requirement: “intact. The cut must be neat. dry and sound. if present.Provisions concerning Quality The crown. “Trimmed” crown: . “Trimming” is the removal after harvest of excess crown or dead. Examples related to the minimum requirement “with or without crown” are shown in Photos 5-6. if present.

mould . leading to translucence of the underlying flesh. the crown may be reduced or trimmed”.sound. bacteria or viruses). produce affected by rotting or deterioration. physiological disorders or serious deterioration. Pineapples with sun-scorch that has caused softening of the flesh are not allowed. Pineapples affected by rotting or those having only their crowns affected by rot. Pineapples with the following defects are therefore excluded: . After storage sun-scorch may lead to pronounced withering of the skin and deterioration of the flesh. . “Removed” crown: neatly twisted off (left) or cut off (right) — al .sun-scorch Note: Sun-scorch is caused by overexposure to sunlight. which appreciably affect their appearance.chilling injury Note: Chilling injury (damage caused by low temperature) appears as glassiness developing directly under the skin and progressing towards the core. if present. especially when the fruit bends over during growth.severe bruising . . The peel is a dull brownish colour. even if the signs are very slight but liable to make the fruit unfit for consumption upon arrival at destination. This commonly occurs during the last month before harvest.water soaking . edibility or keeping quality. such as to make it unfit for consumption. should be excluded. is excluded Interpretation: Pineapples must be free from disease (caused by fungi.UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples 10 Photo 6 Minimum requirement: “intact.rotting .

. caused by mineral deficiencies or environmental stress.Advice: Pineapples should be stored between 8° C and 10° C.physiological disorders. Examples related to the minimum requirement “sound” are shown in Photos 7–14.internal breakdown . .

Provisions concerning Quality Photo 7 Minimum requirement: “sound”. Phytophtora infection — not all . Fruitlet core rot — not allow 11 Photo 8 Minimum requirement: “sound”.

UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples 12 Photo 9 Minimum requirement: “sound”. Mould on cut stem — not allowed .

Severe bruising — not allow .Photo 10 Minimum requirement: “sound”.

Internal water soaking — not a 13 .Provisions concerning Quality Photo 11 Minimum requirement: “sound”.

Chilling injury — not allowed .UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples 14 Photo 12 Minimum requirement: “sound”.

Chilling injury — not allowed .Photo 13 Minimum requirement: “sound”.

Provisions concerning Quality Photo 14 Minimum requirement: “sound”. Internal breakdown — not allo 15 .

Excessive soiling (left). practically free of any visible foreign matter Interpretation: Pineapples must be practically free of visible soil. The acceptable limit for “practically free” would be slight traces of foreign matter. An example related to the minimum requirement “clean” is shown in Photo 15. chemical residue or other foreign matter. Extensive soiling or deposits are not allowed.clean.UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples . 16 Photo 15 Minimum requirement: “clean”. dust. pest residue (right .

mite or other pests in the package or sample. the acceptable limit would be the odd insect.Provisions concerning Quality . any colonies would lead to rejection of the produce.practically free from pests Interpretation: The presence of pests can detract from the commercial presentation and acceptance of the pineapples. Therefore. An example related to the minimum requirement “practically free from pests” is shown in Photo 16. Colony of mealy bug . 17 Photo 16 Minimum requirement: “practically free from pests”.

free from damage caused by pests affecting the flesh Interpretation: Pest damage affecting the flesh makes the produce unfit for consumption and is not allowed.UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples . Pest damage affecting the skin only is covered by the allowances for skin defects in each class. Examples related to the minimum requirement “free from damage caused by pests affecting the flesh” are shown in Photos 17-19. 18 Photo 17 Minimum requirement: “free from damage caused by pests affecting Damage caused by the Augosoma beetle — not allowed .

Provisions concerning Quality Photo 18 Minimum requirement: “free from damage caused by pests affecting Damage caused by insects — not allowed 19 Photo 19 Minimum requirement: “free from damage caused by pests affecting Gummosis caused by insects — not allowed .

UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples . Examples related to the minimum requirement “fresh in appearance. including the crown Interpretation: Pineapples should be firm and turgid.fresh in appearance. Pineapples showing signs of shrivelling or dehydration or having crowns with wilted or dry leaves are excluded. should be fresh and not discoloured. . including the crown” are shown in Photos 20-21. if present. Slight lack of freshness is allowed at stages following export or dispatch. Note: Shrivelling and dehydration are usually caused either by fruit remaining too long on the plant or by suboptimal growing conditions leading to insufficient water reaching the fruit. The crown.

20 Photo 20 Minimum requirement: “fresh in appearance. including the crown”. dehydrated fr . Normal fruit (left) — allowed.

including the crown”. Interpretation: This provision applies to pineapples stored or transported under poor conditions.free of abnormal external moisture Interpretation: This provision applies to excessive moisture — for example. Wilted crown — not allowed 21 . .Provisions concerning Quality Photo 21 Minimum requirement: “fresh in appearance. which has consequently resulted in their absorbing abnormal smells and/or tastes. in particular through the proximity of other products that give off volatile odours. . free water lying inside the package — but does not include condensation on produce following release from cool storage or refrigerated vehicle.free of any foreign smell and/or taste.

be straight and clean. Interpretation: The stalk must not be longer than 2. However. during transportation pineapples with a longer stem are excluded from these requirements.5 cm. Stalk > 2. stalk ≤ 2.5 cm. straight and clean.UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples When a stalk is present.5 cm (left) — not all except during transport.5 cm” is shown in Photo 22.to withstand transportation and handling .5 cm measured from the shoulder of the fruit and the cut must be transversal. The stalk must then be cut to length at destination.5 cm (right) — allowed in all classes Stalk length The development and condition of the pineapples must be such as to enable them: . .to arrive in satisfactory condition at the place of destination. An example related to the minimum requirement “stalk should not be longer than 2. it shall not be longer than 2. 22 Photo 22 Minimum requirement: “stalk not longer than 2. the cut must be transversal. Pineapples may be transported with a stalk longer than 2. straight and clean”.5 cm and must be cut transversally.

The flesh of the harvested pineapples must not be unripe (opaque.Provisions concerning Quality B. Examples related to the maturity requirement “appropriate degree of maturity and ripeness” are shown in Photos 23-24. Maturity requirements The pineapples must have reached an appropriate degree of maturity and ripeness in accordance with criteria proper to the variety and to the area in which they are grown. Interpretation: Once picked. pineapples do not ripen further and the sugar level does not increase. exceedingly porous) or over-ripe (exceedingly translucent or fermented). flavourless. Unripe . 23 Photo 23 Maturity requirement: “appropriate degree of maturity and ripeness”.

UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples 24 Maturity requirement: “appropriate degree of maturity and ripeness”. Stages of ripeness: fruit on the left is sufficien .

Fruits should be free from defects such as sun-scorch and pest or disease damage. Sampling: To evaluate the lot selected for inspection. which may have affected the normal ripening process. Step 4: Squeeze the fruit and collect the juice. To obtain the average value for the sample. juice should be taken from the whole fruit. Step 5: Place 1-2 drops of juice on the prism plate of the refractometer. a second sample needs to be taken and analysed with other fruits from the reduced sample or from a new sample. Interpretation: Setting minimum limits ensures that pineapples are harvested at a maturity stage that enables them to enter the distribution chain in satisfactory condition and to be of acceptable quality when they reach the consumer. Sample preparation and measurement includes six steps: Step 1: Cut each fruit in half lengthways with a knife. Method to measure total soluble solids of pineapples To measure total soluble solids (TSS). the lot fails to meet the minimum maturity level requirement and should be rejected. rounding the result to one decimal point. Examples related to the maturity requirement “Total soluble solids content (TSS)” are shown in Photos 25-31.Provisions concerning Quality The total soluble solids content of the fruit fl should be at least 12° Brix. Depending on the variety. the lot has met the required minimum maturity level. Calculation of the results: Note the readings for both halves of each fruit and average them. Clean the glass prism with distilled water after taking each reading. sum up these averages and divide them by the number of sampled fruits. If the average value is equal to or greater than the limit specifi in the standard (12° Brix). If the average readings for at least 3 of the 10 sampled fruits are 10 per cent (or more) lower than the limit specifi in the standard. Step 3: Cut the core out.org/tad/fv). Step 6: Take a reading to one decimal point. take a sample of at least 10 fruits of each size at random from the reduced sample. No tolerance is applied.oecd. pineapples mature from the bottom up with a more or less distinct gradient. An equal number of drops should be taken for each measurement. Step 2: Cut diagonal lines into the fl of each half in two directions. The method explained below follows the OECD Guidance on Objective Tests to Determine Quality of Fruit and Vegetables and Dry and Dried Produce (www. If the average of the two samples is 10 per cent (or more) lower than the limit specifi in the standard. Both halves of each fruit should be tested. 25 .

UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples 26 Photo 25 Maturity requirement: “total soluble solids content should be at least 12° Brix”. Gradient of total solubl Stem part:13.6° Brix Middle part:13° Brix Crown part:10° Brix .

Step 1: Cut fruit in half lengthways. Test both halves .Photo 26 Determining TSS.

Provisions concerning Quality Photo 27 Determining TSS. Step 2: Cut diagonal lines into the flesh of each half in two directions 27 Photo 28 Determining TSS. Step 3: Cut the core out .

Step 4: Squeeze the fruit and collect the juice .UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples 28 Photo 29 Determining TSS.

Photo 30 Determining TSS. Step 5: Place 1-2 drops of juice on the prism plate of the refractometer .

Provisions concerning Quality Photo 31 Determining TSS. Step 6: Take a reading to one decimal poin 29 .

Overripe fruit (exceedingly translucent flesh) — not allowed . 30 Photo 32 Maturity requirement: “over-ripeness affecting edibility”. Excessive application of ethylene may lead to red/pink skin colouration that might be associated with translucent flesh and over-ripeness. Interpretation: Overripe pineapples showing exceedingly translucent flesh and/or having a fermented or off taste are excluded. Examples related to the maturity requirement “over-ripeness affecting edibility” are shown in Photos 32-33. Advice: Fruit with red/pink skin colouration caused by excessive application of ethylene must be cut to check for over-ripeness.UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples Fruit showing over-ripeness affecting edibility is excluded.

Provisions concerning Quality

Photo 33
Maturity requirement: “over-ripeness affecting edibility”. Red/pink
skin colouration due to excessive application of ethylene — not allowed if associa

31

The skin colour can be green, provided the minimum maturity requirements are met.
Interpretation: Due to climatic conditions in the tropical and subtropical areas of production, the skin
may remain green while the fruit has reached full maturity and ripeness. Pineapples may be
degreened. All skin colours are allowed as long as the Brix level has met the minimum requirement.
The following colour classification, or peel-colour index, may be used in trade:
C0 – Totally green exterior
C1 – Beginning to turn yellow/orange on one quarter of the fruit surface
C2 – Yellow/orange on one half of the fruit surface
C3 – Yellow/orange on two thirds of the fruit surface
C4 – Totally orange/yellow fruit.
Examples related to the maturity requirement “skin colour” are shown in Photos 34-36.

UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples

32
Photo 34
Maturity requirement: “skin colour”. Green but mature fruit of MD2 variety — allowed in all classes

Photo 35
Maturity requirement: “skin colour”. Naturally ripened non-degreened fruit (left), degreened

the quality. The crown. Interpretation: Superior quality fruit fall within “Extra” Class. The length of the crown should be between 50 and 150 per cent of the length of the fruit. as defined below: (i) “Extra” Class Pineapples in this class must be of superior quality. It must be fresh and not discoloured. They must be characteristic of the variety. the keeping quality and presentation in the package. . if present. fruit in packages must be uniform in colouring. The crown. with the exception of very slight superficial defects. Example of colour classification C0 to C4 (pee 33 C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C. not damaged and not trimmed. They must be free from defects. However. must be well developed. The flesh must be perfectly sound. Classification Pineapples are classified in three classes. if present. Changes in colouration as pineapples ripen are not considered defects in colouring.Provisions concerning Quality Photo 36 Maturity requirement: “skin colour”. provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce. must be single and straight with no side-shoots and should not exceed 150 per cent of the length of the fruit. Examples related to “Extra” Class are shown in Photos 37-39.

UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples 34 Photo 37 Classifi “Extra” Class. Characteristic of the respective varieties – no defects .

Provisions concerning Quality Photo 38 Classifi “Extra” Class. A very slight superfidefect – limit allowed 35 .

UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples

36

Photo 39
Classification: Crown length exceeding 150 per cent (right) and crown under 50 per cent (left) of the length of the fr

(ii)

Class I

Pineapples in this class must be of good quality. They must be characteristic of the variety.
The crown, if present, must be single and with no side-shoots and should not exceed 150 per
cent of the length of the fruit. It may be:
- slightly damaged
- slightly discoloured
- slightly curved with a maximum inclination not exceeding 30° from the longitudinal axis of
the fruit.
Interpretation: The crown, if present, may have up to 6 slightly damaged, discoloured or dehydrated
leaves.

Examples of Class I crown defects are shown in Photos 40-41.

Provisions concerning Quality

Photo 40
Classifi
“Class I,
crown defects”. Up to 6
leaves slightly damaged
— limit allowed

37

.UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples 38 Photo 41 Classification: “Class I.a slight defect in shape Interpretation: An example of Class I shape defects is shown in Photo 42. however. the quality. the keeping quality and presentation in the package: . Inclination at 30° from the longitudinal axis of the fruit — limit allowe The flesh must be perfectly sound. provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce. The following slight defects. may be allowed. crown defects”.

Provisions concerning Quality Photo 42 Classification: “Class I. a slight defect in shape” due to a missing eye — 39 .

However. fruit in packages must be uniform in colouring. slight defects in colouring.slight defects in colouring.UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples . 40 Photo 43 Classifi “Class I. including discolouration caused by the su . Colour defects caused by the sun should not affect the flesh. An example of Class I defects in colouring is shown in Photo 43. including discolouration caused by the sun Interpretation: Changes in colouration as pineapples ripen are not considered colour defects.

Guidance: How to assess 5 per cent or 1/20 of the surface area Either for fruit with distinct areas of skin defects: Pineapples have a varying number of “eyes” depending on size: .For medium fruit with 80 – 140 eyes. 1/20 is 4 up to 7 eyes . Photo 44 Classifi “Class I.sunken lesions . Or for fruit with similar-sized skin defects on each eye: 41 An assessment of the area covered on one eye can be extended to reflect a similar area defect on the whole fruit.For large fruit with 140 –180 eyes. Examples of Class I skin defects are shown in Photos 44-46.winter speckles (mainly on the Queen Victoria variety) or blemishes.For small fruit with 40 – 80 eyes. 1/20 is 7 up to 9 eyes.corkiness around or within the eye . Sunken lesions — limit allowed .slight skin defects not exceeding 5 per cent of the total surface area Interpretation: Slight skin defects can be eliminated by normal peeling. Skin defects not affecting the flesh appear for example as: . slight skin defects”. 1/20 is 2 up to 4 eyes .Provisions concerning Quality .

UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples 42 Photo 45 Classification: “Class I. slight skin defects”. Corkiness — limit allowed .

slight skin defects”.Photo 46 Classification: “Class I. Winter speckles — limit .

Provisions concerning Quality .slight bruises. The inclination of the crown may exceed 30° from the longitudinal axis of the fruit. Examples of shape and crown defects for Class II pineapples are shown in Photos 47-55. Side shoots may be removed. provided the edibility of the fruit is not affected. dehydration.defects in shape. Interpretation: Slight bruises should not affect the flesh and can be removed by normal peeling. the “one-third/ two-thirds” rule is applied. including a double crown Interpretation: Pineapples may have shape defects in Class II. Double crowns are allowed as long as the core is not too large and the edibility is only slightly affected. The crown may be damaged or show up to 6 leaves affected by yellow/brown discolouration. (iii) Class II This class includes pineapples that do not qualify for inclusion in the higher classes but satisfy the minimum requirements specified above. The flesh must be free from major defects. This may be caused by environmental factors. A bottle neck is a shape defect for non-elongated varieties. one of which constitutes 1/3 or more and the other 2/3 or less of the fruit. Multiple and undeveloped crowns are allowed within the 10 per cent tolerance of Class II. the keeping quality and presentation: . The fruit is acceptable if the longitudinal axis starting at the stem end cuts it into two parts. Undeveloped crowns are allowed. Thefollowingdefectsmaybeallowed. The development of long crowns may be caused by a combination of environmental factors including the application of ethylene for degreening. in particular when high-temperature weather conditions are aggravated by the use of ethylene. The crowns may be longer than 150 per cent of the fruit length. Interpretation: Pineapples in this class must be of reasonable quality and suitable for human consumption and meet the minumum requirements (explained from page 6 onwards). wilting or damage. 43 . To determine the limit. providedthepineapplesretaintheiressentialcharacteristics as regards the quality.

UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples 44 Photo 47 Classifi “Class II. Shape defect — limit allowed . defects in shape”.

elongated varietie 45 Photo 49 Classifi “Class II. Fruit with a bottle neck — limit allowed for non. defects in shape. defects in shape”. including a double crown” — limit allowed .Provisions concerning Quality Photo 48 Classifi “Class II.

defects in shape. Multiple crowns — not allowed . including a double crown”.UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples 46 Photo 50 Classifi “Class II.

Photo 51 Classifi “Class II. Undeveloped crown — allowed . including a double crown”. defects in shape.

Provisions concerning Quality Photo 52 Classifi “Class II. Crown inclination exceeding 30° — allo . including a double crown”. defects in shape. including a double crown”. Crown exceeding 150 per cent of the fruit len 47 Photo 53 Classifi “Class II. defects in shape.

defects in shape. including a double crown”. Side shoots removed – limit allowed .UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples 48 Photo 54 Classifi “Class II.

Damaged crown – limit allowed . including a double crown”. defects in shape.Photo 55 Classifi “Class II.

the affected area should be restricted to the flesh directly under the peel.defects in colouring. including sun-scorch Interpretation: Any colour defect caused by the sun is allowed as long as the flesh remains free from major defects. As the fruit colour turns. Examples of colour defects for Class II pineapples are shown in Photos 56-57 49 .Provisions concerning Quality . sun-scorch becomes difficult to distinguish.e. i.

defects in colouring” — limit allowed .Photo 56 Classifi “Class II.

UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples 50 Photo 57 Classifi “Class II.winter speckles (mainly on the Queen Victoria variety) or blemishes.skin defects not exceeding 10 per cent of the total surface area Interpretation: Skin defects appear in a variety of ways: . . 1/10 is 8 up to 14 eyes . Examples of skin defects for Class II pineapples are shown in Photos 58-59.Small fruit: 40 – 80 eyes. 1/10 is 14 up to 18 eyes. Sun-scorch — limit allowed . 1/10 is 4 up to 8 eyes . including sun-scorch”.corkiness around or within the eye . Guidance: How to assess 10 per cent or 1/10 of the surface area Pineapples have a varying number of “eyes” depending on size: . defects in colouring.Medium fruit: 80 – 140 eyes. If a defect is of a fairly similar size on every eye it is straightforward to make an assessment of the area covered on one eye and then it can be said that the same area of defect is on the whole fruit.sunken lesions .Large fruit: 140 – 180 eyes.

skin defects”.Provisions concerning Quality Photo 58 Classifi “Class II. skin defects” – limit allowed 51 Photo 59 Classifi “Class II. Winter speckles — allowed within 10 per cent tolerance .

52 Photo 60 Classifi “Class II.UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples . An example of bruises for Class II pineapples is shown in Photo 60. bruises” — limit allowed .bruises Interpretation: Bruising is allowed as long as the flesh remains free of major defects.

Provisions concerning Sizing .

.

680 grams for fruit weighing more than 1 300g. Interpretation: Examples of ranges of weights within a package (weight measured in grams): Package 1: 520g 540g 550g 560g 600g 610g 620g (complies with size range) Package 2: 550g 570g 580g 610g 650g 670g 870g 890g (does not comply with size range) 55 . the range in size between produce in the same package shall not exceed: . Provisions concerning Sizing Size is determined by weight.300 grams for fruit weighing 1 300g or less .III. To ensure uniformity in size.

.

Provisions concerning Tolerances .

.

Interpretation: The 10 per cent tolerance covers all malformations. skin and colour defects. Provisions concerning Tolerances At all marketing stages. serious skin and colour defects. of pineapples not satisfying the requirements of the class but meeting those of Class I is allowed. Within this tolerance not more than 0. Size tolerances For all classes: a total tolerance of 20 per cent. A. Quality tolerances (i) “Extra” Class A total tolerance of 5 per cent.IV. as well as bruising. by number or weight. of pineapples satisfying neither the requirements of the class nor the minimum requirements is allowed. of pineapples not satisfying the requirements of the class but meeting those of Class II is allowed. as well as defects not meeting the minimum requirements but not affecting edibility. To determine conformity with the tolerances.org/dataoecd/33/0/19517729.oecd. B.5 per cent tolerance covers all shape. by number or weight. Interpretation: The 10 per cent tolerance covers all shape. tolerances in respect of quality and size shall be allowed in each lot for produce not satisfying the requirements of the class indicated. including those rendering the produce unfit for consumption. by number or weight. by number or weight. Within this tolerance not more than 1 per cent in total may consist of produce satisfying neither the requirements of Class II quality nor the minimum requirements. soiling. lack of freshness. of pineapples not satisfying the requirements as regards sizing is allowed. The 1 per cent tolerance covers all defects not meeting the minimum requirements. (iii) Class II A total tolerance of 10 per cent. Interpretation: The 5 per cent tolerance covers all shape. 59 . allowed in Class II. or of produce affected by decay. The 2 per cent tolerance covers all defects not meeting the minimum requirements. Interpretation: Tolerances are provided to allow for deviation in handling due to natural deterioration of fresh produce over time. such as slight damage. (ii) Class I A total tolerance of 10 per cent. rendering the produce unfit for consumption. The decision on the conformity of the lot is taken depending on the percentage of non-conforming produce in the total sample. skin and colour defects allowed in Class I. as well as bruises. skin and colour defects.PDF). samples are taken according to Annex II of the OECD Council Decision [(C(2006)95] (www. The 0. Within this tolerance not more than 2 per cent in total may consist of produce affected by decay. allowed in Class II.5 per cent in total may consist of produce satisfying the requirements of Class II quality.

.

Provisions concerning Presentation .

.

Class II pineapples within one package may be within two or more colour groups. uniformity in colouring and length of crowns is required. pineapples in one package must be within one colour group only (see colour classification in Photo 36). of the same origin. with or without crowns. Examples of uniform presentation are shown in Photos 61-64. In addition. Interpretation: Concealing in the lower layers produce inferior in quality and size to what is marked on the package and placed in the top layer is not allowed.V. Interpretation: In “Extra” Class and Class I. “Extra” Class presentation of Smooth Caye . The visible part of the contents of the package must be representative of the entire contents. for the “Extra” Class and Class I. variety. Uniformity The contents of each package must be uniform and contain only pineapples. 63 Photo 61 Presentation: “Uniformity”. Provisions concerning Presentation A. quality and size.

UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples Photo 62 Presentation: “Uniformity”. Class I presentation of Queen Victoria 64 Photo 63 Presentation: “Uniformity”. Class II presentation of Queen Victoria .

when removed. is allowed. The use of materials. Interpretation: Clean materials should be used to protect the produce from foreign matter such as leaves. they neither leave visible traces of glue nor lead to skin defects. particularly of paper or stamps bearing trade specifications. . Crownless fruit — allowed in all cla 65 B. provided the printing or labelling has been done with non-toxic ink or glue. Packaging Pineapples must be packed in such a way as to protect the produce properly. sand or soil. which could cause a negative impact on the produce and its presentation. Stickers or labels individually attached to the produce shall be such that. Interpretation: Packages must be of such quality and strength as to protect the pineapples during transportation and handling. Interpretation: A visible lack of cleanliness in several packages may result in the lot being rejected. Packages must be free of all foreign matter.Provisions concerning Presentation Photo 64 Presentation: “Uniformity”. The materials used inside the package must be clean and of a quality such as to avoid causing any external or internal damage to the produce.

.

Provisions concerning Marking .

.

Interpretation: In the case of packed produce. 69 . Provisions concerning Marking Each package1 must bear the following particulars. 1 These marking provisions do not apply to sales packages presented in packages.VI. legibly and indelibly marked. and visible from the outside. in letters grouped on the same side. all particulars must be grouped on the same side of the package. In the case of re-used packages. all previous labels must be carefully removed and/or previous indications deleted. An example of marking is shown in Photo 65. either on a label attached to or printed on the package with water-insoluble ink.

Photo 65 Marking .required particulars printed on a package .

Commercial specifications . in which case identification of the “packer” as defined above is optional. the reference “packer and/or dispatcher (or equivalent abbreviations)” has to . district of origin in national. “Produce of Ghana” or “Produce of Thailand”).Colour code (optional) .Country of origin4 and.Size expressed as: . regional or local terms may also be shown. .“Without crown” or equivalent denomination.g. regional or local place name. Optionally. The dispatcher (shipper or exporter) may. or national. street/city/region/postal code and. Origin of produce . optionally. in the case where a code mark is used. The name of the variety can be replaced by a synonym. 70 Interpretation: Marking must include the country of origin. district where grown. assume sole responsibility.Class Interpretation: Stating the class is compulsory.UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples Identification Packer and/or dispatcher/shipper: Name and physical address (e.number of fruits . who are responsible only to their employer). the “packer” is the person or firm responsible for the packaging of the produce (this does not mean the staff that actually carry out the work. Interpretation: For inspection purposes. the country) or a code mark officially recognized by the national authority2. i. or . however. However.g.Name of variety for “Extra” Class and Class I.minimum and maximum weight. where appropriate. A trade name3 can only be given in addition to the variety or the synonym . if different from the country of origin. Official control mark (optional) Adopted 2003 Last revised 2012 2 The national legislation of a number of countries requires the explicit declaration of the name and address. The code mark is not a trademark but an official control system enabling the person or firm responsible for packaging to be readily identified.e.“Pineapples” if the contents are not visible from the outside . Nature of produce . the country in which the pineapples were grown (e.The indication “Should not be stored below 8° C” (optional).

and the code mark should be preceded by the ISO 3166 (alpha) country/area code of the recognizing country. 4 The full or a commonly used name should be indicated. 3 A trade name can be a trade mark for which protection has been sought or obtained or any other commercial denomination. if not the country of origin.be indicated in close connection with the code mark. .

5. Photo A2 Photo A2 Selection of basal suckers for planting 71 . Pineapples produce suckers that are suitable planting material from a number of parts of the mature plant. and at an elevation of less than 600 metres. An alternative centre of origin may be along the river banks of southern Guyana.17° C. Preparation The soil is usually prepared into a fine tilth and polythene is laid down in rows ready for the suckers to be planted through the polythene. at leaf axils and below the mature fruit. It is believed that the Tupi-Guaraní Indians were the first people to select and cultivate pineapples.) is thought to be the Paraná-Paraguay River basin in Southern Brazil and Paraguay.30° C with a night-time temperature of 15° C . where the original seed species survives in the wild today. Columbus “discovered” pineapples in 1493 and from then on early European explorers distributed pineapples throughout the world.Annex I Brief summary of pineapple production History The most likely origin of the pineapple (Ananas spp. The best temperature range for successful production is a daytime temperature of 25° C . Polythene helps reduce weed competition and water loss.5 to 6. Pineapples were spread throughout South America be native people and eventually reached the Caribbean. with a pH of 5. Photo A1 Photo A1 Preparation of the soil for planting Pineapples grow best on fertile well-drained alluvial or volcanic soils. These suckers arise at soil level around the base of the plant.

Photo A3 Photo A3 Sugar Loaf variety showing suckers below fruit used for planting Contaminated soil. Planting Suckers are usually planted through the polythene sheet in rows of two or four. . once harvested there can only be a gradual loss of fruit quality. but it depends on each variety which is most effective. etc. Pineapples are non-climacteric. Pythium. fungal and bacterial diseases can affect pineapple production. as well as a build-up of viral infection. Applying optimal amounts of nitrogen and potassium increases fruit size and improves fruit quality. They are fragile and the slightest disturbance to the soil will affect their growth. but are also planted directly into the ground in some areas. as well as Anthracnose. However. such as mealy bug and the Thecla butterfly. poor agricultural practices and vegetative reproduction requiring a large number of suckers (60 000 per hectare) can lead to falling yields. Sugar content and acidity are the essential indicators of the fruit quality and can vary considerably depending on fertilization and weather conditions. To obtain good quality source material. To achieve a satisfactory yield. Pineapples develop and ripen from the base upwards. which are planted to grow “cleaned” suckers for fruit production. increased unevenness of fruit size. The formed roots continue to grow. up to 4 rows will increase yield. suckers from below the fruit are most commonly used.UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples All these suckers can be used. Gummosis. A wide range of pests. pests and diseases should be controlled during the growth period. Photo A4 72 Photo A4 Planting of suckers through polythene in a four-row system Plants develop roots during the first month only. tissue culture methods are used to multiply healthy progeny plants. Phytophthora. as sucker weight has a large influence on final fruit size. Depending on growing conditions. after which no new roots grow. even among basal suckers careful selection is required. The other suckers generally take longer to produce fruit. For MD2 the basal suckers are the most productive and will produce fruit within 12 to 14 months from planting. poorer colour and keeping qualities. For the Sugar Loaf variety.

Annex I Flower induction Natural flowering is erratic. This technique forces the plants to produce marketable fruit within a short period of time. Photos A5-A6 Photo A5 Pineapple flower Photo A6 Pineapple field at flowering stage De-greening To shorten the time period during which the fruits mature in the field. which in turn reduces the cost of harvesting and packaging. plants are sprayed with an ethylene solution (Ethephon is widely used) after approximately 6 months of vegetative growth. leaves may be tied over maturing fruit to protect the fruit from damage caused by the sun. Photo A7 73 Photo A7 Green fruit Maturity In some production areas. To induce regular flowering. Photo A8 Photo A8 Leaves tied up to protect the fruit . they are sprayed with an ethylene solution when most of them are close to maturity.

10° C after being graded and packed and during transportation to the market of destination. when it has reached the required colour and sugar level. graded and packed as soon as possible. Photos A9-A11 Photo A9 Pineapple harvesting Photo A10 Loading pineapples for transport from field to packhouse Photo A11 Grading and packaging pineapples at packhouse Fruit for export should be stored at 8° C . .74 UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples Harvesting The fruit is harvested. usually manually. After harvesting. the fruit should be transported to the packhouse.

a slight deterioration due to their development and their tendency to perish. subject to the special provisions for each class and the tolerances allowed. The development and condition of the pineapples must be such as to enable them: .free of abnormal external moisture .Annex II UNECE STANDARD FFV-49 concerning the marketing and commercial quality control of PINEAPPLES I.free from damage caused by pests affecting the flesh . The holder/seller of products may not display such products or offer them for sale. However.free of any foreign smell and/or taste. II. during transportation pineapples with a longer stem are excluded from these requirements. or deliver or market them in any manner other than in conformity with this standard. the crown may be reduced or trimmed . The holder/seller shall be responsible for observing such conformity.) Merr.practically free from pests . the pineapples must be: . However.to arrive in satisfactory condition at the place of destination.sound. products may show in relation to the requirements of the standard: .for products graded in classes other than the “Extra” Class.5 cm measured from the shoulder of the fruit and the cut must be transversal.to withstand transportation and handling .intact. such as to make it unfit for consumption. is excluded . Provisions concerning Quality The purpose of the standard is to define the quality requirements for pineapples at the exportcontrol stage after preparation and packaging.clean. produce affected by rotting or deterioration. A. Minimum requirements In all classes. pineapples for ornamental use or industrial processing being excluded.a slight lack of freshness and turgidity . When a stalk is present. practically free of any visible foreign matter .fresh in appearance. it shall not be longer than 2. Definition of Produce This standard applies to pineapples of varieties (cultivars) grown from Ananas comosus (L. straight and clean. including the crown . if present. 75 . to be supplied fresh to the consumer. if applied at stages following export. with or without crown.

The following slight defects. They must be characteristic of the variety. They must be free from defects. provided the pineapples retain their essential characteristics as regards the quality.slight skin defects not exceeding 5 per cent of the total surface area .slightly curved with a maximum inclination not exceeding 30° from the longitudinal axis of the fruit. Class I 76 Pineapples in this class must be of good quality. including discolouration caused by the sun . The crown. The total soluble solids content of the fruit flesh should be at least 12° Brix. (iii) Class II This class includes pineapples that do not qualify for inclusion in the higher classes but satisfy the minimum requirements specified above.slight bruises. The flesh must be free from major defects. including sun-scorch .skin defects not exceeding 10 per cent of the total surface area .a slight defect in shape .defects in shape. . The skin colour can be green. must be single and with no side-shoots and should not exceed 150 per cent of the length of the fruit. The crown.defects in colouring. provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce.slightly damaged .slightly discoloured .UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples B. The flesh must be perfectly sound. including a double crown . provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce. the quality. provided the minimum maturity requirements are met. must be single and straight with no side-shoots and should not exceed 150 per cent of the length of the fruit. C. the quality. They must be characteristic of the variety.bruises. The flesh must be perfectly sound. may be allowed. the keeping quality and presentation in the package. however. The following defects may be allowed. if present. Fruit showing over-ripeness affecting edibility is excluded.slight defects in colouring. It may be: . It must be fresh and not discoloured. if present. the keeping quality and presentation: . as defined below: “Extra” Class Pineapples in this class must be of superior quality. Classification Pineapples are classified in three classes. Maturity requirements The pineapples must have reached an appropriate degree of maturity and ripeness in accordance with criteria proper to the variety and to the area in which they are grown. the keeping quality and presentation in the package: . with the exception of very slight superficial defects.

(iii) Class II A total tolerance of 10 per cent. B.Provisions concerning Tolerances At all marketing stages. or of produce affected by decay. Quality tolerances (i) “Extra” Class A total tolerance of 5 per cent.Provisions concerning Sizing Size is determined by weight. 77 . of pineapples satisfying neither the requirements of the class nor the minimum requirements is allowed. IV. by number or weight. Within this tolerance not more than 2 per cent in total may consist of produce affected by decay. they neither leave visible traces of glue nor lead to skin defects. of pineapples not satisfying the requirements of the class but meeting those of Class I is allowed. B. with or without crowns. (ii) Class I A total tolerance of 10 per cent. A. Packaging Pineapples must be packed in such a way as to protect the produce properly. for the “Extra” Class and Class I. Packages must be free of all foreign matter. Uniformity The contents of each package must be uniform and contain only pineapples. The use of materials.680 grams for fruit weighing more than 1 300g. of pineapples not satisfying the requirements of the class but meeting those of Class II is allowed. particularly of paper or stamps bearing trade specifi is allowed. Within this tolerance not more than 1 per cent in total may consist of produce satisfying neither the requirements of Class II quality nor the minimum requirements. V. In addition. The materials used inside the package must be clean and of a quality such as to avoid causing any external or internal damage to the produce.Annex II III. the range in size between produce in the same package shall not exceed: . provided the printing or labelling has been done with nontoxic ink or glue. uniformity in colouring and length of crowns is required. Stickers or labels individually attached to the produce shall be such that. by number or weight.5 per cent in total may consist of produce satisfying the requirements of Class II quality. Within this tolerance not more than 0.300 grams for fruit weighing 1 300g or less . To ensure uniformity in size. Provisions concerning Presentation A. The visible part of the contents of the package must be representative of the entire contents. of pineapples not satisfying the requirements as regards sizing is allowed. by number or weight. of the same origin. tolerances in respect of quality and size shall be allowed in each lot for produce not satisfying the requirements of the class indicated. quality and size. when removed. Size tolerances For all classes: a total tolerance of 20 per cent. variety. by number or weight.

org/trade/agr/welcome. and visible from the outside. Official control mark (optional) Adopted 2003 Last revised 2012 UNECE has published an explanatory illustrated brochure on the application of this standard. if not the country of origin. if the contents are not visible from the outside . and the code mark should be preceded by the ISO 3166 (alpha) country/area code of the recognizing country.Size expressed as: .Class . The name of the variety can be replaced by a synonym. 2 The national legislation of a number of countries requires the explicit declaration of the name and address. or national. However. Identification Packer and/or dispatcher/shipper: Name and physical address (e. 3 A trade name can be a trade mark for which protection has been sought or obtained or any other commercial denomination. the reference “packer and/or dispatcher (or equivalent abbreviations)” has to be indicated in close connection with the code mark.Country of origin4 and. district where grown. Provisions concerning Marking Each package1 must bear the following particulars.number of fruits 78 . or . A.UNECE Explanatory Brochure on the Standard for Pineapples VI. where appropriate. in the case where a code mark is used. if different from the country of origin. legibly and indelibly marked.g. .The indication “Should not be stored below 80 C” (optional). The publication may be obtained from the UNECE at: www. 4 The full or a commonly used name should be indicated.unece.htm ----1 These marking provisions do not apply to sales packages presented in packages. the country) or a code mark officially recognized by the national authority2. A trade3 name can only be given in addition to the variety or the synonym .“Without crown” or equivalent denomination. in letters grouped on the same side. regional or local place name. Nature of produce .minimum and maximum weight. Commercial specifications .“Pineapples”.Name of variety for “Extra” Class and Class I. optionally. Origin of produce . street/city/region/postal code and.Colour code (optional) .

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400 ECE/TRADE/398 . United Nations.12-24986 — May 2013 — 1. Geneva GE.Pineapples Explanatory Brochure Designed and printed by the Publishing Service.