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Heat effects of chemical and biological processes are measured using an instrument called a
calorimeter. A calorimeter can be a very simple instrument or set-up, such as in this
experiment, or it can be a very sophisticated instrument used for research purposes, or even
large and complex instruments for measuring whole body heat effects. When a chemical
reaction takes place, some bonds are broken, and new bonds are made. The net result is an
overall energy change which manifests itself in the form of heat. The energy change for a
reaction Products → Reactants is given the symbol ΔE, where Δ stand for the difference in
internal energy content: ΔE(products − reactants). We remember that when a reaction
produces heat, meaning that the reaction gives off heat to the surroundings, we speak of an
exothermic reaction, and therefore also ΔH as negative, because the system loses this
enthalpy. For exothermic reactions: ΔH and qp are negative; the system loses heat (enthalpy)
and the surroundings gains this heat. And the opposite, when the reaction takes up heat from
the outside we speak of an endothermic reaction, and ΔH is define as positive, because the
system gains this enthalpy. For endothermic reactions ΔH and qp are positive; the system
gains heat (enthalpy) and the surroundings transfer this heat to the system. We can speak of
enthalpy of reaction, enthalpy of combustion, enthalpy of dissociation, enthalpy of
evaporation, etc., it always means the heat effect of a particular process carried out at
constant pressure conditions. We define the enthalpy of formation as “the heat effect (at
constant pressure again) of an (often hypothetical) reaction where a compound is formed
from its constituent elements under standard conditions, and in the form in which the
elements naturally occur under standard conditions”, symbol ΔHf o . Hess’s Law tells us that
the amount of heat involved in a reaction is the same, whether the reaction takes place in one
or several steps. A modification of this law permits us to find the heat of one step of a
reaction if the overall heat and the heats for the other steps are known. In this experiment,
you will determine the heat of reaction for magnesium oxide by studying a series of reactions
of magnesium and magnesium oxide.


To calculate and determine the heat capacity of a calorimeter
To determine the standard enthalpy of formation of magnesium oxide, ΔH˚f


Polystyrene cup with cover
100 cm3 beaker
100 cm3 graduated cylinder

50 cm3 of tap water is delivered using a burette into a calorimeter.1 g. Magnesium powder is weighed between 1.0 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) Magnesium oxide powder Magnesium powder PROCEDURE The experiment is performed at standard conditions (atmospheric pressure and 25˚C). The exact weight of the magnesium powder is recorded. b) Reaction 2: Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid i.1. The hot water from a water bath is collected using a beaker and a graduated cylinder is used to measure the hot water which is 50 cm 3. . The temperature is recorded every 15 seconds for the next 3 minutes. i. ii.0. The lid is replaced and the water is stirred with the thermometer. the hot water is poured completely into the calorimeter (containing the cold water). The water temperature is recorded for four minutes at one minute intervals.1 Double Styrofoam cup calorimeter a) Heat capacity of calorimeter The Styrofoam cup is checked to be clean and dry. The temperature of hot water is recorded once the temperature of the hot water is around 40-50 ˚C above the room temperature and at the fifth minute. All experiments are done in a double Styrofoam cup calorimeter as shown in fig 1. The cover and the thermometer are replaced.CHEMICALS    2.1 Figure 1.

i.1.50 cm3 of 2 M HCl is drained from a burette into the calorimeter. ii. The lid is replaced and the contents are stirred in the calorimeter with the thermometer.find out the moles of reactants involved in the reactions.463 KJ qcal = qhot . The temperature of the HCl is recorded every minute for 4 minutes. It has been professionally determined value and verified and the value is listed in standard reference sources. The exact weight used is recorded. qhot = qcold + qcal qhot = mhc(Th – Tf) =50 × (4.254 KJ c) Calculate the heats of reaction for reaction 2 and 3 in kJ/mol.34˚C) =2. Magnesium oxide is weighed between 1. Step (ii) in (b) is repeated. c) Reaction 3: Magnesium oxide with Hydrochloric Acid i.27˚C) =1.463 = 1.18) × (34˚C.18) × (47˚C.717 KJ qcold = mcc(Tf – Tc) = 50 × (4. The cover and thermometer is replaced.8 g. The magnesium powder is poured into the HCl at the fifth minute.qcold = 2. RESULTS AND CALCULATION a) Tabulate all your results The data and results of the experiment is attached together with the report. The temperature is recorded for the next 3 minutes at 15 seconds intervals.717. b) Calculate the heat capacity of the calorimeter. The heat reaction for reaction 2 .6-1. d) Reaction 4: Hydrogen gas with Oxygen gas The value is not experimentally determined in the laboratory for safety reasons. ii.

0g)(4.4 KJ/mol.04308 mol ΔHr = (-0.0399mol ΔHr = (-0.18J/g •°C ΔTf = 36˚C ΔTi = 37˚C ΔT = ΔTf .0g c = 4. the enthalpy change per mole of Magnesium in this reaction is -19.q=mcΔT m = 50.0g)(4.836KJ ΔH= nΔHr ΔHr = ΔH / n ΔH = -0.ΔTi = 46 .836KJ mMg= 1.˚C) = +209J ΔHr = ΔH / n ΔH = -q = -209J =-0.37 = 1˚C q = (50.0mL * (1.04308mol) = -19.42 = 4˚C q = (50.0399mol) = -5.0mL * (1.0473g) / (24.4KJ/mol Therefore.0473g MMg = 24.209KJ) / (0.18J/g •°C)(4˚C) = +836J ΔH = -q = -836J = -0.209KJ n = (1.00mL) = 50.00g/1.31g/mol) = 0.24KJ/mol . Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq)  H2(g) + MgCl2(aq) ΔH = -19.18J/g •°C)(1.ΔTi = 36 .31g/mol) = 0.0g c = 4. The heat reaction for reaction 3 q=mcΔT m = 50.4KJ ii.00mL) = 50.18J/g •°C ΔTf = 46˚C ΔTi = 42˚C ΔT = ΔTf .6098g) / (40.31g/mol n = mM n = (1.00g/1.836KJ) / (0.

3.4 (kJ/mol) ΔH(2) = -5. 3. Reaction 1:Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) → MgCl2(aq) + H2(g) Reaction 2:MgO(s) + 2HCl(aq) → MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l) Reaction 3: H2(g) + ½O2(g) → H2O(l) ΔH(1) = -19. and 4 can be added to produce reaction 1. Mg(s) + 1/2O2(g)  MgO(s) reaction 1 Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq)  H2(g) + MgCl2(aq) MgO(s) + 2HCl(aq)  H2O(l) + MgCl2(aq) H2(g) + 1/2O2(g)  H2O(l) reaction 2 reaction 3 reaction 4 Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq)  H2(g) + MgCl2(aq) H2O(l) + MgCl2(aq) MgO(s) + 2HCl(aq) Insert reaction 3 to cancel out H2 and H2O Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) + H2O(l) + MgCl2(aq) + H2(g) + 1/2O2(g)  H2(g) + MgCl2(aq) + MgO(s) + 2HCl(aq) + H2O(l) Mg(s) + 1/2O2(g)  MgO(s) e) Show how the heat of reaction (kJ/mol value) for reactions 2.24KJ d) Show how reactions 2. we can calculate heat of formation of MgO: Mg(s) + ½O2(g) → MgO(s) ΔH = ΔH(1) −ΔH(2) + ΔH(3) .24 (kJ/mol) ΔH(3) = -286 (kJ/mol) By rearranging above equations. and 4 can be added to yield the heat of reaction for reaction 1. Thermochemical equation for the reaction of MgO in HCl MgO(s) + 2HCl(aq)  H2O(l) + MgCl2(aq) ΔH = -5.24 KJ/mol.Therefore the enthalpy change per mole of Magnesium Oxide in this reaction is -5.

= (-19.4) .16 KJ/mol f) Consult the literature to obtain the accepted value for the heat of formation of magnesium oxide.(-5. . Calculate the percent error and discuss the factors that may have affected the results.6−(−300.254 KJ and the standard entalphy for the formation of MgO is determined. Percent error ¿ Theoretical− Actual ×100 Theoretical ¿ −601.24) + (-286) = -300.16) ×100 −601.6 ¿ 50 CONCLUSION As the conclusion the heat capacity of the calorimeter is calculated which is 1.

500 M HCl (aq) according to the method described in procedure b. .12g of CaO is added to 200 cm 3 of 0. How will this affect his experimental results? The large hole in the plastic lid will affected the result as it will effect the flow of heat during the experiment. a temperature increase of 4. assume that the volume of the final solution is 200 cm 3.500 M HCl according to the method described in procedure b.184 Jg-1˚C).62˚C is observed.QUESTIONS 1) For the following problems.0˚C is observed. a temperature increase of 13.800gof Ca metal is added to 200 cm3 of 0. the density of the solution is 1. What is at room temperature for the reaction of Ca(s) + 2H+ (aq)? b) When 1. a) When 0.00 gmL -1 and the capacity of the solution is the same as water (4. What is at room temperature for the reation of: CaO(s) + 2H+? 2) A student is carelessly inserts the thermometer while assembling the calorimeter and a large hole is torn in the plastic lid.