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SLASH CHORDS

Here’s an example of a basic slash chord notation:

D Phryg.mp3 D Phrygian Slash Chord
This is a nifty way to write a phrygian sound, a major triad one half-step above the
bass, or b2/1. If you were to write the chord symbol as, for example, “D Phryg”, you
would get several different interpretations of how D Phrygian would sound.
However, if you write the specific slash chord, you are assured the sound you want.
This method also helps analysis of complicated classical pieces, especially those
written after the mid 1800’s when harmony was beginning to stray from the normal
voice-leading rules. Slash chords are also useful for writing different pedal points,
and can help solidify a harmonic idea based around a pedal.
A final note about slash chords: It’s always nice to be able to think about harmony
several different ways. This helps you to expand the way you look at things
musically, which always leads to unique and interesting ideas.
For example, you can write a Cmin9 chord this way:

Now, think of changing the upper structure only slightly to create a different chord.
Try to separate the concept of a Cmin9 from an Ebmaj7/C. What about
Ebmaj7(#11)/C?

you can always go back and analyze what you’ve done later. etc.See more at: http://blog-archive. As another example. this is a much more compact way of showing which inversion a chord is arranged in. using slash chord notation.You can use this concept for creating some truly hip sounding chords.dpuf Slash Chord Notation Often a composer or arranger of sheet music will want to specify which inversion of a chord should be used in a particular place.aBhXpj06. it is usually easier for players to see exactly which note their chord should start on. As you can see. first inversion. . the chord sequence of the previous topic has been rewritten below. If no bass note is specified. In other words. rather than having to work it out from an inversion number. the term Cmaj/G means the Cmaj chord with G as the bass note. one of the notes which is already part of the chord.com/2010/03/7915-advanced-musictheory-lesson-4-slash-chords-and-poly-chords/#sthash. allowing you to specify not just the chord. This sounds obvious. . but also the inversionyou want to use. Instead. the long-hand terms of root position. ChordWizard products support the use of slash chord notation wherever appropriate. and yet you will occasionally come across a chord expressed something like Dmaj/B. can be quite clumsy. First just experiment.indabamusic. you should only specify. Here again are the inversions of C7 shown in the previous topic. In these cases. after the slash. Also. For example. the root position (or the player's choice of inversion) is assumed.slash chord notation is used to indicate which note is the bass note in the inversion. the notes are arranged in the order G-C-E. In general. this time expressed in slash chord notation.

They create a feeling of stability and familiarity. Others might say it is to take the listener on a journey. Country. Harmony is embodied in chords through the combining of different notes. Sometimes arrangers have a particular reason for writing slash chords in this way. This hero’s journey exists in every chord progression of every piece of music. Classical. with an additional B note below it. When you understand what types of chords there are and how they function. Chord Type Written by Tom Michero Many musicians will say the purpose of music is to stir human emotion. In the end. This change is movement – a movement that music is very good at creating and harmony is one of the elements of music that creates this movement. Every genre of music does this – Rap. in this case D6 (=D+F#+A+B). Your brain actually understands this even if you’ve never had a music lesson in your life. Pop. But in general. and the expression Dmaj/B is simply telling you to play the Dmaj chord in root position. There are chords that establish a harmonic home base. “I got this.In this case. Jazz. you do so because you want to experience a mood other than the one you have without it. There is a pattern of experience that is uniquely human. it is better to name the total chord clearly and accurately to avoid these hidden adjustments Chord Function vs. You are voluntarily allowing yourself to be moved from one feeling to another. When you hear these chords. B is not one of the notes of Dmaj (=D+F#+A). It is known as the “dramatic arc” or the “hero’s journey. It is what all drama and storytelling is based on. Everything’s OK. because adding a B to the Dmaj chord changes it into a different chord. Whenever you turn on your mp3 player. your brain goes. In its simplest form there is a period of stability that soon becomes disrupted. perhaps to emphasize the essential Dmaj sound of the music if B is a transient passing note.” Everything from “Star Wars” to “Othello” is based on it. This form of use has the problem of being misleading. you will understand how to write music that stirs emotions.” . a heightened moment of tension occurs and an event happens that saves the day and returns everything to stability. These may sound like the lofty utterances of a pinhead music teacher but it is true. So a more accurate expression of the same thing would be D6/B. This disruption leads to uncertainty.

Noticing change is so important to house flies that they only see thing that move because if it doesn’t move. This feeling of finding stability is so great that we often let ourselves experience the tension just so we can experience the release. The arrangement of chords of a song work to move the listener to a different emotional state. “Hey. and stability can be created by scale chords.There are other chords that a composer will introduce that challenge the status quo. fast driving. For example. Each chord within a scales has a roll to play in giving a song a feeling of movement. chords based on the first note of the Major scale are Tonic. . (see diagram below). tension. In fact. This sound creates a tension in the cat that is relieved by her finding shelter. Third note – Mediant. etc. and sex. Change gets our attention. change. Harmonic movement mirrors emotional movement. Finally. wait. This cycle of stability. each note of a scale produces a chord with a different functional name. Think bungie jumping. Instinct drives us to find ease and stability whenever we encounter tension and that is exactly what some chords create in us when we hear them. the thing that really gets us going are the real threats to our existence. Chords based on the second note of the scale are Dorian. That’s different. It’s a thing that’s hardwired into us. Your brain goes.” The change is a cue to the nervous system to take notice. The sound of a dog barking will send a cat racing from the backyard through the cat door in an instant. This is an evolutionary trait that we inherited from our ancestors whose lives depended on how well they could detect movement in the bushes. They introduce something new into the mix that catches the attention of the listener. it’s not a threat.

For instance. not its function. These chords are grouped according to how much they contribute to a key’s stability. change. The diagram above shows chords of the C Major scale. or the five chord (V). and dominant. I could have added more notes to these chords and their functional names would not change. I’ll explain this in a little while. Most of these chords I am showing are triad chords (chords with three notes). The term “key” is another way to refer to the scale as a whole. It would be a dominant chord still if it was made up of only three notes (G. You will hear musicians talk about the one chord (I). those functions are almost always reduced to three groups. The functional names listed on the right side of the diagram above also have a Roman numeral next to them. they are more commonly referred to by their Roman numeral.B. The fourth note added here changes the type of chord this is. change. The key of C Major is made up of notes of the C Major scale. and tension. they are said to be diatonic to the key of C Major. subdominant. The term “diatonic” means that the chords belongs to the key.D). Because all of the chords are based on the C Major scale. and tension. . These symbols are often used to indicate a chord’s harmonic function. Now back to stability. If fact.Chords can be constructed based on each note of a scale. Even though each scale has seven functional categories in which to group chords. Referring to chords this ways allows you to talk about the chords of a song without having to spell out its notes. tonic. the fifth note of the Major scale produces a chord with the functional name known as dominant.

Amin. All chord progressions do this to some degree. Cmaj. In this key it creates a feeling of stability. Gmaj) appear in each scale. Bmin. C Major is the tonic chord in the key of C Major. Bdim. then to the dominant (tension). The G Major scale produces these chord: Gmaj. Same chord. A chord’s function is a relative thing. different function and feeling. Amin. However. Fmaj. Gmaj. and returning to the tonic. in the key of G Major the C Major chord is a sub-dominant chord which creates a feeling of change. their functions are different. Emin.Chords are arranged into functional groups based on their ability to move the harmony of a song. Amin. Emin. Dmaj. The chords work differently in these keys because of the other chords that are around them. Chord progressions choose chords from different functional groups to create harmonic and emotional movement. F#dim. Emin. Most chord progressions are the result of choosing a chord or two from one functional group then switching to one or two of another. Though four of the same chords (Cmaj. Dmin. The C Major scale gives rise to these triads: Cmaj. . Musical phrases are ended by moving from tension producing chords (dominant) to chords with a feeling of stability chords (tonic). to the sub-dominant (change). In both of these chord progressions above we the harmony moving from the tonic (stability).

Earlier I said that chords could be formed using each note of the scale as a root note of the chord. include C. That means a triad chord of the key of C Major that starts on F will skip G. . skip D. Chord functions stay the same relative to the first note of the scale even though the notes are different. you make chords by picking every other note of the scale starting from your root note. You can add more notes to this chord by way of the same process. Basically. Now I will explain how chords are actually formed. That is. This process of creating chords that belong to a scale is called harmonization. To harmonize a scale into its various chords you take each note of that scale and choose note by counting up the scale. include A. include E.The pattern for constructing chords from scales is the same for all scales. skip B.

. A chord’s type should not be confused with its function. This process creates chords whose notes are separated by the interval of a major or minor third*. Chord type refers to a chords construction. augmented. A chord’s function has to do with it’s position in the scale. This formula for chord creation in the key of C Major produces the chords below. These intervals are what create the different types of chords. (Augmented and suspended chords are special cases and will not be dealt with here). Some notes are separated by two whole steps (four semi-tones). Chord types can be group into these categories: major. diminished. In fact. Some notes are separated by oneand-half steps (three semi-tones). suspended. except for dominant chord types you really cannot be sure of a chord’s function without knowing what key it occurs in. some of those players play different positions when they change teams. not necessarily its function. minor. How these intervals are arranged in the chord determines what type of chord it is. A chord’s type can be understood apart from its function or what scale it might belong to. Like a football team each chord has a position to play and like football.Chords can be constructed by adding notes that are a minor and major third apart. dominant. In the diagram above you will notice that the spacing between the notes differs but in a regular way.

we get a G major chord. These will be topics of future postings. A chord’s function depends on other chords around it.Regarding the term “dominant. The confusion arises because the word “dominant” can be applied to function as well as type of chord. There’s more to come.” some confusion occurs around this chord that is based on the fifth note of a scale. Still. 9. and minor. here is an easy way to think of chord function and chord type: Chord function deals with what a chord does. I don’t need to tell you to stay tune! . While this is true. Finally. chord type deal with how a chord is made. In the key of C this note is G. melody. Since it based on the fifth note of the scale. G7. harmony is only one of the elements you can use to engage and move the feelings of listeners. but for now since you are a musician. This discussion should give you an understanding of how chords work to influence feelings and how those chords are construction and arranged in songs. The other elements are rhythm. A basic dominant chord type is made up of four notes with stacked intervals of major. A chord function deals with what roll it plays in the harmonic movement of a song. dynamics. or 13 after it. D7#9. 11. This knowledge will help you understand why a particular chord appears in a piece of music you are playing. etc. minor. It will also give you a framework for adding harmony to your own compositions. On the other hand. If we make a triad based on this note. The dominant chord type will usually have a 7. it is often called a dominant chord. it is more accurate to call it a major chord functioning as a dominant. for instance. C9. chord type deals with the relationship the notes of a chord have with each other independent of surrounding chords. and timber.

In music theory. 10}. a dominant seventh chord. it is denoted by adding a superscript "7" after the letter designating the chord root.[1] The dominant seventh is found almost as often as thedominant triad. 4.[2] In Roman numerals it is represented as V7. / Complement 4-27 / 8-27 .Dominant seventh chord From Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia Dominant seventh chord on C: C7 Play (help·info). perfect fifth. and minor seventh. 7. major third.[a] is a chord composed of a root. dominant seventh chord Component intervals fromroot minor seventh perfect fifth major third root Tuning 20:25:30:36[3] Forte no. It can be also viewed as a major triad with an additional minor seventh. or major minor seventh chord. The chord can be represented by the integer notation {0. When using popular-music symbols.

The note F is a minor seventh from G. (1965: 35)[5] . E. and it is also called the dominant seventh with respect to G. The name comes from the fact that it occurs naturally in the seventh chord built upon the dominant (i.Of all the seventh chords. D. G. C): The note G is the dominant degree of C major—its fifth note. The dominant seventh is. in fact. A. Play (help·info) Tritone resolution in Beethoven'sPiano Sonata in B-flat major. Take for example the C major scale (C. When we arrange the notes of the C major scale in ascending pitch and use only these notes to build a seventh chord. and we start with G (not C). to our ears. . the central propulsive force in our music. It was the first seventh chord to appear regularly inclassical music.. almost inescapably compelling.[4] Play (help·info) The function of the dominant seventh chord is to drive to or resolve to the tonic note or chord. Op. then the resulting chord contains the four notes G–B–D–F and is called G dominant seventh (G7). —Goldman. the fifth degree) of a given major diatonic scale. F. B. the demand of the V7 for resolution is.. 22 (1800). it is unambiguous and unequivocal. perhaps the most important is the dominant seventh. Function[edit] Dominant seventh resolving to tonic in C major (V -I)..e.

[5] This. F. the Beatles' "I Saw Her Standing There". for example Bill Haley and the Comets' "Rock Around The Clock" and Buster Brown's "Fanny Mae".[8]See: Twelve-bar blues.. Because of this original usage. or root note. The tritone is created by the co-occurrence of the third degree and seventh degree (e.g. is the leading tone of the key of C). four-part harmony Play (help·info). and V. "almost always. Dominant seventh in circle progression in Charlie Parker's "Au Privave" (1956).S. Chromatic seventh[edit] V of V in C. "retrospective. in combination with the strength of root movement by fifth. The major triad confers a very "strong" sound. the third of G7. The seventh of the chord acts as an upper leading-tone to the third of the scale (in C: the seventh of G 7. of the key (e.[7] Chuck Berry's "Rock And Roll Music" uses the dominant seventh on I. or extensions. it also quickly became an easy way to trick the listener's ear with a deceptive cadence.. with the tonic most often being a major triad.g.This basic dominant seventh chord is useful to composers because it contains both a major triad and the interval of a tritone. the third of the chord is the leadingtone of the scale. while in Chuck Berry's "Back in the U.A. and the natural resolution of the dominant triad to the tonic triad (e.g. from GBD to CEG in the key of C major). Jim Croce's "You Don't Mess Around With Jim". which has a strong tendency to pull towards the tonal center. B.[6] Play (help·info) In rock and popular music songs following. Nilsson's "Coconut".[7] Used mostly in the first fifteen years of the rock era and now sounding somewhat. creates a resolution with which to end a piece or a section of a piece. in the G 7chord. is a half-step above and leads down to E). the acoustic distance between B and F is a tritone). "the blues harmonic pattern. IV. The dominant seventh may work as part of a circle progression.. preceded by the supertonic. . and the Drifters' "On Broadway"." IV and V are." (Oasis' "Roll With It") other examples of tonic dominant seventh chords include Little Richard's "Lucille"." and Loggins and Messina's "Your Mama Don't Dance" the tonic is also a major minor seventh. in C." major minor seventh chords. In a diatonic context.

a septimal quarter tone lower than B♭. and substitute dominant (♭V7/V) chords. found on I. which is one possible just tuning. This technique is extremely common. in the ratios 4:5:6:7[10] 20:25:30:36 scales. The dominant seventh is frequently used to approximate a Harmonic seventh chord. German sixth[edit] German sixth and equivalent dominant seventh Play (help·info). The dominant seventh is enharmonically equivalent to the German sixth. extended dominant (V/V/V). [11] History[edit] Play (help·info). can allow the composer tomodulate to that other key. and has led to further innovative uses of the dominant seventh chord such as secondary dominant (V7/V). Others include Play (help·info). which is borrowed from another key. causing the chords to be spelled enharmonically. the most important use of the dominant seventh chord in musical composition is the way that the introduction of a non-diatonic dominant seventh chord (sometimes called a chromatic seventh). for the dominant seventh. found on V.[9] Harmonic seventh[edit] Just harmonic seventh chord on C Play just (help·info).However. particularly since the classical period. 7th: 968. and 36:45:54:64. used in 5-limit just tunings and .826 cents. for example the German sixth G♭–B♭–D♭–E and the dominant seventh F♯– A♯–C♯–E.

[12] Play (help·info) Dominant seventh in Beethoven's Fifth Symphony (1804–08). last movement.[12] Dominant sevenths in Chopin's Mazurka in F Minor (1849). m. Lamento d'Arianna(1608).Dominant seventh (in blue) handled conservatively. The V7 was in constant use during the classical period. leading to the waning of functional use in the post-romantic and impressionistic periods including more dissonant dominant chords through higher extensions and lessened use of the major-minor chord's dominant function. clearly indicating its dissonant status. 68. "however. 1-4: "the seventh factor had by this time [Romantic Period (1825—1900)] achieved nearly consonant status. "prepared and resolved as a suspension. op. 4." in the Baroque Period (1600–1750) and Monteverdi's "Lasciatemi Morire". with similar treatment to that of the baroque." [12] Play (help·info) . certain dissonant sonorities suggest that the dominant seventh chord occurred with some frequency. In the romantic period freer voice-leading was gradually developed.[13] Play (help·info) Renaissance composers decided in terms of intervals rather than chords." [this quote needs a citation] Monteverdi (usually credited as the first to use the V7 chord without preparation[14]) and other early baroque composers begin to treat the V7 as a chord as part of the introduction of functional harmony. 20th century music either consciously used functional harmony or was entirely free of V 7 chords while jazz and popular musics continued to use functional harmony including V 7 chords. no.

. Play (help·info). As barbershop singers strive to harmonize in just intonation to maximize the audibility of harmonic overtones. eligible for use in competitions). "'The dissonance is always passing. the practical sonority of the chord tends to be that of an harmonic seventh chord. in C Dominant seventh tritone resolution in C Play (help·info). Voice leading[edit] Dominant seventh with root doubled and missing fifth resolving to I.e. not just the dominant) for 35 to 60 percent of its duration to be considered "true barbershop" (i.However. the dominant seventh chord enjoys particular prominence in the music of barbershop quartets. This chord type has become so ingrained into the fabric of the artform that it is often referred to as the "barbershop seventh chord" by those who practice it. with the Barbershop Harmony Society specifying that a song must use the chord type (built on any scale degree. never a chord member (Zusammenklang).. according to Schenker.'"[15] and often (though by no means always) the voice leadingsuggests either a passing note: 8 7 3 5 5 1 or resolution of a (hypothetical) suspension: (8) 7 3 (4) 5 1 Today.

played on guitar in open position Play (help·info). whereas the subdominant resolves to the mediant. . and the subdominant resolves to the mediant. Play (help·info) and as a barre chord Play (help·info). Dominant seventh and incomplete dominant seventh in C major: G7 and b o chords Dominant seventh chord on C. For common practice voice leading. the dominant.  In the other resolutions. or "strict resolution" of the dominant seventh chord:[16]  In the V7–I resolution. leading note. root of tonic chord tripled Play (help·info). the leading note and supertonic resolve to the tonic.Dominant seventh tritone resolution in C. and supertonic resolve to the tonic. the dominant remains stationary.

resolves to the root of the I. [16][17][18]  The d5 resolves inwards and the A4 resolves outwards. All four tones may be present. meaning that the seventh resolves stepwise downwards[17][18] while the third resolves (stepwise upwards) to the tonic[16] though in such cases the root of the tonic chord may need to be tripled. with a missing fifth. in the bass. [17]  The root of the V7. the doubled root remains stationary. when in the bass. though the root may be doubled and the fifth omitted.[16]  In an incomplete V7.[16]  The "free resolution of the seventh" features the seventh in an inner voice moving stepwise upwards to the fifth of I[16] Tuning[edit] Chord Notation Seventh Ratios Tonic seventh chord C E G B♭ Minor seventh 20:25:30:36[3][11] Harmonic seventh chord GBDF + Harmonic seventh 4:5:6:7[10] German sixth chord A♭ C E♭ G ♭ Harmonic seventh 4:5:6:7 Dominant seventh chord GBDF Pythagorean minor seventh 36:45:54:64[11] Dominant seventh chord table[edit] Chord C7 Root C Major Third E Perfect Fifth G Minor Seventh B♭ .

C♯7 C♯ E♯ (F) G♯ B D♭7 D♭ F A♭ C♭ (B) D7 D F♯ A C D♯7 D♯ F (G) A♯ C♯ E♭7 E♭ G B♭ D♭ E7 E G♯ B D F7 F A C E♭ F♯7 F♯ A♯ C♯ E G♭7 G♭ B♭ D♭ F♭ (E) G7 G B D F G♯7 G♯ B♯ (C) D♯ F♯ A♭7 A♭ C E♭ G♭ A7 A C♯ E G A♯7 A♯ C (D) E♯ (F) G♯ .

B♭7 B♭ D F A♭ B7 B D♯ F♯ A ..