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A Comparison of Scale

:
Macro, Micro, Nano
Comparison of Scale PK
Activities (3)
Participant Guide

www.scme-nm.org

Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME)
University of New Mexico

MEMS Introduction Topic

Scale Inquiry Activity: Cut to Size
Shareable Content Object (SCO)

This SCO is part of the Learning Module

Scale

Target audiences: High School, Community College, University

Support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education
(ATE) Program through Grants #DUE 0830384 and 0902411.
Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors
and creators, and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
Copyright © by the Southwest Center for Microsystems Education
and
The Regents of the University of New Mexico
Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME)
800 Bradbury SE, Suite 235
Albuquerque, NM 87106-4346
Phone: 505-272-7150
Website: www.scme-nm.org

Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME)
Int_Scale_AC12_PG_040413

Page 2 of 10
Cut to Size Activity

you will continue to identify objects for several lengths all the way down into the nano-scale. micro and nano. Even after the ruler becomes too small to cut. This device is small enough to be mounted on a disposable skin patch. This leads to a better understanding of the function of micro-sized objects and the applications in which they are used. Description and Estimated Time to Complete This activity allows you to explore the macro. micro. Microchip containing a nano-sized insulin pump [Printed with permission from Debiotech S.(1) This pump is constructed using MEMS technology fabrication techniques. You will identify objects that exist in each of these scales given a specific length. For each cut. Estimated Time to Complete Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_AC12_PG_040413 Page 3 of 10 Cut to Size Activity . you need to have a good understanding of size and scale. their applications and fabrication. and nano-scales. You will be asked to think of ways that these objects can be used to perform a necessary task. In this activity you will discover similar devices in the macro. . this picture shows a microchip of a nano-sized pump used to supply a continuous infusion of insulin to a diabetic. The nanopump inside the micro-size chip is able to control delivery at the nanoliter level.Scale Inquiry Activity: Cut To Size Activity Participant Guide Introduction To understand microsystems. you will identify an object that has the length of the remaining size.] For example. the amount very close to the physiological delivery of insulin . In this activity you will cut a 20 cm paper ruler in half. then continue to cut each new piece in half until it becomes too small to cut.scales and to begin thinking about the types of objects found in these scales.

By the end of this activity you should be able to answer the following questions:  How many cuts would it take to get to the size of a water molecule (approximately 1 nm)?  How do you denote lengths using the metric system?  What are some objects that overlap the micro and nano-scales?  What is an object in the micro or nano-scale that performs the same function or task as a macrosized object?  What are some tasks that micro or nano-sized objects perform that affect your life? Team It is recommended that you complete this activity with one or two other participants. you will continue to identify objects that measure specific micro and nano lengths as indicated on the activity chart. Working with others will promote more discussion and ideas. Activity Objectives and Outcomes Activity Objectives  Demonstrate your knowledge of metric scales by identifying at least 15 objects that range in size from the nano-scale to the macro-scale. (One is provided on the Cut to Size Activity Chart at the end of this activity).PG Page 4 of 10 .  Identify at least 3 macro-size objects that perform the same tasks but in the micro-scale.  One piece of stock paper (or thick printer paper) – if available  One pair of scissors  One Cut to Size Activity chart (last 2 pages of this activity)  One pencil  Computer with Internet access  Computer with PowerPoint or Adobe Reader Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_AC12_PG_040413 Cut to Size Activity . When you are no longer able to cut the ruler in half. Activity Outcomes For each cut of the ruler you will indicate on a chart the length of the new ruler and at least one object that measures that length.Allow approximately 60 minutes to complete this activity. Supplies  One 20 cm long strip of ruled paper.

Observations:  What is the difference between a micro-sized object and a nano-sized object?  Describe any previous experience or observations that you have had relating to micro and nano-sized objects.  Summarize your discussions with other participants.  What types of objects do you think of when you think "micro"?  What types of objects do you think of when you think "nano"? Hypothesis:  Write a statement on what you expect to discover in fulfilling the expectations.  You will identify micro and nano-sized objects that work as efficiently as macro-sized objects with equivalent functions.Documentation  Record your observations during this activity.PG Page 5 of 10 .  Record the results for each step of the activity. Think About the Outcome Answer the following based on what you think will be the outcome of this activity.  Revise your hypothesis to reflect the results. Predictions:  What types of objects will you find in the micro and nano-scales that perform the same functions as objects macro-scales (> 100 microns)?  What types of objects will you find in the micro-scale?  What types of objects will you find in the nano-scale? Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_AC12_PG_040413 Cut to Size Activity .  Complete the Cut to Size Activity Chart. Expectations:  You will discover functional objects that range from the nano-scale to the macro-scale.  Answer the Post-activity questions.

3. Micro. red blood cells (6 to 8 μm in diameter) carry oxygen from the lungs to the body) d. (Be sure to use metric notation). View the Presentation: "Macro. 1. or Nano?" Description View either the PowerPoint or Flash version of the presentation "Macro. Micro. What is the new length of the ruler? Record the length on the activity chart. Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_AC12_PG_040413 Cut to Size Activity . e. This activity will help you begin to think about objects in the micro and nano-scales. Answer the following questions: a. micro. if available. Print page 2 of the chart on stock paper. What is the function (task) of this object? (i. Is this object macro. Record your answers to these questions on the chart. or Nano?"  How did you do?  How many did you get correct? 2.Inquiry Activity: Cut To Size Description This activity allows you to explore the macro. Cut out the metric ruler along the red line. Description Cut the ruler in half. Cut the ruler in half. Print out the Cut to Size Activity Chart Description    Print out the Cut to Size Activity Chart at the end of this handout.scales. You will cut a 20 cm long paper ruler as small as you can get it and identify an object that has the length of each cut size. (You are welcome to Google images for ideas) c. micro and nano.PG Page 6 of 10 . Give an example of an object of this size. b. Discard one half of the ruler.e. or nano in length? Refer back to the presentation if you need to.

Revisit your hypothesis and predictions Description a. Discuss results with other participants Description Discuss your activity results with other participants. Repeat Step 3 Description Repeat step 3 until the ruler gets too small to cut in half. a. Determine how many cuts it would take to get to 1 nanometer. Is it macro. Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_AC12_PG_040413 Cut to Size Activity . 11. micro. How many cuts to 1 nm? Description a. Use the activity chart to keep track of the number of times you cut. b. 6. highlight the number of cuts you were able to do before the last piece was too small to cut.4. Write up your documentation Description See the Documentation section and complete your documentation for this activity. Submit your documentation as required. 10. answer the following. b. Complete the Activity Chart Description For the remaining cuts indicated on the chart. What is the function of this object? c. What are two objects that are 1 nm in length or diameter? 8. How many cuts did you get? Description How many cuts did you get before the ruler got too small to cut? On the activity chart. Revise your hypothesis to reflect your results. Answer the Post-Activity Questions Description Answer the Post-Activity Questions at the end of this procedure. How well did your results match your predictions? (Be specific) 9. 5. How many cuts? ______________ c. or nano? 7. Give an example of an object of this size? b.PG Page 7 of 10 .

How many cuts would it take to get to the size of a molecule approximately 1 nm in diameter? 2.PG Page 8 of 10 . This understanding will assist in all aspects of your life. what types of professions do you think directly utilize the functional capabilities of these objects? (Be specific) 4. Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_AC12_PG_040413 Cut to Size Activity . What is an object in the micro-scale that performs the same function or task as a macrosized object? 6.html Support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Program. Based on the types of objects that you found in the micro and nano-scales.com/archives/2007/04/debiotechs_insulin_nanopump. micro. http://medgadget. 2007. April 23. Even though nano. and nano. References 1 "Debiotech's Insulin Nanopump™". What types of objects did you find in the micro-scale? Nano-scale? 3. you should have found that there still exists billions and billions of functional objects within these scales. What are some objects that overlap the micro and nano-scales? 5. MedGadget. It is important that you get a sense of relative size and develop a good understanding of scale and units. and most micro-sized objects cannot be seen with the naked eye. What are some functions that micro and nano-sized object perform that affect your life? Summary This activity allowed you to explore objects in three different scales – macro.Post-Activity Questions 1.

Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_AC12_PG_040413 Cut to Size Activity .PG Page 9 of 10 .

PG Page 10 of 10 .Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_AC12_PG_040413 Cut to Size Activity .

Copyright © by the Southwest Center for Microsystems Education and The Regents of the University of New Mexico Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) 800 Bradbury Drive SE.scme-nm.PK . Community College. Any opinions. findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and creators. University Support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Program through Grants #DUE 0830384 and 0902411. Nano Primary Knowledge (PK) Shareable Content Object (SCO) This SCO is part of the Learning Module Scale Target audiences: High School.org Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_PK12_PG_040813 Page 1 of 22 Comparison of Scale . NM 87106-4346 Phone: 505-272-7150 Website: www.Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) University of New Mexico MEMS Introduction Topic A Comparison of Scale: Macro. and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Suite 235 Albuquerque. Micro.

This unit introduces you to various concepts associated with scale. and a comparison of the macro.A Comparison of Scale: Macro. Micro. micro and nano-scales.PK . Introduction The Milky Way [Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech2] Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_PK12_PG_040813 Page 2 of 22 Comparison of Scale . Nano Primary Knowledge Participant Guide Description and Estimated Time to Complete In order to grasp many of the concepts associated with MEMS and MEMS devices and components. Estimated Time to Complete Allow approximately 30 minutes to complete. you need to understand scale and the size of objects associated with different scales.

There are over 50. In these explorations. These objects are constantly being studied.At one time or another everyone has asked the question "How big is the universe?" Trying to develop the answer can be overwhelming because there is no answer. However. however. and compared.000 billion. another whole universe has been discovered. The size of the universe is unknown. Instead of objects being measured in kilometers and light-years. the Milky Way (pictured above) is one of billions of galaxies. There are more stars in the universe than there are grains of sand on our planet. Giant stars are as much as 10 times larger. See F.Image credit: World Book illustration by Roberta Polfus] For years astronomers have explored the universe looking for hints as to how big it really is.3 million earths could fit inside the sun! Do the math! The sun is much larger than Earth.or wing-shaped features seen on the atoms represent orbitals .1 Our sun is considered a middle-sized star. Our sun is one of several 100 billion stars within The Milky Way. objects are measured in micrometers and nanometers. J.PK . From the sun's center to its surface. Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_PK12_PG_040813 This atomic force microscope image by German physicist Franz Giessibl shows dozens of silicon atoms. the sun is approximately 109 times larger in diameter meaning that 1. Scientists have debated whether the light and dark crescents . 422 (2000)] Page 3 of 22 Comparison of Scale . This will lead to a better understanding of the processes and applications used in these technologies.the paths of electrons orbiting the atoms. Some of the streams of gas rising from the solar surface are larger than Earth. Science 289. At the same time. it is about 109 times the radius of Earth.  what is small. when compared to Earth. [Printed with permission. billion stars. and  how do these objects compare in size? When working with micro and nanotechnologies it is important to have an understanding of size and of scale.. and even the number of atoms (see image right). [Image source: NASA . other scientists have been exploring how small things are and how small something has to be before it goes beyond the reach of manipulation or measurement. the size of objects within the universe is known. Giessibl et al. but on a much smaller scale. These comparisons are a means of evoking some sense of scale as to how big the universe could be. measured. This unit will explore the concept of scale:  what is big. For example.

1 to 0. huge) can be illustrated in a scale. Big relative to what? "An ant is small. an ant is small (anywhere from 2mm long to 25 mm long)." Again. applications. Additional comparison scales could be created at both ends of these two scales illustrating even smaller and largest objects.Objectives    Explain the differences in the macro. and properties. In the top scale of "Size is Relative". the ant is the smallest object. What are three additional objects that could be added to this scale that are bigger than the ant. the ant is the smallest object. another relative statement.06 mm). Identify objects and applications in the micro-scale and the nano-scale. Size is Relative Size is Relative "The sun is big" is a relative statement. in the bottom scale the ant is the largest object. Define microtechnology and nanotechnology. micro and nano scales in terms of size. but smaller than the bumblebee? Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_PK12_PG_040813 Page 4 of 22 Comparison of Scale .PK . However. however. an ant is huge. small. yes. relative to a human hair (0. The comparative size of an object in relative terms (big. Relative to the size of a human being. Question: In the top scale.

472. the difference becomes obvious.8 km or about 9. Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_PK12_PG_040813 Page 5 of 22 Comparison of Scale . One milligram (mg) is 10 -3 (a thousandth) of a gram. Two scales can look very similar. but be completely different in the range represented.PK . One nanometer is 10-9 (a billionth) of a meter. They look close to the same size.5 x 1015 meters! One kilometer (km) is 1000 meters or 1x103 meters. the ant is approximately 5 mm in length and red blood cells are approximately 5 μm in diameter or 1. An attogram is 10-18 of a gram. don't they? In reality.580. One kilogram (kg) is 1000 grams or 1x103 grams.730. One micrometer is 10-6 (a millionth) of a meter. Two objects can look the same size. but when put in the correct scale.460.000 times smaller! How Big is Small?        One light-year is 9. Take a look at the two objects in the figure.Scale is a Relationship Scale is the relationship between what is being compared and how that relationship is represented numerically or visually.

DOE] In the above chart "The Scale of Things – Nanometers and More". Take a few minutes to study the objects on this chart. but when placed next to a scale. you can get a feeling of how things can look the same size.The Scale of Things [Graphic courtesy of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.S.PK . U. the real size becomes more apparent. Which would you consider macro (large than micro)? Which objects would you place in the micro-scale and which objects in the nano-scale? Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_PK12_PG_040813 Page 6 of 22 Comparison of Scale .

PK . shock sensors for computers and implantable drug delivery systems are micro-sized objects. Micro – 100 micrometers to 100 nanometers Nano – 100 nanometers to 1 nanometer Electrical and mechanical devices.2 inches  Microgears with individual gear teeth ~8 micrometers (µm) wide  Microcantilever with a gold nano-dot 50 nanometers (nm) in diameter. Micro. Biomolecular sensors for proteins and antigens. and gene analysis devices are nano-sized objects. Can you add objects to the following table? Macro Switches Light bulbs Fans Pumps Micro Microswitches Inertial sensors Chemical sensors Micropumps Nano Carbon Nanotubes Biomolecular sensors Biomolecular motors Table 1: Macro. Micro and Nano – What's the difference? Macro. The figure shows such components:  Standard light bulb with a diameter of ~8 millimeters (mm) or 3. carbon nanotubes as connectors. components such as switches.Macro. Micro and Nano Objects Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_PK12_PG_040813 Page 7 of 22 Comparison of Scale . Airbag actuation sensors. components and systems are being manufactured in a variety of sizes from macro to nano. Nano [Micro image of microgears courtesy of Sandia National Laboratories] [Nano image Printed with permission Craighead Group/Cornell University and © Cornell University] Macro – anything that can be seen with the naked eye or anything greater than ~100 micrometer. light bulbs and fans are macro-size objects (greater than 100 micrometers). In commercial and residential electrical applications.

Can you estimate the size of each object in the scale? Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_PK12_PG_040813 Page 8 of 22 Comparison of Scale . Linear Scales Linear Scale In a linear scale each increment and incremental increase is equal to the one before (in other words – equal divisions for equal values). a good way to compare the size of different objects is to place the objects on a scale.PK . the linear scale above goes from 0 millimeters to 25 millimeters in 5 mm increments. There are two basic scales that are used: the linear scale and the logarithmic scale.002 micrometers wide or 2 nm wide." Scales As seen in previous graphics. For example. Following is a brief discussion and illustration of both types of scales. This is a good time to take and break and do one of the activities in this Scale Learning Module. A good activity to do is "Cut To Size. Something for you to do: Estimate the size of other objects that you are familiar with. such as illustrating the sizes of five objects from the size of a bumble bee (~24 mm long) to the size of a pinhead (~1 mm in diameter). This scale works fine when the total range in the size of objects is small.A Sense of Size A honey bee is approximately 12 mm long A human hair is 60 to 100 micrometers in diameter A red blood cell averages about 7 micrometers in diameter The DNA helix is 0.

g. The graph on the top is a linear scale and the one on the bottom is a logarithmic scale. the growth was from 1. A logarithmic scale uses the logarithm of a physical quantity rather than the quantity itself.000 to almost 10. The above graph covers a range from the diameter of the sun (1. therefore. you can easily see that the growth between 1970 and 1975 went from over 1000 to just under 10. nor as effective. however. but look how different they look. In the log scale.5 mm).000.000. Logarithmic These two graphs above illustrate the exact same information. Linear vs.000 per die! That's a significantly larger increase. By 2008 transistors per die has increased to over 200 million! Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_PK12_PG_040813 Page 9 of 22 Comparison of Scale . They both show the increase in the number of transistors per die from 1970 to 1995. Notice in the linear scale. It is effective for comparing the relative size of objects when the actual range in size is huge.39 Gm) to the size of a pin head (1.PK . Between 1990 and 1995. since it is logarithmic. a linear scale is not practical. from 1. it almost looks linear. the growth is easily seen as being exponential.000 transistors per die. Imagine how long a linear graph would be that compared these objects.5 Gm to 5 μm)? In such a comparison.Logarithmic Scales Logarithmic Scale But what happens when the range becomes bigger (e. a logarithmic scale could be used (above).

and  constructed with fewer materials. microdevices exceed their macroscopic equivalents in  reliability. and  energy consumption. manufacturing or using miniature components.Macro vs.  more energy efficient. chemical.  much lighter. such as sensors or transducers. Microtechnology "Microtechnology is the art of creating. Microdevices When comparing macroscopic devices to their micro equivalents." [Federal School of Polytechnics]5 The products of Microtechnology are microsystems and microsystem components. Micro-sized objects allow us to go places where no objects have gone before. mechanical and optical elements as well as various other materials. as microtechnology systems use electronic. the micro devices are  much smaller.  selectivity. Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_PK12_PG_040813 Page 10 of 22 Comparison of Scale .  efficiency. The first and foremost feature in this field is its multidisciplinary nature. computerised.  response time. equipment and systems that have been mass produced. In equivalent applications.PK .

European countries referred to such devices as microsystems or MST. These two terms – MEMS and MST – are often used interchangeably. these devices are referred to as microelectromechanical systems or MEMS. Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_PK12_PG_040813 Three MEMS blood pressure sensors on a pin head [Photo courtesy of Lucas NovaSensor. micro-sized components working together as a system and assembled into a package that fits on a pinhead (see figure above). integrated. Microsystems are microscopic. communicate and act. stand-alone products that can sense.What are Microsystems? Microsystems are miniaturized integrated systems in a small package or more specifically. plus scavenge for power.PK . self-aware. Some systems can do all of these things. CA] Page 11 of 22 Comparison of Scale . think. In the United States. Fremont.

motion detectors)  Environmental applications (earthquake. therapeutics)  Optical applications (digital light processing. monitoring space personnel health) Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_PK12_PG_040813 Page 12 of 22 Comparison of Scale . navigation. tire and oil pressures. digital mirror devices)  Homeland security (gas detections. switching)  Mass Storage Devices  Aerospace (leak detection. crash sensors. volcano and tsunami sensors.PK . microopticalelectromechanical systems. diagnostics. positioning. vibration sensors. airbag deployment)  Biomedical applications (drug delivery.Microsystems Applications MicroFluidic pump used for inkjet printheads (The piezoelectric crystal expands and contracts to move fluid from the reservoir through the nozzle)  Ink Jet Print Heads (see figure)  Automobile applications (flowrates. atmospheric sensors)  RF (Radio Frequency) MEMS (digital communications.

p.2nm in length." MANCEF Roadmap 2nd Edition. nanotechnology mainly consists of the processing of separation.161 (based on NNI) "The name nanotechnology originates from [the] nanometer. "on the Basic Concept of Nanotechnology. devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. in the length scale of approximately 1-100nm range. where unique phenomena enable novel applications.Nano meets Micro The smaller microsystems become the smaller their components become. Hence the overlap occurs of micro and nano devices. Eng.1-0. that how it is defined. IBM has been working on a read/write storage device that can fit 1 Terabit of data on a surface the size of a standard postage stamp. modeling. Encompassing nanoscale science. For example. engineering and technology. the cantilevers are approximately 2 microns wide while the read/write tip is approximately 10 nm wide at the apex (see figure right). nanotechnology involves imaging. not micro-size." Proc." National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI)  "Research and technology development at the atomic. Accordingly. Prod. Part II – Japan Society of Precision Engineering. MEMS Read/Write Storage Device (IBM Millipede – prototype) [Photo courtesy of IBM] Nanotechnology The term Nanotechnology is so new. Intl. Tokyo. In the IBM read/write storage devices. the expected limit size of fineness would be of the order of 1nm. Taniguchi.PK . consolidation and deformation of materials by one atom or one molecule. 6 In order to do this. depends on who you ask. accretion or flow of materials is probably of one atom or one molecule namely 0. and manipulating matter at this length scale.  Creation and use of structures. the "bit-making" component needs to be nanosize. Below are some definitions of Nanotechnology: "Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers. In the processing of materials." N. the smallest bit size of stock removal. Therefore. measuring. 1974 Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_PK12_PG_040813 Page 13 of 22 Comparison of Scale . molecular or macromolecular levels. Conf.  An ability to control or manipulate on the atomic scale.

a British chemist and physicist. Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_PK12_PG_040813 Page 14 of 22 Comparison of Scale . engineering and technology to produce novel materials and devices. and in some cases. Nanoscience is concerned with the study of novel phenomena and properties of materials that occur at extremely small length scales. centuries. a series of experiments by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase. Nanotechnology is the application of nanoscale science. In the 18th century. John Dalton. Physicists and biologists have been studying nanodevices such as cells. The flagellum is powered by the rotary engine anchor to the cell wall and powered by proton motive force. or more specifically. made the earliest steps toward recognizing that matter was composed of atoms. known as the "Hershey-Chase Blender Experiments". moving the flagellar filament at speeds as high as 1000 rpms. In 1952. nanoscience has been around for quite a long time.. molecules. and atoms for years.000 revolutions per minute.Nanoscience Structure of a bacterial flagellar motor. The rotor can rotate at speeds as high as 17. supported the role of DNA as the carrier of genetic information.PK . The flagellum is used to move the bacterium through the system. Microtechnology is studying this biomolecular devices to see if it can be manufactured and use to move cargo such as medicine to specific parts of the body.7 [Image courtesy of LadyofHats] Nanotechnology.

So what does the bottom up approach sound like? Nature or the building of a living object.  The tree continues to grow by taking individual atoms and molecules and assembling its leaves. fabrication is another primary difference between micro and nanotechnology. The figure on the left (above) shows four stages in the assembly of a quantum corral.  Anything made by specifically placing materials atom by atom or molecule by molecule. The figure on the right (above) shows the final assembly of a corral that has been made by placing 48 iron atoms in a circle. Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_PK12_PG_040813 Page 15 of 22 Comparison of Scale .PK . Nanotechnology normally uses what is referred to as the "bottom up" approach to fabrication. do not apply to nano-size objects). one at a time. onto the surface of gold.  Anything made from the bottom up (one atom at a time). Bottom up Assembling a quantum corral [Images courtesy of IBM STM Image Gallery] The bottom up approach means a structure is made by building it atom by atom or molecule by molecule from the bottom up.  The cells of a seed multiply to become a full blown tree. Each individual atom or molecule is manipulated or controlled for correct placement. Micro vs.  Anything with unique properties because of its small size (Some of the laws of physics that apply to macroscopic objects. Microtechnology normally uses the "top down" approach.So what is Nano? Nano is a lot of things:  Anything less than 100 nm in any dimension regardless of how it was made. Nanotechnology In addition to the actual size of the objects.

desk. the microcantilevers are released and suspended over the substrate (blue).  selectively etches away exposed material and  ends up with a circuit or component (as illustrated above). end up with a totem pole. and remove everything that doesn’t look like a president! Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_PK12_PG_040813 Page 16 of 22 Comparison of Scale . or any desired object. What about Mount Rushmore? How was that made? Start with a cliff. By removing the layer below (green). bird. The above graphic shows how microcantilevers (red) are initially incorporated into a block of layered material. What does the top down approach sound like? Sculpturing A sculptor can start with a tree trunk and by removing select pieces of the tree.PK .Top down Creating suspended cantilevers using the top down approach The top down approach selectively removes material until the desired structure is achieved. one  applies a pattern. In semiconductor and some MEMS processes.

DOE] Page 17 of 22 Comparison of Scale . now holds hundreds of transistors (graphic not to scale) Semiconductors have evolved over the years with technological advancements in the deposition of materials and the selective removal of materials through the photolithography and etch processes.S. patterned and subsequently etched have shrunk from more than 1 micron dimensions to less that 50 nm! Since today's semiconductor manufacturing processes are creating structures less than 100 nm. Attaching the nanotubes to the leads required the "find 'em and wire 'em" technique.] Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_PK12_PG_040813 Nanotube connectors for microelectronics [University of California – Berkeley. Image source: Office of Basic Energy Sciences. this technology can be considered Nanotechnology. U. A deposited gate oxide layer used to be 20 microns or larger. the necessity to use nanosized objects when constructing micro-sized devices increases. Take for instance the electronic electrodes shown in the figure to the right. The image on the left shows carbon nanotubes (green) linked to four electronic leads (gold). followed by lithography and etch for the electrode pattern. The carbon nanotubes were deposited onto the chip from solution and located using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Deposition layers have become thinner and etched widths have become smaller (see figure).PK . Now it can be as thin as 1 nm! Gate widths. Nano meets Micro As devices shrink. [University of California – Berkeley]8 This technique does not lend itself to high volume production! [The right graphic is an illustration of a carbon nanotube from the Southwest Center for Microsystems Education. The leads were made using a standard semiconductor technology deposition of metal by evaporation.Shrinking Technology The space of one transistor.

Examples of BioMEMS Drug delivery system using a micropump and nanosized needles Examples of BioMEMS are  Drug delivery systems with nanosize needles and microsize pumps  Diagnostics arrays that use microcantilevers and nano coatings (monolayers) to capture nanosize particles.BioMEMS One of the greatest applications for micro / nano devices is in the biomedical field.  Artificial Retina Prostheses that use an electrode microarray implanted on the retina.  Micro-sized laboratories for analyzing liquid samples such as blood. urine and sputum. Devices fabricated for the medical field are referred to as bioMEMS. The overlap between microbiology and microsystem feature sizes makes integration between the two possible.  Numerous devices used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_PK12_PG_040813 Page 18 of 22 Comparison of Scale .PK .

proteins) within a sample solution. Even though a few attograms is very small. it is enough to affect a measurable change in the oscillations of the cantilever. Matching Activity Match the following components with their scale Component 1 Strain of hair 2 A molecule 3 75 nm 4 233 mm 5 48 microns 6 Pollen A B C Scale Macro Micro Nano Table 2: Components and Their Scale Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_PK12_PG_040813 Page 19 of 22 Comparison of Scale . A one-molecule-thick layer of a sulfur-containing chemical deposited on the gold adds a mass of about 6 attograms. capture and analyze analytes (i. which is more than enough to measure. about 50 nanometers in diameter. The biosensor in the figure consists of a gold dot. about 50 nanometers in diameter. This biosensor cantilever could be used to detect and collect e-coli cells in a sample. antigens.PK . An external excitation causes the cantilever to oscillate.A Biosensor A gold dot. The cells would stick to the chemically treated layer on the gold dot adding a few attograms of mass to the cantilever.10 [Printed with permission Craighead Group/Cornell University and © Cornell University] A biosensor is a devices used to detect. A one-molecule-thick layer (monolayer) of a sulfur-containing chemical is deposited on the gold. fused to the end of a cantilever oscillator about 4 micrometers long. antibodies. This allows the concentration of e.e. coli cells in the sample to be measured. fused to the end of a cantilevered oscillator about 4 micrometers long.

the earth is small when compared to the sun. In the micro / nano-scales. Modern technologies are taking advantage of the wide range of sizes in order to improve existing processes and develop new ones. In the macro-scale.Summary Milky Way (left) [Image courtesy of NASA/JPL-Caltech] Quantum Corral of 48 iron atoms [Courtesy of IBM STM Gallery] How big is big? How small is small? It depends on the scale.PK . Distances are now measured in lengths from light years to nanometers (see pictures above). The discovery of nano-sized particles has made an already big universe even bigger. but huge compared to a baseball. Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_PK12_PG_040813 Page 20 of 22 Comparison of Scale . an 8 micron wide red blood cell is huge compared to a 2 nm diameter carbon nanotube. A macro-scale can be millions of times bigger than a microscale. The microscale is a thousand times bigger than the nanoscale.

http://astronomy.html 11. Nanoelectronics Research Group. 7.com. March 16. 2002.com/vis/stm/stm.htm 5. www.org)       Units of Weights and Measures PK Units of Weights and Measures Activity Conversion of Weights and Measures Activity Scale Activity: Cut to Size Scale Activity: The Scale of Biomolecules Scale Activity: Zoom In / Zoom Out Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_PK12_PG_040813 Page 21 of 22 Comparison of Scale . Image credits from NASA. CNM 13.utah. Feng Lui. Earth (Image credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center).html 2. “Observing the Wings of Atoms”.almaden.almaden. http://www. To see the Universe in a Grain of Taranaki Sand. University of Maryland. Nanowerks News.nasa. http://www.au/~gmackie/billions.com/ref/microtechnologies.umd.physics. by glen Mackie. Microtechnology Education Resource Center (MERC) Related SCME Units (can be downloaded from scme-nm.edu. Quantum Corral Images. Zurich. "Microtechnology".PK . Mathius Pleil.edu/condmat/mfuhrer/ntresearch. http://www. NASA/JPL-Caltech. 8.sandia.gov/od/lpa/news/03/pr03147_images. Greek Islands (NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL. what is small? References 1.htm 9. "Our Milky Way Gets a Makeover". NSF image. IBM STM Image Gallery. Image of Nanowire looped on human hair. MISR Team). 2006. http://web.micronora.htm 6.ibm. IBM Research.com/vis/stm/corral.gov: Sun and Earth(Image credit: World Book illustration by Roberta Polfus).html 3.html and http://www. http://www.html 10. 06/03/08. Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry.nsf.ibm. micro. Department of Physics. June 22. Micro to Nano – An Introduction. University of Utah News and Public Relations. Credit: Limin Tong/Harvard University. MEMS Gyroscope (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory) 4.gov 12. Silicon Atoms Image. 2003. "EU supports research towards the construction of nanomotors". Micronora.edu/news/releases/03/jun/orbitals. Milky Way Image. June 2. "Carbon Nanotube Electronics". Sun (Image credit: NASA/Transition Region & Coronal Explorer).mems. nano) – Courtesy of Sandia National Laboratories. "IBM's Millipede Project Demonstrates Trillion-Bit Data Storage Density". Image of micro-sized gears (Macro. http://www. SCME.swin.Food For Thought How have discoveries in the microscale affected the study of the universe? How have discoveries in the micro and nano-scales affected our daily lives? In today's world.gov/mission_pages/spitzer/multimedia/20080603a.

Glossary Linear Scale: A scale each increment and incremental increase is equal to the one before. Nano: A scale between 0. Support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Program.PK . Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_PK12_PG_040813 Page 22 of 22 Comparison of Scale .1 nm and 100 nm Nanometer: One billionth of a meter (10-9 meter) Nanotechnology: Technology involved with design and fabrication of devices and thin films with dimensions in the nanometer range (1E-9 m).1 μm and 100 μm Micrometer: One thousandths of a meter (10-6 meter) Micron: A unit of measurement equal to 1 milli Torr or 1 millionth of a meter. Logarithmic Scale: A scale that uses increments in powers of 10 Macroscopic: Objects greater than 100 microns or visible to the naked eye MEMS: Microelectromechanical Systems Micro: A scale between 0.

org . findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and creators. University Support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Program through Grants #DUE 0830384 and 0902411. and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. NM 87106-4346 Phone: 505-272-7150 Website: www. a National Science Foundation Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Center for Biotechnology @ www. Any opinions. Community College.Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) University of New Mexico MEMS BioMEMS Topic The Scale of Biomolecules Activity SCO This SCO is part of the Learning Modules Biomolecular Applications for bioMEMS and Scale Target audiences: High School. Copyright © by the Southwest Center for Microsystems Education and The Regents of the University of New Mexico Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) 800 Bradbury Drive SE.org.scme-nm. This Learning Module was developed in conjunction with Bio-Link.bio-link. Suite 235 Albuquerque.

Nanotechnology is the application of nanoscale science. Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_AC13_PG_040413 Page 2 of 4 The Scale of Biomolecules Activity . Encompassing nanoscale science. An understanding of the size of cells and biomolecules allows you to better understand how these components can be used within MEMS devices and as bioMEMS devices. nanotechnology involves imaging. You will identify the relationship between the sizes of different biomolecules and cells. Estimated Time to Complete Allow approximately 45 minutes to complete Introduction Nanoscience is concerned with the study of novel phenomena and properties of materials that occur at extremely small scales. " National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) BioMEMS is one of the outcomes of the merging of Nanotechnology and Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS). BioMEMS takes advantage of the properties of biomolecules to do the same work as fabricated components. where unique phenomena enable novel applications.The Scale of Biomolecules Activity Participant Guide Description and Estimated Time to Complete This activity is an exploration of the scale of biomolecules (nucleic acids. Activity Objectives and Outcomes Activity Objectives  Demonstrate your understanding of the relative size of biomolecules by creating an illustration that consists of correctly proportioned molecules joined to other molecules and cells. and lipids). carbohydrates. "Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers. and manipulating matter at this length scale. To better understand Micro and Nanotechnologies. modeling. measuring.  Describe two applications of biomolecules in MEMS. proteins. Activity Outcomes You will be become familiar with the scale of cells and biomolecules and how they are used in bioMEMS devices. engineering and technology. it is important to understand the components and the size of these components relative to each other. Biomolecules are enabling the design and fabrication of MEMS devices with components in both the micro and nanoscales. engineering and technology to produce novel materials and devices.

. Even though your graphic will be in the macroscale. Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_AC13_PG_040413 Page 3 of 4 The Scale of Biomolecules Activity . If downloaded."Relative size of Biomolecules in Nanometers". which is attached to a liposome vesicle. which is attached to a bacterium. you must maintain the correct proportion to the actual sizes of the objects. Procedure 1: Using a graphics program or a large sheet of graph paper and printed or drawn pictures. create a scaled graphic of the following:       A red blood cell attached to a spore. The actual size of each object is listed in the table Relative Size of Biomolecules in Nanometers. Procedure II: Using a graphics program or a large sheet of graph paper and printed or drawn pictures. Add a porin channel to the liposome vesicle. adjust the size of each object relative to the size given in the activity table before printing. Activity – The Scale of Biomolecules Complete one of the following two procedures using the table on the next page – Relative Size of Biomolecules in Nanometers. attached to a tobacco mosaic virus. Pictures can be drawn or downloaded from the internet. then a paper graphic can be constructed with the following supplies.000 nm long flagellum on the bacterium. Per participant or team One large sheet of graph paper Ruler Colored markers Pictures of items in the following table . Place a 10. If no such program is available. create a scaled graphic of ALL of the objects in the table (Relative Size of Biomolecules in Nanometers) illustrating relative sizes and the correct size proportions.Supplies This activity can be completed using a graphics software program such as PowerPoint.

proteins.000 6.000-8. antibodies.000-8. The nanoscale of biomolecules enables functions to be performed that were not possible a few years ago.Relative Size of Biomolecules in Nanometers Object Hydrogen atom Water molecule. and other biomolecules into a fabricated MEMS. a National Science Foundation Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Center for Biotechnology @ www. Summary It is important to understand the actual size of an object to better understand its function and application in a bioMEMS device. H2O Amino acid DNA (width) Cell membrane Ferritin iron-storage protein Bacterial S-layer Porin channel Actin filament Intermediate filament Microtubule Bacterial flagellum Tobacco mosaic virus Magnetosome crystals Liposome vesicle Pores in synthetic membrane Bacterial cell Spores Red blood cell Human hair Diameter (nm) 0.000 Post-Activity Question Briefly discuss two applications of biomolecules as a component in a MEMS or bioMEMS device.000 to 100.000 60. This Learning Module was developed in conjunction with Bio-Link. Your discussions should include the sources of your information as well as how the devices works and the function of the biomolecule within the device.5 5-9 12 5-35 4-10 5-9 10 25 12-25 18 35-150 100 (minimum) Inside diameter (nm) 8 2-8 2-3 12-15 2-3 4 85 (minimum) 200 (minimum) 250 (minimum) 1000 (maximum) 1.org. SCME Resources  Biomolecular Applications for bioMEMS Learning Module (Can be downloaded from scmenm.org.3 1 2. Select Educational Materials/BioMEMS) Support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Program.bio-link. We now have the technology to incorporate nanosize particles such as short chains of DNA. Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_AC13_PG_040413 Page 4 of 4 The Scale of Biomolecules Activity .1 0.

Any opinions. Copyright © by the Southwest Center for Microsystems Education and The Regents of the University of New Mexico Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) 800 Bradbury Drive SE.org .Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) University of New Mexico MEMS Introduction Topic Scale Activity: Zoom In / Zoom Out Shareable Content Object (SCO) This SCO is part of the Learning Module Scale Target audiences: High School. University Support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Program through Grants #DUE 0830384 and 0902411. NM 87106-4346 Phone: 505-272-7150 Website: www.scme-nm. Community College. and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and creators. Suite 235 Albuquerque.

 Calculate how much bigger (in powers of 10) one object is over another object in a different scale. micro. For example. we'll take you through the universe to our galaxy. Measurements and comparisons are constantly being made in an effort to discover something new and to move closer to how big the universe could be. to earth. In this activity you will illustrate what you've learned about the various scales by creating an illustration of an object and the various sized objects that it contains. You may also choose to go the other way and zoom out from the nano-sized object to the macro-sized object. scientists and engineers have been exploring how small things are and how small something has to be before it cannot be manipulated or measured. While astronomers have been trying to figure out how big the universe really is. you will illustrate what these scientists have found. Activity Objectives and Outcomes Activity Objective  Illustrate the relationship of scale by breaking an object into its various sized components: macro (> 100 microns). At the end of this activity you Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_AC15_PG_040413 Page 2 of 6 Zoom In / Zoom Out Activity . To get you started. nano. to man. you could start with a macro-sized object (such as a human) and slowly zoom in to its nano-sized components (like DNA). So what have these scientist found? In this activity. macro objects consist of micro and nano-sized objects. and end up somewhere inside of the human body to parts yet unknown. Introduction Exploring the universe involves the study of the objects within it as well as its composition. Activity Outcomes The outcome of this activity should illustrate your understanding of how objects are constructed from smaller objects all the way down to the nano-scale and beyond. Estimated Time to Complete You should set aside approximately 2 – 3 hours to complete this activity.Scale Activity: Zoom In / Zoom Out Activity Participant Guide Description and Estimated Time to Complete As you learned in the Scale unit and other activities.

Interactive Tutorial.html  Secret Worlds: The Universe Within. physical model. http://micro.fsu. Molecular Expressions.edu/primer/java/electronmicroscopy/magnify1/index.  A visual presentation of your illustration. and Photomicrography. http://micro.magnet. http://micro.edu/primer/java/scienceopticsu/powersof10/ Documentation Your documentation will include (but not limited to) the following items:  A discussion of each on-line tutorial and answers to questions about the tutorials. Supplies The supplies that you need for this activity is dependent upon how you choose to illustrate the assignment. Molecular Expressions.edu/index.html  Virtual Scanning Electron Microscopy. Resources  Exploring the World of Optics and Microscopy. It could be animated PowerPoint. Team You can do this activity by yourself or with one other participant.edu/primer/index.should be able to answer the following questions:  When constructing micro-sized objects.fsu.  Answers to Post-Activity Questions Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_AC15_PG_040413 Page 3 of 6 Zoom In / Zoom Out Activity .magnet.  When constructing nano-sized objects.fsu. Interactive Java Tutorial.  A short description of your project – what you are going to illustrate. or expanded drawing. would it be more logical to construct the object from the bottom up or from the top down? Be prepared to justify your answer. Molecular Expressions.fsu. manual flip animation. http://micro.magnet. Digital Imaging.magnet. Molecular Expressions. flash animation. would it be more logical to construct the object from the bottom up or from the top down? Be prepared to justify your answer.html  Introduction to Optical Microscopy.

edu/primer/java/scienceopticsu/powersof10/ and put the tutorial in the Manual Mode.fsu. Read the following instructions BEFORE going to the tutorial. Answer the following questions:  What is the first object in the micro-scale? How big is this object?  What is the first object in the nano-scale? How big is this object?  How much bigger is the "oak tree leaf" to the "cells on the leaf's surface"?  How big is an individual leaf cell?  How big is the nucleus of a carbon atom? (Use a metric prefix. d.)  How much bigger is the nucleus of a leaf cell than the nucleus of a carbon atom?  Now Zoom Out. Complete an on-line tutorial. Zoom in and out on several objects in this tutorial. 2.magnet. Description a. c. e. Complete another on-line tutorial. b.fsu. Find where the name and the size of the objects are illustrated.html b.edu/primer/java/electronmicroscopy/magnify1/in dex. what effect did the amount of light (brightness) have on the object's details? Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_AC15_PG_040413 Page 4 of 6 Zoom In / Zoom Out Activity . (Click on the "manual" button) c.Activity: Zoom In / Zoom Out Description In this activity you should demonstrate what you have learned about the various scales by creating an illustration of an object and the various sized objects that it contains. Familiarize yourself with the screen. Go to http://micro. Description a. 1. "Play" with the four slider controls and figure out what they do. Go to http://micro. Zoom In – Read what the object is and its size.magnet.  What type of analytical tool was used to capture these images?  When viewing these images.

Outline how you will present this object from the macro to nano-scale or vice versa. 5. Create your illustration. Answer the Post-Activity Questions. where were the inaccuracies?  Was this a good illustration for what you were trying to represent? If not. Description Answer the Post-Activity Questions at the end of this procedure. MP3 player c. You are welcome to use other methods. 7. why not? 6. Submit your illustration and documentation. 8. Complete your documentation as outlined in the previous Documentation Section. a. Animated PowerPoint presentation b. Description a. Layout your illustration. Description Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_AC15_PG_040413 Page 5 of 6 Zoom In / Zoom Out Activity . Expanded drawing For each step in your illustration indicate what the object is and its size. Physical model d. Here are some ideas on how to create your illustration. Flash animation c. Solicit feedback. Manual flip animation e. any animal (chicken. 4. Pick an object that you would like to create your own zoom in or zoom out. b. etc. Description Create an illustration with at least 15 steps covering three scales that carry the viewer from a nano-sized object to a macro-sized object (zoom out) or vice versa (zoom in).). piece of fruit.  What were the strengths and weaknesses?  What could have made it better?  What is accurate? If not. Description Present your illustration to your instructor and other participants of this activity. Complete your documentation. Ideas: Pencil.3. Present your illustration. cat.

and Nano PK  Scale Inquiry Activity: Cut to Size Support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Program. When constructing nano-sized objects. would it be more logical to construct the object from the bottom up or from the top down? Explain the reasoning behind your answer. 2.Post-Activity Questions 1. 3. Micro. Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Int_Scale_AC15_PG_040413 Page 6 of 6 Zoom In / Zoom Out Activity . would it be more logical to construct the object from the bottom up or from the top down? Explain the reasoning behind your answer. In your discussion identify the distinct differences between the tools in relation to "what" they can see. References  A Comparison of Scale: Macro.) Summary In this activity you continued to explore what matter is made of and how small matter can be. What type of analytical tools enable scientist to see objects in the micro and the nanoscales? (List at least three. When constructing micro-sized objects. Briefly discuss each.

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Sensors and Actuators Wheatstone Bridge (Pressure Sensor Model Kit available) MEMS Applications Overview Microcantilevers (Dynamic Cantilever Kit available) Micropumps Overview Crystallography for Microsystems (Breaking Wafers and Origami Crystal Kits available) Oxidation Overview for Microsystems (Rainbow Wafer Kit available) Deposition Overview Microsystems Photolithography Overview for Microsystems Etch Overview for Microsystems (Rainbow Wafer and Anisotropic Etch Kits available) MEMS Micromachining Overview LIGA Micromachining Simulation Activities (LIGA Simulation Kit available) Manufacturing Technology Training Center Pressure Sensor Process (Three Activity Kits available) MEMS Innovators Activity (Activity Kit available) BioMEMS Safety BioMEMS Overview BioMEMS Applications Overview DNA Overview DNA to Protein Overview Cells – The Building Blocks of Life Biomolecular Applications for bioMEMS BioMEMS Therapeutics Overview BioMEMS Diagnostics Overview Clinical Laboratory Techniques and MEMS MEMS for Environmental and Bioterrorism Applications Regulations of bioMEMS DNA Microarrays (GeneChip® Model Kit available) Hazardous Materials Material Safety Data Sheets Interpreting Chemical Labels / NFPA Chemical Lab Safety Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) MEMS Applications Revision: 5/20/11 Check our website regularly for the most recent versions of our Learning Modules. visit our website scme-nm.edu www.scme-nm. Micro. and Nano Introduction to Transducers.Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME) Learning Modules available for download @ scme-nm.org MEMS Introductory Topics MEMS Fabrication MEMS History MEMS: Making Micro Machines DVD and LM (Kit available) Units of Weights and Measures A Comparison of Scale: Macro. For more information about SCME and its Learning Modules and kits.org . Matthias Pleil at mpleil@unm.org or contact Dr.