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# 2009-11-21

Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.F…

Home
Contents
1. Objectives and
Applications >
1.1 Defining a
Problem >
1.1.1 Deciding what to
calculate
1.1.2 Defining geometry
1.1.4 Choosing physics
1.1.5 Defining material
behavior
1.1.6 A representative
problem
1.1.7 Choosing a method
of analysis
2. Governing Equations >
2.1 Deformation
measures >
2.1.1 Displacement and
Velocity
from two deformations
2.1.4 Jacobian of deformation
2.1.5 Lagrange strain
2.1.6 Eulerian strain
2.1.7 Infinitesimal Strain
2.1.8 Engineering Shear
Strain
2.1.9 Volumetric and
Deviatoric strain
2.1.10 Infinitesimal rotation
2.1.11 Principal strains
2.1.12 Cauchy-Green
deformation tensors
2.1.13 Rotation tensor,
Stretch tensors
2.1.14 Principal stretches
2.1.15 Generalized strain
measures
2.1.17 Stretch rate and spin
2.1.18 Infinitesimal
strain/rotation rate
2.1.19 Other deformation
rates
2.1.20 Strain equations of
compatibility
2.2 Internal forces >
2.2.1 Surface traction/body
force
2.2.2 Internal tractions
2.2.3 Cauchy stress
2.2.4 Kirchhoff, Nominal,
Material stress
2.2.5 Stress for
infinitesimal motions
solidmechanics.org/…/Chapter8_6…

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2009-11-21

Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.F…

2.2.6 Principal stresses
2.2.7 Hydrostatic,
Deviatoric, Von Mises stress
2.2.8 Stresses at a boundary
2.3 Equations of
motion >
2.3.1 Linear momentum
balance
2.3.2 Angular momentum
balance
2.3.3 Equations using
other stresses
2.4 Work and Virtual
Work >
2.4.1 Work done by Cauchy
stress
2.4.2 Work done by other
stresses
2.4.3 Work for
infinitesimal motions
2.4.4 Principle of
virtual work
2.4.5 Virtual work with
other stresses
2.4.6 Virtual work for
small strains
3. Constitutive Equations
>
3.1 General requirements
3.2 Linear elasticity >
3.2.1 Isotropic elastic
behavior
3.2.2 Isotropic stress-strain
laws
3.2.3 Plane stress & strain
3.2.4 Isotropic material data
3.2.5 Lame, Shear, & Bulk
modulus
3.2.6 Interpreting elastic
constants
3.2.7 Strain energy density
(isotropic)
3.2.8 Anisotropic stressstrain laws
3.2.9 Interpreting
anisotropic constants
3.2.10 Anisotropic strain
energy density
3.2.11 Basis change formulas
3.2.12 Effect of material
symmetry
3.2.13 Orthotropic materials
3.2.14 Transversely isotropic
materials
3.2.15 Transversely isotropic
data
3.2.16 Cubic materials
3.2.17 Cubic material data
3.3 Hypoelasticity
3.4 Elasticity w/ large
rotations
3.5 Hyperelasticity >
3.5.1 Deformation
measures
3.5.2 Stress measures
3.5.3 Strain energy
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2 Stress measures 3.3 Yield criteria 3. plastic resistance 3.10.3 Elastic stressstrain relations 3.4 Graphical yield surfaces 3.5 Calibrating constitutive laws 3.2 High strain rate behavior 3.2 Elastic/plastic strain decomposition 3.8.2 Stress measures 3.1 Plastic metal behavior 3.9 Large strain plasticity > 3.2 General constitutive equations 3.7 Representative properties 3.9.8.7.5 Representative high rate properties 3.2009-11-21 Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.6.11 Drucker's postulate 3.7.8.6.1 Polymer behavior 3.6 Plastic flow law 3.1 Deformation measures 3.7.8.1 Deformation measures 3.6.10.5 Energy density functions 3.5.5.org/…/Chapter8_6… 3/20 .6.3 Constitutive equations 3.6 Viscoelasticity > 3.9 Representative properties 3.3 Stress-strain energy relations solidmechanics.10.4 Prony series 3.4 Incompressible materials 3.9.5.6 Calibrating material models 3.8 Summary of stressstrain relations 3.6.6.7.7 Rate independent plasticity > 3.3 Spring-damper approximations 3.8.F… density 3.7 Unloading condition 3.5 Hardening laws 3.10 Large strain viscoelasticity > 3.5.7.9.4 Plastic stressstrain relations 3.5.1 Creep behavior 3.7.8 Viscoplasticity > 3.10 Principle of max.6 Calibrating material models 3.7 Representative properties 3.7.7.6.7.12 Microscopic perspectives 3.4 Representative creep properties 3.7.7.7.

12.6 Pressurized cylinder solidmechanics.12.1 Cohesive interface models 3.10.F… 3.4 Pressurized sphere 4.2 Constitutive laws (Cam-clay) 3.13.11 Interference fit 4.5 Elastic stressstrain relations 3.12 Crystal plasticity > 3.1 Plastic governing equations 4.3 Deformation measures 3.6 Heated spherical shell 4.12.12.5 Gravitating sphere 4.1.5 Representative properties 3.4 Strain relaxation 3.8 General axisymmetric solution 4.4 Stress measures 3.11.7 Representative properties 3.2.2.1.5 Axisymmetric equations 4.4 Representative properties 3.10.1.12.1.3 Response to 2D loading 3.4 Cyclically pressurized sphere 4.2 Features of crystal plasticity 3.10 Spinning circular disk 4.1.3 General spherical solution 4.1.2.2.11.11.1.3 Pressurized sphere 4.2 Spherically symmetric equations 4.1 Soil behavior 3.2.1 Basic crystallography 3.1 Elastic governing equations 4. Solutions to simple problems > 4.13 Surfaces and interfaces > 3.1.2 Axial/Spherical elastoplasticity > 4.6 Plastic stressstrain relations 3.org/…/Chapter8_6… 4/20 .11.12.1.9 Pressurized cylinder 4.2 Contact and friction 4.2009-11-21 Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.1 Axial/Spherical linear elasticity > 4.11 Critical state soils > 3.12.1.7 Axially symmetric equations 4.13.2.1.2 Spherically symmetric equations 4.

3.3 2D Complex variable solutions > 5.7 Reflection at an interface 4.4 End loaded cantilever 5.3.4 1D elastodynamics > 4.1.4.3.1.3 Superposition & linearity 5.1 Complex variable solution 5.5 Saint-Venants principle 5.2 Spherically symmetric equations 4.1.8 Uniform pressure on a strip 4.6 Line load parallel to surface 4.4.F… 4.4 Edge dislocation 5.4.2.4.2.1 Governing equations 4.5 Circular hole in infinite solid 5.3.2.2 Navier equation 5.5 Wave speeds in isotropic solid 4.2 Demonstration of Airy solution 5.1.3.3.6 Slit crack 5.1 Surface subjected to pressure 4.4.2 Surface under tangential loading 4.3.3 Pressurized sphere 4.1.1 General Principles > 5.4.3.8 Rigid flat punch on a surface 5.2.4.3.3 Spherical hyperelasticity > 4.4.2.7 Bimaterial interface crack 5.1 Governing equations 5.3 Line force 5.3 1-D bar 4.6 Reflection at a surface 4.org/…/Chapter8_6… 5/20 .3 Airy solution in polar coords 5.4.8 Plate impact experiment 5.2 Demonstration of CV solution 5.3.7 Pressure on a surface 4.5 Line load perpendicular to surface 5.8 Stress near a crack tip 5.4 Uniqueness & existence 5.2009-11-21 Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.3. Solutions for elastic solids > 5.1 Airy solution in rectangular coords 5.9 Parabolic punch on solidmechanics.3.4.4 Plane waves 4.2 2D Airy function solutions > 5.4.2.

4.7 Inclusion in an elastic solid 5.4.5.7 Energy methods > 5.6.4 Point force normal to surface 5.1 Governing equations 5.6.3 Demonstration of Stroh solution 5.4.3.6.12 Uniform stress state 5.5.2 Pressurized spherical cavity 5.5 Point force tangent to surface 5.13 Line load/dislocation in infinite solid 5.5.4.12 Dislocation near a surface 5.8 Spherical cavity in infinite solid 5.12 P-d relations for axisymmetric contact 5.F… a surface 5.5.5.4.6 Fundamental elasticity matrix 5.11 Frictional sliding contact 4.7.8 Barnett/Lothe & Impedance tensors 5.9 Flat cylindrical punch on surface 5.5.5 Elastic waves in waveguides 5.3.4 Love waves 5.5.5.6 Dynamic problems > 5.6.9 Properties of matrices 5.7 Orthogonality of Stroh matrices 5.5 2D Anisotropic elasticity > 5.2 Demonstration of PN potentials 5.4 Stroh matrices for cubic materials 5.4.3 Point force in infinite solid 5.1 Definition of potential solidmechanics.5 Degenerate materials 5.4.14 Line load/dislocation near a surface 5.4.6 Eshelby inclusion problem 5.10 General line contact 4.3.11 Barnett-Lothe integrals 5.org/…/Chapter8_6… 6/20 .2 Stroh solution 5.6.5.10 Basis change formulas 5.4.4.5.1 Love potentials 5.4.4 3D static problems > 5.5.10 Contact between spheres 4.1 Papkovich-Neuber potentials 5.2009-11-21 Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.5.4.5.5.11 Relations for general contacts 4.3 Rayleigh waves 5.

4 3D dislocation loops 5. Solutions for plastic solids > 6. frequencies.5 Peach-Koehler formula 5.7.3 Special elements solidmechanics.4 Energy of interacting loops 5.2.10 Rayleigh Ritz method > 5.1 Mode shapes.7.4 Variational approach to beam theory 5.9.1 Guide to FEA > 7.2.2 Bounding theorems > 6.5 Estimating stiffness 5.9 Energetics of dislocations > 5.3 Dislocation in bounded solid 5.F… energy 5.1.1.6 Lower bound shakedown theorem 6.8.1 Statement and proof of theorem 5.1.8 Reciprocal theorem > 5.2.1.2 Nonsingular dislocation theory 5.2.1 Slip-line fields > 6.2.8 Upper bound shakedown theorem 6.2.5 Examples of bounding theorems 6.1 FE mesh 7.2 Principle of min plastic dissipation 6.8.3 Examples of solutions 6.9.1 Interpreting slipline fields 6.9.8.9.1.2 Derivation of slipline fields 6.1 Definition of plastic dissipation 6.8.1 Potential energy of isolated loop 5.2.2 Natural frequency of a beam 6.3 Boundary-internal value relations 5. Rayleigh's principle 5.4 Lower bound collapse theorem 6.2 Simple example 5.2 Minimum energy theorem 5.2009-11-21 Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.9 Examples of upper bound shakedown theorem 7. Introduction to FEA > 7.2.10.10.7 Examples of lower bound shakedown theorem 6.3 Simple example of energy minimization 5. nat.3 Upper bound collapse theorem 6.1.9.2.org/…/Chapter8_6… 7/20 .7.7.2 Nodes and elements 7.

2.14 Remarks on dimensional analysis 7.13 Summary of element matrices solidmechanics.11 Units in FEA calculations 7.9 Soln procedures / time increments 7.2.1.4 Element strains & energy density 7.3 Interpolation functions 7.2.13 Scaling governing equations 7.13 Example code 8.2.1 Static linear elasticity > 8.1.5 Boundary conditions 7.2.F… 7.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.8 Extension to 2D/3D 8.2 Global displacement vector 7.1 FE mesh and connectivity 7.1.1.12 Using dimensional analysis 7.1.2.1.4 Material behavior 7.8 Global force vector 7. Theory & Implementation of FEA > 8.1.12 2D/3D integration schemes 8.1.7 Boundary loading 7.2.7 Example 1D code 8.4 Finite element equations 8.1.1.6 Global stiffness matrix 7.1.1.5 Element stiffness matrix 7.8 Initial conditions/external fields 7.5 Simple 1D implementation 8.1 Review of virtual work 8.1.7 Contacting surface/interfaces 7.2.2.3 Interpolating displacements 8.11 Solution 7.10 Output 7.2.10 Eliminating prescribed displacements 7.1.1.2 Weak form of governing equns 8.6 Summary of 1D procedure 8.2.9 2D interpolation functions 8.12 Post processing 7.6 Constraints 7.2 Simple FEA program > 7.2.1.org/…/Chapter8_6… 8/20 .11 Volume integrals 8.10 3D interpolation functions 8.9 Minimizing potential energy 7.1.2009-11-21 Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.1.

5.3.2 Weak form of governing eqns 8.5 Viscoplasticity > 8.2.2 Dynamic elasticity > 8.1 Governing equations 8.4 Newmark time integration 8.6 Example 1D code 8.2.5.2.4.2.5 Tangent moduli for hypoelastic solid 8.4 Hyperelasticity > 8.5.8 Example 2D/3D code 8.6 Evaluating boundary integrals 8.8 Example code 8.9 Example code 8.6 Summary of NewtonRaphson method 8.2.2.5.7 Convergence problems 8.6 Advanced elements > solidmechanics.9 Modal time integration 8.2.org/…/Chapter8_6… 9/20 .4.7 Convergence problems 8.4.6 Newton-Raphson solution 8.3 Finite element equations 8.8 Variations on NewtonRaphson 8.4.5 Material tangent 8.1 Governing equations 8.5 Simple 1D implementation 8.3.3 Hypoelasticity > 8.F… 8.3 Finite element equations 8.5.3.12 Example 2D/3D modal dynamic code 8.7 Lumped mass matrices 8.14 Sample 2D/3D code 8.5.2.4 Integrating the stress-strain law 8.3.3.2009-11-21 Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.5 Neo-Hookean tangent moduli 8.3.2 Weak form of governing eqns 8.1.2 Weak form of governing eqns 8.3.3 Finite element equations 8.5.4 Newton-Raphson iteration 8.2 Weak form of governing eqns 8.4.11 Example 1D modal dynamic code 8.3.1 Governing equations 8.1 Governing equations 8.3 Finite element equations 8.2.7 Example code 8.10 Natural frequencies/mode shapes 8.4.4.2.2.4.2.3.4 Newton-Raphson iteration 8.

2.1 Stress based criteria 9.2.4.4 Energy methods in fracture > 9.2.3.5 Plastic fracture mechanics > 9.1 Dugdale-Barenblatt solidmechanics.2 Cyclic loading 9.3.2 Energy based fracture criterion 9.2 Stress/strain based criteria > 9.2009-11-21 Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.6 Strain localization 9.2 Probabilistic methods 9.2.6.3.3.4.3.1 Crack tip fields 9.2.4.7 High cycle fatigue 9.1 Shear locking/incompatible modes 8.4.2.6.4.2.2 Linear elastic fracture mechanics 9.1 Definition of energy release rate 9.2 Volumetric locking/Reduced integration 8.3.3.3.6 Values of fracture toughness 9.3.1 Monotonic loading 9.3.org/…/Chapter8_6… 10/20 .4 Using FEA 9.3 G-K relations 9.8 Calculating K using J 9.3 Elastic fracture mechanics > 9.1.3 Calculating stress intensities 9.9 Static fatigue 9.9 Variable amplitude loading 9.1 Mechanisms of failure > 9.10 Cyclic fatigue 9.7 The J integral 9.5.1.5 Measuring toughness 9.6 Integral expression for G 9. Modeling Material Failure > 9.5 Calculating K with compliance 9.F… 8.4.3.5 Ductile failure criteria 9.2.4 G-compliance relation 9.11 Finding cracks 9.2.3 Static fatigue criterion 9.6.7 Stable tearing 9.4.8 Low cycle fatigue 9.4.4 Models of crushing failure 9.8 Mixed mode fracture 9.3 Incompressible materials/Hybrid elements 9.

2.6.2.1 Interface crack tip fields 9.5.2 Straight beam (small deflections) 10.org/…/Chapter8_6… 11/20 .4.2.7 Internal forces and moments solidmechanics.2.5.4.2.4 Displacement.1 Dyadic notation 10.2.2 Interface fracture mechanics 9.2 Deformable rods general > 10.4 Rod bent into a helix 10.5 Shells .5.4. velocity and acceleration 10.5.4 Solutions for rods > 10.2.8 Internal forces and moments 10.5 Deformation gradient 10.6 Interface fracture mechanics > 9.4.F… model 9.4.2 Using nonorthogonal bases 10.1 Coordinate systems 10.2.3.3 String / beam theory > 10.4 Crack path selection 10.3 Axially loaded beam 10. Beams.2.3 Deformation measures 10.1 Vibration of a straight beam 10.5.5.6 Other strain measures 10.3.11 Strain energy density 10.2 HRR crack tip fields 9.5.2.3 Post buckled shape of a rod 10.1 Characterizing the x-section 10.5 Helical spring 10.2.6.3.7 Kinematics of bent rods 10.2 Coordinate systems 10.2 Buckling under gravitational loading 10.4 Displacement and velocity 10.3 J based fracture mechanics 9.general > 10.6.3 Kinematic relations 10. Plates & Shells > 10.5.2009-11-21 Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.9 Equations of motion 10.5 Deformation gradient 10.6 Strain measures 10.3 Stress intensity factors 9. Rods.5.1 Stretched string 10.6.10 Constitutive equations 10.

1 Defining a Problem 2.4 Work and Virtual Work 3.3 Hypoelasticity 3.6.1 Circular plate bent by pressure 10.F… 10.7.7 Solutions for shells > 10.8 Gravity loaded spherical shell Vectors & Matrices Intro to tensors Index Notation Using polar coordinates Misc derivations A: B: C: D: E: Problems 1.7.2 Internal forces 2.5 Membranes in polar coordinates 10. Constitutive Equations > 3.7.4 Thin film on a substrate (Stoney eqs) 10.6 Plates and membranes > 10.2 Linear elasticity 3. Governing Equations > 2.6.2 Flat plates with inplane loading 10.5.10 Strain energy 10.8 Viscoplasticity 3.2009-11-21 Applied Mechanics of Solids (A. Objectives and Applications > 1.8 Equations of motion 10.7 Rate independent plasticity 3.1 Deformation measures 2.5.1 Flat plates (small strain) 10.5.6.1 General requirements 3.9 Constitutive relations 10.3 Equations of motion 2.3 Natural frequency of rectangular plate 10.4 Membranes 10.6 Viscoelasticity 3.4 Elasticity w/ large rotations 3.6.7.5 Hyperelasticity 3.2 Vibrating circular membrane 10.7.6.5 Buckling of heated plate 10.7.7.org/…/Chapter8_6… 12/20 .7 Twisted open walled cylinder 10.6 Cylindrical shell under axial load 10.7.3 Plates with large displacements 10.9 Large strain plasticity solidmechanics.

Modeling Material Failure > 9.6 Interface fracture mechanics 10.6 Advanced elements 9.F… 3.4 Energy methods in fracture 9. Introduction to FEA > 7. Plates & Shells > solidmechanics.org/…/Chapter8_6… 13/20 .1 Slip-line fields 6.1 General Principles 5.3 Hypoelasticity 8.7 Energy methods 5.5 Viscoplasticity 8. Beams.4 1D elastodynamics 5.4 3D static problems 5.11 Critical state soils 3.2 Stress/strain based criteria 9.2 Axial/Spherical elastoplasticity 4.5 2D Anisotropic elasticity 5.1 Axial/Spherical linear elasticity 4.3 Spherical hyperelasticity 4.2 Dynamic elasticity 8. Solutions to simple problems > 4.2 2D Airy function solutions 5.2 Bounding theorems 7. Solutions for plastic solids > 6.10 Rayleigh Ritz method 6.3 2D Complex variable solutions 5.3 Elastic fracture mechanics 9. Solutions for elastic solids > 5. Theory & Implementation of FEA > 8.10 Large strain viscoelasticity 3.2 Simple FEA program 8.9 Energetics of dislocations 5.13 Surfaces and interfaces 4.1 Guide to FEA 7.4 Hyperelasticity 8.1 Mechanisms of failure 9.6 Dynamic problems 5.12 Crystal plasticity 3.1 Static linear elasticity 8.5 Plastic fracture mechanics 9.2009-11-21 Applied Mechanics of Solids (A. Rods.8 Reciprocal theorem 5.

and the right hand end is clamped. Locking can occur in these elements if the interpolation functions for displacements and their derivatives are not consistent. Locking can occur for many different reasons.11. height 2a and out-of-plane thickness b. methods for evaluating the volume or area integrals in the principle of virtual work were discussed in Section 8. Assume that b<<a. plate and shell elements) displacements and their derivatives are interpolated separately. obtained with standard 4 noded linear solidmechanics.3 String / beam theory 10. The most common causes are (i) the governing equations you are trying to solve are poorly conditioned. so the solution converges very slowly as the mesh size is reduced. (iii) in certain element formulations (especially beam. reduced integration. and hybrid elements Techniques for interpolating the displacement field within 2D and 3D finite elements were discussed in Section 8. In this section 1.1 Dyadic notation 10. which leads to an ill conditioned system of finite element equations. In addition.1. We focus in particular on `Locking’ phenomena. The top and bottom of the beam are traction free.9 and 8. The figures below compare this result to a finite element solution. We describe a few more sophisticated elements that have been developed to solve these problems. Consider a cantilever beam.4 Solutions for rods 10.2009-11-21 Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.F… 10. (ii) the element interpolation functions are unable to approximate accurately the strain distribution in the solid.2 Deformable rods general 10.6 Plates and membranes 10.6 Advanced element formulations Incompatible modes.10. with length L. The analytical solution to this problem is given in Section 5. 2. as shown in the figure.1. We illustrate some of the unexpected difficulties that can arise in apparently perfectly well designed finite element solutions to boundary value problems.2. Finite elements are said to `lock’ if they exhibit an unphysically stiff response to deformation. 8. but there are situations where the simple element formulations can give very inaccurate results.4. the left hand end is subjected to a resultant force P. so that a state of plane stress is developed in the beam. These procedures work well for most applications.1 Shear locking and incompatible mode elements Shear locking can be illustrated by attempting to find a finite element solution to the simple boundary value problem illustrated in the picture.1.org/…/Chapter8_6… 14/20 .6.7 Solutions for shells A: Vectors & Matrices B: Intro to tensors C: Index Notation D: Using polar coordinates E: Misc derivations FEA codes Maple Matlab Report an error Chapter 8 Theory and Implementation of the Finite Element Method 8.general 10.5 Shells .

The phenomenon is known as `shear locking’ because the element interpolation functions give rise to large. which must be determined as part of the solution. because a set of unknown displacement gradient components must be calculated for each element. 4. For the thick beam. since it can be detected by refining the mesh. finite element analysts sometimes cannot resist the temptation to reduce computational cost by using elongated elements. are a set of local coordinates in the element. which must now be satisfied for all possible values of virtual nodal displacements and virtual displacement gradients . solidmechanics. The error in the finite element solution occurs because the standard 4 noded quadrilateral elements cannot accurately approximate the strain distribution associated with bending. `Incompatible Mode’ elements do this by adding an additional strain distribution to the element. and can be eliminated while computing the element stiffness matrix. by setting where are the shape functions listed in Sections 8.10. 2. which can introduce errors. The approach is conceptually straightforward: 1. however. and is the number of nodes on the element. The elements are called `incompatible’ because the strain is not required to be compatible with the displacement interpolation functions. and can be avoided by using a sufficiently fine mesh. denote the displacement values and coordinates of the nodes on the element. For the thin beam. The displacement fields in the element are interpolated using the standard scheme. However. Similarly. At first sight this procedure appears to greatly increase the size of the global stiffness matrix. giving a total mesh size of about 500 elements. its determinant. The solution would eventually converge if a large number of elements were added along the length of the beam. the finite element solution is very poor even though the mesh resolution is unchanged. Shear locking is therefore relatively benign. Results are shown for two different ratios of . However. with for both cases.2009-11-21 Applied Mechanics of Solids (A. are a set of unknown displacement gradients in the element.org/…/Chapter8_6… 15/20 .9 or 8.1. where is a variation in the internal displacement gradient field for the element. the virtual displacement gradient is written as 5. The elements would have to be roughly square. which would require about 133 elements along the length of the beam.1.F… quadrilateral plane stress elements. and its inverse are defined in the usual way 3. These expressions are then substituted into the virtual work equation. the unknown are local to each element. The Jacobian matrix for the interpolation functions. The procedure to do this can be shown most clearly in a sample code. unphysical shear strains in bent elements. Shear locking can also be avoided by using more sophisticated element interpolation functions that can accurately approximate bending. the finite element and exact solutions agree nearly perfectly. The usual expression for displacement gradient in the element is replaced by where p=2 for a 2D problem and p=3 for a 3D problem.

but the finite element solution grossly underestimates the displacements as Poisson’s ratio is increased towards 0. 1413 1449. the elements must be redesigned to avoid locking. 8. Consider a long hollow cylinder with internal radius a and external radius b as shown in the figure. The incompatible modes clearly give a spectacular improvement in the performance of the element. and F. the integration points in the element. When run with the input file shear_locking_demo. The solid is made from a linear elastic material with Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio . and some elements show very poor performance even for Poisson’s ratios as small as . 29. the finite element displacements tend to zero this is known as `volumetric locking’ The error in the finite element solution occurs because the finite element interpolation functions are unable to properly approximate a volume preserving strain field. J.2009-11-21 Applied Mechanics of Solids (A. The figures below compare the analytical solution to a finite element solution with standard 4 noded plane strain quadrilateral elements. Fortunately. Simo.3 or less. The cylinder is loaded by an internal pressure and deforms in plane strain. Finite strain versions exist but are somewhat more complicated. C..org/…/Chapter8_6… 16/20 . pp. 33. Int J. In addition. Rifai.9. Num. 1992. For further details see Simo. The dashed lines show the analytical solution.2 Volumetric locking and reduced integration elements Volumetric locking can be illustrated using a simple boundary value problem. but not all. `Reduced integration’ usually means that the element stiffness is integrated using an integration scheme that is one order less accurate than the standard scheme. while the solid line shows the FEA solution. Number of integration points for reduced integration schemes solidmechanics. Meth in Eng. Num. The number of reduced integration points for various element types is listed in the table below. all the standard fully integrated finite elements will lock in the incompressible limit. because it cannot be avoided by refining the mesh. (ii) Adding strain variables to elements can dramatically improve their performance. it is tempting to reduce the number of integration points so that the constraint can be met.. The interpolation functions can make the volumetric strain vanish at some. Results are shown for two values of Poisson’s ratio .1. 1990.6. and M. HEALTH WARNINGS: (i) The procedure outlined here only works for small-strain problems. 1595 1638. Volumetric locking is a much more serious problem than shear locking.12. a nonzero volumetric strain at any of the integration points gives rise to a very large contribution to the virtual power.1. or to solve problems involving large plastic strains.F… A sample small-strain. The analytical solution to this problem is given in Section 4. most materials have Poisson’s ratios around 0. S. Reduced Integration is the simplest way to avoid locking. pp.mws. In the incompressible limit. C. J. The two solutions agree well for .5 (recall that the material is incompressible in the limit ). so the standard elements can be used for most linear elasticity and small-strain plasticity problems. linear elastic code with incompatible mode elements is provided in Femlinelast_incompatible_modes. Int J. The coordinates of the integration points are listed in the tables in Section 8. In this limit. Meth in Eng. but this procedure must be used with great care to ensure that the strain and displacement degrees of freedom are independent variables.. Armero.txt it produces the results shown in the figure. The basic idea is simple: since the fully integrated elements cannot make the strain field volume preserving at all the integration points. To model rubbers.

The procedure is illustrated most clearly by modifying the formulation for static linear elasticity. The ‘B-bar’ method: Like selective reduced integration. The procedure starts with the usual virtual work principle solidmechanics. Instead of separating the volume integral into two parts. the B-bar method modifies the definition of the strain in the element. Selective reduced integration has been implemented in the sample program fem_selective_reduced_integration. Selectively Reduced Integration can be used to cure hourglassing. the first volume integral is evaluated using the full integration scheme. Here. the analytical and finite element results are indistinguishable. and even improves the accuracy of the element. Substituting the linear elastic constitutive equation and the finite element interpolation functions into the virtual work principle. When this code is run with the input file volumetric_locking_demo. The analytical and finite element solutions agree. 3. Remarkably. To implement the method: 1. Reduced integration does not work in 4 noded quadrilateral elements or 8 noded brick elements. and there are no signs of hourglassing. As an example. This phenomenon is known as `hourglassing’ because of the characteristic shape of the spurious deformation mode. although in desperation you can a few such elements in regions where the solid cannot be meshed using quadrilaterals. using both full and reduced integration for 8 noded quadrilaterals. the figure below shows the solution to the pressurized cylinder problem. however.F… Linear tetrahedron (4 nodes): 1 point Quadratic tetrahedron (10 nodes): 4 points Linear brick (8 nodes): 1 point Quadratic brick (20 nodes): 8 points HEALTH WARNING: Notice that the integration order cannot be reduced for the linear triangular and tetrahedral elements these elements should not be used to model near incompressible materials. For example. the figure on the right shows the solution to the pressure vessel problem with linear (4 noded) quadrilateral elements with reduced integration.org/…/Chapter8_6… 17/20 . Here. The volume integral in the virtual work principle is separated into a deviatoric and volumetric part by writing 2. we find that the element stiffness matrix can be reduced to When selectively reduced integration is used.txt it produces the results shown in the figure. In many commercial codes. the second integral is evaluated using reduced integration points. The solution is clearly a disaster. With reduced integration. we will illustrate the method by applying it to small-strain linear elasticity. reduced integration completely resolves locking in some elements (the quadratic quadrilateral and brick). Its main advantage is that the concept can easily be generalized to finite strain problems. the B-bar method works by treating the volumetric and deviatoric parts of the stiffness matrix separately.2009-11-21 Applied Mechanics Linear triangle (3 nodes) 1 point Quadratic triangle (6 nodes): 3 points Linear quadrilateral (4 nodes): 1 point Quadratic quadrilateral (8 nodes): 4 points of Solids (A.mws. The error occurs because the stiffness matrix is nearly singular the system of equations includes a weakly constrained deformation mode. the first integral on the right hand side vanishes for a hydrostatic stress. the `fully integrated’ elements actually use selective reduced integration.

2009-11-21 Applied Mechanics of Solids (A. The virtual work principle is then written in terms of and as Finally. Only the final result will be given here for details see D. full integration scheme.txt it produces the results shown in the picture. and the hourglass resistance. Hourglassing has clearly been satisfactorily eliminated. where the low stiffness of the hourglass modes can introduce spurious low frequency vibration modes and low wave speeds. where denotes the number of nodes on the element. 17.txt. Taking works well for most applications. If is a numerical parameter that controls the stiffness of where is the elastic shear modulus is too large. The strain variation in each element is replaced by the approximation 3. 679 706. but with a modified element stiffness matrix given by This expression can be integrated using a standard.mws.P. Calculate the `hourglass shape vectors’ for each mode as follows 3. When run with the input file volumetric_locking_demo. Belytschko. Run the code for yourself to verify that the analytical and finite element solutions agree. Num Meth in Engineering. The code can be run with the input file volumetric_locking_demo. The B-bar method has been implemented in the sample code FEM_Bbar. To compute the corrective term: 1. The stiffness must Linear brick be carefully chosen so as to influence only the hourglass mode. Sample code: Reduced integration with hourglass control has been implemented in the sample code Fem_hourglasscontrol. pp. introducing the finite element interpolation and using the constitutive equation yields the usual system of linear finite element equations. We introduce a new variable to characterize the volumetric strain in the elements. Define 2. The modified stiffness matrix for the element is written as where denotes the volume of the element. HEALTH WARNING: Hourglass control is not completely effective: it can fail for finite strain problems and can also cause problems in a dynamic analysis. 2. Hourglass base vectors Reduced integration with hourglass control: Linear quadrilateral Hourglassing in 4 noded quadrilateral and 8 noded brick elements can also be cured by adding an artificial stiffness to the element that acts to constrain the hourglass mode. and there are no signs of hourglassing. The 4 noded quadrilateral element has only one hourglass mode. solidmechanics.mws. listed in the table. the virtual strain in each element is replaced by This means that the volumetric strain in the element is everywhere equal to its mean value. Similarly. it will seriously over-stiffen the solid.org/…/Chapter8_6… 18/20 .F… In the B-bar method 1. the 8 noded brick has 4 modes. Flanagan and T. (1981). International J. Define a series of `hourglass base vectors’ which specify the displacements of the ath node in the ith hourglass mode. where the integral is taken over the volume of the element.

3. it must also be interpolated.6.3 Hybrid elements for modeling near-incompressible materials The bulk elastic modulus is infinite for a fully incompressible material. 3. For an isotropic. The procedure is illustrated most easily using isotropic linear elasticity. The pressure is defined by its value at the centroid of each element.10 as 2.F… 8. Since the pressure is now an independent variable. while the hydrostatic stress is . using the standard interpolation functions defined in Sections 8. Hybrid elements are based on a modified version of the principle of virtual work. The modified virtual work principle states that. 10 noded tetrahedron or 20 b. is the hydrostatic stress. is an arbitrary change in these pressure variables. the stress field will satisfy the equilibrium equations and traction boundary conditions. linear elastic solid with shear modulus and Poisson ratio the deviatoric stress is related to the displacement field by . 1. but in practice hybrid elements are usually used to simulate rubbers or metals subjected to large plastic strains. are a set of interpolation functions for the pressure. determined from the displacement field. 4. 5. and interpolated using the standard linear interpolation functions.9 and 8. virtual displacement field and position in the each element are interpolated 1. Its value can be defined by the pressure at the corners of each element. as follows.org/…/Chapter8_6… and pressures of are obtained by summing the following element stiffness 19/20 . so that small rounding errors during the computation result in large errors in the solution. 8 noded quadrilateral. 4 noded quadrilateral. The finite element equations are derived in the usual way The displacement field. This behavior can cause the stiffness matrix for a nearly incompressible material to become ill-conditioned. 4. so that independent pressure variables can be added to each element. and the pressure variable p will be equal to the hydrostatic stress in the solid. which must be computed at the same time as the displacement field. where is the bulk modulus. and the interpolation functions are constant. The pressure need not be continuous across neighboring elements. is the bulk modulus of the solid.1. again determined from the displacement field. p is an additional degree of freedom that represents the (unknown) hydrostatic stress in the solid. 5 noded tetrahedron or 8 noded brick) the pressure is constant.1. We write where are a discrete set of pressure variables. In linear elements (the 3 noded triangle. and is the number of pressure variables associated with the element. if the virtual work equation is satisfied for all kinematically admissible variations in displacement and strain and all possible variations in pressure . The following schemes are usually used a. The virtual work equation (for small strains) is re-written as Here is the deviatoric stress. Hybrid elements are designed to avoid this problem.2009-11-21 Applied Mechanics of Solids (A. 2. Substituting the linear elastic equations and the finite element interpolation functions into the virtual work principle leads to a system of equations for the unknown displacements the form where the global stiffness matrices matrices solidmechanics. noded brick) the pressure varies linearly in the element. This allows the stiff terms to be removed from the system of finite element equations. which leads to an infinite stiffness matrix in the standard finite element formulation (even if reduced integration is used to avoid locking). In quadratic elements (6 noded triangle. They work by including the hydrostatic stress distribution as an additional unknown variable. is an arbitrary variation in the hydrostatic stress.

Note that. You may extract parts of the text for non-commercial purposes provided that the source is cited. hybrid elements increase the cost of storing and solving the system of equations.org/…/Chapter8_6… 20/20 .2009-11-21 Applied Mechanics of Solids (A. although the pressure variables are local to the elements. Consequently. solidmechanics. nonhybrid form. Please respect the authors copyright.F… and the force F is defined in the usual way. 5. The remaining integrals must be evaluated using reduced integration to avoid element locking. 2008 This site is made freely available for educational purposes.F. since doing so would reduce the element stiffness matrix to the usual. they cannot be eliminated from the element stiffness matrix. (c) A. Bower. The integrals defining may be evaluated using the full integration scheme or reduced integration (hourglass control may be required in this case).