Front Cover Vehicle Illustrations: Top Section, Left to Right: Chevy Silverado - stamped facebar, 50XLF steel P/T Cruiser

- stamped reinforcing beam, 120XF steel Honda Odyssey - roll formed reinforcing beam, 140T steel Lincoln Navigator - stamped reinforcing beam, 80XLF steel Bottom Section, Left to Right: Dodge Durango - stamped reinforcing beam, 50 XLF steel Ford Mustang - roll formed reinforcing beam, M190HT steel Ford F-150 - stamped facebar, 50XLF steel Jeep Wrangler - roll formed facebar, 120XF steel

Steel Bumper Systems for Passenger Cars and Light Trucks

Revision Number Three June 30, 2006

American Iron and Steel Institute

Copyright © American Iron and Steel Institute This publication is for general information only. The information in it should not be used without first securing competent advice with respect to its suitability for any given application. The publication of the information is not intended as a representation or warranty on the part of American Iron and Steel Institute - or any other person named herein - that the information is suitable for any general or particular use or freedom from infringement of any patent or patents. Anyone making use of the information assumes all liability from such use. First Edition, June 1998 First Revision, March 15, 2001 Second Revision, February 15, 2003 Third Revision, June 30, 2006

Contents
Contents Figures Tables Preface Introduction Objective i vi vii ix x xiii

1. Bumper systems and components
1.1 Bumper systems
1.1.1 System selection 1.1.2 Metal facebar system 1.1.3 Plastic fascia and reinforcing beam system 1.1.4 Plastic fascia, reinforcing beam and energy absorption system

1-1

1.2 Bumper components
1.2.1 Fascia 1.2.2 Energy absorbers 1.2.3 Facebar 1.2.4 Reinforcing beam

1-3

2. Steel materials
2.1 Introduction 2.2 Typical properties of steel grades for facebars 2.3 Typical properties of steel grades for brackets, supports, and reinforcing beams 2.4 Elongation versus as-shipped (steel mill) yield strength 2.5 Elongation versus after-fabrication yield strength 2.6 Yield strength versus strain rate 2.7 Sheet steel descriptors 2.8 SAE J2329 Low-carbon sheet steel
2.8.1 Steel grade 2.8.2 Types of cold rolled sheet 2.8.3 Types of hot rolled sheet

2-1 2-1 2-2 2-2 2-5 2-5 2-9 2-11 2-12

2.9 SAE J2340 Dent resistant, high-strength and ultra high-strength sheet steel
2.9.1 Steel grade 2.9.2 Steel type 2.9.3 Hot rolled, cold reduced and metallic coated sheet 2.9.4 Surface conditions for cold reduced and metallic coated sheet 2.9.5 Conditions for hot rolled sheet

2-13

i

Contents

2.10 SAE J1562 Zinc and zinc-alloy coated sheet steel
2.10.1 Galvanizing processes 2.10.2 Types of coatings 2.10.3 Coating mass 2.10.4 Surface quality 2.10.5 Coated sheet thickness 2.10.6 Coating designations

2-15

2.11 SAE J403 Carbon steel chemical compositions
2.11.1 Carbon sheet steel 2.11.2 Boron sheet steel

2-17

2.12 SAE J405 Wrought stainless steels 2.13 SAE Specification and ordering descriptions 2.14 ASTM A463 Aluminized Sheet Steel

2-18 2-19 2-21

3. Manufacturing processes
3.1 Stamping
3.1.1 Stretching 3.1.2 Drawing 3.1.3 Bending 3.1.4 Bending and straightening 3.1.5 Forming limits

3-1

3.2 Roll forming 3.3 Hydroforming 3.4 Hot forming 3.5 Bumper beam coatings
3.5.1 Zinc or zinc-iron coatings 3.5.2 Aluminum coating 3.5.3 Polishing 3.5.4 Chromium coating 3.5.5 Conversion coating 3.5.6 Electrocoating (E-coating) 3.5.7 Paint coating 3.5.8 Autodeposition coating 3.5.9 Powder coating

3-5 3-7 3-8 3-9

ii

Contents

4. Manufacturing considerations
4.1 Forming considerations
4.1.1 Guidelines for roll forming high-strength steel 4.1.2 Guidelines for roll forming ultra high-strength steel 4.1.3 General guidelines for stamping high-strength and ultra high-strength steels 4.1.4 Guidelines for hat sections stamped from high-strength or ultra high-strength steels 4.1.5 Rules of thumb for high-strength steel stampings

4-1

4.2 Welding considerations
4.2.1 Steel chemistry 4.2.2 High-strength and ultra high-strength steels 4.2.3 Welding processes 4.2.3.1 Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) 4.2.3.2 Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) 4.2.3.3 Resistance spot welding (RSW) 4.2.3.4 Resistance projection welding (RPW) 4.2.3.5 Resistance seam welding (RSeW) 4.2.3.6 Resistance projection seam welding (RPSeW)

4-21

4.2.3.7 High frequency and induction resistance seam welding (RSeW-HF&I) 4.2.3.8 Upset welding (UW) 4.2.3.9 Friction welding (FRW) 4.2.3.10 Laser beam welding (LBW) 4.2.3.11 Laser beam and plasma arc welding (LBW/PAW) 4.2.4 Weldability of bumper materials 4.2.5 Ranking of welding processes

5. Design concepts
5.1 Sweep (roll formed sections) and depth of draw (stampings) 5.2 Tailor welded blanks 5.3 Leading benchmark bumper beams 5.4 Bumper weights, materials and coatings 5.5 Current steel bumper design - North American passenger cars and minivans
5.5.1 Typical bumper design for 5mph (8km/h) low speed system 5.5.2 IIHS/CU design path 5.5.3 Canadian/NHTSA design path

5-1 5-1 5-8 5-16 5-32

5.6 Current steel bumper design - North American pickups, full size vans and sport utilities
5.6.1 Flow chart for 2.5mph (4 km/h) low speed system 5.6.2 IIHS/CU design path 5.6.3 NHTSA design path

5-36

5.7 Auto/Steel Partnership high speed steel bumper design - North American passenger cars
5.7.1 Quantech design criteria for high speed steel bumper system 5.7.2 Flow Chart for high speed system

5-39

iii

Contents

5.8 Bumper design for pedestrian impact
5.8.1 Impact tests 5.8.2 EuroNCAP leg to bumper impacts with a “leg-form” impactor 5.8.3 Government regulations 5.8.4 Design approaches 5.8.4.1 Cushioning the impact 5.8.4.2 Supporting the lower limb 5.8.5 Design solutions

5-42

6. Relevant safety standards in North America and Europe
6.1 United States National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (49CFR), Part 581 Bumper Standard
6.1.1 Requirements 6.1.2 Pendulum corner impacts 6.1.3 Pendulum longitudinal impacts 6.1.4 Impacts into a fixed collision barrier

6-1 6-3

6.2 Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Regulations Standard 215
6.2.1 Requirements 6.2.2 Pendulum corner impacts 6.2.3 Pendulum longitudinal impacts 6.2.4 Impacts into a fixed collision barrier

6-8

6.3 Comparison between United States and Canadian Bumper Regulations
6.3.1 Requirements 6.3.2 Pendulum corner impacts 6.3.3 Pendulum longitudinal impacts 6.3.4 Impacts into a fixed collision barrier

6-9

iv

Contents
6.4 Insurance Institute for Highway Safety: Low-Speed Crash Test Protocol
6.4.1 Requirements 6.4.2 Test vehicles 6.4.3 Full-width flat-barrier impact 6.4.4 Right front into 30 degree angle-barrier impact 6.4.5 Rear into pole impact

6-10

6.5 Consumers Union bumper-basher tests
6.5.1 Requirements 6.5.2 Bumper-basher 6.5.3 Center impact 6.5.4 Off-center impact 6.5.5 Corner impact

6-11

6.6 Research Council for Automotive Repairs (RCAR) Low-Speed Offset Crash Test
6.6.1 Requirements 6.6.2 Test vehicle 6.6.3 Front impact 6.6.4 Rear impact 6.6.5 Damageability and repairability

6-12

7. Steel versus aluminum and composite bumper beams
7.1 Types of bumper beams 7.2 Cost of bumper beams

7-1 7-1 7-2

8. Conclusions

8-1

9. References

9-1

v

Figures
NORTH AMERICAN BUMPER SYSTEM MARKET SHARE BY UNITS FOR KNOWN SYSTEMS xii 1.1 COMMON BUMPER SYSTEMS 1-2 1.2 COMMON REINFORCING BEAM CROSS SECTIONS 1-5 2.1 ELONGATION VERSUS YIELD STRENGTH: STEEL AS-SHIPPED FROM THE STEEL MILL 2-6 2.2 ELONGATION VERSUS YIELD STRENGTH: STEEL AFTER FABRICATION BY BUMPER SUPPLIER 2-7 2.3 INCREASE IN YIELD STRENGTH THROUGH WORK HARDENING AND BAKE HARDENING 2-8 2.4 STRESS VERSUS STRAIN AT DIFFERENT STRAIN RATES FOR TRIP 600 2-10 2.5 STRESS VERSUS STRAIN AT DIFFERENT STRAIN RATES FOR DP 600 2-10 3.1 TYPICAL CIRCLE GRID PATTERN 3-2 3.2 REPRESENTATION OF STRAINS BY ETCHED CIRCLES 3-3 3.3 TYPICAL FORMING LIMIT DIAGRAM 3-6 3.4 COATINGS: FRONT REINFORCING BEAMS 3-10 3.5 COATINGS: REAR REINFORCING BEAMS 3-11 4.1 a) RULES OF THUMB - SPRINGBACK 4-4 4.1 b) RULES OF THUMB - SPRINGBACK 4-5 4.1 c) RULES OF THUMB - SPRINGBACK 4-6 4.2 RULES OF THUMB - DIE FLANGE STEELS 4-7 4.3 RULES OF THUMB - HAT SECTION 4-8 4.4 RULES OF THUMB - V-CHANNEL 4-9 4.5 RULES OF THUMB - RADIUS SETTING 4-10 4.6 a) RULES OF THUMB - COMBINATION FORM AND FLANGE DIE 4-11 4.6 b) RULES OF THUMB - COMBINATION FORM AND FLANGE DIE 4-12 4.7 RULES OF THUMB - FORMING BEADS 4-13 4.8 RULES OF THUMB - FORMING AN EMBOSS 4-14 4.9 RULES OF THUMB - EDGE SPLITTING 4-15 4.10 RULES OF THUMB - PART DESIGN 4-16 4.11 RULES OF THUMB - DIE CONSTRUCTION 4-17 4.12 RULES OF THUMB - DEVELOPED BLANKS 4-18 4.13 RULES OF THUMB - TRIMMING 4-19 4.14 RULES OF THUMB - DIE SHEAR 4-20 4.15 GAS METAL ARC WELDING (GMAW) 4-25 4.16 FLUX CORED ARC WELDING (FCAW) 4-28 4.17 RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING (RSW) 4-30 4.18 RESISTANCE PROJECTION WELDING (RPW) 4-30 4.19 RESISTANCE SEAM WELDING (RSeW) 4-34 4.20 RESISTANCE PROJECTION SEAM WELDING (RPSeW) 4-34 4.21 HIGH FREQUENCY AND INDUCTION RESISTANCE SEAM WELDING (RSeW-HF&I) 4-37 4.22 UPSET WELDING (UW) 4-37 4.23 FRICTION WELDING (FRW) 4-41 4.24 LASER BEAM WELDING (LBW) 4-41 4.25 HARDNESS IN HEAT-AFFECTED ZONE OF ARC WELDS 4-47 4.26 RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING COMPARISON 4-48 5.1 DEFINITION OF SWEEP 5-2 5.2 DEFINITION OF DEPTH OF DRAW 5-5 5.3 EXAMPLES OF TAILOR WELDED BLANKS 5-6 5.4 ROLL FORMED BEAMS 5-9 5.5 STAMPED BEAMS 5-11 5.6 TYPICAL BUMPER DESIGN FOR 5mph LOW SPEED SYSTEM NORTH AMERICAN PASSENGER CARS AND MINIVANS 5-35 vi

Figures

5.7

TYPICAL BUMPER DESIGN FOR 2.5mph LOW SPEED SYSTEM NORTH AMERICAN PICKUPS, FULL SIZE VANS AND SPORT UTILITIES 5-38 5.8 AUTO/STEEL PARTNERSHIP BUMPER DESIGN FOR HIGH SPEED SYSTEM NORTH AMERICAN PASSENGER CARS 5-41 5.9 EuroNCAP PEDESTRIAN TESTS 5-45 5.10 EuroNCAP LEG FORM IMPACTOR 5-46 5.11 EuroNCAP “LEG FORM” IMPACT CRITERIA (2010) 5-47 6.1 IMPACT PENDULUM 6-5 6.2 IMPACT PENDULUM 6-6 6.3 LOCATIONS OF PLANES A and B 6-7 6.4 SAMPLE IMPACT APPARATUS 6-7 6.5 RCAR FRONT CRASH PROCEDURE 6-14 6.6 RCAR REAR CRASH PROCEDURE 6-15

vii

Tables
2.1 STEEL GRADES FOR POWDER COATED, PAINTED AND CHROME PLATED FACEBARS 2-3 2.2 STEEL GRADES FOR BRACKETS, SUPPORTS AND REINFORCING BEAMS 2-4

2.3 SAE J2329 LOW-CARBON COLD ROLLED SHEET — MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 2-22 2.4 SAE J2329 LOW-CARBON HOT ROLLED SHEET — MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 2-22 2.5 SAE J2329 LOW-CARBON HOT & COLD ROLLED SHEET — CHEMICAL COMPOSITION 2-23

2.6 SAE J2340 DENT RESISTANT SHEET STEEL 2-23 2.7 SAE J2340 HIGH-STRENGTH SOLUTION STRENGTHENED AND LOW-ALLOY SHEET STEEL 2-24 2.8 SAE J2340 HIGH-STRENGTH RECOVERY ANNEALED SHEET STEEL 2-24

2.9 SAE J2340 ULTRA HIGH-STRENGTH DUAL PHASE & MARTENSITE SHEET STEEL 2-25 2.10 SAE J1562 COATING MASS FOR GALVANIZED SHEET STEEL 2.11 SAE J403 CARBON STEEL COMPOSITIONS FOR SHEET 2-26 2-27

2.12 SAE J405 CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF WROUGHT STAINLESS STEELS 2-27 4.1 SAE J2340 STEELS AND STRENGTH GRADES. 4.2 SAE J2340 CHEMICAL LIMITS ON UNSPECIFIED ELEMENTS. 4.3 RANKING OF WELDING PROCESSES BY BUMPER MATERIAL 5.1 SWEEP NUMBERS (CAMBER, X, INCHES). 5.2 SWEEP NUMBERS (CAMBER, X, MILLIMETERS). 5.3 LEADING BENCHMARK BUMPER BEAMS. 4-23 4-23 4-44 5-3 5-4 5-14

5.4 ROLL FORMED BUMPER BEAMS - THICKNESS, WEIGHT, MATERIAL, COATINGS AND SWEEP - BEAMS PRODUCED IN THE 2004 CALENDAR YEAR 5-17 5.5 COLD STAMPED BUMPER BEAMS - THICKNESS, WEIGHT, MATERIAL, COATINGS AND DEPTH-OF-DRAW - BEAMS PRODUCED IN THE 2004 CALENDAR YEAR 5-25 5.6 HOT FORMED BUMPER BEAMS - THICKNESS, WEIGHT, MATERIAL COATINGS AND DEPTH-OF-DRAW - BEAMS PRODUCED IN THE 2004 CALENDAR YEAR 5-29 6.1 RELEVANT SAFETY STANDARDS IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE. 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 COST OF STEEL FACEBAR SYSTEMS COST OF STEEL REINFORCING BEAM SYSTEMS COST OF REINFORCING BEAMS WEIGHT OF REINFORCING BEAM SYSTEMS 6-2 7-3 7-3 7-3 7-4

viii

Preface
This publication is the third revision of Steel Bumper Systems for Passenger Cars and Light Trucks. It is a living document. As experience in its use is gained, further revisions and expansions will be issued. This publication brings together materials properties, product design information, manufacturing information and cost information. It has been prepared to suit the needs of OEM bumper stylists, bumper engineers and bumper purchasers. It is also intended to suit the needs of the Tier 1 and 2 bumper suppliers and steel industry marketing personnel. This publication was prepared by the Bumper Project Group of the American Iron and Steel Institute. The efforts of the following members are acknowledged: Willie Bernert, Chairperson Dofasco Inc. Scott Bulych A.G. Simpson Co. Limited Jim Cran Cran Associates Inc. DeWayne Egle Cosma Karl Henseleit SKD Automotive Group Tony Hersberger Benteler Automotive Chris Kantner Mittal Steel USA Mark Koch Shape Corporation Conrad Kudelko Ford Motor Company Michael Mihelich DaimlerChrysler Corporation Raj Mohan Severstal North America Inc. Scott Stokfisz General Motors Corporation Ming Tang Flex-N-Gate Thomas Vikstrom Pullman Industries, Inc. Eric Welte AK Steel Corporation Ben Zabik Meridian Automotive Systems

American Iron and Steel Institute June 30, 2006 ix

Introduction

In the 1997 model year, almost 28 million bumper units were supplied to the North American (Canadian and U.S.) original equipment manufacturers (OEM’s). Of these, 76% were steel, 17.6% composite and 6.4% aluminum (Reference 1.1). About 11.5 million steel units were reinforcing beams covered by a plastic fascia, about 5.7 million steel units were chrome-plated facebars and the remaining 4.0 million steel units were painted facebars. By manufacturing process, approximately 60% of the steel units were stamped and 40% roll formed. In total, about 300,000 tons of steel were consumed in the 1997 model year by the North American bumper reinforcing beam and facebar market. Bumper systems have changed drastically over the last 20 to 30 years. More demanding government safety regulations and different styling concepts have resulted in new designs. For example, reinforcing beams covered by plastic fascias entered the scene in the early 1970’s. Styling fashion has changed appearance values from almost 100% chrome-plated facebars to predominately fascia systems that are color coordinated with the body. The growth of light trucks, minivans and sport utility vehicles created two classes of bumper systems in the eyes of the engineering world: one for passenger cars and one for the broad grouping of light trucks. Safety concerns have resulted in the bumper beam becoming a part of the structural load path. Materials have also changed dramatically. With emphasis on vehicle performance, especially fuel economy, vehicle weight considerations were on top of most automotive engineers’ project lists. High-strength and ultra high-strength steels were developed. These permitted designers to reduce sheet metal thickness, hence weight. Business management practices have changed. In the past, the vehicle assemblers (OEM’s) produced most of the bumper systems, with only a handful of relatively small independent stampers supplementing the market’s total needs. Now, the OEM’s are a minor manufacturing player, relying heavily on a growing industry devoted in some cases to producing nothing but bumper components and systems. In fact, most of these independent manufacturers supply all of the design details and verification testing. The OEM’s supply the big picture requirements, i.e., how the bumper system fits into the overall vehicle appearance, how it will be affixed to the vehicle, weight limitations, outer boundary size limitations, etc. Bumper systems, like all automotive components, are still subject to constant change. The shift to fascia-covered reinforcing beam systems from facebars continues in the light truck area. The shift back to steel from more costly aluminum and composite systems continues. The trend to higher yield strength steel continues. There is more integration with fog lamps, head lights, turning lights and grills. The OEM’s are increasingly relying on their bumper suppliers to provide technical innovations.

x

For reasons of low cost and light weight, steel is well positioned in the current bumper system market. Further, even though this market is undergoing constant change, steel is strengthening its position. As shown in the figure on page xii, steel’s market share was forecasted to increase from 76.0% in the 1997 model year to 84.2% in the 2001 model year. Over this same period, aluminum’s share dropped from 6.4% to 1.9% and the share held by composites decreased from 17.6% to 13.9%. The bumper market, at 300,000 tons per year of mainly highstrength steel, is important to the North American steel industry. For this reason, the Automotive Applications Committee of the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) established a Bumper Project Group. In view of the fact there is little, if any, published information on bumper systems, the Bumper Project Group prepared this technical information bulletin to provide fundamental background information on North American bumper systems.

xi

NORTH AMERICAN BUMPER SYSTEM MARKET SHARE BY UNITS FOR KNOWN SYSTEMS
7% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

ALUMINUM

18%

15%

12%

9% 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

COMPOSITES

90%

80%

70%

60%

50% 1997 1998 1999 STEEL 2000 2001

Source: CSM Corporation (Reference 1.1)
xii

Objective

The purpose of this publication is to increase the reader’s understanding of passenger car and light truck bumper systems. It is an overview of an automotive component system, which has undergone significant change in recent years. The information provided is aimed at automotive industry design, manufacturing, purchasing and safety related staffs; and steel industry sales and marketing groups. The emphasis is on materials, design, manufacturing, government regulations and cost. It is a living document and revisions and additions will be made as experience is gained. The AISI Bumper Project Group hopes this publication will increase the reader’s knowledge of bumper systems and help overcome engineering challenges.

xiii

1. Bumper systems and components

1.1

Bumper systems
1.1.1 System selection There are several factors that an engineer must consider when selecting a bumper system. The most important factor is the ability of the bumper system to absorb enough energy to meet the OEM’s internal bumper standard. Another important factor is the bumper’s ability to absorb energy and stay intact at high-speed impacts. Weight, manufacturability and cost are also issues that engineers consider during the design phase. Both initial bumper cost and repair cost are important. The formability of materials is important for high-sweep bumper systems. Another factor considered is recyclability of materials, which is a definite advantage for steel. As shown in Figure 1.1, there are four bumper systems in common use today: 1. Metal facebar 2. Plastic fascia and reinforcing beam 3. Plastic fascia, reinforcing beam and mechanical energy absorbers 4. Plastic fascia, reinforcing beam and foam or honeycomb energy absorber 1.1.2 Metal facebar system A metal facebar system, as shown in Figure 1.1 A, consists of a single metallic bumper that decorates the front or rear end of a vehicle and acts as the primary energy absorber in a collison. The bumper regulations in the United States require passenger cars to withstand a 2.5 mph (4 km/h) impact at the curb position plus or minus two inches (50mm) with no visual damage and no damage to safety related items. The Canadian passenger car regulations call for a 5 mph (8 km/h) impact, however limited damage is permitted. The North American OEM’s voluntarily design their passenger car bumpers to withstand a 5 mph (8 km/h) impact with no visual damage and no damage to safety items. Current facebar systems can only withstand a 2.5 mph (4 km/h) impact at the curb position plus or minus 2 inches (50mm) with no visual damage and no damage to safety items. For this reason, the use of current facebar systems is restricted to light trucks. The aesthetics of facebars match the styling trend for full size vans, pickups and sport utilities. Thus, most facebars are presently being applied to these vehicles. If the design standard for light truck bumpers were to rise to the 5 mph (8 km/h) voluntary passenger car standard, then the facebar systems used on full size vans, pickups and sport utilities would have to be redesigned. For the reason of weight, such redesigns would likely revert to systems that employ a reinforcing beam. 1-1

FIGURE 1.1 COMMON BUMPER SYSTEMS

1-2

1.1.3

Plastic fascia and reinforcing beam system This system, as shown in Figure 1.1 B, consists of a plastic fascia and a reinforcing beam that is fastened directly to the vehicle frame or motor compartment rails. It is primarily used in Europe and Japan, where bumper regulations are less stringent than those in North America. On many vehicles in Europe and Japan, the reinforcing beam in this system also serves as the first structural cross-member. While this arrangement leads to a small sacrifice in bumper performance, it increases vehicle crashworthiness. If the reinforcing beam is part of the body-in-white, the favored material is steel because of the structural requirements associated with a cross-member. Also, steel is fully compatible with the body-inwhite E-coat and paint systems used by the OEM’s.

1.1.4

Plastic fascia, reinforcing beam and energy absorption system Bumper systems with a plastic fascia, reinforcing beam and energy absorption are used primarily in North America. These readily meet the 5 mph (8 km/h) voluntary bumper standard set by the North American OEM’s. While all passenger cars and most minivans in the United States and Canada have this type of system, the method of energy absorption varies. Energy can be absorbed by a mechanical absorber (Figure 1.1 C), by foam or honeycomb (Figure 1.1 D), or by the reinforcing beam itself (Figure 1.1 B).

1.2

Bumper components
1.2.1 Fascia Bumper fascias (Figure 1.1) are designed to meet several requirements. They must be aerodynamic to control the flow of the air around the car and the amount of air entering the engine compartment. They must be aesthetically pleasing to the consumer. Typical fascias are styled with many curves and ridges to give bumpers dimension and to distinguish vehicles from competing models. Another requirement of bumper fascias is that they be easy to manufacture and light in weight. Virtually all fascias are made from one of three materials: polypropylene, polyurethane or polycarbonate. 1.2.2 Energy absorbers Energy absorbers (Figure 1.1) are designed to absorb a portion of the kinetic energy from a vehicle collision. Energy absorbers are very effective in a low speed impact, where the bumper springs back to its original position. Energy absorber types include foam, honeycomb and mechanical devices. All foam and honeycomb absorbers are made from one of three materials: polypropylene, polyurethane or low-density polyethylene. Mechanical absorbers are metallic and resemble shock absorbers. However, mechanical absorbers have several times the weight of a foam or honeycomb absorber and receive very limited usage. In some bumper systems, the reinforcing beam itself is designed to absorb energy and separate energy absorbers are not required.

1-3

1.2.3

Facebar Facebars (Figure 1.1) are usually stamped from steel with lots of plastic or stainless steel trim to dress them up. A small volume of facebars is produced from aluminum. Steel facebars, for formability reasons, are usually made from steels with a low to medium yield strength. Thus, facebars are quite thick. This thickness (plus the fact facebars are deep and have large wrap around ends) gives facebars a relatively heavy weight. After stamping, steel facebars are chrome plated or painted for appearance and corrosion protection reasons.

1.2.4

Reinforcing beam The reinforcing beams (Figure 1.1) are key components of the bumper systems that employ them. Reinforcement beams help absorb the kinetic energy from a collision and provide protection to the rest of the vehicle. By staying intact during a collision, beams preserve the frame. Design issues for reinforcing beams include strength, manufacturability, weight, recyclability and cost. Steel reinforcing beams are stamped, roll formed or made by the Plannja process. Typical cross sections are shown in Figure 1.2. A stamped beam is advantageous in high-volume production and offers complex shapes. However, the stamping process is capital intensive and the process itself requires good formability from the steel. The Plannja process is a hot stamping process, which was developed in Sweden. While it results in high-strength beams, it is relatively expensive due to its low production rate. Roll formed beams account for the majority of the steel reinforcing beams used today. Common cross sections for roll formed beams are box, C or channel, and hat. Typically, these cross sections are made of ultra high-strength steels at very thin gauges. A back plate is sometimes welded to an open channel or hat section to create a box section. All steel reinforcing beams receive corrosion protection. Some beams are made from hot-dip galvanized or electrogalvanized sheet. The zinc coating on these products provides excellent corrosion protection. Other beams are protected after fabrication with a paint system such as E-coat.

1-4

FIGURE 1.2 COMMON REINFORCING BEAM CROSS SECTIONS

1-5

2. Steel materials
2.1 Introduction
Flat rolled steels are versatile materials. They provide strength and stiffness with favorable mass-to-cost ratios, and they allow high speed fabrication. In addition, they offer excellent corrosion resistance when coated, high energy absorption capacity, good fatigue properties, high working hardening rates, aging capability, excellent paintability, ease of repair and complete recyclability. These characteristics, plus the availability of high-strength and ultra high-strength steels, have made sheet steel the material of choice in the automotive industry. Numerous steel types and grades offer designers a wide choice for any given application. Bumper steels with elongations up to 60% facilitate forming operations. Bumper steels with yield strengths up to 1420 MPa (205 ksi) facilitate mass reduction. High-strength steel grades are defined as those having a minimum yield strength greater than or equal to 240 MPa (35 ksi) and/or a minimum tensile strength less than or equal to 550 MPa (80 ksi). Ultra high-strength strength steel grades are defined as those having a minimum tensile strength greater than 550 MPa (80 ksi). Low-carbon steels have excellent ductility. They are widely used for body and underbody components that are formed by stamping, roll forming or hydroforming. However, in order to reduce component mass, low-carbon steels are gradually being replaced by steels of greater strength. As the name implies, dent resistant steels are commonly used for body panels such as quarter, door and hood. Their relatively low as-received yield strength facilitates forming. Cold work of forming and bake hardening during the automotive paint cycle increase their yield strength and dent resistance. Microalloy steels usually have less ductility than lowcarbon and dent resistant steels. However, they can be supplied with the necessary ductility to produce most automotive parts. Carbon-boron steel has good formability and high yield strength after heat treating. Dual phase steel also offers good formability. Its strength increases significantly through cold work during the fabrication process. Recovery annealed and martensitic steels have ultra high yield strengths. However, their formability limits their use to roll formed sections and less severe stampings. Stainless steels offer excellent corrosion resistance, excellent formability and high yield strength.

2-1

2.2

Typical properties of steel grades for facebars
The steel grades that are commonly used for facebars are shown with their typical properties in Table 2.1. Most facebars are made from highstrength steel [minimum yield strength higher than 240 MPa (35 ksi)]. For comparative purposes, Table 2.1 also includes similar SAE grades. It is important to note that the similar SAE grades are not equivalent grades. That is, there are minor differences between the SAE grades and the common grades to which they are similar. The differences might be significant in some applications. Facebars, due to their depth of draw and complex shape, are produced by the stamping process. Steels of high formability are required and all of the grades shown in Table 2.1 can be supplied to meet the demanding requirements of a facebar stamping. Facebars are either powder coated, painted or chrome plated so a high-quality surface is required on the steel sheet. The steel mills use special processing from casting, slab surfacing, hot rolling and tempering in the production of facebar steel. In addition, the majority of the sheet steel used for plated facebars is flat polished prior to the stamping operation.

2.3

Typical properties of steel grades for brackets, supports and reinforcing beams
The steel grades that are commonly used for brackets, supports and reinforcing beams, are shown with their typical properties in Table 2.2. Most reinforcing beams are made from ultra high-strength steel [minimum tensile strength greater than 550 MPa (80 ksi)]. For comparative purposes, Table 2.2 also includes similar SAE grades. It is important to note that the similar SAE grades are not equivalent grades. That is, there are minor differences between the SAE grades and the common grades they are similar to. The differences might be significant in some applications. All of the high-strength steel grades in Table 2.2 can be supplied with sufficient formability for the production of stamped brackets, supports and reinforcing beams. They can also be readily roll formed into reinforcing beams. Generally speaking, the ultra high-strength steel grades in Table 2.2 have less formability than the high-strength grades listed in Table 2.2. However, they offer significant weight reduction opportunities and are commonly used for less severe stampings and roll formed reinforcing beams. Grades 120XF and 135XF have sufficient ductility to produce stampings, including reinforcing beams, provided the amount of draw is minimal. Grade 140T has a relatively low as-delivered yield strength, which facilitates stamping and roll forming operations. An advantage of this grade is the fact it work-hardens significantly during forming. In fact, the yield strength after forming approaches 965 MPa (140 ksi). Thus, 140T offers sufficient formability to produce roll formed beams with a large sweep and it provides high yield strength in the finished part. Grades 140XF and M130HT through M220HT have low formability and their use is generally restricted to roll formed reinforcing beams since roll forming is a process of gradual bending without drawing. The Carbon-Boron grades can be used to produce complex parts through the hot stamping process. After quenching, the parts have yield strengths around 1140 MPa (165 ksi). The SS grades are readily stamped or roll formed. Their excellent corrosion resistance obviates the need for protective coatings. 2-2

TABLE 2.1 STEEL GRADES FOR POWDER COATED, PAINTED & CHROME PLATED FACEBARS TYPICAL PROPERTIES AS-SHIPPED FROM THE STEEL MILL
MATERIAL GRADE (COMMON NAME) 1008/1010 35XLF 50XLF 55XLF 60XLF 70XLF 80XLF 386 (56.0) 407 (59.0) 480 (69.6) 505 (73.2) 531 (77.0) 600 (87.0) 673 (97.6) 35 35 31 29 27 26 22 Low-carbon Microalloy Microalloy Microalloy Microalloy Microalloy Microalloy 269 (39.0) 331 (48.0) 403 (58.5) 439 (63.7) 475 (68.9) 527 (76.5) 587 (85.1) 0.19 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.15 0.13 0.12 DESCRIPTION TYPICAL YIELD STRENGTH MPa (ksi) TYPICAL TYPICAL ELONG TENSILE STRENGTH (%) MPa (ksi) TYPICAL "n" VALUE SIMILAR SAE GRADE

HR HR HR HR HR HR HR

J403 1010 J2329 Grade 2 J2340 340X J2340 380X J2340 420X J2340 490X J2340 550X

2-3
SS SS T301 T204 Austenitic Austenitic

CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR CR 276 (40) 370 (53.8)

1008/1010 DR210 35XLF 40XLF 50XLF 55XLF 60XLF 70XLF 80XLF

Low-carbon Dent resistant Microalloy Microalloy Microalloy Microalloy Microalloy Microalloy Microalloy

296 (42.9) 220 (31.9) 285 (41.3) 315 (45.7) 376 (54.5) 418 (60.6) 459 (66.5) 530 (76.8) 592 (85.8)

331 (48.0) 360 (52.2) 400 (58.0) 425 (61.6) 475 (68.9) 501 (72.7) 527 (76.5) 614 (89.1) 690 (100.0) 758 (110.0) 689 (100.0)

35 40 35 33 28 27 26 20 19 60 59

0.20 0.20 0.17 0.16 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.12 0.08 0.45 0.44

J403 1010 J2340 210A J2329 Grade 2 J2340 300X J2340 340X J2340 380X J2340 420X J2340 490X J2340 550X J405 S30100 J405 S20400

NOTES: HR CR 1008/1010 DR XLF SS Cold rolled sheet Low-carbon commercial quality (CQ). Mechanical properties are not certified. Dent resistant quality. Strength increases due to work hardening during forming. Designation number (e.g. 210) is minimum yield strength in MPa. Microalloy quality. Strength is obtained through small quantities of alloying elements such as vanadium and niobium. Designation number (e.g. 50) is minimum yield strength in ksi. Stainless steel Hot rolled sheet

TABLE 2.2 STEEL GRADES FOR BRACKETS, SUPPORTS AND REINFORCING BEAMS TYPICAL PROPERTIES AS-SHIPPED FROM THE STEEL MILL
MATERIAL GRADE (COMMON NAME) DESCRIPTION TYPICAL YIELD STRENGTH MPa (ksi) MPa (ksi) 403 (58.5) 439 (63.7) 475 (68.9) 527 (76.5) 587 (85.1) 376 (54.5) 418 (60.6) 459 (66.5) 530 (76.8) 592 (85.8) 379 (54.9) 415 (60.2) 452 (65.5) 641 (93.0) 320 (46.4) 330 (47.9) 330 (47.9) 330 (47.9) 869 (126) 969 (141) 1010 (147) 876 (127) 634 (92) 371 (54) 518 (75) 923 (134) 1020 (148) 1214 (176) 1420 (206) 923 (134) 1020 (148) 1214 (176) 1420 (206) 517 (75) 779 (113) TYPICAL TENSILE STRENGTH MPa (ksi) MPa (ksi) 480 (69.6) 505 (73.2) 531 (77.0) 600 (87.0) 673 (97.6) 475 (68.9) 501 (72.7) 527 (76.5) 614 (89.1) 690 (100.0) 453 (65.7) 492 (71.4) 531 (77.0) 662 (96.0) 480 (69.6) 500 (72.5) 500 (72.5) 500 (72.5) 883 (128) 985 (143) 1028 (149) 889 (129) 1034 (150) 634 (92) 834 (121) 1055 (153) 1179 (171) 1420 (206) 1627 (236) 1055 (153) 1179 (171) 1420 (206) 1627 (236) 862 (125) 1193 (173) TYPICAL ELONG (%) TYPICAL "n" VALUE SIMILAR SAE GRADE

HIGH-STRENGTH STEEL GRADES HR 50XLF HR 55XLF HR 60XLF HR 70XLF HR 80XLF CR CR CR CR CR 50XLF 55XLF 60XLF 70XLF 80XLF

Microalloy Microalloy Microalloy Microalloy Microalloy Microalloy Microalloy Microalloy Microalloy Microalloy Microalloy Microalloy Microalloy Microalloy Carbon-Boron Carbon-Boron Carbon-Boron Carbon-Boron Recovery Annealed Recovery Annealed Recovery Annealed Recovery Annealed Dual Phase Dual Phase Dual Phase Martensitic Martensitic Martensitic Martensitic Martensitic Martensitic Martensitic Martensitic 1/4 Hard Condition 20% Cold Worked

31 29 27 26 22 28 27 26 20 19 30 28 26 15 18 27 27 27 12 7.0 5.6 11 13 24 18 5.4 5.1 5.1 4.7 5.4 5.1 5.1 4.7 25 25

0.17 0.16 0.15 0.13 0.12 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.12 0.08 0.17 0.16 0.15 0.11 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.25 0.22

J2340 340X J2340 380X J2340 420X J2340 490X J2340 550X J2340 340X J2340 380X J2340 420X J2340 490X J2340 550X J2340 340X J2340 380X J2340 420X J2340 550X J403 10B21 J403 15B21 J403 15B24 J403 15B21 J2340 830R --J2340 700R J2340 950DL – – J2340 900M J2340 1100M J2340 1300M J23401500M J2340 900M J2340 1100M J2340 1300M J23401500M J405 S30100 J405 S20400

HDG (CR) 50XLF HDG (CR) 55XLF HDG (CR) 60XLF HDG (CR) 80XLF ULTRA HIGH-STRENGTH STEEL GRADES HR 10B21(M) CR CR Aluminized (CR) CR CR CR HDG (CR) CR CR CR CR CR CR CR EG (CR) EG (CR) EG (CR) EG (CR) SS SS 15B21(M) 15B24 15B21(M) 120XF 135XF 140XF 120XF 140T 590T 780T M130HT M160HT M190HT M220HT M130HT M160HT M190HT M220HT T301 T204

NOTES: HR Hot rolled sheet CR Cold rolled sheet HDG (CR) Hot-dip galvanized (cold rolled base) sheet EG (CR) Electrogalvanized (cold rolled base) sheet Aluminized (CR) Hot dip aluminized (cold rolled base) sheet SS Stainless steel XLF Microalloy quality. Strength is obtained through small quantities of alloying elements such as vanadium and niobium. Designation number (e.g. 50) is mimimum yield strength in ksi. ..B..(M) Carbon-boron quality (Modified). Properties are for the steel as-shipped from the steel mill. Strength is achieved through heating and quenching. After quenching, the yield strength is about 1140 MPa (165ksi) ..B.. Carbon-boron quality. Properties are for the steel as-shipped from the steel mill. Strength is achieved through heating and quenching. After quenching, the yield strength is about 1140 MPa (165ksi) XF Recovery annealed quality. Strength is achieved primarily through cold work during cold rolling at the steel mill. Designation number (e.g. 120) is minimum yield strength in ksi. 140T Dual phase quality. Structure contains martensite in ferrite matrix. Properties are for the steel as-shipped from the steel mill. Designation number (e.g. 140) is the minimum tensile strength in ksi. M...HT Martensitic quality. Strength is determined by carbon content. Designation number (e.g. 130) is the minimum tensile strength in ksi. N/A Not applicable. The Carbon-Boron steels listed are intended for hot forming. The Recovery Annealed and Martensitic steels are primarily used in roll forming operations. However, they may be used for stampings provided the amount of draw is minimal. The “n” value for Dual Phase steels is very dependent on the range over which it is calculated. 2-4

2.4

Elongation versus as-shipped (steel mill) yield strength
AHSS (advanced high-strength steel) Guidelines published by the International Iron and Steel Institute (Reference 2.4) provide a comparison between the various families of steel products in the form of as-shipped yield strength versus formability (Figure 2.1). The latter is represented by the total elongation of each material class. Each bubble in the graph represents the typical properties of all steel products in each category of steels, as produced by most of the major steel makers around the world. The bubbles are: • IF (interstitial free) products • IS (isotropic) products • Mild (mild steel) products • BH (bake hardenable) products • CMn (carbon-manganese and carbon-boron) products • HSLA (high strength low-alloy) products • TRIP (transformation induced plasticity) products • DP, CP (dual phase, complex phase) products • T204 austenitic stainless steel • MART (martensitic) products The above bubbles may be placed into three groups: Conventional HSS (high-strength steel), stainless steel and AHSS. The purpose of Fig. 2.1 is threefold: a. To visually display the tradeoffs between strength and ductility. b. To provide an indication of the current trends in new steel product development, and c. To allow for a first-cut material family selection for various applications. It is clear from the graph that most of the traditional steel products obey an inverse relationship between strength and ductility. Bucking this trend are the dual phase and complex phase families of steel products. These products, although available for at least twenty years, have just recently attracted the attention they deserve for their excellent combination of higher strength and very good ductility, making them suitable for energy-absorption applications. Carrying this concept a step further are the TRIP (TRansformation Induced Plasticity) steels. Although the principles underlying these steel products were available and understood at least thirty years ago, only now are these steels becoming available for automotive body applications. TRIP steels provide further enhanced potential for energy absorption at thinner gauges, thus making it possible for a vehicle structure to provide improved safety at lower mass.

2.5

Elongation versus after-fabrication yield strength
The above data are all based on tensile properties obtained from undeformed materials. In actual service the steel sheets are strained during fabrication, which is known to increase their strength and decrease their ductility. Many of the formed parts are also subsequently painted and baked to cure the paint. Although not all steels respond to the straining and baking process many of them do. Key among them are the so-called Bake Hardening (BH), the Dual Phase (DP) and the TRIP steels. The net effect of this is to further shift the bubbles to the right of the chart and a little lower (Figure 2.2). This has no significant effect on forming of the steel but it can certainly affect its performance in service. The effect is usually beneficial as straining and baking increase the stress levels at which permanent deformation begins. 2-5

FIGURE 2.1 ELONGATION VERSUS YIELD STRENTH: STEEL AS-SHIPPED FROM THE STEEL MILL

2-6

FIGURE 2.2 ELONGATION VERSUS YIELD STRENTH: STEEL AFTER-FABRICATION BY BUMPER SUPPLIER

Elongation (%)

T204 Stainless CMn HSLA TRIP DP, CP MART

Lower Yield Strength ( MPa)

Work performed by the member steel companies of the International Iron and Steel Institute (IISI) quantified the effect of work hardening (WH) and bake hardening (BH) on the yield strength of certain dual phase and TRIP steels and compared it to that of HSLA 340 material. These results are provided below and shown graphically in Figure 2.3.

STEEL GRADE TRIP 350/600 DP 350/600 HSLA 350/600

INCREASE INCREASE TOTAL INCREASE DUE TO WH DUE TO BH IN YIELD STRENGTH 17% 32% 6% 21% 13% 0% 38% 45% 6%

2-7

FIGURE 2.3 INCREASE IN YIELD STRENGTH THROUGH WORK HARDENING (WH) AND BAKE HARDENING (BH)

2-8

2.6

Yield strength versus strain rate
More recently, consideration was given to the impact of the rate of straining of a particular material or component on its performance. Since steel is a strain rate sensitive material, its yield strength increases as the loading rate increases. This provides further benefits in its ability to sustain and absorb higher loads and higher input energy, such as in the case of deformation of a bumper or other structural component. Again, this is not a new discovery but it was only through the introduction of the advanced vehicle concepts phase of the ULSAB (UltraLight Steel Auto Body) development that this benefit of steel began to be introduced in structural design of automobile components. Considerable effort was then expended in various laboratories around the world to generate tensile data at straining rates ranging from quasi-static (10-3 s-1) to 103 s-1 for many of the above steel grades. The effect of the higher strain rate on the strength and ductility for TRIP 600 and DP 600 steels is provided in Figures 2.4 and 2.5, respectively. The data for these steels and other products of interest for bumper construction are available from many steel producers and can be made available for use in the design of bumpers and other energy-absorbing components. Use of the tensile properties of steels at higher rates of loading has begun in automotive design and is expected to be universally used as more data for more steel grades become available and as automotive designers become more comfortable with the reliability of these data.

2-9

FIGURE 2.4 STRESS VERSUS STRAIN AT DIFFERENT STRAIN RATES FOR TRIP 600. THE DATA AT 1000 s-1 WERE OBTAINED USING THE SPLIT HOPKINSON BAR (SHB) METHOD

FIGURE 2.5 STRESS VERSUS STRAIN AT DIFFERENT STRAIN RATES FOR DP 600. THE DATA AT 1000 s-1 WERE OBTAINED USING THE SPLIT HOPKINSON BAR (SHB) METHOD

2-10

2.7

Sheet steel descriptors
Sheet steel is a complex product and there are many methods used to describe it. The following descriptors are often associated with automotive sheet steel: a) Type Chemical composition, microstructure processing method or end use are all used to describe the type of steel. Examples include low-carbon, dent resistant, microalloy, high-strength low alloy, recovery annealed, dual phase, bainitic and martensitic sheet. Physical properties such as yield strength, tensile strength or elongation are used to denote a grade. Examples include 180 MPa minimum yield strength and 1500 MPa minimum tensile strength. The final process that steel receives before shipment from a steel mill is often used to describe a steel product. Examples include hot rolled, cold rolled and coated sheet. The process used to apply a metallic coating or the type of metal in the metallic coating are used to describe steel. Examples include hot-dip galvanized, electrogalvanized and zinc coated sheet. Surface smoothness is used to describe sheet steel. Examples are exposed, semi-exposed or unexposed body sheet.

b) Grade

c) Steel Product

d) Metallic Coating

e) Surface Condition

In practice, when specifying sheet steel, most (if not all) of the above descriptors are required to fully describe the desired steel product. Published documents, such as those of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) greatly facilitate the correct specification of sheet steel. In this context, the relevant SAE documents are: • Categorization and Properties of Low-Carbon Automotive Sheet Steels, SAE J2329 (Reference 2.1) • Categorization and Properties of Dent Resistant, High Strength and Ultra High Strength Automotive Sheet Steel, SAE J2340 (Reference 6.4) • Selection of Galvanized (Hot Dipped and Electrodeposited) Steel Sheet, SAE J1562 (Reference 2.2) • Chemical Compositions of SAE Carbon Steels, SAE J403 (Reference 2.3) • Chemical Compositions of SAE Wrought Stainless Steels, SAE J405 (Reference 2.5)

2-11

2.8

SAE J2329 Low-carbon sheet steel
This SAE Recommended Practice furnishes a categorization procedure to aid in selecting low-carbon sheet steel. The system employs four characters. The first two alphabetic characters denote hot rolled (HR) or cold rolled (CR) method of manufacture. The third character defines grade (one through five) based on yield strength range, minimum tensile strength, minimum percent elongation, minimum rm value, and minimum n-value. The fourth alphabetic character (E,U,R,F,N or M) classifies the steel type with regards to surface quality and/or aging character. An optional fifth character may be used to restrict carbon content to a minimum of 0.015%. If the sheet steel is a metallic coated product, then thE-coating would be specified in accordance with SAE J1562 (see Section 2.10). Examples of typical specification and ordering descriptions for automotive sheet steel are given in Section 2.13. 2.8.1 Steel grade There are five grades of cold rolled sheet and three grades of hot rolled sheet. Mechanical properties are shown in Tables 2.3 and 2.4, while chemical composition is shown in Table 2.5 (pages 2-23 and 2-24). 2.8.2 Types of cold rolled sheet There are two types of cold rolled sheet, either in the bare or coated condition: •E •U 2.8.3 Types of hot rolled sheet There are four types of hot rolled sheet, either bare or in the metallic coated condition: •R •F •N •M A coiled product straight off the hot mill, typically known as hot roll black band. A processed product in coils or cut lengths. The product may be susceptible to aging and coil breaks. A processed product in coils or cut lengths. The product is non-aging at room temperature but is susceptible to coil breaks. A processed product in coils or cut lengths. This product is non-aging at room temperature and free from coil breaks. Exposed. Intended for critical exposed applications where painted surface appearance is of primary importance. Unexposed. Intended for unexposed applications.

When specifying a hot rolled sheet, the surface condition should also be indicated (E or U as per Section 2.8.2).

2-12

2.9

SAE J2340 Dent resistant, high-strength and ultra high-strength sheet steel
This SAE Recommended Practice defines mechanical properties for dent resistant, high-strength and ultra high-strength sheet steel. The properties for dent resistant steels are shown in Table 2.6, the properties for high-strength steels in Tables 2.7 and 2.8, and the properties for ultra high-strength steels in Table 2.9 (pages 2-23 to 2-25). It should be noted that the yield and tensile strength values for the ultra high-strength steels covered by J2340 (Table 2.9) are those commonly used in Europe. For example, J2340 and Europe use values such as 600, 800, 1000 and 1200. On the other hand, values such as 590, 780, 980 and 1180 are widely used in North America and Japan. Currently, SAE’s Iron and Steel Technical Committee is revising J2340 to cover ultra high-strength steel grades widely used not only in Europe but also in North America and Japan. SAE J2340 also furnishes a categorization procedure to aid in selecting dent resistant, high-strength and ultra high-strength steels. The system employs several characters: • The first two characters denote hot rolled (HR) or cold rolled (CR) method of manufacture. • The next three or four characters denote the grade of steel. Minimum yield strength in MPa is used for dent resistant and high-strength steels and minimum tensile strength in MPa is used for ultra high-strength steels. Refer to Tables 2.6 - 2.9. The final set of characters denotes the steel type. Refer to Section 2.9.2. If the sheet steel is a metallic coated product, then thE-coating would be specified in accordance with SAE J1562 (see Section 2.10). Examples of typical specification and ordering descriptions for automotive sheet are given in Section 2.13. 2.9.1 Steel grade In Tables 2.6, 2.7 and 2.8 (dent resistant and high-strength steels) grade is the minimum yield strength in MPa. In Table 2.9, (ultra high-strength steels) grade is the minimum tensile strength in MPa.

2-13

2.9.2

Steel type In Tables 2.6 to 2.9, type is defined by one or two letters as follows: •A •B A non-bake hardenable dent resistant steel in which increase in yield strength due to work hardening results from strain during forming. A bake hardenable dent resistant steel in which increase in yield strength due to work hardening results from strain during forming and an additional increase in yield strength that occurs during the paint-baking process. These types are similar to Types A and B respectively, except that the steel is interstitial free. A high-strength steel, which is solution strengthened using C and Mn in combination with P or Si. A high-strength steel typically referred to as HSLA. It is alloyed with carbide and nitride forming elements (commonly Nb (Cb), Ti and V) in combination with C, Mn, P and Si. A high-strength steel similar to Type X, except the spread between the minimum yield and tensile strengths is larger (100 MPa versus 70 MPa). These types are similar to types S, X and Y respectively, except they are sulphide inclusion controlled. A high-strength steel that has been recovery annealed or stress-relief annealed. Its strength is primarily achieved through cold work during cold rolling at the steel mill. A dual phase ultra high-strength steel. Its microstructure is comprised of ferrite and martensite. The strength level is dictated by the volume of low-carbon martensite. DL dual phase has a low ratio of yield-to-tensile strength (less than or equal to 0.7). A dual phase ultra high-strength steel similar to Type DL, except it has a high ratio of yield to tensile strength (greater than 0.7). A martensitic ultra high-strength steel whose carbon content determines the strength level.

• AT, BT •S •X

•Y • SF,XF,YF •R

• DL

• DH •M

2.9.3

Hot rolled, cold reduced and metallic coated sheet The steels in Tables 2.6 to 2.9 can be specified as either hot rolled sheet or cold rolled sheet in either the bare or metallic coated condition. Hot-dipped or electrogalvanized coated sheets are covered by SAE J1562 (Section 2.10). All of the steels shown in Tables 2.6 to 2.9 may not be commercially available in all types of coatings. Consult your steel supplier. Also, hot rolled sheet for the steels shown in Tables 2.6 to 2.9 may not be commercially available in thicknesses below 1.5-2.5 mm. Again, consult your steel supplier.

2-14

2.9.4

Surface conditions for cold reduced and metallic coated sheet Cold reduced and metallic coated sheet steel is available in three surface conditions: •E •U •Z Exposed. Intended for critical exposed applications where painted surface appearance is of primary importance. Unexposed. Intended for unexposed applications. Semi-exposed. Intended for non-critical exposed applications.

2.9.5

Conditions for hot rolled sheet Four conditions of hot rolled sheet are available: •P •W •N •V A coiled product straight off the hot mill, typically known as hot roll black band. A processed product in coils or cut lengths. The product may be susceptible to aging. A processed product in coils or cut lengths. The mechanical properties do not deteriorate at room temperature. A processed product in coils or cut lengths. The mechanical properties do not deteriorate at room temperature. The product is free of coil breaks.

When specifying a hot rolled sheet, the desired surface condition should also be indicated (E,U or Z as per Section 2.9.4).

2.10 SAE J1562 Zinc and zinc-alloy coated sheet steel
This SAE Recommended Practice defines preferred product characteristics for galvanized coatings applied to sheet steel. A galvanized coating is defined as a zinc or zinc-alloy metallic coating. 2.10.1 Galvanizing processes Two generic processes for metallic coated sheets are currently used in the automotive industry: • Hot-dip process. A coil of sheet steel is passed continuously through a molten metal bath. Upon emergence from the bath, the molten metal coating mass is controlled by air (or other gas) knives or mechanical wipers before the coating solidifies. This process produces a sheet with a coating on two sides. • Electrodeposition process. This continuous coating process uses cells in which the metallic coating is electrodeposited on a coil of sheet steel. This process can produce a sheet with a coating on either one or two sides.

2-15

2.10.2 Types of coatings The types of commercially produced metallic coatings include: • Hot-dip galvanized. Essentially a pure zinc coating applied by the hot-dip galvanizing process. • Electrogalvanized. Essentially a pure zinc coating applied by the electrodeposition galvanizing process. • Galvannealed. A zinc-iron alloy coating applied by the hot-dip galvanizing process. The coating typically contains 8-12% iron by weight. • Alloy. Aluminum-zinc silicon alloy (55%, 43% and 2% by weight respectively) and zinc-aluminum alloy (5% aluminum by weight) coatings are applied by the hot-dip galvanizing process. Zinc-iron alloy (<20% iron by weight) and zinc-nickel (<20% nickel by weight) coatings are applied by the electrodeposition process. Zinc coated sheet (hot-dip galvanized and electrogalvanized) offers superior corrosion resistance. Through sacrificial electrochemical action, zinc coatings protect bare (cut) edges. Galvanneal, due to its lighter zinc content, has less corrosion resistance than pure zinc coatings. However, its iron content provides enhanced spot weldability and paintability. Hot-dip galvanized, electrogalvanized and galvanneal are, by far, the most commonly used coatings for vehicle components. Zinc-aluminum and zinc-nickel coatings have niche applications. For example, zinc-aluminum alloy offers improved corrosion resistance to acids; hence, it is often used for mufflers. 2.10.3 Coating mass Coating mass is expressed in g/m2. The approximate thickness of a coating in microns = g/m2 x 0.14. The approximate thickness of a coating in mils = g/m2 x 0.006. The heavier the coating mass, the greater the corrosion resistance of a metallic coated sheet. However, spot weldability decreases with an increase in coating mass.

2.10.4 Surface quality Three surface qualities may be specified: • Exposed • Semi-exposed • Unexposed

2.10.5 Coated sheet thickness The thickness of metallic coated sheet steel is determined by measuring, as a single unit, the combination of the base sheet steel and all metallic coatings.

2-16

2.10.6 Coating designations SAE J2329 uses a nine-character designation system to identify the galvanizing process, thE-coating type and mass of each side of the sheet and surface quality. • The first and second characters denote the galvanizing process: HD = hot-dip galvanized EG = electrogalvanized (electrodeposition) • The third and fourth characters denote the coating mass of the unexposed side in accordance with Table 2.10 (page 2-26). • The fifth character denotes thE-coating type of the unexposed side: G = pure zinc A = zinc-iron N = zinc-nickel X = other than G, A or N • The sixth and seventh characters denote thE-coating mass of the exposed side in accordance with Table 2.10 • The eighth character denotes thE-coating type of the exposed side: G = pure zinc A = zinc-iron N = zinc-nickel X = other than G, A or N • The ninth character denotes surface quality: E = Exposed Z = Semi-exposed U = Unexposed Examples of typical specification and ordering descriptions for automotive sheet steel are given in Section 2.13.

2.11 SAE J403 Carbon steel chemical compositions
This SAE Recommended Practice provides chemical composition ranges for carbon steels supplied to certified chemical composition rather than to certified mechanical properties. SAE J403 uses a four or five character system to designate steel grade: • The first two characters are the number “10”, which indicate that the grade is carbon steel. • The last two characters represent the nominal carbon content of the grade in points of carbon. One point of carbon is 0.01% carbon by weight. Five points would be shown as “05”, fifteen points as “15”, etc. • If boron is added to a carbon steel to improve hardenability, the letter “B” is inserted between the first two characters and the last two characters. Examples of typical specification and ordering descriptions for automotive sheet are given in Section 2.13. 2-17

2.11.1

Carbon sheet steel SAE J403 provides compositions for carbon grade sheet steels. Table 2.11 (page 2-27) shows the compositions for grades 1006 through 1025. SAE J403 provides compositions for grades 1006 through 1095. However, grades above 1025 have relatively low formability and weldability due to their relatively high carbon content. Thus, grades above 1025 are seldom used for automotive sheet applications. It is important to note that sheet steels specified or ordered to SAE J403 are not supplied with certified mechanical properties. If certified mechanical properties are required, automotive sheet steel should be specified or ordered in accordance with SAE J2329 (Section 2.8) or SAE J2340 (Section 2.9).

2.11.2

Boron sheet steel The addition of boron to carbon sheet steel improves its hardenability. For this reason, boron sheet steel is an ideal material for hot stampings. As an example, 10B21 (Modified) is used for hot stamped bumper reinforcing beams. As received, this steel has a yield strength in the range 345-515 MPa. Following hot stamping and quenching in liquid-cooled dies, the yield strength is raised to about 1140 MPa. Currently, SAE’s Iron and Steel Technical Committee is revising J403 to more appropriately cover sheet steel used for hot stampings.

2.12 SAE J405 Wrought stainless steels
This SAE Standard provides chemical composition requirements for wrought stainless steels supplied to chemical composition rather than to certified mechanical properties. The standard uses three series to designate stainless steel grades: S20000, S30000 and S40000. S20000 designates nickel-chromium-manganese, corrosion resistant types that are nonhardenable by thermal treatment. S30000 designates nickel-chromium, corrosion resistant steels, nonhardenable by thermal treatment. S40000 includes both a hardenable, martensitic-chromium steel and nonhardenable, ferritic-chromium steel. Table 2.12 (page 2-27) shows the chemical compositions for two stainless steel grades that are appropriate not only for bumper facebars but also for bumper reinforcing beams.

2-18

2.13 SAE Specification and ordering descriptions
The following examples represent typical specification and ordering descriptions for automotive sheet steel: a) SAE J2329 CR2E Cold rolled sheet steel, grade 2 (Tables 2.3 & 2.5), exposed surface condition. Hot rolled sheet steel, grade 3 (Tables 2.4 & 2.5), non-aging at room temperature and free from coil breaks, unexposed surface condition. EG60G60GE Cold rolled sheet steel, grade 4 (Tables 2.3 & 2.5), minimum carbon 0.015%, each side electrogalvanized coated to 60g/m2, critical exposed surface condition.

b) SAE J2329 HR3MU

c) SAE J2329 CR4C

d) SAE J2329 HR2M 45A45AU Hot rolled sheet steel, grade 2 (Tables 2.4 & 2.5), non-aging at room temperature and free from coil breaks, each side galvannealed coated to 45g/m2, unexposed surface condition. e) SAE J2340 CR 180A HD70G70GZ Cold reduced sheet steel, grade 180 non-bake hardenable dent resistant (Table 2.6), each side hot-dip galvanized coated to 70g/m2, semi-exposed surface condition. Cold reduced sheet steel, grade 250 bake hardenable dent resistant (Table 2.6), each side electrogalvanized coated to 70g/m2, critical exposed surface condition. Hot rolled sheet steel, grade 340 high-strength low-alloy (Table 2.7), unexposed surface condition. Cold reduced sheet steel, grade 1300 ultra high-strength martensitic (Table 2.9), unexposed surface condition. Electrogalvanized sheet having a 70 g/m2 minimum zinc coating (Table 2.10) on each side for an exposed application.

f) SAE J2340 CR 250B EG70G70GE

g) SAE J2340 HR 340XU

h) SAE J2340 CR 1300MU

i) SAE J1562 EG70G70GE

2-19

j) SAE J1562 HD70G20AE

Hot-dip galvanized sheet having a 70g/m2 minimum zinc coating (Table 2.10) on the unexposed side and a 20g/m2 minimum zinc-iron coating (Table 2.10) on the exposed side for an exposed application. Hot-dip galvanized sheet having a 90g/m2 minimum coating (Table 2.10) on each side for an unexposed application. Hot-dip galvanized sheet having a 45g/m2 minimum zinc-iron coating (Table 2.10) on each side for an unexposed application. Electrogalvanized sheet having a 30g/m2 minimum zinc-nickel coating (Table 2.10) on each side for an exposed application. Electrogalvanized sheet having a 70g/m2 minimum zinc coating (Table 2.10) on the unexposed side and no coating on the exposed side for an exposed application. Hot rolled sheet steel, grade 1010 (Table 2.11), unexposed surface condition. Hot rolled sheet steel, grade 1008 (Table 2.11), having a 90g/m2 minimum coating on each side for an unexposed application.

k) SAE J1562 HD90G90GU

l) SAE J1562 HD45A45AU

m) SAE J1562 EG30N30NE

n) SAE J1562 EG70G00XE

o) SAE J403 HR1010U

p) SAE J403 HR1008HD90G90GU

2-20

2.14 ASTM A463 Aluminized sheet steel
Aluminized sheet steel is intended principally for heat resisting applications and for uses where corrosion resistance and heat are involved. One application is hot formed bumper beams. Aluminized sheet has an aluminum-silicon alloy on each side applied by a continuous hot-dip process. The coated sheet has the surface characteristics of aluminum with the superior strength and lower cost of steel. One specification, which describes aluminized steel, is ASTM A463 (Reference 2.6). The quality of the sheet steel can be commercial (CS Types A, B and C), forming (FS), deep drawing (DDS), extra deep drawing (EDDS), structural (SS), high-strength low-alloy (HSLAS), high-strength low-alloy with improved formability (HSLAS-F) and ferritic stainless steel (FSS Types 409 and 439). Chemical and mechanical properties are given for all qualities. A463 also defines the type of aluminum-zinc coating and coating weights. For hot formed bumper beams (see Section 3.4), boron steel with a Type 1 coating is commonly used. The mechanical properties of the boron steel are discussed in Section 2.11.2. The Type 1 aluminum coating contains about 10% silicon. The coating weight (total both sides) is typically 120-160 g/m2 (0.4-0.5 oz/ft2).

2-21

TABLE 2.3 SAE J2329 LOW-CARBON COLD ROLLED SHEET MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

GRADE

YIELD STRENGTH (MPa)

MINIMUM TENSILE STRENGTH (MPa)

MINIMUM ELONGATION (%)

MINIMUM rm VALUE

MINIMUM n-VALUE

1 2 3 4 5

N/R 140-260 140-205 140-185 110-170

N/R 270 270 270 270

N/R 34 38 40 42

N/R N/R 1.5 1.6 1.7

N/R 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.22

N/R = Not Required

TABLE 2.4 SAE J2329 LOW-CARBON HOT ROLLED SHEET MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

GRADE

YIELD STRENGTH (MPa)

MINIMUM TENSILE STRENGTH (MPa)

MINIMUM ELONGATION (%)

MINIMUM n-VALUE

1 2 3 N/R = Not Required

N/R 180-290 180-240

N/R 270 270

N/R 34 38

N/R 0.16 0.18

2-22

TABLE 2.5 SAE J2329 LOW-CARBON HOT & COLD ROLLED SHEET CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

GRADE

MAXIMUM CARBON (%)

MAXIMUM MANGANESE (%)

MAXIMUM PHOSPHORUS (%)

MAXIMUM SULPHUR (%)

MINIMUM ALUMINUM (%)

1 2 3 4 5

0.13 0.10 0.10 0.08 0.02

0.60 0.50 0.50 0.40 0.30

0.035 0.035 0.030 0.025 0.025

0.035 0.030 0.030 0.025 0.025

— 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.020

TABLE 2.6 SAE J2340 DENT RESISTANT SHEET STEEL

GRADE & TYPE

AS RECEIVED YIELD STRENGTH (MPa)

AS RECEIVED TENSILE STRENGTH (MPa)

AS RECEIVED n-VALUE

YIELD STRENGTH AFTER 2% STRAIN (MPa)

YIELD STRENGTH AFTER STRAIN & BAKE (MPa)

180A 180B 210A 210B 250A 250B 280A 280B

180 180 210 210 250 250 280 280

310 300 330 320 355 345 375 365

0.20 0.19 0.19 0.17 0.18 0.16 0.16 0.15

215 245 245 275 285 315 315 345

Type A = Non-bake Hardenable Type B = Bake Hardenable

2-23

TABLE 2.7 SAE J2340 HIGH-STRENGTH SOLUTION STRENGTHENED AND LOW-ALLOY SHEET STEEL
GRADE & TYPE MINIMUM YIELD STRENGTH (MPa) MAXIMUM YIELD STRENGTH (MPa) MINIMUM TENSILE STRENGTH (MPa) COLD REDUCED MINIMUM ELONGATION (%) 24 24 21 22 22 20 20 18 18 16 14 12 12 12 HOT ROLLED MINIMUM ELONGATION (%) 26 28 25 24 25 24 23 22 22 19 20 19 18 18

300S 300X 300Y 340S 340X 340Y 380X 380Y 420X 420Y 490X 490Y 550X 550Y

300 300 300 340 340 340 380 380 420 420 490 490 550 550

400 400 400 440 440 440 480 480 520 520 590 590 680 680

390 370 400 440 410 440 450 480 490 520 560 590 620 650

Type S = Solution strengthened using C and Mn in combination with P or Si. Type X = HSLA. Alloyed with carbide and nitride forming elements (commonly Nb, Ti and V) in combination with C, Mn, P and Si. Type Y = Similar to Type X, except the spread between minimum yield and tensile strengths is larger (100 MPa versus 70 MPa).

TABLE 2.8 SAE J2340 HIGH-STRENGTH RECOVERY ANNEALED SHEET STEEL

GRADE & TYPE

MINIMUM YIELD STRENGTH (MPa) 490 550 700 830

MAXIMUM YIELD STRENGTH (MPa) 590 650 800 960

MINIMUM TENSILE STRENGTH (MPa) 500 560 710 860

MINIMUM ELONGATION (%)

490R 550R 700R 830R

13 10 8 2

Type R = Recovery annealed or stress-relief annealed.

2-24

TABLE 2.9 SAE J2340 ULTRA HIGH-STRENGTH DUAL PHASE & MARTENSITE SHEET STEEL

GRADE & TYPE

MINIMUM YIELD STRENGTH (MPa) 300 500 350 280 550 500 550 700

MINIMUM TENSILE STRENGTH (MPa) 500 600 600 600 700 800 950 1000

MINIMUM ELONGATION (%)

500 DL 500 DH 600 DL1 600 DL2 700 DH 800 DL 950 DL 1000 DL

22 14 16 20 12 8 8 5

800 M 900 M 1000 M 1100 M 1200 M 1300 M 1400 M 1500 M

600 750 750 900 950 1050 1150 1200

800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Type DL = Dual phase with a yield-to-tensile ratio less than or equal to 0.7. Type DH = Dual phase with a yield-to-tensile ratio greater than 0.7. Type M = Martensitic.

2-25

TABLE 2.10 SAE J1562 COATING MASS FOR GALVANIZED SHEET STEEL
CATEGORY (DESIGNATION) MINIMUM MASS PER SIDE1 FOR HOT-DIP OR ELECTROGALVANIZED (g/m2) 00 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 90 98 MAXIMUM MASS MAXIMUM MASS PER SIDE1 PER SIDE1 FOR FOR HOT-DIP ELECTROGALVANIZED (g/m2) (g/m2)

00 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 90 98

NA2 50 60 70 75 80 85 90 100 120 130

00 30 45 55 60 70 75 80 90 110 130

1. Single spot test. Approximate thickness in microns equals coating mass in g/m2 multiplied by 0.14. Approximate thickness in mils = coating mass in g/m2 multiplied by 0.006. 2. Not applicable.

2-26

TABLE 2.11 SAE J403 CARBON STEEL COMPOSITIONS FOR SHEET

GRADE

CARBON (%)

MANGANESE (%)

PHOSPHOROUS (Max %)

SULFUR (Max %)

1006 1008 1009 1010 1012 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1025 Max = Maximum

0.08 Max 0.10 Max 0.15 Max 0.08-0.13 0.10-0.15 0.12-0.18 0.12-0.18 0.14-0.20 0.14-0.20 0.14-0.20 0.17-0.23 0.17-0.23 0.17-0.23 0.19-0.25 0.22-0.28

0.45 Max 0.50 Max 0.60 Max 0.30-0.60 0.30-0.60 0.30-0.60 0.60-0.90 0.30-0.60 0.60-0.90 0.70-1.00 0.30-0.60 0.60-0.90 0.70-1.00 0.30-0.60 0.30-0.60

0.030 0.030 0.030 0.030 0.030 0.030 0.030 0.030 0.030 0.030 0.030 0.030 0.030 0.030 0.030

0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.035

TABLE 2.12 SAE J405 CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF WROUGHT STAINLESS STEELS, % (maximum unless a range is indicated)
DESIGNATION S20400 S30100 C Mn P 0.040 0.045 S 0.030 0.030 Si 1.00 1.00 Cr 15.00-17.00 16.00-18.00 Ni 1.50-3.00 6.00-8.00 N 0.15-0.10 0.10

0.030 7.00-9.00 0.15 2.00

2-27

3. Manufacturing processes

3.1

Stamping
The art of science of sheet metal stamping processes are challenged daily to accommodate higher strength and thinner materials. Further, these materials must be transformed into more complex shapes with fewer dies and increased quality in the final part. And, of course, all must be accomplished while reducing costs. Such pressures require a rigorous approach to assessing the current state of a stamping process. A detailed discussion on stamping operations is given in Reference 4.2. However, an overview is outlined below.

3.1.1

Stretching The concept of major and minor strain can be used to describe different kinds of sheet forming processes. In cases where the sheet is stretched over a punch, the major strain is always positive. For stretching, the minor strain is usually positive as well. Different punch and clamping configurations can create a variety of major and minor strain levels. For stretching, a pulling load in the major strain direction is paired with a zero or positive load applied in the minor strain direction. The minor strain can vary from slightly negative (no applied load in the minor strain direction, as in stretching a strip by pulling on its ends) to positive strain equal to the level of the major strain. A minor strain of zero is a special case, which is often called plane strain. In plane strain, all deformation takes place in only two dimensions; the major strain direction and the thickness direction. All stretching is accommodated by thinning of the material. In circle grid analysis (CGA), small circles are etched on the surface of the steel sheet prior to stamping (Figure 3.1). After stamping, the deformed circles are compared to the original circles (Figure 3.2). For the condition of plane strain, the deformed circle is an ellipse with the minor strain diameter equal to the original diameter of the underformed circle. A minor strain equal to the major strain is indicated by an original circle, which remains circular after deformation. However, the diameter of the circle after deformation is larger than the diameter before deformation. This condition is called equi-biaxial stretch because the amount of the stretch is equal regardless of the direction in the plane of the sheet.

3-1

FIGURE 3.1 TYPICAL CIRCLE GRID PATTERN

3-2

FIGURE 3.2 REPRESENTATION OF STRAINS BY ETCHED CIRCLES

3-3

3.1.2

Drawing When a sheet is pulled into a die cavity, and must contract to flow into the cavity in areas such as at a corner or in the flange of a circular cup, the sheet is said to be undergoing drawing. Drawing, also known as deep drawing, generates compressive forces in the flange area being drawn into the die cavity. Negative minor strains are generated. In contrast to failures in stretching, failures in drawing do not normally occur in the flange area where the compression and flow of sheet metal is occurring. Instead, necking and fracture occur in the wall of the stamping near the nose of the punch. Failure occurs here because the force causing the deformation in the flange must be transmitted from the punch through this region. If the force required to deform the flange is too great, it cannot be transmitted by the wall without overloading the wall.

3.1.3

Bending Bending differs from drawing and stretching, because the deformation present in bending is not homogeneous through the thickness of the material. For pure bending, where there is no superimposed tension or compression on the bending process, the center of the sheet has zero strain. The outer surface is elongated, with a tensile strain equal to t/2r (t=steel thickness, r=bend radius to the midpoint of the steel thickness). The inner surface is compressed, with a compressive strain equal to t/2r. The strain varies from compressive at the inner radius, through zero at the midpoint of the thickness, to tensile at the outside radius. In pure bending, the compressive and tensile strains are equal. Because the strain varies through the thickness, forming limit analysis (Section 3.1.5) does not directly apply. Materials with very little capacity to be formed can frequently undergo bending operations successfully. The tendency to thin locally, with necking and fracture, is not present in bending. Cold working of the material does take place. However, the amount of work hardening depends on the radius of the bend and the thickness of the material. A sharper radius (smaller r) or thicker material (greater t) causes an increase in strain at the surface. Bending is a plane strain operation. The length of the bend does not change during bending, except for localized distortion at the edge of the sheet.

3.1.4

Bending and straightening As material passes through a draw bead or over a die lip, it is bent, straightened, and sometimes re-bent in the opposite direction. The net strain at the end of this process is small, although cold work has occurred and the material is harder than it was before the process began. As a result, the ability to deform the material in subsequent operations is decreased.

3-4

3.1.5

Forming limits The measurement of strain provides an important tool for determining the local deformation that occurs in a complicated process. Sharply changing levels of strain usually indicate a localization of deformation and a higher likelihood of necking and failure during forming. For sheet metal, it has been found that a limit to the major strain exists for each level of minor strain. This phenomenon has been studied in the laboratory and has resulted in the creation of forming limit diagrams. First, flat sheets of a given material are etched with circles as shown in Figure 3.1. The flat sheets are then deformed in a variety of configurations to develop a large range of major and minor strains. If the forming process for any given configuration is continued until failure (as defined by localized necking), the major and minor strains at failure, as shown in Figure 3.2, can be measured for that configuration. By plotting the failure strains of the various configurations, a boundary line indicating the major strain limit for each minor strain is obtained (Figure 3.3). While this limit is not absolute, there is a very high probability of failure above this boundary line and a low probability of failure below this line. The boundary line is frequently called the forming limit curve, and the entire graph, the forming line diagram (FLD). A second forming limit curve, plotted with major strains 10% below those of the boundary line, is sometimes used to provide a safety factor. Each combination of material properties and thickness results in a different FLD.

3.2

Roll forming
Cold roll forming is a process whereby a sheet or strip of metal is formed into a uniform cross section by feeding the stock longitudinally through a roll forming mill. The mill consists of a train with pairs of driven roller dies, which progressively form the flat strip until the finished shape is produced. The number of pairs of rolls depends on the type of material being formed, the complexity of the shape being produced, and the design of the particular mill being used. A conventional roll forming mill may have as many as 30 pairs of roller dies mounted on individually driven horizontal shafts. Roll forming is one of the few sheet metal forming processes that is confined to a single primary mode of deformation. Unlike most forming operations that have various combinations of stretching, drawing, bending, bending and straightening, and other forming modes, the roll forming process is nothing more than a carefully designed series of bends. In roll forming, metal thickness is not changed except for a slight thinning at the bend radii.

3-5

FIGURE 3.3 TYPICAL FORMING LIMIT DIAGRAM

3-6

The roll forming process is particularly suited to the production of long lengths of complex shapes held to close tolerances. Large quantities of these parts can be formed with a minimum of handling and manpower. The process can be continuous by coil feeding and exit cutting to length. Entry material can be pre-painted or otherwisE-coated. Operations such as notching, slotting, punching, embossing and curving can easily be combined with contour roll forming to produce finished parts off the exit end of the roll forming mill. In fact, ultra high-strength steel reinforcing beams, with sweeps up to 50, only need to have the mounting brackets welded to them before shipment to the assembly line.

3.3

Hydroforming
There are two types of hydroforming - sheet and tubular. Sheet hydroforming is typically a process where only a female die is constructed and a bladder membrane performs as the punch. High pressure fluid (usually water) forces the bladder against the steel sheet until it takes the shape of the female die. Sheet hydroforming has not been developed to the point it can be effectively utilized by the automotive industry. It remains a process used for low volume, large parts such as those encountered in aircraft and bus sheet metal forming. In tubular hydroforming, a straight or pre-bent tube is laid into a lower die. The upper and lower dies are then clamped together. Next, conical nozzles are inserted and clamped into each end of the tube. Finally, a fluid (usually water) is forced at a high pressure into the tube until it takes the shape of the die. While tube hydroforming technology has been around for decades, the mass production of automotive parts only became cost effective about 1984. The benefits of hydroforming are usually found via part consolidation and the elimination of engineered scrap. Box sections, consisting of two hat sections welded together, lend themselves to cost-effective replacement by a single hydroformed part. Punches, mounted in the forming dies, are used to pierce holes during forming, eliminating subsequent machine operations. The structural integrity of a hydroformed part, made from a single continuous tube, is superior to that of a part made from two or more components. Weight savings of 10 to 20% can be achieved via both reducing gauge and eliminating weld flanges. If flanges are necessary for attachment, they can be created by pinching the tube during the hydroforming process. High volume tubular hydroformed parts are currently incorporated into automotive components such as axles, exhaust manifolds, suspensions, frames, drive shafts and shock absorbers. While hydroforming technology has not been used to date for bumper systems, it does have potential over the longer term due to the many advantages it offers.

3-7

3.4

Hot forming
Generally speaking, as the strength of steel increases, its ductility decreases. One method used to overcome the reduced formability of ultra high-strength steel is hot forming. Hot formed bumper beams have very high strength. They offer not only mass reduction but also large and compound sweeps. Highly complicated beams can be produced in one piece. The repeatability of dimensions is very good and there is no springback, a phenomenon which is common with cold forming processes. Weldability is excellent due to the low carbon content. The hot forming process involves the following steps: • Blanking/Pre-forming • Heating • Forming/Quenching • De-scaling (if required) The typical material used for hot stamping is boron steel having 0.22% carbon, 0.002% boron, an as-delivered yield strength of 330 MPa (47.9 ksi), an as-delivered tensile strength of 500 MPa (72.5 ksi) and a 27% elongation. The boron steel may be bare or aluminized. If aluminized, a hot dip Type 1 coating (10% silicon) and a coating mass of 120-160 g/m2 (0.7-1.0 mils) are common. After heating and quenching, a hot formed part has very high hardness (470 HV). Thus, it is best to punch any required holes into the blank. In some processes, a pre-formed section is used instead of a developed blank. For example, an open or tubular roll formed section. The developed blanks or pre-formed parts are continuously fed into a furnace. They are heated to austenitizing temperatures, approximately 900ºC (1650ºF). If bare steel is used, the furnace usually has a non-oxidizing atmosphere to suppress scale formation. However, on transfer to the forming/quenching press, some scale will form. If aluminized steel is used, a Fe-Al alloy forms in the furnace on the surface of the steel sheet and scaling is avoided. In the forming/quenching press, the blank/pre-formed section is formed to its final shape using dies maintained at room temperature. The part is held in the die until it is sufficiently quenched. Some tempering is usually required. Tempering may be accomplished by ejecting the part from the forming/quenching dies while it is still fairly hot or by baking the quenched part in an oven. The yield strength of the final hot formed part has increased to about 1140 MPa (165 ksi) and the tensile strength to about 1520 MPa (220 ksi). Elongation has decreased to less than 12%. A part made from aluminized sheet has a hard Fe-Al-Si coating system and is scale free, eliminating the need for de-scaling. Further, this coating system provides corrosion protection for the finished part. A part made from bare sheet does have scale and de-scaling is often employed. De-scaling by blasting with chromium shot imparts a thin film of chromium and iron on the part surface, which prevents oxidation.

3-8

3.5

Bumper beam coatings
Steel bumper beams are coated for one or more of the following reasons: • To improve appearance • To slow or prevent corrosion • To increase resistance to wear The frontside of a facebar is an exposed automotive part and appearance is critical. However, in addition to appearance, the coatings applied to facebars made from hot or cold rolled sheet must also provide adequate corrosion protection and resistance to rock chipping. Zinc coated sheet is not commonly used for facebars. One exception, though, is when the thickness of a facebar is less than 1.00 mm (0.039 inches). In such cases, the zinc provides the extra corrosion protection and rock-chip resistance needed to meet design requirements. Successful trials have been conducted on facebars made from stainless steel. An inherent advantage of such facebars is their corrosion resistance. Thus, stainless steel facebars need only be coated to meet appearance and rock-chip requirements. A reinforcing beam is an unexposed part and the main reason for coating it is to improve corrosion resistance. Sometimes, however, reinforcing beams are given a coating to provide not only corrosion resistance but also appropriate underbody appearance. Steel reinforcing beams are made from hot rolled, cold rolled or zinc coated sheet. Due to its excellent corrosion resistance, stainless sheet in the uncoated condition is a candidate for reinforcing beams. Bumper beam coatings may be applied by a steel mill, an automotive supplier or an OEM. Steel mills supply sheet with metallic coatings (e.g., zinc, zinc-iron) that have been applied by hot dipping or electrocoating. Automotive suppliers apply metallic (e.g., chromium), organic (e.g., E-coat, paint), autodeposition and powder coatings. The OEMs often apply E-coat on their assembly lines. The coatings applied to current bumper beams are shown in Tables 5.4, 5.5 and 5.6. It may be seen that facebars are typically coated with chromium or paint, while reinforcing beams typically receive E-coat. The percentage of front or rear reinforcing beams with a given coating type is given in Figure 3.4 or 3.5. The percentages are calculated by dividing the number of front or rear reinforcing beams with any given coating in Tables 5.4, 5.5 and 5.6 by the total number of front or rear reinforcing beams in Tables 5.4, 5.5 and 5.6. 3.5.1 Zinc or zinc-iron coatings These coatings are described in Section 2.10. 3.5.2 Aluminum coating This coating is described in Section 2.14.

3-9

FIGURE 3.4 COATINGS FRONT REINFORCING BEAMS

HR/CR Sheet + E-coat (81%) Zn Sheet + E-coat (16%) Zn Sheet (1.5%) AI Sheet + E-coat (1.5%)

3-10

FIGURE 3.5 COATINGS REAR REINFORCING BEAMS

HR/CR Sheet + E-coat (81%) Zn Sheet + E-coat (16%) Zn Sheet (1.5%) AI Sheet + E-coat (1.5%)

3-11

3.5.3

Polishing In order to achieve a high quality surface after painting or chromium coating, the steel blanks used to stamp facebars must be smooth and free of surface defects. Traditionally, hot rolled sheet has been used for facebars and the following steps taken for the blanks: • Ordering to special surface and flatness requirements • Pickling • Polishing • Phosphating and lubricating Due to its excellent surface finish, there is a trend to the increased use of cold rolled sheet for facebars. In most cases, cold rolled or stainless sheet blanks do not need polishing and they can go straight to the stamping press line.

3.5.4

Chromium coating Chromium coatings are applied using the electroplating process, which places a thin layer of metal on an object through the use of electricity. Although there are variations, the following steps are typically used to place a chromium coating on a fabricated facebar: • Polishing manually or automatically to remove die marks, orange peel and shock lines introduced during the stamping process. • Cleaning to remove lubricants, polishing compounds and shop soils. • Pickling to remove oxides, rust, scale and weld smoke. • Rinse. • Semi-bright nickel electroplating. • Rinse. • Bright nickel electroplating. • Rinse. • Decorative chromium electroplating. • Rinse. In the electroplating steps described above, the metal coating is deposited onto the facebar by applying an electrical potential between the facebar (cathode) and a suitable anode in the presence of an electrolyte. The electrolyte usually consists of a water solution containing a salt of the metal to be deposited and various other additions that contribute to the electroplating process. When the metallic salt dissolves in the water, the metal atoms are freed to move about. The atoms lose one or more electrons and become positively charged ions. The metallic ions are attracted to the negatively charged facebar. They coat the facebar and regain their lost electrons to become metal once again. Typical coating thickness applied to the significant (visible) surfaces of steel facebars is: Total nickel 30 micrometers (1.2 mils) min. Semi-bright nickel Bright nickel Chromium 40-60% of total nickel 60-40% of total nickel 0.25 micrometers (0.01 mils) min. 0.40 micrometers (0.016 mils) max.

3-12

During electroplating, the process is tightly controlled to place the required thickness of nickel and chromium on the surfaces with high visibility. The frontside of a facebar must have excellent appearance and corrosion resistance. Often, a corrosion resistance of 44 hours using the CASS test outlined in ASTM B368 is specified. To avoid unnecessary cost, the electroplating process is designed to place an absolute minimum of nickel and chromium on the hidden surfaces. For this reason, to provide corrosion protection, the backside of facebars, which are hidden, are given a paint coating. 3.5.5 Conversion coating Phosphate conversion coatings are employed to enhance paint adhesion. By enhancing paint adhesion, they indirectly enhance corrosion resistance. There are several varieties of phosphate coatings (e.g., iron, zinc or manganese). Prior to the application of a conversion coating, the metal surface must be free of shop soils, oil, grease, lubricants and rust. The metal surface must be receptive to the formation of a uniform, adherent chemical film or coating. Surfaces may be cleaned by mechanical methods or, more commonly, by immersion or spray cleaner systems. A phosphate coating is applied by immersing a clean metal part in a hot processing solution for 4-6 minutes, depending on bath chemistry. The weight (thickness) of the conversion coating is dependent on the manner in which the part is cleaned, the immersion time, the composition of the processing bath and the composition of the metal itself. 3.5.6 Electrocoating (E-coating) E-coat is an organic coating applied by the electrocoating method. Electrocoating has the ability to coat all areas of complex parts including recessed areas and edges. E-coat is a durable, lasting coating. It is used as a primer, top coat or both. Parts are usually E-coated via a conveyor system in one continuous process. Although there are variations, the usual steps in applying E-coat to a steel part are: alkaline cleaner, water rinse, surface conditioner, zinc phosphate coating (see Section 3.5.4), rinse, seal coating, de-ionized water rinse, E-coat application, permeate rinse, final de-ionized water rinse, and curing oven. E-coating systems are known as anodic or cathodic depending on whether the part is the anode or the cathode in the electrochemical process. Cathodic systems are common since they require less surface preparation and they provide better corrosion resistance. The E-coat process requires a coating tank or bath in which to immerse the part. The bath, containing water and paint, is given a positive charge (cathodic system). The part, with a negative charge, when immersed in the bath, attracts the positively charged paint particles. The paint particles coalesce as a coating (E-coat) on the part surface. E-coat thickness typically applied to bumper beams ranges from 20 to 25 micrometers (0.8 to 1.0 mils). 3-13

3.5.7

Paint coating Paint is a cost effective corrosion protection method. It acts as a barrier to a corrosive solution or electrolyte and it prevents, or retards, the transfer of electrochemical charge from a corrosive solution to the metal beneath the paint. Paint is a complex mixture of materials designed to protect the substrate and to enhance appearance. It is composed of binders, carriers, pigments and additives. Binders provide the major properties to the paint while the carriers (solvents and/or water) adjust the viscosity of the paint for the application. Pigments impart specific properties such as corrosion resistance and color. The type of pigment and its volume are critical to the optimization of properties such as adhesion, permeability, resistance to blistering and gloss. Additives include thickeners, flow agents, catalysts and inhibitors. Paints are often identified by the type of polymers employed. Commonly used paint coatings include: • Alkyd and epoxy ester (air dried or baked) • Two-part coatings such as urethane • Latex coatings such as vinyl, acrylic or styrene polymer combinations • Water soluble coatings (versions of alkyd, epoxy ester or polyester) Baked enamel basecoat/rigid clearcoat systems are commonly applied to the frontside of facebars. The process steps include: • Conversion coating (see Section 3.5.3) • E-coating (see Section 3.5.4) • Enamel basecoating • Enamel clearcoating • Baking.

3.5.8

Autodeposition coating Autodeposition is a waterborne process that depends on chemical reactions to achieve deposition. The composition of an autodeposition bath includes a mildly acidic latex emulsion polymer, de-ionized water and proprietary ingredients. The chemical phenomenon consists of the mildly acidic bath attacking the steel parts being immersed and causing an immediate surface reaction that releases iron ions. These ions react with the latex in solution causing a deposition on the surface of the steel parts. The newly deposited organic film is adherent yet quite porous. Thus, the chemical activators can rapidly diffuse to reach the surface of the metal, allowing continued coating formation. The coating thickness is time and temperature related. Initially, the process is quite rapid, but slows down as the film begins to build. As long as the parts being coated are in the bath, the process will continue. Typically, film thickness is from 15 to 25 micrometers (0.6 to 0.8 mils). Autodeposition will coat any metal the liquid touches. Thus, an advantage of this coating is its ability to coat the inside of tubing and deep cavities. Autodeposition does not require a conversion coating and the coating cures at a relatively low temperature. 3-14

3.5.9

Powder coating In the powder coating process, a dry powder is applied to a clean object. After application, the coated object is heated, fusing the powder into a smooth continuous film. Powders are available in a wide range of chemical types, coating properties and colors. The most widely used types include acrylic, vinyl, epoxy, nylon, polyester and urethane. Modern application techniques for applying powders fall into four basic categories: fluidized bed process, electrostatic bed process, electrostatic spray process and plasma spray process. The electrostatic spray process is the most commonly used method for applying powders. In this process, the electrically conductive and grounded object is sprayed with charged, non-conducting powder particles. The charged particles are attracted to the substrate and cling to it. Oven heat then fuses the particles into a smooth continuous film. Coating thicknesses in the range of 25 to 125 micrometers (1 to 5 mils) are obtained.

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4. Manufacturing considerations

4.1

Forming considerations
High-strength and ultra high-strength steels have less ductility, and hence less formability, than lower strength steels. Thus, care must be taken in part design and forming method selection. In addition, springback increases with yield strength and it must be accounted for in the process design. Sections 4.1.1 through 4.1.5 provide “Guidelines” and “Rules of Thumb” for the roll forming and stamping processes. The Guidelines and Rules of Thumb are based on practical experience. Their use will help alleviate formability and springback issues associated with the roll forming and stamping of high-strength and ultra high-strength steels. 4.1.1 Guidelines for roll forming high-strength steel All of the high-strength steels in Table 2.2 can be roll formed, pre-pierced and swept after roll forming. The following Guidelines apply (Reference 4.3): Do: • Select the appropriate number of roll stands for the material being formed. Remember that the higher the steel strength, the greater the number of stands required on the roll former. • Use the minimum allowable bend radius for the material in order to minimize springback. • Position holes away from the bend radius to help achieve desired tolerances. • Establish mechanical and dimensional tolerances for successful part production. • Use appropriate lubrication. • Use a suitable maintenance schedule for the roll forming line. • Anticipate end flare (a form of springback). End flare is caused by stresses that build up during the roll forming process. • Recognize that as a part is being swept (or reformed after roll forming), the compression of metal can cause sidewall buckling, which leads to fit-up problems. Don’t: • Do not roll form with worn tooling, as the use of worn tools increases the severity of buckling. • Do not expect steels of similar yield strength from different steel sources to behave similarly. • Do not over-specify tolerances.

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4.1.2

Guidelines for roll forming ultra high-strength steel. All of the ultra high-strength steels in Table 2.3 can be roll formed, pre-pierced and swept after roll forming. The following Guidelines apply (Reference 6.1): 1. The minimum bend radius should be four times the thickness of the steel to avoid fracture. 2. Springback magnitude can range from ten degrees for 120X steel to 30 degrees for M220HT steel, as compared to one to three degrees for mild steel. Springback should be accounted for when designing the roll forming process. 3. Due to the higher spingback, it is difficult to achieve reasonable tolerances on sections with large radii (radii greater than 20 times the thickness of the steel). 4. Rolls should be designed with a constant radius and an evenly distributed overbend from pass to pass. 5. About 50% more passes (compared to mild steel) are required when roll forming ultra high-strength steel. The number of passes required is affected by the mechanical properties of the steel, section depth-to-steel thickness ratio, tolerance requirements, pre-punched holes and notches. 6. Due to the higher number of passes and higher material strength, the horsepower requirement for forming is increased. 7. Due to the higher material strength, the forming pressure is also higher. Larger shaft diameters should be considered. Thin, slender rolls should be avoided. 8. During roll forming, avoid undue permanent elongation of portions of the cross section that will be compressed during the sweeping process.

4.1.3

General guidelines for stamping high-strength and ultra high-strength steels. All of the high-strength streels in Table 2.2 may be stamped into bumper beams. Additionally, some ultra high-strength steels in Table 2.3, such as 120X, 135X, 140X and 140T, may be stamped, bend stretched, drawn and flanged. The following guidelines apply (Reference 6.2): PRODUCT DESIGN • Avoid designing parts that require a draw forming operation (i.e., metal must flow or stretch off the binder). • Maintain gentle shape changes and constant cross sections wherever possible in part design. These factors become more important as material strength is increased.

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• Keep the depth of the part to a minimum when the part has excessive sweeps in the plan view or elevation. • Avoid designing parts with closed corners that require draw die operations. • Keep the flanges as short as possible when there is a deep-formed offset flange. DIE PROCESS • Try to form the parts completely to the depth desired in the first forming operation. • Minimize stretch and compression of metal to reduce residual strains that cause springback and twist in the part. • Use high pressure on the draw binder and balancing blocks. They allow the sheet metal to flow without wrinkling. • Keep the side walls perpendicular (90 degrees to the base of the die). • Avoid open-angle forming. Overbend the flanges 6 to 10 degrees. • On straight channel-shaped parts, consider a solid form die. • Pre-forming the sheet steel is a method commonly used to accumulate enough material to ensure that adequate metal is available for forming without splitting or excessive thinning. DIE DESIGN • Maintain die forming radii as sharp as possible. Try to fold the metal rather then stretch it over a radius. Folding reduces curl of the sidewalls and springback of the weld flanges. • Maintain an even draw depth and length of line. • Design robust dies to minimize flexing of the die components. DIE CONSTRUCTION / TRYOUT • Sidewalls should be as tight as possible to lessen springback. • To reduce shock and press tonnage requirements, a minimum shear of four to six times metal thicknesses is required for cutting dies. This minimum shear also reduces noise on break through. • Trim and pierce dies should have 7% to 10% die clearance.

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FIGURE 4.1 a) RULES OF THUMB - SPRINGBACK

2

The techniques shown in Figures 4.1 a) through 4.1 c) can help compensate for springback when forming a 90-degree bend if a sharp radius or a tight flange (see Figure 4.3) is not adequate. Refer to Figure 4.1a) 1) Restrike the flange at an overbend angle between 3 and 7 degrees, depending on the material strength and/or thickness. 2) Set up part in die to allow for overbend. 3) Undercut the lower die steel and let the metal overbend. 4) Pre-form the top part surface prior to flanging and flatten the part using the die pad.

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FIGURE 4.1 b) RULES OF THUMB - SPRINGBACK

Refer to Figure 4.1b) 5) The addition of stiffening darts helps maintain a 90-degree flange. 6) Coining a flange radius as the die bottoms will help maintain form and helps prevent springback. 7) An extension of the upper flange steel allows for extra pressure to be applied on the formed radius. This is a difficult process to control, but it could help in special conditions, particularly on heavier gauge steels.

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FIGURE 4.1 c) RULES OF THUMB - SPRINGBACK

Refer to Figure 4.1c) 8) Providing a vertical step in the flange stiffens and straightens the flange, stopping sidewall curl as well as springback. 9) Rotary benders are used by many manufacturers to control springback, as the metal is rolled around the radius instead of flanging. Positive comments on this method promote its ability to overbend the flange. 10) Place a 90 durometer urethane behind flanging steels in a free state (not compressed). Clearance holes through the flanging steels allow the screws to hold the urethane in place. Please note the urethane must stay 0.25 inches (6.4 mm) off the bottom of the pocket. This space leaves room for the urethane deflection. Tighten clearance until desired effect is achieved. 11) By adding a horizontal step along the flange, the flange is stiffened, resulting in reduced springback.

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FIGURE 4.2 RULES OF THUMB - DIE FLANGE STEELS

Refer to Figure 4.2 1) Flange steel clearance should be 90% of metal thickness, but no greater than metal thickness. Maintaining a tight condition helps to prevent springback. 2) Because of the tight clearance, the die steels should be as hard as possible. Therefore, it is recommended that air-hardened tool steel or harder material be used, and a surface coating be applied to increase hardness and improve lubricity. 3) Air-hardened tool steel (D2) is recommended for flange steel (Rockwell 58 - 62 on the C-scale). However, other materials may be used as long as they have a surface coating applied which resists scoring. 4) All flanging radii should be as sharp as possible without fracturing the sheet metal during forming. The flange radii should be something less than metal thickness. Start by just breaking the sharp corner and work from there until you can make the flange without splitting the sheet metal.

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FIGURE 4.3 RULES OF THUMB - HAT SECTION

Refer to Figure 4.3 1) Maintain a constant depth on hat sections, if at all possible. 2) The size of the radius is to be kept as small as possible, normally less than metal thickness. 3) Form 90-degree side walls on the hat section whenever possible. 4) If the sidewall is not 90 degrees, try to balance the forming with the same angle on the opposite side of the hat section. 5) Unequal residual strain and/or compression on opposite sidewalls has a tendency to twist the entire rail.

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FIGURE 4.4 RULES OF THUMB - V-CHANNEL

Refer to Figure 4.4 1) Form part so that the V-channel runs with the grain of the steel. This orientation will minimize springback. 2) The inside angle, or upper V-shape, controls the corner radius. The angle of the V-shape is controlled by the lower steel. 3) The outside, lower female shape should have the smaller radius. The side mating surfaces, however, must match those of the anvil exactly in order to control the final angle of the V-shape.

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FIGURE 4.5 RULES OF THUMB - RADIUS SETTING

When forming a hat section, the action of the die can aid the retention of shape by setting the corner radii.

Refer to Figure 4.5 1) As the flange steels make contact with the sheet metal blank, an initial crown is formed. 2) The flange steels then enter over the die-post radii and force the metal to conform to the lower die. The crown remains in the part. It is best if both sides enter simultaneously. 3) The die is now very close to its home position. The crown remains and the lower flanges are starting to form. 4) As the die is closed, the lower flanges are formed with corner radii as sharp as possible. The top corners are forced outward as the crown is hit home by the upper die. If the part retains a crown, then a negative crown can be incorporated to minimize springback.

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FIGURE 4.6 a) RULES OF THUMB - COMBINATION FORM & FLANGE DIE

Using a combination form-and-flange die is basic to meeting high-strength steel requirements. A general idea of how this die works follows. The die initially forms the contour in the developed blank using the upper pressure pad. The metal is then locked, using the lock beads to prevent feeding the metal in from the ends. The metal is allowed to flow in freely from the sides without restrictions within the ring, just a metal thickness apart to stop wrinkling. The flange steels are maintained as sharp as possible, and the side walls are tight. This procedure controls the springback and sidewall curl in order to produce a quality part. If the part is straight, see Figure 4.5 for more information. The four-piece form and flange die shown above incorporates features that lend themselves to the production of hat section parts. Remember that in order for this type of die to work, the finished part must be off the ring when the part is completely formed in order to avoid upstroke deformation. The unique features of this die are as follows:

Refer to Figure 4.6a) 1) The upper pressure pad gives the sheet metal blank its initial contour and holds the blank in location. 2) The lower ring (known also as a lower pressure pad) controls the flow of the metal and prevents wrinkling as the part is being formed (See 5 and 6 on Figure 4.6 b).

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FIGURE 4.6 b) RULES OF THUMB - COMBINATION FORM & FLANGE DIE

AIR PINS

Refer to Figure 4.6a) and Figure 4.6b) 3) Flange steels should be kept tight to the lower post to help prevent sidewall curl. 4) A smaller-than-metal thickness radius on the lower post helps prevent springback. 5) Restraining beads are used to restrain the flow in at the ends of the rail. The metal must flow off the ring and on to the die post to prevent the panel from being deformed by the upstroke of the die. 6) Metal thickness clearance between the upper and lower ring under high pressure is needed to allow the metal to flow in from the sides without buckling. 7) Balancing blocks (leveling blocks, kiss blocks or spacer blocks) are used to control the clearance between the upper form steels and the lower ring surfaces in order to adjust for metal flow. 8) If the rail is open-ended, there is no need to restrict metal flow unless stretch is required to help prevent twist.

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FIGURE 4.7 RULES OF THUMB - FORMING BEADS

Refer to Figure 4.7 1) Half-round draw beads are used to control metal flow. They restrict the flow and force the metal to stretch or control feed as required to produce the draw shape of the part. 2) Lock beads are generally used to stop the metal from moving. This condition is pure stretch. In general, it is recommended that this type of bead be avoided in dies used to form high-strength steel material. 3) Start lock bead configurations with radii small enough to shear the sheet metal blank. Then uniformly dress the radii to eliminate cutting, but still locking the metal flow. When the beads need reworking, repeat this procedure.

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FIGURE 4.8 RULES OF THUMB - FORMING AN EMBOSS

When forming an emboss or surface formation into a relatively flat high-strength steel part, the break lines need to be sharp and crisp. You must coin these lines into the part to set them and reduce any springback or distortion. Sidewalls of the embossment must be 45 degrees or less from the surface. Refer to Figure 4.8 1) This formation is totally within the part’s perimeter and does not extend to the trim. 2) This example shows the formation open to the part’s trim edge. This formation causes excess or loose metal along the edge. Therefore, it is recommended that a short flange and/or small bead be added to stiffen and eliminate this condition.

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FIGURE 4.9 RULES OF THUMB - EDGE SPLITTING

It is important that the trim quality be maintained to prevent edgesplitting from work hardening. Refer to Figure 4.9 1) When forming an outside corner, the trim edge has a tendency to wrinkle. In order to minimize this wrinkling condition, it is recommended that the flange in the area of the wrinkle be as short as possible. 2) Inside corners have a tendency to split. Therefore, try to make the trim line as long as possible by scalloping the edge. A combination of shortening the flange and lengthening the trim line should help stop the splitting. If not, a formation change has to be made to add material to the split area.

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FIGURE 4.10 RULES OF THUMB - PART DESIGN

Refer to Figure 4.10 1) The following are general characteristics of high-strength steel (HSS) that should be taken into consideration during the part design phase: · HSS will stretch, generally in the range of 2% to 6%. · HSS will resist compression due to the hardness of the material. These characteristics of HSS generally require that parts be designed for form and flange die processes rather than draw dies. 2) In some cases, it is necessary to compensate for these material characteristics by designing in darts and/or notches to equalize the length of line and to help maintain part dimensional integrity. 3) The above diagram shows how these darts and notches could be applied to an HSS part.

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FIGURE 4.11 RULES OF THUMB - DIE CONSTRUCTION

Refer to Figure 4.11 1) Due to the forces exerted during the forming process of high-strength steel, dies must be built with extra strength. Extra strength is necessary to prevent die flexing. The following are ways to compensate for the unwanted flexing in the die: • Block in or heel cam drivers. • Use heavy-duty guide pins and bushings. • Key in the sections and use large fasteners. • Provide for positive returns. • Provide heavy-duty die shoes with appropriate reinforcement. 2) Provide for die adjustability during construction. It is important to provide these adjustments because it is undesirable to machine the hardened and coated die details. 3) It is of prime importance to balance the forces exerted on the die during forming. When practical, form two parts at a time, or produce the right and left hand part in the same die.

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FIGURE 4.12 RULES OF THUMB - DEVELOPED BLANKS

Refer to Figure 4.12 1) When using high-strength steel material for BIW (Body-In-White) structural parts, testing has demonstrated that the recommended type of forming is with a flange or form die. This type of die utilizes a developed blank. 2) This blank should be as close to finish trim as possible. Only in areas where the trim is critical should a finish trim operation be added.

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FIGURE 4.13 RULES OF THUMB - TRIMMING

Refer to Figure 4.13 1) Because high-strength steel (HSS) is more brittle and harder than mild steel, and because it is not as ductile as a result of the strengthening mechanisms in the metallurgy, it is more difficult to trim. HSS requires approximately the same die clearance between the upper and lower trim steels as mild sheet steel. This clearance is approximately 7% to 10% of metal thickness per side. The range of the hardness and the thickness determines the exact amount. 2) Dies must be sharpened more frequently when trimming HSS. They also require rigidity to prevent the die from flexing, which can cause dulling of the trim steels. 3) It is recommended that extremely hard cutting edges be provided on trim steels. Therefore, use of S-7 or other shock-resistant steel with a minimum of 58-62 Rockwell (C-scale) is recommended.

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FIGURE 4.14 RULES OF THUMB - DIE SHEAR

Refer to Figure 4.14 1) Due to excessive shock during blanking or trimming of highstrength steel, a full four times (4x) metal thickness shear is recommended to protect both press and die. In order to prolong the die life of either a blank or trim die, die shear must be added. Advantages of the die shear 1) Lessens tonnage requirements. 2) Saves the press; reduces shock on the press. 3) Lengthens the die life between tune-ups and sharpening.

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4.1.4

Guidelines for hat sections stamped from high-strength or ultra high-strength steels. Basic guidelines for designing and processing hat section parts of high-strength or ultra high-strength steel are (Reference 6.3): Do: • Form channels as close to finished shape as possible. • Avoid closed ends on channels. • Utilize small die radii. • A combination of low pad pressure and tight clearance minimizes curl and springback. • Allow for extra development time. Don’t: • Assume high-strength and ultra high-strength steel will behave like mild steel. • Depend on traditional die design criteria.

4.1.5

Rules of Thumb for high-strength steel stampings. Common concerns associated with the use of high-strength steel in a stamping operation include springback, splitting, tolerances, die design, die life and blank design. The automotive industry routinely produces stamped high-strength steel parts. Over the past several years, many lessons have been learned through extensive practical experience. These lessons have been summarized in the form of Rules of Thumb in Figures 4.1 through 4.14 (Reference 6.2). The application of the Rules of Thumb will alleviate issues associated with high-strength steel at the part design and die design stages. They will shorten die development time and help ensure production success in the stamping of high-strength steel parts.

4.2 Welding considerations
High-strength and ultra high-strength steels are routinely welded on a production basis. Most assemblies can be welded with conventional equipment using weld cycles similar to conventional ones. In most applications, high-strength or ultra high-strength steel is welded to mild steel using gas metal arc or high-frequency welding. When welding ultra high-strength steels, specific weld windows should be developed. With nominal modification to standard weld procedures, weight reduction may be achieved with high-strength and ultra highstrength bumper beam assemblies.

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4.2.1 Steel chemistry Welding procedures must suit the chemistry of the steel grade being welded. Steel specifications traditionally set limits on the main elements in a steel grade (e.g., carbon, manganese). However, most steel grades contain additional elements that have not been specified. Thus, when selecting suitable welding procedures, it is important to identify the levels of any unspecified elements in a bumper steel grade. Recommended Practice, SAE J2340 (Reference 6.4), recognizes this fact and places limits on unspecified elements. The high-strength and ultra high-strength steels covered by SAE J2340 are shown in Table 4.1. The unspecified elements permitted in the SAE J2340 grades are shown in Table 4.2. 4.2.2 High-strength and ultra high-strength steels. When welding high-strength and ultra high-strength steels, it is important to consider several factors usually not considered when welding low-strength steels (e.g., welding process, welding parameters and material combinations). Integration of these considerations can result in a successful welding system. For instance, a low heat input resistance seam welding method has been successfully employed for commercial production of bumper beams made from M190HT steel. Various welding methods (arc welding, resistance welding, laser welding and high-frequency welding) all have unique advantages for the welding of specific sheet steel combinations. Factors such as production rate, heat input, weld metal dilution and weld location access may make one welding system more desirable than another system. For instance, a high-strength steel that is problematic for spot welding may not exhibit the same difficulty in arc or highfrequency welding. It is important to consider material combinations when employing welding processes that solidify from a molten pool, or that are constrained by thickness ratio. In general, caution should be exercised when spot welding a high-strength or ultra high-strength steel to itself because of possible weld metal interfacial fracture tendencies. However, even a problematic higher strength steel can be spot welded to a mild steel. 4.2.3 Welding processes On behalf of the Bumper Project of the American Iron and Steel Institute, David Dickinson, The Ohio State University, conducted a survey on bumper component welding (Reference 4.5). The survey identified the welding processes that are currently used in bumper manufacturing, or were used to produce prototype bumpers. The processes are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) Resistance spot welding (RSW) Resistance projection welding (RPW) Resistance seam welding (RSeW) Resistance projection seam welding (RPSeW) High frequency and induction resistance seam welding (RSeW-HF&I) Upset welding (UW) Friction welding (FRW) Laser beam welding (LBW) Laser beam and plasma arc welding (LBW/PAW)

A brief description of each welding process is given in Sections 4.2.3.1. to 4.2.3.11. 4-22

TABLE 4.1 SAE J2340 STEELS AND STRENGTH GRADES

Steel Description Dent Resistant Non Bake Hardenable Dent Resistant Bake Hardenable High-Strength Solution Strengthened High-Strength low-alloy High-Strength Recovery Annealed Ultra High-Strength Dual Phase Ultra High-Strength Low Carbon Martensite

Grade Type A B S X&Y R DH & DL M

Available Strength Grade - MPa 180, 210, 250, 280 180, 210, 250, 280 300, 340 300, 340, 380, 420, 490, 550 490, 550, 700, 830 500, 600, 700, 800, 950, 1000 800, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500

TABLE 4.2 SAE J2340 CHEMICAL LIMITS ON UNSPECIFIED ELEMENTS

Maximum Percent Allowed Element P S Cu Ni Cr Mo
Notes: 1) P= phosphorus Mo= molybdenum

Type A, B & R 0.100 0.015 0.200 0.200 0.150 0.060
S= sulphur

Type S 0.100 0.020 0.200 0.200 0.150 0.060
Cu= copper Ni= nickel

Type X & Y 0.060 0.015 0.200 0.200 0.150 0.060
Cr= chromium

Type D & M 0.020 0.015 0.200 0.200 0.150 0.06

2) Maximum phosphorus shall be less than 0.050 on grades 180A & 180B. 3) The sum of Cu, Ni, Cr and Mo shall not exceed 0.50% when none of these elements are specified. When one or more of Cu, Ni, Cr or Mo are specified, the sum limit of 0.50% does not apply. However, the individual limits for the unspecified elements apply.

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4.2.3.1 Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) This process, schematically illustrated in Figure 4.15a), utilizes a direct current electrical power supply with the electrode positive (DCEP). The positive electrode attracts electrons flowing in the circuit. The electrons act to melt the electrode wire that deposits within the weld metal, mixing with molten material from the base metal. Shielding to prevent oxidation of the hot wire and molten weld pool region is provided by an inert shielding gas directed into the weld region by the gas nozzle. The consumable electrode material is selected to match the strength (and other important characteristics) of the base metal. The wire guide and contact tube must be periodically replaced in order to maintain good electrical contact. Also, the gas nozzle must be occasionally cleaned of spattered material. The welding current is varied by changing the wire feed speed. Higher wire feed speeds produce higher welding currents. The arc length can be varied by changing the voltage setting. Higher voltages produce longer arcs. As illustrated in Figure 4.15b), there are four basic methods in which the wire is transferred to the molten weld pool: short-circuiting, globular, pulsed spray and spray transfer. These transfer modes have been used to describe the GMAW process itself. Terms such as “short arc”, “dip transfer MIG” and “spray” are all common non-standard terms used to describe the GMAW process and the mode of operation. Short-circuiting transfer characteristics At low current and voltage, short circuit transfer occurs. The weld is a shallow, penetrating one with low heat input. Using GMAW in this mode allows welding in all positions since the weld puddle is small. In comparison to the other three modes of transfer, this method is slowest (low productivity). This mode produces large amounts of spatter if welding variables are not optimized. This mode, also know as short arc or dip transfer, is used primarily for sheet metal applications. Globular transfer characteristics This mode of transfer is obtained at intermediate current and voltage levels or at high current and voltage levels with 100% CO2 shielding gas. It has higher heat input and penetration than short circuit transfer. A larger weld pool makes it more difficult to weld in the over-head position. It produces significant amounts of spatter. Pulsed spray and spray transfer characteristics Spray is achieved at higher welding current and voltage with argon or helium based shielding gas (over 80%Ar). This high-heat, deep-penetrating weld limits the application to the flat position. This mode produces little or no spatter and is known for the high deposition rate (higher productivity). Pulsing the current where spray transfer occurs allows for better control for out-of-position welding.

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FIGURE 4.15 GAS METAL ARC WELDING (GMAW)

a) SCHEMATIC

b) METHODS OF WIRE TRANSFER

c) EFFECT OF SHIELDING GAS

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In GMAW, the shielding gas (used for atmospheric shielding) also affects the type of metal transfer in the process, penetration depth, and the bead shape. These factors are schematically illustrated in Figure 4.15c). The ionization potential of the gas is the ability of the gas to give up electrons and is the characteristic that determines the plasma characteristics of the arc. The ionization potential (IP) of the gas can have an effect on welding characteristics such as arc heat, stability, & starting: • Helium, with high ionization potential, inhibits spray transfer in steels. • CO2, with moderate ionization potential also has limited spray transfer. • Argon, with low IP, promotes the spray mode - particularly at higher currents. Surface tension of the weld pool and metal droplets are also affected by the type of shielding gas. Surface tension affects: • The drop size. • Puddle flow. • Spatter Argon results in high surface tension with shallower penetration. CO2 results in low surface tension with deeper penetration. The advantages and limitations of GMAW are: Advantages Limitations • High deposition rates • Equipment is more expensive and • High Productivity complex than some manual welding • No slag removal processes • Continuous welding • Process variants/metal transfer • Easily automated mechanisms make the process more • Joint fit-up tolerance complex and the process window more difficult to control • Restricted access (the GMAW gun is larger than other electrode holders) • Spatter • Porosity (especially with coated materials) • Higher heat input than some processes In summary, the GMAW process is ideally suited for many bumper beam applications because of its high deposition rate that results in high weld productivity. It is a process that is used on automated and continuous welding lines and is often linked with robots and robotic manufacturing cells. It is tolerant to moderate joint misalignment and thus is suited for welding materials that might experience some forming springback. It is a relatively clean process requiring no slag removal from the weldment as do other types of welding processes. It requires only occasional tip and gas cap maintenance.

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GMAW equipment is more expensive than most manual welding equipment. The complexity of process variants makes process control more difficult, thus requiring experienced personnel. The weld gun may have difficulty reaching into restricted spaces; thus, design of parts and supplemental machinery must be considered. Spatter and porosity discontinuities may occur if process parameters are not fairly accurately controlled, leading to the need for weldment inspection and possibly clean up and post weld repair. Finally, heat input may need to be controlled, particularly when welding high-strength and ultra high-strength bumper steels. A useful reference document for GMAW is ANSI/AWS/SAE Specification for Automotive and Light Truck Component Weld Quality - Arc Welding (Reference 6.7). 4.2.3.2 Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) As illustrated in Figure 4.16a), FCAW uses a tubular wire that is filled with a flux. The arc is initiated between the continuous wire electrode and the workpiece. The flux, which is contained within the core of the tubular electrode, melts during welding, supplying some cleaning action for the weld metal. It resolidifies as a slag behind the weld shielding the hot weld from oxidation. Vapor formant materials, contained in the flux core, decompose and additionally shield the weld pool from the atmosphere. Direct current, electrode positive (DCEP) is commonly employed as the FCAW process. There are two basic variants of the FCAW process as shown in Figure 4.16b): 1. Self-shielded (without shielding gas). 2. Gas-shielded (with shielding gas). Each variant uses different agents in the flux core. Usually, selfshielded FCAW contains significant quantities of gas forming powder that make this variant useful in outdoor conditions where wind would blow away a shielding gas. The fluxing agents in self-shielded FCAW are designed not only to shield the weld pool and metal droplets from the atmosphere, but also to deoxidize the weld pool. In gas-shielded FCAW, supplemental shielding gas is provided. Thus, the flux generates only a secondary source of gas shielding from the atmosphere. The main role of the flux is to support the weld pool for out-of-position welds. Gas-shielded FCAW is often used to increase the productivity of out-of-position welding and to achieve deeper penetration welds. The advantages and limitations of FCAW are: Advantages • High deposition rates • Deep penetration • High-quality • Less pre-cleaning than GMAW • Slag covering helps with larger out-of-position welds • Self-shielded FCAW is draft tolerant Limitations • Slag must be removed • More smoke and fumes than GMAW • Spatter • FCAW wire is expensive • Equipment is more expensive and complex than that for manual welding

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FIGURE 4.16 FLUX CORED ARC WELDING (FCAW)

a) SCHEMATIC

b) PROCESS VARIANTS (Reference 4.6)

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In summary, the FCAW process offers deeper penetration and higher deposition rates than the GMAW process, particularly in out-of-position welds. Perhaps one of the most important advantages of FCAW, particularly in bumper welding, is a tolerance for material that has not been rigorously cleaned as the flux aids in the cleaning operation during welding. However, slag must be removed from the weldment, and smoke must be removed from the manufacturing environment. If weld parameters are not set properly, spatter on the weldment may become a problem. A useful reference document for FCAW is ANSI/AWS/SAE Specification for Automotive and Light Truck Component Weld Quality – Arc Welding (Reference 6.7). 4.2.3.3 Resistance spot welding (RSW) Resistance spot welding is the most common of the resistance welding processes. It is used extensively in the automotive, appliance, furniture, and aircraft industries to join sheet materials. In this process, water-cooled, copper electrodes, as illustrated in Figure 4.17a), are used to clamp the sheets to be welded into place. The force applied to the electrodes insures intimate contact between all the parts in the weld configuration. A current is then passed across the electrodes through the sheets. The contact resistances, which are relatively high compared to the bulk material resistance, cause heating at the contact surfaces. The combination of heat extraction by the chilled electrodes and rapid contact surface heating causes the maximum temperature to occur roughly around the faying surface. As the material near the faying surface heats, the bulk resistance rises rapidly while the contact resistance falls. Again, the peak resistance is near the faying surface, resulting in the highest temperatures in that region. Eventually melting occurs at the faying surface, and a molten nugget develops. On termination of the welding current, the weld cools rapidly under the influence of the chilled electrodes and causes the nugget to solidify, joining the two sheets. Acceptable-sized weld nuggets can be produced over a range of currents as illustrated in the operating window or “lobe curve” presented in Figure 4.17b). At the lower end of the current range is the minimum nugget size, which can be found in a resistance-welding manual and is based on the diameter of the electrode face. At the upper end of the current range is the expulsion limit. Expulsion is a condition in which the weld nugget grows to a size that cannot be contained by the electrode force; molten metal bursts out of the weld seam. The current range over which an acceptable nugget size is obtained is a measure of the robustness of the welding process. A wide current range indicates that significant variations in the process can occur while maintaining some minimum weld quality. A narrow range, on the other hand, indicates that minor variations in process conditions can result in unacceptable weld quality. The lobe curve graphically represents the range of acceptable welding currents as a function of welding time. The minimum and expulsion currents are determined for a number of welding times at a particular electrode force. Separate lines are drawn to connect the minimum weld size currents and the expulsion currents. The required current level for making a consistently sized weld (presumably just below expulsion) is probably the simplest method of defining weldability. This measure of weldability is an indication of the size of welding transformers required to weld the materials of interest. 4-29

FIGURE 4.17 RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING (RSW)

a) SCHEMATIC

b) LOBE CURVE

FIGURE 4.18 RESISTANCE PROJECTION WELDING (RPW)

SEQUENCE OF PROJECTION COLLAPSE 4-30

The advantages and limitation of RSW are: Advantages • High speed, (<0.1 seconds in automotive spot welds) • Excellent for sheet metal applications [thickness <6.4 mm (0.25 inches)] • No filler metal Limitations • Higher equipment costs than arc welding • Surface indentation • Nondestructive testing • Low tensile and fatigue strength • Not portable • Electrode wear • Lap joint requires additional metal

RSW is widely used in bumper manufacturing because of its high speed and excellent adaptability for sheet materials. However, RSW requires a sizable investment in equipment and the equipment is mostly non-portable. RSW welds are difficult to inspect nondestructively and they often have lower tensile and fatigue properties than the base metal. Well-maintained electrodes are required to ensure the highest quality spot-welds. In addition, surface indentations are often observed at the location where the welds are made. In many applications these are not objectionable. However, in cases where surface appearance is critical, the resistance projection welding process should be used. Two useful references on the evaluation of resistance spot welds are the Weld Quality Test Method Manual published by the Auto/Steel Partnership (Reference 6.5) and the ANSI/AWS/SAE Standard Recommended Practices for Test Methods for Evaluating the Resistance Spot Welding Behavior of Automotive Sheet Steel Materials (Reference 6.6). It should be noted that these standard test methods are intended for yield strengths up to 420 MPa (60.9 ksi) and modifications may be required for higher yield strengths. 4.2.3.4 Resistance projection welding (RPW) RPW, as illustrated in Figure 4.18, is a variation on resistance spot welding. Basically, a protrusion (projection) is placed on one of the two materials to be welded. This projection is then brought into contact against the second material. The welding sequence is similar to that for resistance spot welding. The welding electrodes are used to apply both force and current across the configuration. The projection constricts current flow (It is a point of high resistance in the welding circuit, and heating occurs preferentially at this point). As the material heats, it becomes soft, and the projection collapses under the force applied by the welding electrodes. Due to the amount of plastic flow involved, melting is not always necessary to form a sound weld. The sequence of events during the formation of a projection weld is shown in Figure 4.18. In illustration (a), the projection is shown in contact with the mating sheet. In illustration (b), the current has started to heat the projection to welding temperature. The electrode force causes the heated projection to collapse rapidly and fusion takes place as show in illustration (c). The completed weld is shown in illustration (d).

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Projection welding is not limited to sheets. Any joint whose projection (contact area) is small compared to the thickness of the parts being welded is a candidate for projection welding. The purpose of a projection is to localize the heat and pressure at a specific location in a joint. The projection design determines the current density required. Projections in sheet metal parts are generally made by embossing, as opposed to projections in solid metal pieces that are made by either machining or forging. In the case of stamped parts, projections are generally located on the edge of the stamping. The advantages and limitations of RPW are: Advantages • Satisfactory heat balance for welding difficult combinations • Uniform results • Increased output because welds are being made simultaneously • Longer electrode life • Welds may be closely spaced • Parts easily welded in assembly fixture • Improved surface appearance • Parts welded that cannot be resistance spot welded Limitations • Requires an additional operation to form projections • Requires accurate control of projection height and precise alignment of the welding dies with multiple welds • Requires higher capacity equipment than spot welding • Sheet metal thickness limited by ability to form projections

RPW offers significant production advantages. The welding electrodes are flat and contact a large surface area on the parts being joined. Also, electrode life is improved and the electrodes require less attention and maintenance that those used in resistance spot welding. In resistance spot welding, if the welds are too closely spaced, the welding current is shunted through a previously finished weld. In RPW, multiple welds may be made simultaneously. Thus, shunting is less of an issue and welds may be more closely spaced than in resistance spot welding. However, if more that three projections are welded simultaneously, the height of the projections must be uniform to avoid some projections fusing before others have made contact. Alternately, ample pressure in conjunction with a double weld cycle (one schedule) may be run. The first weld should be short in time and high in current. The first hit buries and evens out the projections. The second weld should be longer in time and lower in current. The second hit tempers the welds. In conventional spot welding, parts may be located by an assembly fixture and moved to make a second or third spot-weld. When using projection welding, the parts are simply placed in a nest and, with one operation of the machine; all welds are made at once. One part may be located in relation to the other by punching holes in one and matching them with semi-punchings from the other.

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Small parts, such as brackets or handles, are difficult to locate in a spot welding machine, which results in misplaced spots or extruded metal. Neat embossing would be less unsightly and a fitted electrode would not mark the exposed surface. RPW has some limitations. The formation of projections may require an additional operation unless the parts are press-formed to design shape. With multiple welds, accurate control of projection height and precise alignment of the welding dies are necessary to equalize the electrode force and welding current. With sheet metal, the RPW process is limited to the thickness in which projections with acceptable characteristics can be formed. 4.2.3.5 Resistance seam welding (RSeW) RSeW is a variation on resistance spot welding. In this case, the welding electrodes are motor driven wheels, which produce a “rolling” resistance or seam weld. There are three independent parameters: power supply and control, welding wheel configuration and sheet configuration. Power supply and control governs the frequency with which current is applied to the workpiece. Depending on this frequency and the speed with which the material is being welded, the weld will be a continuous seam weld, an overlapping seam weld or a roll spot weld as illustrated in Figure 4.19a). Seam welds are typically used to produce continuous gas-tight or liquid-tight joints in sheet assemblies, such as automotive fuel tanks. The process is also used to weld longitudinal seams in structural tubular sections such as bumper beams. In fuel tanks, the use of overlapping or continuous seam welds is mandatory. However, bumper beams do not require leak-tight seams and roll spot welds may be used. Typical lobe curves for RSeW are presented in Figures 4.19b) and c)(Reference 4.7). The major variables that control the quality of seam welds are current (impulse or continuous), speed and force. These variables are plotted for both uncoated and hot-dip galvanized steels. It can be noted that as the speed increases, a limit is reached where a non-continuous seam is produced. Likewise, as the current is increased, a point is reached where surface eruptions or expulsion occurs and the copper from the electrodes melts and may cause additional cracking. In general, increased electrode force tends to increase the acceptable lobe size and move it to higher current levels. For coated steels, the speed tends to be reduced and the current increased. The advantages and limitations of RSeW are: Advantages • High Speed • Excellent for sheet metal applications [<6.35mm (0.25 inches)] • No filler metal • Ability to produce leak-tight joints 4-33 Limitations • Higher equipment costs than arc welding • Power line demands • Nondestructive testing • Low tensile and fatigue strength • Not portable • Electrode wear • Lap joint requires additional metal

FIGURE 4.19 RESISTANCE SEAM WELDING (RSeW)
Surface Eruption, Cu Contamination Cracking Lower Speed Higher Current

CURRENT, kA

Non-Continuous Seam

CURRENT, kA

Units as per b

E RC FO

E RC FO . lb FO E RC N

. min in./ D, E SPE c /se mm D, E SPE

n. /mi , in. EED SP c /se mm ED, SPE

. lb

FO E RC N

a) SEAM VARIATIONS

b) LOBE CURVE FOR UNCOATED LOW CARBON STEEL

c) LOBE CURVE FOR HOT-DIP GALVANIZED LOW CARBON STEEL

FIGURE 4.20 RESISTANCE PROJECTION SEAM WELDING (RPSeW)

a) SCHEMATIC

b) SEAM GEOMETRY

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The advantages of high speed, applicability to sheet materials and no need for filler metal make RSeW ideally suited for the closure welding of bumper beam tubes in a high speed automated fabrication line. Often these lines consist of a steel coil (slit to the proper width) being fed from a pay-off reel into a continuous roll forming line. The line forms the required tubular cross section. The seam welder then closes the open tube. The formed and welded tubular section may then go through an induction heat-treating device or into a sweep forming device, and finally into a cutter, which cuts the beam to length. The limitations of RSeW include higher initial equipment costs compared to arc welding and higher power costs compared to arc welding. In addition, electrode wear and maintenance and the lack of non-destructive testing techniques to assure good welds must be addressed. Finally, because RSeW is suited to lap joints (rather than butt joints as used in arc welding), a slight increase in part weight occurs. 4.2.3.6 Resistance projection seam welding (RPSeW) In conventional projection welding (RPW), the current is concentrated exactly at the weld location. A relatively new process, resistance projection seam welding as illustrated in Figure 4.20a), does the same thing in seam welding (Reference 4.8). In RSeW, a projection is rolled into one of the sheets to be welded on a roll forming line. The sheet with the projection, and the sheet to which it is to be welded, are presented into the resistance seam-welding machine where current is passed through two opposed rolls. The current must flow through the projection thus concentrating its density as in conventional projection welding. The shape of the projection has been studied and both the continuous projection geometry and the dimple projection geometry (as illustrated in Figure 4.20b), have been successfully used. The continuous projection makes a continuous weld, but requires more total energy input. The dimple projection makes an intermittent seam; but requires less total energy input. The advantages and limitations of RPSeW are: Advantages • Satisfactory heat balance for welding difficult combinations • Uniform results • Reduced total energy consumption • Longer electrode life • Parts easily welded in assembly fixture surface • Improved surface appearance • Parts welded that cannot be resistance spot welded Limitations • Requires an additional operation to form projections • Requires accurate control of projection height and precise alignment of the welding dies • Sheet metal thickness limited by ability to form projections

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The advantages of RPSeW are: heat balance problems are solved, the welds are uniform, welding speed is increased and total energy consumption is reduced. The preparation of the projection, however, requires an additional step. This issue may not be too great a concern if the projection is formed on the same roll forming line used to make a part. However, control of the projection size and design is still an issue. 4.2.3.7 High frequency and induction resistance seam welding (RSeW - HF&I) High frequency welding includes those processes in which the coalescence of metals is produced by the heat generated from the electrical resistance of the work to high frequency current, usually with the application of an upsetting force to produce a forged weld. There are two processes (Reference 4.9) that utilize high frequency current to produce the heat for welding: high frequency resistance welding (HFRW), as illustrated in Figure 4.21a), and high frequency induction welding (HFIW), sometimes called induction resistance welding, as illustrated in Figure 4.21b). The heating of the work in the weld area and the resulting weld are essentially identical with both processes. With HFRW, the current is conducted into the work through electrical contacts that physically touch the work. With HFIW, the current is induced in the work by coupling with an external induction coil. There is no physical electrical contact with the work. A characteristic of high frequency current is that it travels as close to the “vee” edge as possible, thus treating only the surfaces that are to be welded. Although the welding process depends upon the heat generated by the resistance of the metal to high frequency current, other factors must also be considered for successful high frequency welding. Because the concentrated high frequency current heats only a small volume of metal (just where the weld is to take place), the process is extremely energy efficient, and welding speeds can by very high. Materials handling, forming and cutting limit the maximum line speed. Minimum line speed is set by material properties and weld quality requirements. The fit of the surfaces to be joined and the manner in which they are brought together is important if high-quality joints are to be produced. Flux is not usually used but can be introduced to the weld area in an inert gas stream. Inert gas shielding of the welding area is generally needed only for joining reactive metals such as titanium and certain stainless steel products. The advantages and limitations of high frequency welding processes are: Advantages • Produces welds with very narrow heataffected zones • High welding speed and low power consumption • Able to weld very thin wall tubes • Minimizes oxidation and discoloration as well as distortion 4-36 Limitations • Special care must be taken to avoid radiation interference in the plant’s vicinity • Uneconomical for products required in small quantities • Needs proper fit-up • Hazards of high frequency current

FIGURE 4.21 HIGH FREQUENCY AND INDUCTION RESISTANCE SEAM WELDING (RSeW-HF&I)

a) HIGH FREQUENCY RESISTANCE WELDING

b) HIGH FREQUENCY INDUCTION WELDING

FIGURE 4.22 UPSET WELDING (UW)

a) SCHEMATIC

b) PLATEN MOTION

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High frequency welding processes offer several advantages over low frequency and direct current resistance welding processes. One characteristic of the high frequency processes is that they can produce welds with very narrow heat-affected zones. The high frequency welding current tends to flow only near the surface of the metal because of the “skin effect” and along a narrow controlled path because of the “proximity effect”. The heat for welding, therefore, is developed in a small volume of metal along the surfaces to be joined. A narrow heat-affected zone is generally desirable because it tends to give a stronger welded joint than the wider zone produced by many other welding processes. With some alloys, the narrow heat-affected zone and absence of cast structure may eliminate the need for post-weld heat treatment to improve the metallurgical characteristics of the welded joint. The shallow and narrow current flow path results in extremely high heating rates and therefore, high welding speeds and low-power consumption. A major advantage of the continuous high frequency welding processes is their ability to weld at very high speeds. high frequency welding can also be used to weld very thin wall tubes. Wall thicknesses down to 0.13mm(0.005 inches) is presently being welded on continuous production mills. The processes are adaptable to many steels including low carbon, low-alloy and stainless steels. Because the time at welding temperature is very short and the heat is localized, oxidation and discoloration of the metal as well as distortion of the part are minimal. As with all processes, there are limitations. Because the equipment operates in the radio frequency range, special care must be taken in its installation, operation, and maintenance to avoid radiation interference in the plant’s vicinity. As a general rule, the minimum speed for carbon steel is about 7.6m/min(25 feet/min). For products that are only required in small quantities, the high frequency processes may be uneconomical unless the technical advantages justify the application. Because the high frequency processes utilize localized heating in the joint area, proper fit-up is important. Equipment is usually incorporated into mill or line operation and must be fully automated. The process is limited to the use of coil, flat, or tubular stock with a constant joint symmetry throughout the length of the part. Any disruption in the current path or change in the shape of the vee can cause significant problems. Special precautions must be taken to protect plant personnel from the hazards of high frequency. The high frequency processes have found applications in the seam welding of bumper reinforcement beams on continuous lines.

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4.2.3.8 Upset welding (UW) UW is a resistance welding process that produces coalescence over the entire area of faying surfaces, or progressively along a butt joint, by the heat obtained from the resistance to the flow of welding current through the area where those surfaces are in contact. Usually DC current is used for the heating, with the parts clamped in electrical contacting dies, one stationary and the other movable as illustrated in Figure 4.22a). Pressure is used to complete the weld. The movable clamping die (or platen motion) is presented in Figure 4.22b). At first, the motion brings the parts into intimate contact. Then the weld current is energized. In joints with normal fit-up, some thermal expansion may be seen as the parts heat. Joints with poor fit-up tend to experience a joint seating motion during this period. At a point in time when sufficient heating has occurred, a rapid forging force is applied and the abutting parts are rapidly forced into each other, causing some outward material flow. With this process, welding is essentially done in the solid state. The metal at the joint is resistance heated to a temperature where recrystallizaion can rapidly take place across the faying surfaces. A force is applied to the joint to bring the faying surfaces into intimate contact and then upset the metal. Upset hastens recrystallization at the interface and, at the same time, some metal is forced outward from this location. This tends to purge the joint of oxidized metal. Upset welding has two variations: 1. Joining two sections of the same cross section end-to-end (butt joint). 2. Joining of sections with differing cross sections such as a stud to a plate. The first variation can also be accomplished by flash welding. The second variation is also done with resistance projection welding. The advantages and limitations of UW are: Advantages • Some flexibility in cross section shape • Rapid process, can be automated • Impurities can be removed during upset • Can weld rings and various cross sections Limitations • Produces unbalance on three-phase primary power lines so often DC current is used • Requires special equipment for removal of flash metal • Difficult alignment for workpieces with small cross sections • Requires part cross section consideration

The upset welding of butt joints is fast and can be automated. There is some flexibility in joint design. However, control of the joint tolerances is critical. The process requires large amounts of current so DC rectified current is usually used to improve efficiency. In some applications, the weld flash must be removed. The upset butt process involves relatively slow heating and no measures are taken to protect the joint from air. Consequently, a generous upset is required to exude oxidized metal. For this reason, other butt welding processes such as flash, percussion or friction welding are often preferred. 4-39

4.2.3.9 Friction welding (FRW) FRW is a process that produces a weld under a compressive force (Reference 4.10). As illustrated in Figure 4.23a), the work pieces are brought into contact and rotated very rapidly to produce heat. Usually one piece is rotated against a stationary piece to produce the heat at the junction. The rotation time and force are adjusted until the temperature in the joint reaches the forging temperature of the material at which time the rotation is stopped and an axial force is applied to forge weld the pieces together. As such, the process is a solid-state bonding process. Geometries that have a rotational symmetry are particularly suitable for friction welding. Applications include round bars and tubes to each other, as well as bars or tubes to sheet steel. Linear friction welding is used for parts with non-rotational symmetry. In this application, one part is oscillated back and forth against the other (Figure 4.23b). The advantages and limitations of FRW are: Advantages • Faster than most other processes • Can join dissimilar material together (e.g.) Copper to steel • Easily automated for high-volume production Limitations • Start-up cost is high • Parts must be able to rotate about an axis of symmetry • Free machining alloys are difficult to weld • Non-forgeable materials cannot be friction welded

FRW is fast and can join many different materials. It is one of only a few welding processes that has this material variability. It is easily automated. However, part geometry can be a limitation; and, in general, the materials to be joined must be hot forgeable. 4.2.3.10 Laser beam welding (LBW) “LASER” is an acronym for “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.” A laser beam that becomes highly focused is an excellent source of concentrated energy. This energy is used for many welding applications and also for cutting and heat treating. Two basic types of lasers are used in welding: solid-state and gas (Reference 4.10). Solid-state lasers are made of a single elongated crystal rod. Nd:YAG (a doped crystal of neodymium with yttrium, aluminum, and garnet) is the most common solid-state laser used for welding today. The end surfaces of the rod are ground flat and parallel. These ends usually have a reflectivE-coating placed on them. While one end is totally reflective, the other end is partially reflective, leaving a small area for photons to escape. The Nd ions excite their electrons to a higher energy level. By doing this, photons are emitted at a wavelength of 1.06 microns. After the photons are emitted, the electrons are allowed to return to their original state.

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FIGURE 4.23 FRICTION WELDING (FRW)

a) PART ROTATION

b) PART OSCILLATION

FIGURE 4.24 LASER BEAM WELDING (LBW)

a) CARBON DIOXIDE LASER

b) BEAM FOCUS 4-41

The most common gas laser is the carbon dioxide laser (see Figure 4.24a). It is also the laser used for most welding applications. An electrical charge excites the carbon dioxide molecules, which on their return to their normal energy state emit some photons. Much like solid-state lasers, reflective surfaces are placed at the ends of the tube in which the gas is contained. The one end is totally reflective, while the other allows a small amount of light to pass. This light is emitted at a wavelength of 10.6 microns. Factors affecting the choice between gas and solid-state lasers are: Nd:YAG lasers: most metals absorb its wavelength better than the CO2 laser wavelength, versatile fiber-optic delivery, easy beam alignment, easier maintenance, smaller equipment, and more expensive safety measures than CO2 because of its wavelength. CO2 lasers: higher power, better beam quality in terms of focus ability, higher speeds and deeper penetration for materials that don’t reflect its light, and lower start-up and operation. In laser welding, the beam can be focused for different applications as illustrated in figure 4.24b). Usually, a small focus size is used for cutting and welding, while a larger focus is used for heat treatment or surface modification. The focal spot of the beam can also be varied based on the application. The advantages and limitations of LBW are: Advantages • Single pass weld penetration in steel up to 19mm (0.75 inches) thick • Materials need not be conductive • No filler metal required • Low heat input produces low distortion Limitations • High initial start-up costs • Part fit-up and joint tracking are critical • Not portable • High cooling rates may lead to material problems

LBW advantages include the very rapid weld travel speed and the low heat input that results in very little distortion. However, initial equipment costs for laser welding are high. Additional costs to assure good part fit-up may be of some disadvantage. Coatings on steel can be a problem in plume formation through which the laser beam cannot adequately penetrate. Fume control shielding gas may be required. 4.2.3.11 Laser beam and plasma arc welding (LBW/PAW) There have been a number of experimental developments in welding processes using the laser welding process as a base and coupling a second welding process (such as plasma arc welding) with it. The benefit is that the high travel speed associated with the laser process is combined with the metal fill, the less stringent part fit-up and the favorable bead shape associated with the plasma arc process. Two variations of the LBW/PAW process are described in two patents (References 4.11 and 4.12).

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4.2.4 Weldability of bumper materials The heat of welding causes changes in the microstructures and mechanical properties in a region of heated steel that is referred to as the heat-affected zone (HAZ). The resulting microstructure in the HAZ will depend on the composition of the steel and the rate at which the steel is heated and cooled. The degree of hardening in the HAZ is an important consideration determining the weldability of a carbon or low-alloy steel. Weldability and resistance to hydrogen cracking generally decrease with increasing carbon or martensite in the weld metal or the HAZ, or both. Although carbon is the most significant alloying element affecting weldability, the effects of other elements can be estimated by equating them to an equivalent amount of carbon. Therefore, the effect of total alloy content can be expressed in terms of a carbon equivalent (CE). One empirical formula that may be used for judging the risk of underbead cracking in carbon steel is: CE = C + Mn + 6 Cr + Mo + V + 5 Ni + Cu 15

Generally, steels with low CE values (e.g., 0.2 to 0.3) have excellent weldability; however, the susceptibility to underbead cracking from hydrogen increases when the CE exceeds 0.40. 4.2.5 Ranking of welding processes David Dickinson, The Ohio State University, used his experience and the results of a State-of-the-Art Welding Survey (Reference 4.5), to rank the suitability of various welding processes for joining bumper steels. His “poor”, “acceptable”, “better” and “best” rankings are given in Table 4.3. Note: The rankings for 10B21 Modified were added to the Table by the American Iron and Steel Institute’s Bumper Project Group. The rankings are subjective and should not be taken as absolute. However, they do provide a starting point for the selection of a welding process. The welding processes in Table 4.3 were all identified in Dickinson’s SOA Survey as ones that are currently used in bumper manufacture, or were used to produce prototype bumpers. The processes, described in Sections 4.2.3.1 to 4.2.3.11, are: 1. Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) 2. Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) 3. Resistance spot welding (RSW) 4. Resistance projection welding (RPW) 5. Resistance seam welding (RSeW) 6. Resistance projection seam welding (RPSeW) 7. High frequency and induction resistance seam welding (RSW-HF&I) 8. Upset welding (UW) 9. Friction welding (FRW) 10. Laser beam welding (LBW) 11. Laser beam and plasma arc welding (LBW/PAW)

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TABLE 4.3 RANKING OF WELDING PROCESSES BY BUMPER MATERIAL

WELDING PROCESSES 3, 4 RSeW-HF&1 BUMPER MATERIAL1 MATERIAL STANDARD2 LBW/PAW b b b b b b b b b b b b p

GMAW

RPSeW

FCAW

RSeW

RPW

RSW

FRW b b b b b b b b b b b b b

UNCOATED SAEJ2329 (Grade 1) CQ SAEJ2329 (Grades 2 & 3) DQSK SAEJ2329 (Grades 2 & 3) DQAK SAEJ1392 (035XLF) 35XLF SAEJ1392 (050XLF) 50XLF SAEJ1392 Modified 55XLF SAEJ1392 (080XLF) 80XLF SAEJ2340 (830R) 120XF SAEJ2340 Modified 135XF SAEJ2340 (950DL) 140T SAEJ2340 (1300M) M190HT 10B21 (Modified) SAEJ403 (10B21 Modified) COATED — HDG/EG

B B B B B B B b b b b B b

B B B B B B B b b b b B b

B B B B B B B B B B b g g

B B B B B B B B B B b g g

B B B B B B B B B B b b g

B B B B B B B B B b b g g

B B B B B B B B B B b B g

b b b b b b b b b b b b b

1. Refer to Section 4.2.5 and Tables 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 5.4 and 5.5 for bumper material definitions and properties. 2. See References 4.13, 4.14, 4.15 and 6.4. 3. Refer to Section 4.2.3 for welding process definitions. 4. p = poor g = acceptable b = better B = best

4-44

LBW b b b b b b b b b b b b p

UW

All of the materials in Table 4.3 are commonly used for production bumpers. Examples are given in Tables 5.4 and 5.5 along with a description of each bumper material. In Table 4.3, the welding processes are ranked for the following materials: Hot rolled or cold rolled (uncoated) sheet steel Commercial quality Drawing quality, special killed de-oxidation practice. 3. DQAK Drawing quality, aluminum killed. 4. 35XLF High-strength low-alloy with sulphide inclusion control, low carbon, 240 MPa (35 ksi) yield strength. 5. 50XLF High-strength low-alloy with sulphide inclusion control, low carbon, 345MPa (50ksi) yield strength. 6. 55XLF High-strength low-alloy with sulphide inclusion control, low carbon, 380MPa(55ksi) yield strength. 7. 80XLF High-strength low-alloy with sulphide inclusion control, low carbon, 550MPa (80ksi) yield strength. 8. 120XF High-strength low-alloy with sulphide inclusion control, low carbon 830MPa (120ksi) yield strength. 9. 135XF High-strength low-alloy with sulphide inclusion control, low carbon 920MPa (135ksi) yield strength. 10. 140T Dual phase structure contains martensite in ferrite matrix, excellent formability prior to strain aging, 965MPa (140ksi) tensile strength. 11. M190HT Martensitic quality, 1310MPa (190ksi) tensile strength. 12. 10B21 Carbon-boron steel, 1140MPa (165ksi) yield (Modified) strength after hot forming and quenching. 1. CQ 2. DQSK

hot-dip galvanized or electrogalvanized sheet steel 13. HDG/EG Includes materials one through 12 (above) that have been hot-dip galvanized or electrogalvanized. The ranking of the welding processes for individual materials (one through 12) in the galvanized condition becomes quite complex because of the dual effect of steel grade and metallic coating on weld ability. Thus, one overall ranking is given for each of materials one through 12 in either the hot-dip galvanized or the electrogalvanized condition for each welding process.

4-45

The following is an overall explanation of the rankings assigned in Table 4.3: Arc welding (GMAW and FCAW) In general, all steel bumper materials may be arc welded without difficulty. Selection of an appropriate filler metal with proper strength is all that is required. Welding consumable manufacturers can assist with this selection. Consideration should be given to the heat-affected zone in arc welded joints. The graphs in Figure 4.25 are diagrammatic representations of the heat-affected zone for arc welded steel bumper materials. Actual plots are available from steel suppliers and welding consumable manufacturers. Figure 4.25 indicates that as the carbon content in the steel increases, the hardness at the fusion line increases. For example, the carbon content of a martensitic steel depends on its strength level. A higher strength level has a higher carbon content. Figure 4.25 indicates that a martensitic steel with a higher carbon content has increased hardness at the fusion line. Dual phase steel is another example. The carbon content of dual phase steel depends on its production process - as rolled, batch annealed or continuous annealed. All three have different carbon levels and different fusion line hardness. Figure 4.25 also indicates that some steel materials undergo softening and a loss of strength in the heat-affected zone (e.g., microalloy, dual phase, recovery annealed and martensitic materials). Lower heat input during welding helps reduce the degree of softening. Higher strength materials are slightly more difficult to weld than lower strength materials because of the springback associated with higher strength parts. Fixturing, to hold the parts firmly in place during welding, is often required to get defect free welds. Galvanized coatings on steel can cause minor difficulties with arc welding. For example, zinc has a much lower melting and vaporization point than steel. Thus, during welding, zinc fumes are generated. They may be captured by a ventilation system. Also, intermetallic zinc inclusions may be formed during welding. However, inclusions may be minimized by using the FCAW process. The flux scavenges the inclusions and they are removed along with the flux. Resistance welding (RSW, RPW, RSeW and RPSeW) A comparison of resistance spot weldabilty is given in Figure 4.26 for hot rolled, cold rolled and galvanized sheets. Welding lobes are given for representative bumper materials. The lobes are somewhat arbitrary. However, they do allow a rough comparison of the spot weldability of steel materials. For a given material, a welding lobe is expressed as weld time verses weld current at a constant electrode force level.

4-46

FIGURE 4.25 HARDNESS IN HEAT-AFFECTED ZONE OF ARC WELDS

Hardness

Distance From Fusion Line

4-47

FIGURE 4.26 RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING COMPARISON

a) HOT ROLLED SHEET

b) COLD ROLLED SHEET

c) GALVANIZED SHEET

4-48

Each lobe is a three dimensional diagram. The larger rectangular plane in a lobe represents the base line of weldability. This base line diminishes into the depth of the page to a smaller plane. The reduction in plane size represents sensitivity to some weld parameter such as electrode force. Thus, when the two planes are almost the same size, the material is weldable over a wide range of parameters. On the other hand, if one plane is considerably smaller than the other, weldability losses are expected with a change in parameter. For galvanized sheets, the coating has a marked effect on weldability. To represent the effect of the coating, a square has been placed onto the smaller plane. The lobes in Figure 4.26 are sometimes referred to as operating windows. Weld current and time must be within an operating window to achieve a sound weld. A small operating window means a high degree of control is required in the welding process. Thus, materials with small operating windows are regarded as less weldable than materials with large windows. CQ and DQ hot and cold rolled materials are weldable over a wide range of welding currents and times. Their excellent weldability is often taken as the base against which other materials are compared. CQ and DQ are only minimally affected by electrode force (A high electrode force reduces contact resistance. Thus, either more current or a longer weld time is required). Weld nuggets in CQ and DQ materials are ductile and strong. The hot and cold rolled XLF materials have excellent weldability. They closely match the weldability of CQ and DQ. The XLF materials obtain their strength from microalloying elements (precipitation hardening) and controlled rolling (fine grain size). During welding, loss of precipitation hardening and grain growth may occur, resulting in strength loss in the heataffected zone. Usually, the effect is minimal and does not hinder the application of XLF materials. 120XF and 135XF hot and cold rolled sheets generally obtain their strength through cold work and recovery annealing. While there is no problem welding these materials, a reduction in hardness and strength in the heat-affected zone can occur. Using the lowest current and shortest weld time prevents over welding and improves heat-affected zone strength. Weldability tests on hot and cold rolled dual phase (e.g. 140T) steels show they respond very similar to other steels at their strength level. Martensitic hot or cold rolled sheet (e.g., M190HT) obtains its strength through the quench hardening of somewhat higher carbon steel to martensitic steel. Resistance weld nuggets tend to be brittle and subject to cracking failure. Also, strength loss, through tempering of the base metal, can occur in the heat-affected zone. Regardless, martensitic steels are resistance weldable provided some precautions are taken during welding.

4-49

Galvanized coatings add a complexity to welding. In general, as the strength level of the base steel increases, weldability decreases. Also, as strength increases, the required electrode force increases. The effect of the coating on the electrode, plus the higher welding force, cause reduced weldability as indicated by the smaller operating windows for galvanized materials. Coatings also reduce electrode life; thus, the condition of the electrodes must be closely monitored during welding. Frequent dressing or replacement of the electrodes is required. High-frequency welding (RSeW-HF&I) All of the current bumper materials are readily joined by high frequency welding. High frequency welds have only a small heat-affected zone because the welding current is concentrated on the surfaces to be welded. In addition, the squeeze at the point of weld consummation forces any inclusions in the molten weld metal out of the weld zone. Galvanized coatings have little affect on weldability since the heated region of a joint is small. Also, there is little vaporization of the coating and fuming. Upset and friction welding (UW and FRW) Upset and friction welding both result in relatively low heating. Thus, the heat-affect zone not only is small but also contains minimal softening. It is very difficult to align sheet steel parts with these processes. Thus, they are mainly used for bar stock and thicker steel. Laser welding (LBW and LBW/PAW) A laser beam is finely focused and usually associated with higher travel speed, therefore, a laser weld has a very small heat-affected zone due to the higher cooling rate. Thus, any loss of strength in the welded materials, even higher strength ones, is minimal. This process requires excellent fit-up, which is sometimes difficult to achieve during production, especially with higher strength materials due to springback. The vaporization of galvanized coatings can cause a plume, which blocks the laser beam. In such a case, a fume control shielding gas may be used.

4-50

5. Design concepts

5.1

Sweep (roll formed sections) and depth of draw (stampings)
The current styling trend for vehicles is toward rounded, aerodynamic shapes. This trend has impacted bumper design and challenged bumper manufacturers to provide the highly rounded shapes desired by vehicle stylists. Steel bumper manufacturers have met the challenge and are providing the contours required for both reinforcing beams and facebars. A convenient way of defining the degree of roundness for a stamped or roll formed reinforcing beam is to use the concept of sweep. Sweep expresses the degree of curvature of the outer bumper face, or the face farthest removed from the inside of the vehicle. Sweep is defined in Figure 5.1 and Tables 5.1 and 5.2. Sweep in the camber, X, for a 60 inch (1524 mm) chord length, L, of a given circle of radius, R. Sweep in expressed as the number of one-eighth inches (3.18 mm). For example, if X is 5 inches (127 mm) for an L of 60 inches (1524 mm), the sweep would be 40. Tables 5.1 and 5.2 indicate that a sweep number of 40 corresponds to a radius of curvature of 92.5 inches or 2350 mm. Tables 5.1 and 5.2 also list the cambers for chord lengths smaller than 60 inches (1524 mm). For example, if the camber is 2.711 inches (68.9 mm) and the chord length is 40 inches (1016 mm), the sweep number is 50. The concept of sweep applies well to a reinforcing beam because it has a near constant radius of curvature and no wrap arounds at the end of the reinforcing beam. Depth of draw is often used to describe the amount of rounding and wrap around on a bumper section, and in particular, a stamped facebar. As shown in Figure 5.2, depth of draw is the distance, X, between the extreme forward point on a bumper and the extreme aft point on a bumper. This distance has a physical significance in that it cannot exceed the opening available with a given stamping press. X is usually stated in inches (millimeters).

5.2

Tailor welded blanks
A tailor welded blank is two or more pieces of flat material, having dissimilar thicknesses, and/or physical properties, joined together before forming to provide customized qualities in the finished product. Examples are shown in Figure 5.3. Talor welded blanks are commonly joined using one of the following methods (Reference 7.1): 1. Laser beam butt seam welding 2. high frequency induction butt seam welding 3. Resistance roller mash lap seam welding 4. Electron-beam butt seam welding

5-1

FIGURE 5.1 DEFINITION OF SWEEP

5-2

TABLE 5.1 SWEEP NUMBERS (CAMBER, X, INCHES)

SWEEP NO. 30 1 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 0.031 0.311 0.466 0.622 0.773 0.926 1.072 1.224 1.373 1.513 1.659 1.790 35 0.043 0.424 0.635 0.847 1.052 1.263 1.474 1.670 1.872 2.067 2.264 2.449

CHORD LENGTH, L, INCHES 40 0.056 0.554 0.830 1.107 1.374 1.652 1.924 2.188 2.455 2.711 2.973 3.218 45 0.070 0.701 1.050 1.402 1.749 2.095 2.445 2.776 3.167 3.449 3.782 4.103 50 0.087 0.866 1.297 1.732 2.164 2.592 3.023 3.442 3.867 4.282 4.703 5.106 55 1.105 1.048 1.569 2.098 2.621 3.143 3.673 4.182 4.701 5.214 5.731 6.236 60 0.125 1.250 1.875 2.500 3.125 3.750 4.375 5.000 5.625 6.250 6.875 7.500

RADIUS (inches)

3600.0 360.6 240.9 181.3 145.6 121.9 104.9 92.5 82.8 75.1 68.9 63.8

5-3

TABLE 5.2 SWEEP NUMBERS (CAMBER, X, MILLIMETERS)

SWEEP NO. 762 1 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 0.79 7.90 11.8 15.8 19.6 23.5 27.2 31.1 34.9 38.4 42.1 45.5 889 1.09 10.8 16.1 21.5 26.7 32.1 37.4 42.4 47.5 52.5 57.5 62.2

CHORD LENGTH, L, MILLIMETERS 1016 1.42 14.1 21.1 28.1 34.9 42.0 48.9 55.6 62.4 68.9 75.5 81.7 1143 1.78 17.8 26.7 35.6 44.4 53.2 62.1 70.5 80.4 87.6 96.1 104 1270 2.21 22.0 32.9 44.0 55.0 65.8 76.8 87.4 98.2 109 119 130 1397 2.67 26.6 39.9 53.3 66.6 79.8 93.3 106 119 132 146 158 1524 3.18 31.8 47.6 63.5 79.4 95.3 111 127 143 159 175 191

RADIUS (mm)

91440 9159 6119 4605 3698 3096 2664 2350 2103 1908 1750 1619

5-4

FIGURE 5.2 DEFINITION OF DEPTH OF DRAW

5-5

FIGURE 5.3 EXAMPLES OF TAILOR WELDED BLANKS

5-6

Tailored blanks are being used in increasingly larger numbers for various automotive applications. It has been estimated (Reference 7.2) that about 10 million tailored blanks were used in 1997 by the North American automotive industry. The potential benefits of tailor welded blanks are impressive: Part integration/part elimination Weight reduction Tooling reduction Lower manufacturing cost Improved structural integrity Optimized material property utilization Reduced material use Increased offal utilization and reduced scrap Improved crashworthiness Reduced design and development time Improved dimensional accuracy Increasingly, tailored blanks are being used for bumper reinforcement beams. They allow the automotive designer to place a material having the exact properties required in the exact portion of the part where the properties are required. A good example is the front reinforcing beam on the 1998 VW Jetta (Figure 5.5 and Table 5.3). This beam is made from a three piece blank similar to the bumper reinforcement blank shown in Figure 5.3. The blank is joined using the resistance roller mash lap seam welding process. The middle portion of blank is made from a formable grade of 552 MPa (80 ksi) yield strength hot-dip galvanized sheet to give high strength in the beam where it is needed. However, this sheet steel does not have the level of formability required for the sharp wrap around at each end of the stamped beam. Thus, the end portions of the blank are made from hot-dip galvanized sheet with a yield strength of approximately 207 MPa (30 ksi). It provides the required level of formability to successfully stamp the wrap arounds and provides the level of strength required at the wrap arounds. The thickness of all three pieces in the tailored blank is 2.36mm (0.093 inches).

5-7

5.3 Leading benchmark bumper beams
Examples of leading edge bumper beams are given in Table 5.3 and Figures 5.4 and 5.5. The examples clearly illustrate that steel bumper beams readily meet the challenges faced by bumper designers styling, weight, cost and structural integrity. Often a designer faces a particular problem with one of these criteria. The examples indicate innovative methods that have been used to overcome a particular design obstacle. The current styling trend is towards rounded, aerodynamic shapes. The front reinforcing beam on the Chevrolet Cavalier/Pontiac Sunfire has an impressive No. 50 sweep. The Toyota Camry front reinforcing beam, with a No. 35 sweep, is also impressive. The Cavalier/Sunfire and Camry beams are roll formed from 140T steel, which provides a final yield strength of approximately 634 MPa (92 ksi). The Crown Victoria/Grand Marquis front reinforcing beam is roll formed from 120XF steel, which has limited formability. Even so, a significant No. 34 sweep is achieved. The Ford F150 pickup has an outstanding 559 mm (22 inches) depth of draw on its front facebar. The facebar is stamped from 50XLF cold rolled sheet. The rear reinforcing beam of the Chrysler NS Voyager is a fine example of a beam stamped from 120XF steel. Even with an elongation of 12%, a good 152 mm (6 inches) depth of draw is achieved. The front reinforcing beam for the Volkswagon Jetta is a most interesting example. A three piece tailored blank (see Section 5.2 for details) is used to provide a sharp wrap around at each end of the stamped beam. The depth of draw is 210 mm (8.25 inches). For fuel economy reasons, bumper weight is important. Steel, with its high strength and stiffness, offers weight saving opportunities. The Ford Taurus/Mercury Sable is a good example. The front reinforcing beam on the Taurus D186 weighs only 6.08 kg (13.41 pounds). It is roll formed from M190HT electrogalvanized steel with an elongation of about 5.1%. A significant property of the beam is its 1214 MPa (176.0 ksi) yield strength. Facebars, by nature, are significantly heavier than reinforcing beams. Also, facebars are highly styled. In order to reduce facebar weight while retaining styling, the Ford Ranger front facebar is made from 50XLF high-strength steel (traditional facebars are made from carbon steel). Cost drives many bumper designs. Significantly, the lowest cost bumper systems employ a steel beam. The reasons are twofold. First, steel is the lowest cost bumper material. Secondly, steel bumper beams have the lowest manufacturing cost, even at volumes as low as 100,000 parts per year. Even more cost savings are achieved on the front facebar of the Dodge Ram. The use of a blank incorporating 65% of the final trim line reduces material requirements and cost. Part integration offers cost savings and ease of assembly. Two good examples are the front facebar on the Chevrolet Silverado and the rear reinforcing beam on the Toyota Avalon. The frame attachment detail is incorporated into the facebar on the Silverado. The reinforcing beam design on the Avalon minimizes mounting bracketry.

5-8

FIGURE 5.4 ROLL FORMED BEAMS

A.) CROWN VICTORIA/GRAND MARQUIS NO. 34 SWEEP IN NON-SYMMETRIC SECTION USING 120XF STEEL

B.) FORD TAURUS/MERCURY SABLE NO. 19 SWEEP IN ENCLOSED B SECTION USING M190HT STEEL

5-9

FIGURE 5.4 (continued) ROLL FORMED BEAMS

C.) TOYOTA AVALON NO. 43 SWEEP USING 140T STEEL. MINIMAL BRACKETRY

D.) CHEVROLET CAVALIER/PONTIAC SUNFIRE NO. 50 SWEEP IN BOX SECTION USING 140T STEEL

E.) TOYOTA CAMRY NO. 35 SWEEP IN DOUBLE BOX SECTION WITH 140T STEEL
5-10

FIGURE 5.5 STAMPED BEAMS

F.) FORD F150 PICK UP 559mm (22 inches) DEPTH OF DRAW WITH 50XLF STEEL. AERODYNAMIC STYLING

G.) DODGE RAM 152 mm (6 inches) DEPTH OF DRAW WITH 50XLF STEEL STAMPING BLANK INCORPORATES 65% OF TRIM LINE

5-11

FIGURE 5.5 (continued) STAMPED BEAMS

H.) CHEVROLET SILVERADO 191 mm (7.5 inches) DEPTH OF DRAW WITH 50XLF STEEL FRAME ATTACHMENT INTEGRATED INTO FACEBAR

I.) VOLKSWAGON JETTA 210 mm (8.25 inches) DEPTH OF DRAW WITH 80XLF AND 45XLF STEELS THREE PIECE TAILORED BLANK

5-12

FIGURE 5.5 (continued) STAMPED BEAMS

J.) FORD RANGER 483mm (19 inches) DEPTH OF DRAW WITH 50XLF STEEL. ENERGY ABSORBING MOUNTING BRACKETS

K.) CHRYSLER VOYAGER 152 mm (6 inches) DEPTH OF DRAW WITH 120XF STEEL

5-13

TABLE 5.3 LEADING BENCHMARK BUMPER BEAMS
PRODUCTION METHOD LEADING EDGE FEATURE MATERIAL THICKNESS [ mm (inches)] SWEEP NUMBER/ DEPTH of DRAW [ mm (inches)] No. 34 Styling MAJOR ADVANTAGES

VEHICLE (Model Year introduced/discontinued) Roll Forming Large sweep in UHSS non-symmetric section. 120XF 60G60G EG 1.52 (0.060)

BUMPER BEAM

A. Crown Victoria/ Grand Marquis (1998/ —) Roll Forming Large sweep in UHSS enclosed B-section. M190HT 30G30G EG 1.12 (0. 044) No. 19

Front Reinforcing Beam

B. Ford Taurus/ Mercury Sable (1995/ —) Roll Forming Minimal mounting bracketry. 140T CR 1.60 (0.063)

Front Reinforcing Beam

Weight Savings Cost Savings

C. Toyota Avalon (2000/ —)

Rear Reinforcing Beam Roll Forming Very large sweep in a box section. 140T CR 1.50 (0.059)

No. 43

Part Integration Cost Savings Ease of Assembly No. 50 Styling

D. Chevrolet Cavalier Pontiac Sunfire (1995/ —) Roll Forming Large sweep in a double box section. 140T CR

Front Reinforcing Beam

5-14
Stamping Aerodynamic styling. 50XLF CR 50XLF HR 50XLF CR Stamping Developed blank with 65% of trim line. Frame attachment detail integrated into facebar. Stamping Stamping Three-piece tailored blank. 80XLF 75G75G HDG (middle portion) 45XLF 75G75G HDG (end portions)

E. Toyota Camry (1997/ —)

Front Reinforcing Beam

1.40 (0.055)

No. 35

Styling

F. Ford F150 Pickup (1996/ —)

Front Facebar

1.98 (0.078)

559 (22)

Styling

G. T300 Dodge Ram Pickup (1993/ —)

Front Facebar

2.01 (0.079)

152 (6)

Cost Savings

H. GMT 800 Chevrolet Silverado Pickup (2000/ —)

Front Facebar

2.01 (0.079)

191 (7.5)

Part Integration Cost Savings Ease of Assembly 2.36 (0.093) (middle and end portions) 210 (8.25) Styling

I. Volkswagon Jetta (1993/1998)

Front Reinforcing Beam

TABLE 5.3 (continued) LEADING BENCHMARK BUMPER BEAMS
PRODUCTION METHOD LEADING EDGE FEATURE MATERIAL THICKNESS [ mm (inches)] SWEEP NUMBER/ DEPTH of DRAW [ mm (inches)] 483 (19) MAJOR ADVANTAGES

VEHICLE (Model Year introduced/discontinued) Stamping Energy absorbing mounting brackets. 50XLF HR 2.26 (0.089)

BUMPER BEAM

J. Ford Ranger Pickup (1995/ —)

Front Facebar

Part Integration Weight Savings Cost Savings Styling

K. Chrysler NS Voyager

Rear Reinforcing

Stamping

Good depth-of-draw with 120XF steel.

120XF 45A45A HDG

1.83 (0.072)

152 (6)

(1995.5/2000)

Beam

DEFINITIONS

UHSS — Ultra high-strength steel.

XF

— High-strength low-alloy (HSLA) with sulphide inclusion control to improve formability. Designation number (e.g. 50) is yield strength in ksi.

5-15

XLF

— High-strength low-alloy (HSLA) with low carbon content and sulphide inclusion control. Formability of this quality is superior to XF quality. Designation number (e.g. 50) is yield strength in ksi.

T

— Structure contains martensite in ferrite matrix. Excellent formability prior to strain aging. Designation number (e.g. 140) is minimum tensile strength in ksi.

M..HT — Martensitic quality. Quenched martensite structure with reduced formability. Designation number (e.g. 190) is minimum tensile strength in ksi.

CR

— Cold rolled sheet.

HR

— Hot rolled sheet.

EG

— Electrogalvanized sheet. Designation 30G30G is a zinc coating on each side of the sheet with a coating weight of 30 g/m2. Designation 60G60G is a zinc coating on each side of the sheet with a coating weight of 60 g/m2.

HDG — hot-dip galvanized sheet. Designation 75G75G is a zinc coating on each side of the sheet with a coating weight of 75 g/m2. Designation 45A45A is a zinc-iron alloy coating on each side of the sheet with a coating weight of 45g/m2.

5.4 Bumper weights, materials and coatings
Beams produced by the roll forming production method are shown in Table 5.4, beams produced by the cold stamping method are shown in Table 5.5 and beams produced by the hot forming method are shown in Table 5.6. These data may be used to establish bumper beam benchmarks. In Tables 5.4, 5.5 and 5.6, the bumper beams are grouped by steel grade. The steel grades are defined in the Notes at the end of each table (see also Tables 2.1 and 2.2). For any given steel grade, the bumper beams are listed in decreasing order of steel beam thickness. The vehicle make and model is given for each beam. While Tables 5.4, 5.5 and 5.6 are based on the 2004 calendar year, the majority of the beams have been carried forward. However, a vehicle redesign usually involves a bumper redesign. Thus, any vehicle redesigned from 2005 onwards will likely have a beam differing from that shown in Table 5.4, 5.5 or 5.6. The bumper beam location (front or rear of the vehicle) is indicated. The bumper beam is a “facebar” if “frontside” and “backside” coatings are shown. If only one coating is indicated, the bumper beam is a reinforcing beam. There are five weight columns in Tables 5.4, 5.5 and 5.6. The first column indicates the weight of the roll formed, cold stamped or hot formed beam itself. For facebars, the weight is that of a painted beam. Chrome facebars are 0.37 kg (1.0 pound) heavier. The second column is the weight of any reinforcements welded to the plain beam. The third column is the combined weight of the plain beam and attached reinforcements. The fourth column tabulates the weight of mounting brackets. The fifth column is the weight of a plain bumper beam, its reinforcements and its mounting brackets. It should be noted that many spaces in the five weight columns are left blank. A blank space indicates that the weight being tabulated is unavailable. The steel products used to manufacture the bumper beams are listed in Tables 5.4, 5.5 and 5.6. Note that both hot rolled (HR) and cold rolled (CR) sheets are delivered in the bare condition. For hot-dip galvanized (HDG) and electrogalvanized (EG) sheets, the coating type and weight are shown. See Section 2.14 for a description of aluminized (CR) sheet. Corrosion protection coatings may be applied by the bumper supplier or by the OEM on the assembly line. The corrosion resistance of a bumper beam depends on all of the coatings applied to it. Thus, the coatings applied by both the bumper supplier and OEM are included in Tables 5.4, 5.5 and 5.6. Sweep or curvature is often imparted to bumper beams during roll forming. For the roll formed beams in Table 5.4, the amount of sweep is shown. A small sweep radius indicates a large amount of curvature to help achieve a high degree of styling. Depth-of-draw is included in Tables 5.5 and 5.6 for cold stamped and hot formed beams. Depth-of-draw is an indication of the amount of styling imparted to a cold stamped or hot formed beam. A large depth-of-draw helps achieve a high degree of styling.

5-16

TABLE 5.4 ROLL FORMED BUMPER BEAMS THICKNESS, WEIGHT, MATERIAL, COATINGS AND SWEEP BEAMS PRODUCED IN THE 2004 CALENDAR YEAR
MODEL WEIGHT [kg (pounds)] Beam Performance Mounting Total Subtotal Reinforcements Brackets FRONT OR REAR BUMPER STEEL PRODUCT BUMPER SUPPLIER COATING ASSEMBLY SWEEP SWEEP LINE NUMBER RADIUS [mm (inches)] COATING

STEEL THICKNESS GRADE1 [mm (inches)]

MAKE

50XLF 2.01 (0.079) Jeep front 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.24 HR (13.76) 6.15 (13.56) 0.00 0.00 2.38 (5.25) 2.38 (5.25) 2.84 (6.27) 0.00 5.64 (12.43) 7.92 (17.46) 7.92 (17.46) 7.92 (17.46) 6.15 (13.56) 12.83 7.03 19.86 HR (28.29) (15.5) (43.79) E-Coat 8.14 (17.94) 0.00 8.14 90G90G HDG E-coat plus paint (17.94) 0.00 rear rear front front rear rear rear rear rear front rear rear rear rear front 12.83 (28.29) 8.14 (17.94)

Cherokee

7.04 (15.53) 7.04 90G90G HDG E-coat plus paint (15.53)

7.04 (15.53)

none none none Primer Dip B/W

15 15 N/A 29 0 0

6120 (241) 6120 (241) N/A 3172 (125) 0 0

2.01 (0.079) Jeep

Cherokee

4.70 (0.185) Dodge

Durango

80XF 2.00 (0.079) Daimler 300M/Concord/ Chrysler Intrepid/LHS

120XF 2.01 (0.079) Jeep

Wrangler

6.15 45A45A HDG E-coat plus powder coat none (13.56)

2.01 (0.079) Jeep

Wrangler

1.16 6.80 45A45A HDG E-coat plus powder coat none 5.64 (12.43) (2.56) (14.99) 0.54 10.84 60G60G EG 10.30 (22.71) (1.18) (23.89) 0.54 10.84 60G60G EG 10.30 (22.71) (1.18) (23.89) 0.54 11.30 60G60G EG 10.76 (23.73) (1.18) (24.91) 7.63 CR (16.82) 6.03 CR (13.29) 5.52 CR (12.17) 7.23 CR (15.94) 6.61 CR (14.57) 6.18 CR (13.62) 8.00 CR (17.64) E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat none none none Primer Dip B/W Primer Dip B/W Primer Dip B/W Primer Dip B/W Primer Dip B/W Primer Dip B/W

5-17

1.91 (0.075) Mercury Grand Marquis

18 18 18 28 43 43 9 43 43 35

5109 (201) 5109 (201) 5109 (201) 3310 (130) 2174 (86) 2183 (86) 9679 (381) 2174 (86) 2174 (86) 2700 (106)

1.91 (0.075) Ford

Crown Victoria

1.90 (0.075) Lincoln

Town Car

1.82 (0.072) Honda

Acura CL

1.80 (0.071) Daimler Stratus/Cirrus Chrysler

1.80 (0.071) Daimler Sebring Conv. Chrysler

1.80 (0.071) Daimler 300M Chrysler

1.80 (0.071) Daimler Intrepid Chrysler

1.80 (0.071) Daimler Concorde Chrysler

1.66 (0.065) Nissan

Frontier

TABLE 5.4 (continued) ROLL FORMED BUMPER BEAMS THICKNESS, WEIGHT, MATERIAL, COATINGS AND SWEEP BEAMS PRODUCED IN THE 2004 CALENDAR YEAR
MODEL WEIGHT [kg (pounds)] Beam Performance Mounting Subtotal Total Reinforcements Brackets FRONT OR REAR BUMPER STEEL PRODUCT BUMPER SUPPLIER COATING ASSEMBLY SWEEP SWEEP LINE NUMBER RADIUS [mm (inches)] COATING

STEEL THICKNESS GRADE1 [mm (inches)]

MAKE

120XF 1.60 (0.063) Ford front 0.00 E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat 0.00 4.15 60G60G EG (9.16) 7.71 (17.0) 0.59 (1.3) 8.84 (19.49) 8.84 (19.49) 9.05 (19.94) 9.05 (19.94) 0.00 0.00 0.00 8.84 70G70G EG (18.3) 9.05 70G70G EG (19.94) 9.05 70G70G EG (19.94) 4.76 CR (10.49) 7.04 CR (15.52) 5.63 CR (12.41) 6.5 (14.32) 7.76 CR (17.11) 6.74 CR (14.86) 5.50 70G70G EG (12.13) 7.02 70G70G 15.48) rear E-coat E-coat 1.3 (1.3) 0.00 0.00 0.00 8.84 70G70G EG (18.83) 7.71 (17.0) 9.05 (19.94) 9.05 (19.94) 4.49 (9.90) 0.00 4.49 CR (9.90) front rear front front rear rear rear front rear front front front front 4.49 (9.90)

Escape

3.20 (7.05) 0.65 3.85 60G60G EG (1.44) (8.49)

3.20 (7.05)

none none none none none none none Primer Dip B/W

28 46 48 0 0 0 0 43 27 Primer Dip B/W 38

3310 (130) 2061 (81) 1981 (78) 0 0 0 0 2183 (86) 3509 (138) 2476 (97) 3400 (134) 26 Primer Dip B/W E-coat E-coat 26 0 0 3350 (132) 3350 (132) 0 0

1.60 (0.063) Subaru

Legacy

1.60 (0.063) Ford

Escape

1.50 (0.059) Chev.

Corvette

1.50 (0.059) Cadillac XLR

1.50 (0.059) Chev.

Corvette

5-18

1.50 (0.059) Cadillac XLR

1.50 (0.059) Daimler Stratus/Cirrus Chrysler

1.50 (0.059) Daimler Chrysler/Dodge Chrysler Minivan

1.50 (0.059) Daimler Neon Chrysler

1.46 (0.057) Mazda

Mazda 6

1.40 (0.055) Mitsubishi Eclipse

1.40 (0.055) Chrysler/ Sebring/Avenger Dodge

1.30 (0.051) Chev.

Corvette

1.30 (0.051) Chev.

Corvette

TABLE 5.4 (continued) ROLL FORMED BUMPER BEAMS THICKNESS, WEIGHT, MATERIAL, COATINGS AND SWEEP BEAMS PRODUCED IN THE 2004 CALENDAR YEAR
MODEL WEIGHT [kg (pounds)] Beam Performance Mounting Subtotal Total Reinforcements Brackets FRONT OR REAR BUMPER STEEL PRODUCT BUMPER SUPPLIER COATING ASSEMBLY SWEEP SWEEP LINE NUMBER RADIUS [mm (inches)] COATING

STEEL THICKNESS GRADE1 [mm (inches)]

MAKE

120XF 1.30 (0.051) Lincoln front front front front rear front front rear front rear front front rear front rear 5.10 CR (11.24) 5.56 CR (12.26) 7.32 CR (16.14) 8.57 CR (18.89) 8.63 CR (19.03) 7.94 CR (17.50) 14.74 CR (32.50) 6.94 CR (15.30) 15.67 CR (34.55) E-coat E-coat 6.89 CR (15.19) 9.60 CR (21.16) E-coat 6.08 CR (13.39) 6.57 (14.5) (0.08) 0.00 0.00 6.57 (14.5) 6.57 60G60G HDG none (14.5) 6.88 (15.16) 0.04 0.00 6.92 (15.24) 6.92 60G60G HDG none (15.24) 0.04 (0.08) 0.00

LS DEW98

7.14 (15.74)

7.18 (15.82)

7.18 60G60G HDG none (15.83)

E-coat E-coat E-coat

35 35 35 36 36 26 Primer Dip B/W Primer Dip B/W 39 39 38 Primer Dip B/W 38 41 Primer Dip B/W Primer Dip B/W Primer Dip B/W Primer Dip B/W 32 50 50 50

2668 (105.0) 2668 (105.0) 2743 (105.0) 2623 (103) 2623 (103) 3350 (132) 2400 (94) 2400 (94) 2475 (97) 2470 (97) 2300 (91) 2950 (116) 1930 (76) 1930 (76) 1930 (76)

1.30 (0.051) Ford

Thunderbird M205

1.30 (0.051) Jaguar

S-type X400 X-type X200

1.20 (0.047) Buick

LaCrosse

1.20 (0.047) Buick

LaCrosse

1.22 (0.048) Mitsubishi Galant

5-19

1.20 (0.047) Nissan

Sentra

1.20 (0.047) Nissan

Sentra

135XF 2.00 (0.079) Honda

Acura TL

2.00 (0.079) Honda

Acura TL

2.00 (0.079) Honda

Acura CL

140T 2.00 (0.079) Honda

Odyssey

2.00 (0.079) Honda

Odyssey

2.00 (0.079) Honda

MDX

2.00 (0.079) Honda

MDX

TABLE 5.4 (continued) ROLL FORMED BUMPER BEAMS THICKNESS, WEIGHT, MATERIAL, COATINGS AND SWEEP BEAMS PRODUCED IN THE 2004 CALENDAR YEAR
MODEL WEIGHT [kg (pounds)] Beam Performance Mounting Subtotal Total Reinforcements Brackets FRONT OR REAR BUMPER STEEL PRODUCT BUMPER SUPPLIER COATING ASSEMBLY SWEEP SWEEP LINE NUMBER RADIUS [mm (inches)] COATING

STEEL THICKNESS GRADE1 [mm (inches)]

MAKE

140T 2.00 (0.079) Honda front rear rear front front rear rear rear rear front rear front rear front front rear 7.13 (15.71) 7.13 (15.71) 0.00 0.90 (1.98) 7.13 (15.71) 0.90 (1.98) 7.13 (15.71) 0.00 8.60 (18.95) 0.90 (1.98) 7.8 CR (17.19) 6.5 CR (14.33) 9.50 2.81 12.31 CR (20.93) (6.20) (27.13) 7.13 1.18 8.31 CR (15.71) (2.60) (18.31) 8.03 2.72 10.75 CR (17.69) (6.00) (23.69) 7.13 1.18 8.31 CR (15.71) (2.60) (18.31) 8.03 2.72 10.75 CR (17.69) (6.00) (23.69) 5.16 CR (11.38) 5.38 CR (11.86) 6.18 Cr (13.62) E-coat none none none none none 8.0 CR (17.63) 7.92 CR (17.46) 3.30 (7.28) 0.00 3.30 (7.28) 0.89 4.19 CR (1.96) (9.24) none E-coat 5.84 CR (12.86) 15.75 CR (34.72)

Pilot

6.68 CR (14.73)

Primer Dip B/W Primer Dip B/W Primer Dip B/W E-coat

50 50 27 65 26

1930 (76) 1930 (76) 3488 (137) 1509 (59) 3520 (139) 2740 (34) 2200 (43) 3000 (31) E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat Primer Dip B/W Primer Dip B/W 10 36 36 36 36 31 31 32 9160 (361) 2597 (102) 2597 (102) 2597 (102) 2597 (102) 3000 (118) 3000 (118) 2943 (116)

2.00 (0.079) Honda

Pilot

1.80 (0.071) Honda

Civic

1.80 (0.071) Honda

Accord

1.80 (0.071) Toyota

Tundra

1.66 (0.065) Mazda

Mazda 6

5-20

1.66 (0.065) Mazda

Mazda 6 Wagon

1.66 (0.065) Mazda

Mazda 3

1.60 (0.063) Chev.

Monte Carlo

1.60 (0.063) Buick

Regal

1.60 (0.063) Buick

Regal

1.60 (0.063) Buick

Century

1.60 (0.063) Buick

Century

1.60 (0.063) Honda

Civic

1.60 (0.063) Honda

Acura EL

1.60 (0.063) Toyota

Sienna

TABLE 5.4 (continued) ROLL FORMED BUMPER BEAMS THICKNESS, WEIGHT, MATERIAL, COATINGS AND SWEEP BEAMS PRODUCED IN THE 2004 CALENDAR YEAR
MODEL WEIGHT [kg (pounds)] Beam Performance Mounting Subtotal Total Reinforcements Brackets FRONT OR REAR BUMPER STEEL PRODUCT BUMPER SUPPLIER COATING ASSEMBLY SWEEP SWEEP LINE NUMBER RADIUS [mm (inches)] COATING

STEEL THICKNESS GRADE1 [mm (inches)]

MAKE

140T 1.60 (0.063) Toyota rear E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat 6.0 CR (13.22) 6.40 CR (14.11) 5.68 CR (12.52) 6.32 CR (13.93) 5.80 CR (12.79) E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat front rear rear rear rear rear rear front front front Australian front front front front 10.89 (24.0) 0.00 11.11 (24.5) 0.00 11.11 (24.5) 6.58 (14.5) 0.00 6.58 (14.5) 8.12 CR (17.90) 0.11 6.69 CR (0.24) (14.74) 1.00 12.11 CR (2.20) (26.70) 6.26 CR (13.18) 6.75 CR (14.88) 7.76 CR (17.11) 6.72 CR (14.82) 2.29 CR (5.05)

Vibe

6.97 CR (15.37)

28 47 26 27 42 28 43 none none none 32 34 34

3330 (131) 2040 (80) 3580 (141) 3385 (133) 2240 (88) 3330 (131) 2194 (86) 2908 (114.5) 2743 (108.0) 2668 (108.0) 2700 (34) 30 32 41 43 3003 (118) 2943 (116) 2290 (90 2185 (86))

1.60 (0.063) Toyota

Tacoma

1.60 (0.063) Toyota

Solara

1.60 (0.063) Toyota

Camry

1.60 (0.063) Toyota

Corolla

1.60 (0.063) Toyota

Matrix

5-21 9.30 0.77 11.66 CR (20.50) (1.70) (25.7)

1.60 (0.063) Toyota

Avalon

1.60 (0.063) Toyota

Solara

1.60 (0.063) Toyota

Sequoia 120N

1.60 (0.063) Toyota

Tundra

1.56 (0.061) Mazda

Mazda 3

1.40 (0.055) Toyota

Avalon

1.40 (0.055) Toyota

Avalon

1.40 (0.055) Toyota

Camry

1.40 (0.055) Toyota

Solara

TABLE 5.4 (continued) ROLL FORMED BUMPER BEAMS THICKNESS, WEIGHT, MATERIAL, COATINGS AND SWEEP BEAMS PRODUCED IN THE 2004 CALENDAR YEAR
MODEL WEIGHT [kg (pounds)] Beam Performance Mounting Subtotal Total Reinforcements Brackets FRONT OR REAR BUMPER STEEL PRODUCT BUMPER SUPPLIER COATING ASSEMBLY SWEEP SWEEP LINE NUMBER RADIUS [mm (inches)] COATING

STEEL THICKNESS GRADE1 [mm (inches)]

MAKE

140T 1.40 (0.055) Toyota front E-coat front rear rear rear front rear rear front front rear 1.55 (3.42) 1.44 (3.17) 0.00 0.00 3.60 (7.90) front 0.00 rear front front3.07 (6.76) 3.63 (8.00) 4.50 (9.93) 3.69 (8.13) 6.10 CR (13.45) 6.10 CR (13.45) 4.97 CR (10.96) 4.97 CR (10.96) 5.24 1.46 6.70 CR (11.55) (3.22) (14.77) 5.94 (13.10) 3.07 (6.76) 3.63 (8.00) 3.60 (7.90) 1.05 6.99 CR (2.31) (15.41) 0.45 3.52 CR (1.00) (7.76) 0.65 4.28 CR (1.43) (9.44) 1.66 4.66 CR (3.66) (10.27) E-coat E-coat none 5.26 CR (11.60) 6.05 CR (13.34) 6.10 CR (13.45) 5.60 CR (12.35) 5.26 CR (11.60)

Corolla

5.53 CR (12.19)

26 Primer Dip B/W Primer Dip B/W Primer Dip B/W Primer Dip B/W Primer Dip B/W Primer Dip B/W Primer Dip B/W 43 36 36 36 43 36 36 18 18 26 E-coat

3500 (138) 2184 (86) 2591 (102) 2591 (102) 2591 (102) 2184 (86) 2591 (102) 2591 (102) 5000 (197) 5000 (197) 3558 (140)

1.30 (0.051) Chev.

Cavalier

1.30 (0.051) Chev.

Cavalier

1.30 (0.051) Chev.

Malibu

1.30 (0.051) Olds

Alero

1.30 (0.051) Pontiac Sunfire

5-22

1.30 (0.051) Pontiac Sunfire

1.30 (0.051) Pontiac Grand AM

1.20 (0.047) Toyota

Vibe

1.20 (0.047) Toyota

Matrix

M190HT 1.70 (0.067) Honda

Accord 2dr

1.70 (0.067) Honda

Accord 4dr

none E-coat E-coat none E-coat none E-coat none

26 42 42 42

3558 (140) 1981 (78) 1981 (78) 1981 (78)

1.60 (0.063) Ford

Explorer

1.60 (0.063) Mercury Mountaineer

1.60 (0.063) Lincoln

Aviator

TABLE 5.4 (continued) ROLL FORMED BUMPER BEAMS THICKNESS, WEIGHT, MATERIAL, COATINGS AND SWEEP BEAMS PRODUCED IN THE 2004 CALENDAR YEAR
MODEL WEIGHT [kg (pounds)] Beam Performance Mounting Subtotal Total Reinforcements Brackets FRONT OR REAR BUMPER STEEL PRODUCT BUMPER SUPPLIER COATING ASSEMBLY SWEEP SWEEP LINE NUMBER RADIUS [mm (inches)] COATING

STEEL THICKNESS GRADE1 [mm (inches)]

MAKE

M190HT 1.50 (0.059) Ford 10.50 (23.15) E-coat E-coat E-coat none none none 10.50 (23.15) 10.50 (23.15) 6.08 (13.41) 5.39 (11.89) 6.80 (15.00) 3.83 CR (8.44) 3.97 CR (8.75) 5.36 CR (11.82) 5.36 (11.82) 5.10 (11.25) 4.80 (10.58) 4.88 (10.76) 4.50 (9.92) 5.22 (11.51) 0.53 (1.16) 0.82 (1.80) 0.45 (0.99) 0.45 (0.99) 0.53 (1.16) 0.53 (1.16) 5.89 0.83 7.56 30G30G EG (12.98) (1.84) (14.82) 5.63 0.73 6.36 30G30G EG (12.41) (1.62) (14.03) 5.33 0.78 6.11 30G30G EG (11.74) (1.72) (13.46) 5.70 (12.56) 0.00 5.70 60G60G EG (12.56) 4.95 1.9 6.85 CR (10.92) (4.19) (15.10) 5.67 1.9 7.57 CR (12.50) (4.19) (16.69) E-coat E-coat none none none none E-coat E-coat 0.00 6.80 (15.00) 0.00 0.50 (1.11) 5.90 (13.00) 0.00 5.90 50G50G EG (13.00) 6.80 50G50G EG (15.00) 0.38 (0.84) 6.46 30G30G EG (14.25) 6.46 (14.25) 0.00 0.00 10.50 1.89 12.39 CR (23.15) (4.17) (27.31) 0.00 10.50 1.89 12.39 CR (23.15) (4.17) (27.31) front front front rear rear front rear front rear rear

Crown Victoria front

0.00

10.50 1.89 12.39 CR (23.15) (4.17) (27.31)

none none none E-coat E-coat E-coat Primer Dip B/W

30 30 30 19 19 19 23 23 25 E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat none none 0 0 0 0 27 18

3096 (122) 3096 (122) 3096 (122) 4843 (190.7) 4843 (190.7) 4843 (190.7) 3988 (157) 3988 (157) 3700 (146) 0 0 0 0 3430 (135) 5109 (201)

1.50 (0.059) Mercury Marquis

1.50 (0.059) Lincoln

Town Car

1.12 (0.044) Ford

Taurus D186

1.12 (0.044) Ford

Taurus D186 Sedan

1.12 (0.044) Ford

Taurus D186 Wagon

5-23 front rear rear

1.14 (0.045) Saturn

VUE

1.14 (0.045) Saturn

VUE

1.00 (0.039) Nissan

Altima

0.99 (0.039) Ford

Focus C170 Sedan

0.99 (0.039) Ford

Focus C170 Wagon

0.99 (0.039) Ford

Focus C170 3 dr. rear

0.94 (0.037) Ford

Focus C170

M190HT 1.55 (0.061) Buick

LeSabre

1.55 (0.061) Cadillac DeVille

TABLE 5.4 (continued) ROLL FORMED BUMPER BEAMS THICKNESS, WEIGHT, MATERIAL, COATINGS AND SWEEP BEAMS PRODUCED IN THE 2004 CALENDAR YEAR
MODEL WEIGHT [kg (pounds)] Beam Performance Mounting Subtotal Total Reinforcements Brackets FRONT OR REAR BUMPER STEEL PRODUCT BUMPER SUPPLIER COATING ASSEMBLY SWEEP SWEEP LINE NUMBER RADIUS [mm (inches)] COATING

STEEL THICKNESS GRADE1 [mm (inches)]

MAKE

M220HT 1.55 (0.061) Pontiac Bonneville rear rear 4.91 (10.83) E-coat 0.45 (0.99) 5.36 1.68 7.68 CR (11.82) (3.71) (15.53) E-coat

4.91 (10.83)

0.45 (0.99)

5.36 2.2 7.56 CR (11.82) (4.85) (16.67)

none none

38 38

2467 (97) 2467 (97)

1.55 (0.061) Buick

Park Avenue

NOTES: 1. A blank cell means that data are unavailable for that cell.

2. Beam weight is for a painted beam. Add 0.37 kg (1.0 pound) for a chrome beam.

3. All bumper beams are reinforcing beams.

5-24

4. A zero (0) sweep number means the beam is straight/flat.

5. Sweep numbers are rounded to the nearest whole number. Sweep radii are actual radii.

6. The Primer Dip B/W coating would be termed E-Coat.

DEFINITIONS:

XF

Recovery annealed quality. Strength is achieved primarily through cold work during cold rolling at the steel mill. Designation number (e.g. 50) is minimum yield strength in ksi.

XLF

Microalloy quality. Strength is obtained through small quantities of alloying elements such as vanadium and niobium. Designation number (e.g. 120) is minimum yield strength in ksi.

T M..HT CR HR EG

Dual phase quality. Structure contains martensite in ferrite matrix. Designation number (e.g. 140) is minimum tensile strength in ksi. Martensitic quality. Strength is determined by carbon content. Designation number (e.g. 190) is minimum tensile strength in ksi. Cold rolled sheet. Hot rolled sheet. Electrogalvanized sheet. The six-character descriptor designates coating type and weight. Two numeric characters (e.g. 60) denote coating weight in g/m2. An alphabetic character denotes coating type. “A” is a zinc-iron alloy coating. “G” is a zinc coating. The first three characters denote coating weight and type on one side of the sheet and the last three characters denote coating weight and type on the opposite side of the sheet.

HDG

Hot-dip galvanized sheet. The six-character descriptor designates coating type and weight. Two numeric characters (e.g. 90) denote coating weight in g/m2. An alphabetic character denotes coating type. “A” is a zinc-iron alloy coating. “G” is a zinc coating. The first three characters denote coating weight and type on one side of the sheet and the last three characters denote coating weight and type on the opposite side of the sheet.

TABLE 5.5 COLD STAMPED BUMPER BEAMS THICKNESS, WEIGHT, MATERIAL, COATINGS AND DEPTH-OF-DRAW BEAMS PRODUCED IN THE 2004 CALENDAR YEAR
MODEL WEIGHT [kg (pounds)] Beam Performance Mounting Total Subtotal Reinforcements Brackets FRONT OR REAR BUMPER STEEL PRODUCT BUMPER SUPPLIER COATING DEPTH ASSEMBLY OF DRAW LINE COATING [mm (inches)]

STEEL THICKNESS GRADE1 [mm (inches)]

MAKE

1008/ 2.29 (0.090) Chev. 1010 rear rear rear rear rear rear rear front rear rear front 10.94 (24.12) 10.94 (24.12) 6.38 (14.07) 6.38 (14.07) 17.05 (37.59) 20.23 (44.60) CR 17.05 CR (37.59) HR HR HR CR 7.26 (16.00) 9.83 (21.67) 3.57 (7.86) 10.83 1.19 12.01 CR (23.86) (2.62) (26.48) 9.83 CR (21.67) 20.23 (44.60) CR CR 21.19 (46.71) HR 21.19 (46.71) HR 21.19 (46.71) CR frontside chrome backside none CR

Tahoe 410/20

21.19 (46.71)

frontside chrome or paint backside none

none none none none

135 (5.3) 135 (5.3) 135 (5.3) 135 (5.3)

2.29 (0.090) Chev.

Suburban

2.29 (0.090) Chev.

C/K 400

frontside chrome or paint backside none frontside chrome or paint backside none frontside chrome or paint backside paint or E-coat frontside chrome or paint backside acrylic compound

2.29 (0.090) GMC

Sierra 400

2.00 (0.079) Ford

Ranger

none none none none none frontside chrome or paint backside none frontside chrome or paint backside acrylic compound frontside chrome or paint backside paint or E-coat none none none none none 165 (6.5) 165 (6.5) 203 (8.0) 132 (5.2) 132 (5.2) 140 (5.5) 99 (3.9) 117 (4.6) 165 (6.5)

1.80 (0.071) GMC

Canyon

5-25 front rear

1.80 (0.071) Chev.

Colorado

DR210 1.80 (0.071) Ford

F-250/F-350

35XLF 2.01 (0.079) Chev.

Express 600

frontside chrome or paint backside acrylic compound frontside chrome or paint backside thermoplastics water based compound frontside chrome or paint backside none

2.01 (0.079) GMC

Savana 600

1.91 (0.075) Chev.

S-Series 325

1.91 (0.075) Mazda

B Series Pickup front

1.91 (0.075) Ford

Ranger

1.80 (0.071) Ford

F-250/F-350

frontside chrome or paint backside paint or E-coat frontside chrome or paint backside thermoplastics water based compound

TABLE 5.5 (continued) COLD STAMPED BUMPER BEAMS THICKNESS, WEIGHT, MATERIAL, COATINGS AND DEPTH-OF-DRAW BEAMS PRODUCED IN THE 2004 CALENDAR YEAR
MODEL WEIGHT [kg (pounds)] Beam Performance Mounting Subtotal Total Reinforcements Brackets FRONT OR REAR BUMPER STEEL PRODUCT BUMPER SUPPLIER COATING DEPTH ASSEMBLY OF DRAW LINE COATING [mm (inches)]

STEEL THICKNESS GRADE1 [mm (inches)]

MAKE

35XLF 1.80 (0.071) Ford 9.83 (21.67) 9.83 CR (21.67) 8.90 CR (19.62) 7.69 CR (16.96) 7.69 CR (16.96) 8.90 CR (19.62) 7.69 CR (16.96) 11.71 CR (25.82) 7.71 CR (17.00) 4.45 CR (9.80) CR 17.68 (38.98) 17.24 (38.00) 17.91 (39.48) 8.35 (18.40) 4.00 (8.82) 21.68 (47.8) 3.01 24.69 60G60G EG (6.63) (54.43) 5.67 8.35 CR (12.50) (18.40) 25.17 CR (55.50) CR CR 8.90 (19.62) 7.69 (16.96) 7.69 (16.96) 8.90 (19.62) 7.69 (16.96) 11.71 (25.82) 7.71 (17.00) 4.45 (9.80)

F-150 Flare-side rear

9.83 (21.67) 9.83 CR (21.67)

none none none none none none none none none none none

165 (6.5) 165 (6.5) 200 (7.9) 180 (7.1) 180 (7.1) 200 (7.9) 180 (7.1) 200 (7.9)

1.80 (0.071) Ford rear rear rear rear rear rear front rear

F-150 Supercrew rear

1.80 (0.071) Chev.

Silverado

1.80 (0.071) Chev.

Tahoe

1.80 (0.071) Chev.

Suburban

1.80 (0.071) GMC

Sierra

5-26 rear front front front front

1.80 (0.071) GMC

Yukon

1.80 (0.071) Toyota

Tundra

1.80 (0.071) Toyota

Tacoma

40XLF 1.40 (0.055) Toyota

Tacoma

50XLF 2.49 (0.098) Mazda

B Series Pickup rear

frontside chrome or paint backside thermoplastics water based compound frontside chrome or paint backside thermoplastics water based compound frontside chrome or paint backside thermoplastics water based compound frontside chrome or paint backside thermoplastics water based compound frontside chrome or paint backside thermoplastics water based compound frontside chrome or paint backside thermoplastics water based compound frontside chrome or paint backside thermoplastics water based compound frontside chrome or paint backside thermoplastics water based compound frontside chrome or paint backside thermoplastics water based compound frontside chrome or paint backside thermoplastics water based compound frontside chrome or paint backside paint or E-coat none frontside chrome or paint backside acrylic compound

147 (5.8) none none none none none 191 (7.5) 119 (4.7) 150 (5.9)

2.06 (0.081) Subaru

Baha

2.01 (0.079) Dodge

Ram 2 dr.

2.01 (0.079) Chev.

Silverado

2.00 (0.079) GMC

Sierra

1.91 (0.075) Ford

F150

frontside chrome or paint backside none frontside chrome or paint backside thermoplastics water based compound frontside chrome or paint backside paint

TABLE 5.5 (continued) COLD STAMPED BUMPER BEAMS THICKNESS, WEIGHT, MATERIAL, COATINGS AND DEPTH-OF-DRAW BEAMS PRODUCED IN THE 2004 CALENDAR YEAR
MODEL WEIGHT [kg (pounds)] Beam Performance Mounting Subtotal Total Reinforcements Brackets FRONT OR REAR BUMPER STEEL PRODUCT BUMPER SUPPLIER COATING DEPTH ASSEMBLY OF DRAW LINE COATING [mm (inches)]

STEEL THICKNESS GRADE1 [mm (inches)]

MAKE

50XLF 1.91 (0.075) Ford 29.94 (66.00) 38.56 7.48 46.04 CR (85.00) (16.50) (101.50) 31.75 (70.00) 40.37 7.48 47.85 CR (89.00) (16.50) (101.50) 12.25 (27.00) 9.98 (22.0) 6.51 (14.35) 9.34 (20.59) 6.51 (14.35) 14.52 (32.01) 14.29 (31.50) 14.29 (31.50) 14.29 (31.50) 14.29 (31.50) 4.54 (10.01) 19.06 (42.02) 3.01 (6.64) 8.13 (17.92) 17.47 (38.51) 3.01 (6.64) 9.52 1.68 11.20 CR (20.99) (3.70) (24.69) CR 1.54 (3.4) 11.52 (25.4) 0.00 11.52 CR (25.4) 13.52 (29.8) 25.76 (56.8) 0.00 25.76 CR (56.80) 0.00 31.75 CR (70.00) 0.00 29.94 CR (66.00)

F-150 Styleside rear (5000 lb. tow)

frontside chrome or paint backside paint frontside chrome or paint backside paint frontside chrome or paint backside paint frontside chrome or paint backside paint frontside chrome or paint backside paint

none none none none none

160 (6.3) 160 (6.3) 160 (6.3) 160 (6.3) 160 (6.3)

1.91 (0.075) Ford

F-150 Styleside rear (9900 lb. tow)

1.91 (0.075) Ford

F-150 Flareside rear (5000 lb. tow)

1.91 (0.075) Ford rear rear front rear front front front front front front

F-150 Flareside rear (9900 lb. tow)

1.91 (0.075) Ford

F-250/F-350

190.(0.075) Chev.

Colorado

frontside Zn + Cr or Zn + paint none backside paint E-coat E-coat E-coat none none none

140 (5.5) 90 (3.5) 100 (3.9) 90 (3.5)

5-27 9.52 1.68 11.20 CR (20.99) (3.70) (24.69) CR HR HR HR HR

1.80 (0.071) Dodge

Durango

1.80 (0.071) Dodge

Durango

1.80 (0.071) Dodge

Dakota

1.80 (0.071) Dodge

Ram Sport

E-coat frontside chrome backside none frontside chrome backside none frontside chrome or paint backside none frontside chrome or paint backside none

none none none none none

140 (5.5) 127 (5.0) 127 (5.0) 127 (5.0) 127 (5.0)

55XLF 2.26 (0.089) Chev.

Suburban

2.26 (0.089) GMC

Suburban 430

2.26 (0.089) Chev.

Tahoe 410/20

2.26 (0.089) GMC

Yukon 410/20

TABLE 5.5 (continued) COLD STAMPED BUMPER BEAMS THICKNESS, WEIGHT, MATERIAL, COATINGS AND DEPTH-OF-DRAW BEAMS PRODUCED IN THE 2004 CALENDAR YEAR
MODEL WEIGHT [kg (pounds)] Beam Performance Mounting Subtotal Total Reinforcements Brackets FRONT OR REAR BUMPER STEEL PRODUCT BUMPER SUPPLIER COATING DEPTH ASSEMBLY OF DRAW LINE COATING [mm (inches)]

STEEL THICKNESS GRADE1 [mm (inches)]

MAKE

55XLF 2.26 (0.089) Chev. front front front front 8.50 4.00 12.50 HR (18.74) (8.82) (27.56) 6.92 0.36 7.28 HR (15.25) (0.79) (16.04) 2.06 (4.54) 2.17 4.23 CR (4.79) (9.33) 7.50 (16.53) 8.50 (18.74) 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.92 (15.25) 2.06 (4.54) 3.00 (6.61) 10.50 (23.15) 0.00 10.50 HR (23.15) E-coat E-coat E-coat none 9.00 (19.84) E-coat 0.00 9.00 0.50 9.50 HR (19.84) (1.10) (20.94) 14.29 (31.50) HR frontside chrome backside none 14.29 (31.50) HR

C/K 400

frontside chrome or paint backside none

none none none none none none E-coat E-coat

127 (5.0) 127 (5.0) 152 (6.0) 76 (3.0) 114 (4.5) 171 (6.7)

2.26 (0.089) GMC

Sierra 400

1.60 (0.063) GM

Astro

80XLF 2.79 (0.110) Saturn

LS

2.06 (0.081) Ford

Explorer front Sport/Sport Trac

1.65 (0.065) Ford front front rear

Expedition/Nav front U222/228

5-28

1.32 (0.050) Honda

Element

120XF 1.91 (0.075) Chrylser P/T Cruiser

5.44 90G90G HDG none (12.00) 6.35 90G90G HDG none (14.00)

50.8 (2.0) none 63.5 (2.5)

1.91 (0.075) Chrysler P/T Cruiser

NOTES: 1. A blank cell means that data are unavailable for that cell. 2. Beam weight is for a painted beam. Add 0.37 kg (1.0 pound) for a chrome beam. 3. Bumper beams where “frontside” and “backside” are shown in “Bumper Supplier Coating” column are bumper facebars. All other bumper beams are reinforcing beams.

DEFINITIONS 1008/1010 — Low carbon quality. Mechanical properties are not certified. DR210 — Dent resistant quality. Minimum yield strength of 210MPa (30 ksi) as-shipped from the steel mill. Strength increases due to work hardening during forming. XF — Recovery annealed quality. Strength is achieved primarily through cold workduring cold rolling at the steel mill. Designation number (e.g. 50) is minimum yield strength in ksi. XLF — Microalloy quality. Strength is obtained through small additions of alloying elements such as vanadium and niobium. Designation number (e.g. 50) is minimum yield strength in ksi. T — Dual phase quality. Structure contains martensite in ferrite matrix. Designation number (e.g. 140) is minimum tensile strength in ksi. M..HT — Martensitic quality. Strength is determined by carbon content. Designation number (e.g. 190) is minimum tensile strength in ksi. CR — Cold rolled sheet. HR — Hot rolled sheet. EG — Electrogalvanized sheet. The six-character descriptor designates coating type and weight. Two numeric characters (e.g. 60) denote coating weight in g/m2. An alphabetic character denotes coating type. “A” is a zinc-iron alloy coating. “G” is a zinc coating. The first three characters denote coating weight and type on one side of the sheet and the last three characters denote coating weight and type on the opposite side of the sheet. HDG — Hot-dip galvanized sheet. The six-character descriptor designates coating type and weight. Two numeric characters (e.g. 90) denote coating weight in g/m2. An alphabetic character denotes coating type. “A” is a zinc-iron alloy coating. “G” is a zinc coating. The first three characters denote coating weight and type on one side of the sheet and the last three characters denote coating weight and type on the opposite side of the sheet.

TABLE 5.6 HOT FORMED BUMPER BEAMS THICKNESS, WEIGHT, MATERIAL, COATINGS AND DEPTH-OF-DRAW BEAMS PRODUCED IN THE 2004 CALENDAR YEAR
MODEL WEIGHT [kg (pounds)] Beam Performance Mounting Subtotal Total Reinforcements Brackets FRONT OR REAR BUMPER STEEL PRODUCT BUMPER SUPPLIER COATING DEPTH ASSEMBLY OF DRAW LINE COATING [mm (inches)]

STEEL THICKNESS GRADE1 [mm (inches)]

MAKE

10B21(M) 3.50 (0.138) VW rear rear rear 6.50 (14.33) 8.00 (17.64) 2.00 (4.41) 2.80 (6.17) 2.80 (6.17) 2.80 (6.17) 3.50 (7.72) 6.00 (13.23) 6.00 (13.23) 3.30 (7.28) 4.30 (9.48) 4.09 (9.02) 4.09 (9.02) 2.20 5.00 HR (4.85) (11.03) 2.20 5.00 HR (4.85) (11.03) 2.20 5.00 HR (4.85) (11.03) 2.50 6.00 HR (5.51) (13.23) 6.00 HR (13.23) 6.00 HR (13.23) 1.80 5.10 HR (3.97) (11.24) 0.50 4.80 HR (1.10) (10.58) 3.13 7.22 HR (11.62) (15.92) 5.10 9.19 HR (11.24) (20.26) 3.00 5.00 HR (6.61) (11.03) 8.00 HR (17.64) 0.70 7.20 HR (1.54) (15.87) E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat Zinc coated Zinc coated HR E-coat HR E-coat 6.00 (13.23)

A4 Jetta USA

6.00 HR (13.23)

E-coat

none none none none none none none none none none none none none none none none

65 (2.6) 80 (3.1) 80 (3.1) 82 (3.2) 105 (4.1) 70 (2.8) 70 (2.8) 70 (2.8) 70 (2.8) 65 (2.6) 65 (2.6) 65 (2.6)

3.00 (0.118) VW

C1 USA New Beetle

3.00 (0.118) VW

C1 ECE New Beetle

2.70 (0.106) VW

B5 USA Passat front

2.70 (0.106) VW rear rear

B5 USA Passat rear

2.50 (0.098) VW

PQ24 Brasil New Polo

5-29 rear rear front rear rear

2.50 (0.098) VW

PQ24 A04 New Polo

2.50 (0.098) VW-China PQ24 A04 rear New Polo China

2.50 (0.098) VW-Seat

PQ24 S04 New Ibiza

2.14 (0.084) VW

A4 ECE Golf

2.14 (0.084) VW

A4 Jetta USA

2.14 (0.084) VW

A4 ECE Hinten rear

2.14 (0.084) VW/Skoda Fabia

2.00 (0.079) Ford

C170 Focus

85 (3.3) 40 (1.6) 40 (1.6)

2.00 (0.079) Smart

W456 ECE Brasil rear former (SUV)

2.00 (0.079) Smart

W456 USA Brasil rear former (SUV)

TABLE 5.6 (continued) HOT FORMED BUMPER BEAMS THICKNESS, WEIGHT, MATERIAL, COATINGS AND DEPTH-OF-DRAW BEAMS PRODUCED IN THE 2004 CALENDAR YEAR

STEEL THICKNESS GRADE1 [mm (inches)] MODEL WEIGHT [kg (pounds)] Beam Performance Mounting Total Subtotal Reinforcements Brackets FRONT OR REAR BUMPER STEEL PRODUCT BUMPER SUPPLIER COATING

MAKE

DEPTH ASSEMBLY OF DRAW LINE COATING [mm (inches)]

10B21(M) 2.00 (0.079) PSA rear rear front front front 2.80 (6.17) 2.80 (6.17) 3.60 (7.94) 3.60 (7.94) 2.10 (4.63) 2.85 (6.28) 2.20 5.00 HR (4.85) (11.03) 3.20 6.00 HR (7.05) (13.23) 6.60 10.20 HR (14.55) (22.49) 6.60 10.20 HR (14.55) (22.49) 2.00 7.27 HR (4.41) (16.03) 7.20 10.05 HR (15.88) (22.16) HR HR 7.60 (16.76) 4.15 (9.15) rear 7.00 14.60 HR (15.43) (32.19) 3.00 7.15 HR (6.61) (15.76) 2.80 (6.17) 2.20 5.00 HR (4.85) (11.03) 2.80 (6.17) 2.20 5.00 HR (4.85) (11.03) 2.00 (4.41) 3.00 5.00 HR (6.61) (11.03) E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat E-coat Raw/CB-Zinc Raw/CB-Zinc E-coat Zinc coated E-coat E-coat E-coat 3.60 (7.94) 0.80 4.40 HR (1.76) (9.70) Zinc coated

T5 New 307

4.27 (9.42)

3.00 7.27 HR (6.61) (16.03)

E-coat

none none none none none none none none yes yes none none none none none

80 (3.1) 90 (3.5) 60 (2.4) 60 (2.4) 60 (2.4) 60 (2.4) 75 (3.0) 85 (3.3) 85 (3.3) 55 (2.2) 50 (2.0) 80 (3.1) 80 (3.1) 90 (3.5) 70 (2.8)

1.80 (0.071) GM/Opel Zafira

1.80 (0.071) VW

PQ24 Brasil

1.80 (0.071) VW

PQ24 A04 New Polo

1.80 (0.071) VW-Seat PQ24 S04 New Ibiza

5-30 rear front front rear front front front front

front 1.80 (0.071) VW-China PQ24 A04 New Polo China

1.80 (0.071) VW-Seat SE241 New Cordoba

1.60 (0.063) GM/Saab 602 New 9-5

1.60 (0.063) GM/Saab 440 New 9-3

1.50 (0.059) PSA

X4 (X41, X42) New Xantia

1.50 (0.059) Smart

W456 Brasil former (SUV)

VW

C1 USA New Beetle

VW

C1 ECE New Beetle

VW

D1 (Phaeton)

VW

D1 (Phaeton)

TABLE 5.6 (continued) HOT FORMED BUMPER BEAMS THICKNESS, WEIGHT, MATERIAL, COATINGS AND DEPTH-OF-DRAW BEAMS PRODUCED IN THE 2004 CALENDAR YEAR

STEEL THICKNESS GRADE1 [mm (inches)] MODEL WEIGHT [kg (pounds)] Beam Performance Mounting Subtotal Total Reinforcements Brackets FRONT OR REAR BUMPER STEEL PRODUCT BUMPER SUPPLIER COATING

MAKE

DEPTH ASSEMBLY OF DRAW LINE COATING [mm (inches)]

15B21(M) 1.2 (0.047) Ford front rear 6.02 (13.29) 6.02 Aluminized (CR) none (13.29) 4.3 (9.58)

Mustang

5.2 Aluminized (CR) none 0.92 (2.04) (11.6)

E-coat E-coat

85 (3.3) 85 (3.3)

1.2 (0.047) Ford

Mustang

NOTES: 1. A blank cell means that data are unavailable for that cell. 2. Beam weight is for a painted beam. Add 0.37 kg (1.0 pound) for a chrome beam. 3. Bumper beams where “frontside” and “backside” are shown in “Bumper Supplier Coating” column are bumper facebars. All other bumper beams are reinforcing beams.

5-31

DEFINITIONS 10B21(M) — Carbon-boron quality (SAE 10B21 modified). Beams are hot formed. After quenching, the yield strength is about 1140 MPa (165ksi). 15B21(M) — Carbon-boron quality (SAE 15B21 modified). Beams are hot formed. After quenching, the yield strength is about 1140 MPa (165ksi).

5.5 Current steel bumper design - North American passenger cars and minivans
The bumper systems on passenger cars sold in the United States must meet the NHTSA( National Highway Traffic Safety Administration), Part 581, Bumper Standard (see Section 6.1). Such bumpers are termed 2.5mph (4km/h) bumpers. The bumper systems on passenger cars sold in Canada must meet the Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Regulations Standard 215 (see Section 6.2). Such bumpers are termed 5mph (8km/h) Canadian bumpers. In practice, the NHTSA and Canadian regulations are not that far apart. Although Canada has higher test speeds, its acceptance criteria are less stringent than NHTSA’s. Canada allows damage to any non-safety or non-functional item. NHTSA, however, restricts damage to the bumper system. North American OEMs typically place 5mph (8km/h) bumper systems on their passenger cars. One such system is the 5mph (8km/h) Canadian bumper referred to above. Another system is the so-called 5mph (8km/h) NHTSA bumper. This system is based on NHTSA Part 581 in all respects except for test speeds, which are doubled [5mph (8km/h) longitudinal pendulum and barrier impacts and 3mph (4.8km/h) corner pendulum impacts]. It should be noted that the NHTSA and Canadian bumper standards apply only to passenger cars. However, most OEMs voluntarily treat minivans the same as passenger cars from the bumper perspective. Thus, most OEMs place a 5mph (8km/h) bumper system on their minivans. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) and the Consumers Union (CU) both test bumper systems (see Sections 6.4 and 6.5 respectively). Both IIHS and CU publish the “cost of repair” for vehicles they have tested. Thus, for marketing reasons, an OEM often sets a target “cost of repair” for a given vehicle. 5.5.1 Typical bumper design for 5 mph (8 km/h) low speed system As explained above, most North American OEMs place either a 5mph (8km/h) NHTSA or a 5mph (8km/h) Canadian bumper system on their passenger cars and minivans. For the reason of low cost with light weight, about 90% of today’s bumper systems have a steel beam. When designing a 5mph (8km/h) bumper, the secret of success is to allow the steel bumper beam to yield and deform within the allowable intrusion space. The Flow Chart in Figure 5.6 outlines a typical design process for 5mph (8km/h) low speed bumper systems having a steel beam. It is emphasized that the process shown in Figure 5.6 is a typical process. Other processes are also used to design 5mph (8km/h) low speed bumper systems. The designer’s first step is to determine the OEM internal acceptance requirements. For example, are the IIHS and CU tests to be included in the design process? Are the Canadian or the NHTSA criteria to be used? Are there OEM requirements that are not incorporated into the Flow Chart? If the answer to the latter question is yes, then the designer must modify the Flow Chart to cover the additional OEM requirements.

5-32

Often, particularly if the IIHS or CU targets are zero or minimal “cost of repair”, the IIHS and CU tests are more demanding than the NHTSA or Canadian criteria. Thus, if the IIHS and CU tests are to be included in the design process, it is logical to evaluate them first. The designer enters the IIHS/CU design path. If the IIHS and CU tests need not be considered, then the designer enters the Canadian/NHTSA design path.

5.5.2 IIHS/CU design path In the IIHS/CU path, the designer follows the front bumper branch or the rear bumper branch. The first step in either branch is to establish the IIHS “cost of repair” that is acceptable to the OEM. It should be noted that there are two IIHS “cost of repair” targets for either a front or a rear bumper. One is the “cost of repair” following the corner or pole impact for the front or rear bumper respectively. The other is the “cost of repair” following the barrier impact. Of course, the two targets for a bumper might well be the same. The second step is to prepare a Base Design. Often, but not always, the most demanding IIHS test requirement for a front bumper is the impact into the corner barrier and for the rear bumper the impact into the pole. Thus, it is suggested that the Base Design for a front bumper be based on the corner impact while the Base Design for the rear bumper be based on the pole impact. After preparing a Base Design that satisfies the “cost of repair” target, the designer checks the performance of the front or rear bumper in the 90degree barrier test. If the “cost of repair” under the 90degree barrier test does not meet the target, the designer prepares a new base design. If it does, the designer proceeds to the CU requirements. First, the designer establishes the CU “cost of repair” desired by the OEM. It should be noted that the “cost of repair” is calculated after the three CU bumper basher tests have been completed. Thus, there is only one “cost of repair” target for either a front or a rear bumper. Next, the designer verifies that the Base Design selected to satisfy the two IIHS “cost of repair” targets for a given bumper satisfies the CU “cost of repair” target. If it does not, then the Base Design must be modified. If it does, the designer can proceed to the Canadian/NHTSA design path. 5.5.3 Canadian/NHTSA design path By definition, a 5mph (8kh/h) North American bumper system must meet either the Canadian or the NHTSA criteria. As a first step, the designer determines whether the bumper system is to be a 5mph (8km/h) Canadian one or a 5mph (8km/h) NHTSA one (See the introduction to Section 5.5 above for a description of a 5mph (8km/h) NHTSA bumper.). If the Canadian criteria are to be used, a base design is prepared. It is reasonable to start with the pendulum impacts and then move to the barrier impact because this is the order used in testing. The Canadian damage criteria are evaluated after all impacts have been completed. That is, the cumulative damage incurred during the longitudinal impacts, the corner impact and the barrier impact is evaluated. If there is damage to safety and functional items, the base design must be modified. If not, the designer can move to the next step. 5-33

At this juncture, the base design meets the regulatory requirements for the bumper to be placed on a vehicle for sale in Canada. However, because the Flow Chart applies to North American vehicles, the bumper must also meet the regulatory requirements for a 2.5mph (4km/h) NHTSA bumper. Then, the bumper and vehicle may also be sold in the United States. Specifically, the base design must be checked to ensure that there is no non-bumper visual damage and no damage to safety and functional items after the accumulated effects of the 2.5mph (4km/h) longitudinal pendulum impacts, the 1.5mph (2.4km/h) corner pendulum impacts and the 2.5mph (4km/h) barrier impact. Also, the vehicle shall not touch the test device, except on the impact ridge shown in Figures 6.1 and 6.2, with a force that exceeds 2000 pounds (907kg) on the combined surfaces of Planes A and B (see Figure 6.3) of the test device. If the 5mph (8km/h) NHTSA criteria are to be used, a base design is prepared. It is reasonable to start with the pendulum impacts and then move to the barrier impact because this is the order used in testing. The NHTSA damage criteria are evaluated after all impacts have been completed. That is, the cumulative damage incurred during the longitudinal pendulum impacts, the corner pendulum impacts and the barrier impact is evaluated. There must be no non-bumper visual damage and no damage to safety and functional items. Also, the vehicle shall not touch the test device, except on the impact ridge shown in Figures 6.1 and 6.2, with a force that exceeds 2000 pounds (907kg) on the combined surfaces of Planes A and B (see Figure 6.3) of the test device. If these two conditions are met, the designer has reached a final design. The base design automatically meets the regulatory requirements of a bumper to be placed on a vehicle for sale in the United States because the NHTSA damage criteria have been applied at speeds twice those required by NHTSA. Also, because the NHTSA damage criteria are more severe than the Canadian damage criteria, and because the impact speeds used for the base design are the same as the Canadian impact speeds, the bumper and vehicle may also be sold in Canada.

5-34

FIGURE 5.6 TYPICAL BUMPER DESIGN FOR 5 mph LOW SPEED SYSTEM NORTH AMERICAN PASSENGER CARS AND MINIVANS
DETERMINE OEM INTERNAL ACCEPTANCE REQUIREMENTS

YES

IIHS/ CONSUMERS UNION REQUIREMENTS? REAR

NO

FRONT

FRONT OR REAR BUMPER?

ESTABLISH DESIRED IIHS COST OF REPAIR BASE DESIGN • IIHS 5 mph Corner Barrier • IIHS 5 mph Front Barrier

ESTABLISH DESIRED IIHS COST OF REPAIR CANADIAN BASE DESIGN • IIHS 5 mph Into Pole • IIHS 5 mph Rear Barrier CANADIAN OR NHTSA CRITERIA? NHTSA

BASE DESIGN • 5 mph Longitudinal Pendulum • 3 mph Corner Pendulum • 5 mph Barrier Impact

FRONT NO

ACCEPTABLE COST OF REPAIR? YES ESTABLISH DESIRED CONSUMERS UNION COST OF REPAIR • 5 mph Centre Impact • 5 mph Off-Centre Impact • 3 mph Corner Impact

REAR NO YES

ANY DAMAGE TO SAFETY & FUNCTIONAL ITEMS?

BASE DESIGN • 5 mph Longitudinal Pendulum • 3 mph Corner Pendulum • 5 mph Barrier Impact

NO NHTSA • 2.5 mph Longitudinal Pendulum • 1.5 mph Corner Pendulum • 2.5 mph Barrier Impact REAR NO

CDN NHTSA ANY YES NON-BUMPER YES VISUAL OR SAFETY & FUNCTIONAL ITEM DAMAGE? NO

FRONT NO

ACCEPTABLE COST OF REPAIR? YES

A+B 2000 LBS.< PLANES FORCE CDN NHTSA YES YES NO

FINAL DESIGN
5-35

5.6 Current steel bumper design - North American pickups, full size vans and sport utilities
Neither the United States nor Canada has mandatory bumper regulations for light truck vehicles. However, most North American OEMs voluntarily apply the United States (NHTSA) passenger car regulations (see Section 6.1) to pickups, full size vans and sport utilities with one significant difference. For passenger cars, the longitudinal and corner pendulum impacts are conducted at heights from 16 to 20 inches (400 to 500mm). However, the pendulum impacts on a light truck bumper are conducted at heights that are associated with the actual bumper height. A bumper system designed in this manner, is termed a modified NHTSA 2.5mph (4km/h) bumper system. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) and the Consumers Union (CU) both test bumper systems (see Sections 6.4 and 6.5 respectively). Both IIHS and CU publish the “cost of repair” for vehicles they have tested. Thus, for marketing reasons, an OEM often sets a target “cost of repair” for a given vehicle. For example, the OEM may wish a “cost of repair” that is near the median “cost of repair” of the other vehicles in its class. 5.6.1 Flow chart for 2.5mph (4km/h) low speed system As explained above, most North American OEMs place a modified NHTSA 2.5mph (4km/h) bumper system on their pickups, full size vans and sport utilities. For the reason of low cost with light weight, about 90% of today’s bumper systems have a steel beam. When designing a modified 2.5mph (4km/h) NHTSA bumper, the secret of success is to allow the steel bumper beam to yield and deform within the allowable intrusion space. The Flow Chart in Figure 5.7 outlines a typical design process for a 2.5mph (4km/h) low speed bumper system having a steel beam. It is emphasized that the process shown in Figure 5.7 is a typical process. Other processes are also used to design 2.5mph (4km/h) low speed bumper systems. The designer’s first step is to determine the OEM internal acceptance requirements. For example, are the IIHS and CU tests to be included in the design process? Are there OEM requirements that are not incorporated into the Flow Chart? If the answer to the latter question is yes, then the designer must modify the Flow Chart to cover the additional OEM requirements. Often, particularly if the IIHS or CU target is a minimal “cost of repair”, the IIHS and CU tests are more demanding than the NHTSA criteria. Thus, if the IIHS and CU tests are to be included in the design process, it is logical to evaluate them first. The designer enters the IIHS/CU design path. If the IIHS and CU tests need not be considered, then the designer enters the NHTSA design path.

5-36

5.6.2 IIHS/CU design path In the IIHS/CU path, the designer follows the front bumper branch or the rear bumper branch. The first step in either branch is to establish the IIHS “cost of repair” that is acceptable to the OEM. It should be noted that there are two IIHS “cost of repair” targets for either a front or a rear bumper. One is the “cost of repair” following the corner or pole impact for the front or rear bumper respectively. The other is the “cost of repair” following the barrier impact. Of course, the two targets for a bumper might well be the same. The second step is to prepare a Base Design. Often, but not always, the most demanding IIHS test requirement for a front bumper is the impact into the corner barrier and for the rear bumper the impact into the pole. Thus, it is suggested that the Base Design for a front bumper be based on the corner impact while the Base Design for the rear bumper be based on the pole impact. After preparing a Base Design that satisfies the “cost of repair” target, the designer checks the performance of the front or rear bumper in the 90degree barrier test. If the “cost of repair” under the 90degree barrier test does not meet the target, the designer prepares a new base design. If it does, the designer proceeds to the CU requirements. First, the designer establishes the CU “cost of repair” desired by the OEM. It should be noted that the “cost of repair” is calculated after the three CU bumper basher tests have been completed. Thus, there is only one “cost of repair” target for either a front or a rear bumper. Next, the designer verifies that the Base Design selected to satisfy the two IIHS “cost of repair” targets for a given bumper satisfies the CU “cost of repair” target. If it does not, then the Base Design must be modified. If it does, the designer can proceed to the NHTSA design path. 5.6.3 NHTSA design path It is reasonable to start with the pendulum impacts and then move to the barrier impact because this is the order used in testing. As noted in the introduction to Section 5.6 above, the pendulum impacts are conducted at heights associated with the vehicle’s bumper height. The NHTSA damage criteria are evaluated after all impacts have been conducted. That is, the cumulative damage incurred during the longitudinal pendulum impacts, the corner pendulum impacts and the barrier impact is evaluated. There must be no non-bumper visual damage and no damage to safety and functional items. Also, the vehicle shall not touch the test device, except on the impact ridge shown in Figures 6.1 and 6.2, with a force that exceeds 2000 pounds (907kg) on the combined surfaces of Planes A and B (see Figure 6.3) of the test device. If these two conditions are met, the final design has been reached.

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FIGURE 5.7 TYPICAL BUMPER DESIGN FOR 2.5 mph LOW SPEED SYSTEM NORTH AMERICAN PICKUPS, FULL SIZE VANS AND SPORT UTILITIES
DETERMINE OEM INTERNAL ACCEPTANCE REQUIREMENTS

YES

IIHS/ CONSUMERS UNION REQUIREMENTS? REAR

NO

FRONT

FRONT OR REAR BUMPER?

ESTABLISH DESIRED IIHS COST OF REPAIR BASE DESIGN • IIHS 5 mph Corner Barrier • IIHS 5 mph Front Barrier

ESTABLISH DESIRED IIHS COST OF REPAIR BASE DESIGN • IIHS 5 mph Into Pole YES • IIHS 5 mph Rear Barrier

BASE DESIGN (MODIFIED NHTSA CRITERIA) • 2.5 mph Longitudinal Pendulum • 1.5 mph Corner Pendulum • 2.5 mph Barrier Impact

ANY NON-BUMPER VISUAL OR SAFETY & FUNCTIONAL ITEM DAMAGE?

FRONT NO

ACCEPTABLE COST OF REPAIR? YES ESTABLISH DESIRED CONSUMERS UNION COST OF REPAIR • 5 mph Centre Impact • 5 mph Off-Centre Impact • 3 mph Corner Impact

REAR NO

NO

A+B YES 2000 LBS.< PLANES FORCE

NO

FINAL DESIGN
ACCEPTABLE COST OF REPAIR? YES 5-38

FRONT NO

REAR NO

5.7 Auto/Steel Partnership high speed steel bumper design - North American passenger cars
The Auto/Steel Partnership (A/SP) commissioned Quantech Global Services to conduct a study on the front-end of a 4 door, mid-size sedan. The objective was to reduce the cost and mass of the front-end structure through the use of advanced high-strength steels. The study included the development of a high speed bumper system. Current North American passenger cars have low speed bumper systems. Thus, Quantech’s first task for the high speed bumper system was to establish design criteria and a design process. SectionS 5.7.1 and 5.7.2 outline the results of Quantech’s research into these two areas. 5.7.1 Quantech design criteria for high speed steel bumper system Quantech, in consultation with A/SP, established the design criteria for a high speed bumper system as: 1. No bumper damage or yielding after a 5mph (8km/h) frontal impact into a flat, rigid barrier. Note: This criterion does not apply to low speed bumpers, where controlled yielding and deformation are beneficial. 2. No intrusion by the bumper system rearward of the engine compartment rails for all impact speeds less than 9mph (15km/h). 3. Minimize the lateral loads during impacts in order to reduce the possibility of lateral buckling of the rails. 4. Full collapse of the system during Danner (RCAR), NCAP, and IIHS high speed crash without inducing buckling of the rails. 5. Absorb 1% of the total energy every millisecond. 6. Absorb 15% of the total energy in the NCAP crash, including engine hit. 7. Use the front-end crush space efficiently. 8. Meet the air bag sensor requirements in low, medium and high speed impacts. 9. No detrimental affect on baseline body-in-white static or dynamic stiffness. Bumpers should protect car bodies from damage in low speed collisions - the kind that frequently occurs in congested urban traffic. The IIHS Low Speed Crash Test Protocol (see Section 6.4) addresses this issue. For marketing reasons, many current bumper systems are designed to ensure no or minimal “cost of repair” after the IIHS 5mph (8km/h) barrier impact. A/SP believes all future vehicles should meet this requirement. Thus, Criterion 1 was set to achieve zero damage and no or minimal “cost of repair” after the IIHS 5mph (8km/h) barrier impact. Criterion 4 addresses three high speed load cases: 1. 40%-9mph Danner (RCAR Test - see Section 6.6 and Reference 6.10). This load is a 9mph (15km/h) impact at a 40% offset into a rigid barrier. The A/SP objective is to have no damage to the radiator and other costly equipment in the front-end and to have no damage to the rail beyond 300mm (12inches).

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2. 35 mph NCAP (NHTSA New Car Assessment Program, Reference 5.2). This load is a 35mph (56km/h) impact into a rigid barrier. The A/SP objective is to maximize the energy absorbed in the bumper system. 3. 40%-40mph IIHS (Reference 5.3). This load case is a 40mph (64km/h) impact at a 40% offset into a deformable barrier. The A/SP objective is to ensure the bumper system does not break and is capable of transferring the load to the right rail, thereby minimizing the damage. A major objective of A/SP is to reduce vehicle weight using steel as the material of choice. Criterion 6 addresses this objective. Traditional bumper systems absorb about 8-11% of the energy in the 35mph (56km/h) NCAP crash. If bumper systems were to dissipate higher levels, there would be an opportunity for mass savings in the front-end structure. To capitalize on this opportunity, A/SP set 15% energy absorption as a stretch goal for future bumper systems. 5.7.2 Flow Chart for high speed system For the reason of low cost with light weight, steel is the material of choice for future, as well as current, bumper beams. The Flow Chart in Figure 5.8 outlines the design process developed by Quantech for a high speed bumper system having a steel beam. The process is a logical route to satisfying the design criteria outlined in Section 5.7.1. First, a Base Design is prepared. It is checked against the IIHS low speed [5mph (8km/h)] flat frontal barrier load case. If there is damage or yielding, the Base Design is modified. If not, the three high speed load cases are analyzed in the following sequence: 1. 40% offset - 9mph (15km/h) Danner. 2. 35mph (56km/h) NCAP. 3. 40% offset - 40mph (64km/h) IIHS. The results from the analyses of the three high speed load cases are compared to the design criteria in Section 5.7.1. If all of the criteria are met, the designer assesses the amount of energy absorption. Energy absorption should be maximized because the higher the amount, the greater the opportunity to reduce mass in the front-end structure. If the designer believes energy absorption has been maximized, a viable design has been captured. If not, the learning from the three high speed load cases is used to improve the Base Design and reach a viable design. Usually, three or four viable design alternatives are developed using the above process. The designer then selects one of the alternatives as the Preferred Design. The Preferred Design should be lightweight and easy to manufacture. Also, it should be easy to assemble and integrate with the rails. Cost is also a consideration when selecting the Preferred Design.

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FIGURE 5.8 AUTO/STEEL PARTNERSHIP BUMPER DESIGN FOR HIGH SPEED SYSTEM NORTH AMERICAN PASSENGER CARS

AIR BAG SENSOR REQUIREMENTS AIR BAG G BASE DESIGN DANNER 40% OFFSET 15 km/h (9 mph) NO/MINIMUM DAMAGEABILITY OF RAIL NO ACCEPTABLE? HIGH SPEED 35 mph (NCAP) 40%-40 mph (IIHS)

LOW SPEED 5 mph

YES ENERGY CAPTURE A ABSORPTION VIABLE DESIGN MAXIMIZED?

YES

NO USE LEARNING FOR AN IMPROVED DESIGN

PREFERRED DESIGN

Source: Auto/Steel Partnership and Quantech Global Services

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5.8 Bumper design for pedestrian impact
Pedestrian safety is a globally recognized safety concern. Efforts towards modifying vehicle designs to offer some protection for pedestrians began in earnest in the 1970s. At the same time, test procedures to evaluate the performance of new designs began to be developed. Pedestrian safety has improved significantly since then. The American Iron and Steel Institute wished to learn how pedestrian safety might affect steel bumper systems. Thus, it retained Dr. Peter Schuster, California Polytechnic State University, to study this topic. The following information is based on his work (Reference 5.4). 5.8.1 Impact tests The European Union has been subjecting select vehicles to a battery of tests (frontal, side and pedestrian) as part of its new car assessment program (EuroNCAP, Reference 5.5). The EuroNCAP pedestrian tests (Figure 5.9) consist of: • leg to bumper impacts with a “leg-form” impactor, • upper leg to hood edge impacts with an upper “leg-form” impactor, • head to hood top impacts with two different “head-form” impactors. The European Union typically subjects a vehicle to three leg to bumper impacts, three upper leg to hood edge impacts and up to 18 head to hood top impacts. The results are reported with a four-star rating system, similar to that used in the United States NCAP program. Japan’s NCAP program includes tests that simulate pedestrian head to hood top impacts. However, leg to bumper and upper leg to hood edge impacts are not included. Currently, North American NCAP programs do not include pedestrian requirements. However, the high number of pedestrian accidents in North America and the trend to global vehicle design, likely mean that pedestrian impact requirements will come to North America in the longer term. 5.8.2 EuroNCAP leg to bumper impacts with a “leg-form” impactor This test significantly influences bumper design. Thus, a brief discussion of the requirements is in order. First, it should be stated that the purpose of this test is to reduce severe lower limb injuries in pedestrian accidents. The most common lower limb injuries are intra-articular bone fractures, ligament ruptures and comminuted fractures. In this test, a “leg-form” impactor is propelled toward a stationary vehicle at a velocity of 40 km/h (25 mph) parallel to the vehicleís longitudinal axis. The test can be performed at any location across the face of the vehicle, between the 30° bumper corners.

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The “leg-form” impactor is shown in Figure 5.10. It consists of two semi-rigid 70mm (27.6 inches) diameter core cylinders (the “tibia” and “femur”) connected by a deformable “knee joint”. This core structure is wrapped in 25mm (1 inch) of foam “flesh” covered by 6mm (0.24 inches) of neoprene “skin”. The performance criteria proposed for 2010 are shown in Figure 5.11. The maximum acceleration of the tibia is intended to prevent fracture of the tibia due to bumper contact. The maximum knee bend angle and shear deformation are intended to prevent severe knee joint injuries such as ligament ruptures and intra-articular bone fractures. 5.8.3 Government regulations As of June 2005 world-wide, there were no government regulations for pedestrian impact. However, the European Union and major vehicle associations have negotiated an agreement (Reference 5.6). The agreement states that new vehicles will achieve a limited level of pedestrian impact performance starting in 2005, with an increased performance in 2010. The limits shown in Figures 5.9 and 5.11 are the targets for 2010. For 2005, the leg to bumper targets are: • knee bending < 20°, • knee shear < 6mm (0.24 inches), • acceleration < 200g. 5.8.4 Design approaches There are two general approaches to designing a front bumper system for pedestrian safety: • Provide front-end vehicle components to cushion the impact and support the lower limb, • Provide sensors and external airbags to cushion the impact and support the lower limb. 5.8.4.1 Cushioning the impact Cushioning reduces the severity of bone fractures. It is directly related to the acceleration impact criterion shown in Figure 5.11. Limiting the lower limb acceleration to 150g requires a bumper stiffness lower than that usually provided to satisfy the damageability criteria associated with low-speed [8 km/h (5 mph)] vehicle impact. Thus, a pedestrian friendly bumper system must be capable of limiting “leg-form” acceleration without sacrificing vehicle damageability in a low-speed impact. 5.8.4.2 Supporting the lower limb Supporting the lower limb reduces the risk of knee joint injuries such as ligament ruptures and intra-articular fractures. It is directly related to the knee bend angle criterion in Figure 5.11. Enough support must be provided below the main bumper to limit the bending angle to 15°. Any support provided must not conflict with styling requirements or result in unacceptable low-speed [8 km/h (5 mph)] impact damage.

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5.8.5 Design solutions As bumper systems meeting the requirements of pedestrian leg impact are only beginning to hit the marketplace in Europe, Australia and Japan, it is too early to identify the most popular designs. However, a thorough review of articles and patents does indicate the most popular design solutions for passenger cars. There is limited production of vehicles with exposed bumper beams (facebars) in these areas. Hence, there has been little activity devoted to adapting facebars to meet pedestrian impact requirements. For passenger cars with reinforcing beams, the most commonly proposed design solutions are: 1. Front-End Vehicle Component Solutions a) Lower stiffener. A new component called a stiffener or spoiler may be located below the bumper system to prevent the lower part of the leg form from moving further toward the vehicle than the knee. The stiffener may be a fixed component or a component that deploys based on impulse or speed. b) Energy absorbers. To cushion impact, an energy absorber may be placed between the bumper beam and the pedestrian. Alternately, an energy absorber may be placed behind the bumper beam. The most commonly proposed energy absorbers are plastic foams (single or multi-density) and molded plastic “egg crates”. However, several proposed design solutions incorporate “spring steel”, composite steel/foam and crush can absorbers. c) Beam design. A tall front-view bumper height may be used to provide leg support. d) “Bull-bars”. Structures may be added to the front of an existing bumper system to provide energy absorption and to support the lower limb. 2. Sensor and Airbag Solution Any current bumper system may be covered with an airbag. In this way, the energy absorption capability of the bumper becomes irrelevant. The key disadvantages to this design approach are cost and sensor capability. All of the Front End Vehicle Component Solutions listed above may be used in conjunction with steel reinforcing beam bumper systems. The Sensor and Airbag Solution would appear to have the greatest potential for use with steel facebar bumper systems such as those used on pickup trucks.

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FIGURE 5.9 EuroNCAP PEDESTRIAN TESTS (2010 CRITERIA)

Leg to Bumper

Upper Leg to Hood Edge

Head to Hood Top

Knee bending Knee shear

< 15° < 6 mm

Total load Bending moment

< 5 kN < 300 Nm

HIC

< 1000

Tibia acceleration < 150 g

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FIGURE 5.10 EuroNCAP LEG FORM IMPACTOR

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FIGURE 5.11 EuroNCAP “LEG FORM” IMPACT CRITERIA (2010)

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6. Relevant safety standards in North America and Europe

North American and European safety standards for vehicles are summarized in Table 6.1. While most of the standards in Table 6.1 are enacted by legislation, several of the standards, where so indicated, are voluntarily set by the OEM’s. The North American bumper performance standards are more severe than the European ones. Thus, the bumpers on North American vehicles are considerably stronger than those on European vehicles. Although the North American bumper standards are set by legislation at the 2.5 mph (4 km/h) level for passenger cars, the North American OEM’s voluntarily use a 5 mph (8 km/h) performance standard for passenger cars. At this impact speed, there must be no visual damage on a vehicle and there must be no damage to any safety items. However, damage to hidden components of the bumper system is acceptable. Currently, there are no bumper performance standards for light trucks. Most North American OEM’s use the voluntary 5 mph (8 km/h) passenger car standard for their minivans. In general, the OEM’s use a voluntary 2.5 mph (4 km/h) performance standard for the remainder of the light truck category (full size vans, pickups and sport utilities). At this impact speed, there must be no visual damage on a vehicle and there must be no damage to any safety items. However, damage to hidden components of the bumper system is acceptable. Europe has a greater concern about bumper repair cost than North American. Hence, the European insurance industry uses a 9 mph (15 km/h) test (known as the Thatcham test in England and the Danner test in Germany) to evaluate repair costs. This test establishes insurance collision premiums for the first year of a new model introduction. In North America, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) uses four tests at 5 mph (8 km/h). Europe attaches more importance to the ease of bumper replacement compared to North American. Thus, the European insurance industry grants a credit, which is based on ease of replacement. This credit is applied to the bumper repair cost. As a result, European bumper designers strive to obtain ease of replacement. For example, they may use bolts, rather then weldments, to facilitate ease of repair. In current North American practice, the governing design condition for a bumper system is the 2.5 or 5 mph (4 or 8 km/h) low-speed impact requirement. Current bumper systems are not designed to absorb energy under high-speed impact. However, systems are being developed that can absorb about 15% of the energy under high-speed impact.

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TABLE 6.1 RELEVANT SAFETY STANDARDS IN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE

NORTH AMERICA Bumper Performance • U.S. standard for passenger cars calls for no visual damage and no damage to safety items at 2.5 mph (4 km/h); Canada calls for limited damage at 5 mph (8 km/h) for passenger cars. • Automakers have combined the more stringent aspects of each standard - no visual damage and no damage to safety items at 5 mph (8 km/h) for passenger cars.

EUROPE Bumper Performance • No requirement standard, but most countries follow ECE 42, which calls for no serious damage (light bulbs may be changed) at 2.5 mph (4 km/h).

KEY DIFFERENCES • 5 mph vs. 2.5 mph (8 km/h vs. 4 km/h). • Law vs. recommendation • Greater damage allowed in Europe.

Insurance Testing • The IIHS (Insurance Institute for Highway Safety) conducts 4 tests at 5 mph (8 km/h) which measure repair costs for the bumper. The tests are front into barrier, rear into barrier, front into angle barrier and rear into pole. • Statistics are published in a newsletter.

Insurance Testing • European insurance agencies have a test that measures costs for bumper repair (a credit is given for ease of replacement). The test is a 9 mph (15 km/h) impact at a 40 percent offset. In England, it’s called the Thatcham Test, in Germany, it’s called the Danner Test.

• 5 mph vs. 9 mph (8 km/h vs. 15 km/h). • Europe gives credit for ease of replacement.

High-Speed Crash Tests CFR 571.208 Occupant Crash Protection • Frontal rigid barrier collision applies to passenger cars, MPVs, trucks and buses. • 30 mph (48 km/h) frontal collision. No separation of any load bearing element of a seatbelt assembly or anchorage. • Lateral collision 20 mph (32 km/h) and impact both sides. • FMVSS 301, combination of 30 mph (48 km/h) frontal/rear and 20 mph (32 km/h) side.

High-Speed Crash Tests • 40% offset driver’s side • Front-end collision • 35 mph (56 km/h) • Deformable barrier/honeycomb aluminum structure (proposed) • ECE 33 head-on collision unladen vehicle hits barrier at 30 - 33 mph (48 - 53 km/h) • ECE 32 rear-end collision impact or pendulum 22 - 24 mph (35 - 38 km/h)

• Rigid vs. deformable barrier. • Head-on vs. offset collision.

Pedestrian Safety Proposal • ECE 222 Proposal (2001). 25 mph (40 km/h). Knee angle limited to 15°. Thigh (hip) into hood.

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There is a degree of speculation that the 2.5 mph (4 km/h) voluntary design standard used by the North American OEM’s for full size vans, pickups and sport utilities might rise to 5 mph (8 km/h). If this change were to occur, then the bumper systems on these vehicles would require a redesign. Such a redesign would likely mean the facebar systems commonly used on these vehicles would revert to reinforcing beam systems. A pedestrian safety standard currently being proposed in Europe is shown in Table 6.1. If enacted, this standard would have an effect on front-end styling and, in turn, bumper system design.

6.1 United States National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (49CFR), Part 581, Bumper Standard
This standard is summarized in Sections 6.1.1 through 6.1.4. The reader is cautioned that these sections are only a summary. The reader must refer to the actual regulatory document in order to obtain a complete understanding of the standard. 6.1.1 Requirements The Bumper Standard only applies to passenger vehicles. A manufacturer may apply for an exemption of a special use passenger vehicle if compliance with the standard would reasonably interfere with the special use of the vehicle. For example, a shuttle vehicle used within the confines of a retirement complex. A passenger vehicle is subjected to three impact procedures: 1. The pendulum corner impacts - front and rear. 2. The pendulum longitudinal impacts - front and rear. 3. The impacts into a fixed collision barrier - front and rear. Following the three impact procedures, the vehicle shall meet the following damage criteria: 1. Each lamp or reflective device except license plate lamps shall be free of cracks and shall comply with applicable visibility requirements. The aim of each headlamp shall be adjustable to within the beam aim inspection limits. 2. The vehicle’s hood, trunk and doors shall operate in the normal manner. 3. The vehicle’s fuel and cooling systems shall have no leaks or constricted fluid passages and all sealing devices and caps shall operate in the normal manner. 4. The vehicle’s exhaust system shall have no leaks or constrictions. 5. The vehicle’s propulsion, suspension, steering and braking systems shall remain in adjustment and shall operate in the normal manner. 6. A pressure vessel used to absorb impact energy in an exterior protection system by the accumulation of gas or hydraulic pressure shall not suffer loss of gas or fluid accompanied by separation of fragments from the vessel.

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7. The vehicle shall not touch the test device, except on the impact ridge shown in Figures 6.1 and 6.2, with a force that exceeds 2000 pounds (907kg) on the combined surfaces of Planes A and B (see Figure 6.3) of the test device. 8. The exterior surfaces shall have no separations of surface materials, paint, polymeric coatings, or other covering materials from the surface to which they are bonded, and no permanent deviations from their original contours 30 minutes after completion of each pendulum and barrier impact, except where such damage occurs to the bumper face bar and the components and associated fasteners that directly attach the bumper face bar to the chassis frame. 9. Except as provided in Criterion 8 (above), there shall be no breakage or release of fasteners of joints. 6.1.2 Pendulum corner impacts 1. See Figure 6.4. 2. Impact speed of 1.5mph (2.4km/h). 3. Impact one front corner at a height of 20 inches (500mm) using Figure 6.1 pendulum. 4. Impact other front corner at a height from 16 to 20 inches (400 to 500mm) using Figure 6.2 pendulum. 5. Impact one rear corner at a height of 20 inches (500mm) using Figure 6.1 pendulum. 6. Impact other rear corner at a height from 16 to 20 inches (400 to 500mm) using Figure 6.2 pendulum. 7. The plane containing the pendulum swing shall have a 60 degree angle with the longitudinal plane of the vehicle. 8. Impacts must be performed at intervals not less than 30 minutes. 9. Effective impacting mass of pendulum equals mass of vehicle. 10. Trailer hitches, license plate brackets, and headlamp washers are removed. Running lights, fog lamps and equipment mounted on the bumper face bar are removed if they are optional equipment. 6.1.3 Pendulum longitudinal impacts 1. See Figure 6.4. 2. Impact speed of 2.5mph (4km/h). 3. Two impacts on front surface, inboard of corner. 4. Two impacts on rear surface, inboard of corner. 5. Impact line may be any height from 16 to 20 inches (400 to 500mm). If height is 20 inches (500mm), use Figure 6.1 pendulum. If height is between 20 and 16 inches (500 and 400mm), use Figure 6.2 pendulum. 6. Pendulum Plane A (see Figure 6.3) is perpendicular to the longitudinal plane of the vehicle. 7. For each impact, the impact line must be at least 2 inches (50mm) in the vertical direction from its position in any prior impact, unless the midpoint of the impact line is more than 12 inches (300mm) apart laterally from any prior impact. 8. Impacts must be performed at intervals not less than 30 minutes apart. 9. Effective impacting mass of pendulum equals mass of vehicle. 10. Trailer hitches, license plate brackets, and headlamp washers are removed. Running lights, fog lamps and equipment mounted on the bumper face bar are removed if they are optional equipment.

6-4

FIGURE 6.1 IMPACT PENDULUM

TOP VIEW
610 406

25 R 102 R

SIDE VIEW

FRONT VIEW

457

78

Impact ridge
152 114

3R 13 R 15°

NOTES: 1. Dimensions in mm 2. Not to scale

UNITED STATES REGULATIONS: a) Longitudinal impact if height is 20 inches (500mm). b) One front and one rear corner impact at a height of 20 inches (500mm).

CANADIAN REGULATIONS: a) One front and one rear corner impact at a height of 500mm (20 inches).

Source: Canada: Motor Vehicle Safety Regulations, Standard 215, 1978

78

305

Impact line

6-5

FIGURE 6.2 IMPACT PENDULUM

TOP VIEW
610 406

25 R 102 R

SIDE VIEW

FRONT VIEW

609

Impact ridge

3R 13 R 15° 114

Impact line

NOTES: 1. Dimensions in mm 2. Not to scale

UNITED STATES REGULATIONS: a) Longitudinal impact if height is between 20 and 16 inches (500mm and 400mm). b) One front and one rear corner impact at a height from 16 to 20 inches (400 to 500mm).

CANADIAN REGULATIONS: a) Longitudinal impact at height from 500 to 400mm (20 to 16 inches).

Source: Canada: Motor Vehicle Safety Regulations, Standard 215, 1978

78

305

6-6

FIGURE 6.3 LOCATIONS OF PLANES A and B
SECTION A-A

PLANE B

IMPACT LINE

A

A

PLANE A

FIGURE 6.4 SAMPLE IMPACT APPARATUS
Sample impact apparatus with supports Sample impact apparatus without supports

Plane B Impact Surface Plane A

• •

• •

Weight equals unloaded vehicle weight +0, -10kg

NOTES: 1. Drawing not to scale. 2. The arc described by any point on impact line shall be constant with a minimum radius of 3.3m and lie in a plane perpendicular to Plane A. Source: Transport Canada, Safety and Security

6-7

6.1.4 Impacts into a fixed collision barrier 1. Impact speed of 2.5mph (4km/h). 2. Impact into a fixed collision barrier perpendicular to line of travel while travelling longitudinally forward. 3. Impact into a fixed collision barrier perpendicular to line of travel while travelling longitudinally rearward. 4. Trailer hitches, license plate brackets, and headlamp washers are removed. Running lights, fog lamps and equipment mounted on the bumper face bar are removed if they are optional equipment.

6.2 Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Regulations Standard 215
This standard is summarized in Sections 6.2.1 through 6.2.4. The reader is cautioned that these sections are only a summary. The reader must refer to the actual regulatory document in order to obtain a complete understanding of the standard. 6.2.1 Requirements A passenger vehicle is subjected to three impact procedures: 1. The pendulum corner impacts - front and rear. 2. The pendulum longitudinal impacts - front and rear. 3. The impacts into a fixed collision barrier - front and rear. Following the three impact procedures, the vehicle shall meet the following damage criteria: 1. Each lamp or reflective device except license plate lamps shall be free of cracks and shall comply with applicable visibility requirements. The aim of each headlamp shall be adjustable to within the beam aim inspection limits. 2. The vehicle’s hood, trunk and doors shall operate in the normal manner. 3. The vehicle’s fuel and cooling systems shall have no leaks or constricted fluid passages and all sealing devices and caps shall operate in the normal manner. 4. The vehicle’s exhaust system shall have no leaks or constrictions. 5. The vehicle’s propulsion, suspension, steering and braking systems shall remain in adjustment and shall operate in the normal manner. 6.2.2 Pendulum corner impacts 1. See Figure 6.4. 2. Impact speed of 4.8km/h (3.0mph). 3. Impact one front corner at a height of 500mm (20 inches) using Figure 6.1 pendulum. 4. Impact one rear corner at a height of 500mm (20 inches) using Figure 6.1 pendulum. 5. The plane containing the pendulum swing shall have a 60 degree angle with the longitudinal plane of the vehicle. 6. Impacts must be performed at intervals not less than 30 minutes apart. 7. Effective impacting mass of pendulum equals mass of vehicle. 8. Trailer hitches and license plate brackets are removed.

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6.2.3 Pendulum longitudinal impacts 1. See Figure 6.4. 2. Impact speed of 8km/h (5mph). 3. Two impacts on front surface using Figure 6.2 pendulum, inboard of corner. 4. Two impacts on rear surface using Figure 6.2 pendulum, inboard of corner. 5. Impact line may be any height from 400mm to 500mm (16 to 20 inches). 6. Pendulum Plane A is perpendicular to the longitudinal plane of the vehicle. 7. For each impact, the impact line must be at least 50mm (2 inches) in the vertical direction from its position in any prior impact, unless the midpoint of the impact line is more than 300mm (12 inches) apart laterally from any prior impact. 8. Impacts must be performed at intervals not less than 30 minutes apart. 9. Effective impacting mass of pendulum equals mass of vehicle. 10. Trailer hitches and license plate brackets are removed. 6.2.4 Impacts into a fixed collision barrier 1. Impact speed of 8km/h (5.0mph). 2. Impact into a fixed collision barrier perpendicular to line of travel while travelling longitudinally forward. 3. Impact into a fixed collision barrier perpendicular to line of travel while travelling longitudinally rearward. 4. Trailer hitches and license plate brackets are removed.

6.3 Comparison between United States and Canadian Bumper Regulations
The reader is cautioned that the comparison in Sections 6.3.1 through 6.3.4 is only a summary. The reader must refer to the actual regulatory documents in order to obtain a complete comparison. The United States and Canada use the same test apparatus. The United States permits running lamps, fog lamps and equipment on the bumper face bar to be removed if they are optional, while Canada does not. The United States uses lower test speeds than Canada. As a generalization, the United States requires no visual damage to all non-bumper parts, while Canada requires no damage to safety and functional items. 6.3.1 Requirements The United States, but not Canada, has the following requirements: 1. A pressure vessel used to absorb impact energy in an exterior protection system by the accumulation of gas or hydraulic pressure shall not suffer loss of gas or fluid accompanied by separation of fragments from the vessel. 2. The vehicle shall not touch the test device, except on the impact ridge shown in Figures 6.1 and 6.2, with a force that exceeds 2000 pounds (907kg) on the combined surfaces of Planes A and B (see Figure 6.3) of the test device. 3. The exterior surfaces shall have no separations of surface materials, paint, polymeric coatings, or other covering materials from the surface to which they are bonded, and no permanent deviations from their original contours 30 minutes after completion of each pendulum and barrier impact, except where such damage occurs to the bumper face bar and the components and associated fasteners that directly attach the bumper face bar to the chassis frame. 4. Except as provided in Criterion 8 of Section 6.1.1, there shall be no breakage or release of fasteners of joints. 6-9

6.3.2 Pendulum corner impacts 1. The United States has an impact speed of 1.5mph (2.4km/h), Canada 4.8km/h (3.0mph). 2. Both the United States and Canada require a front and a rear corner be tested using the Figure 6.1 pendulum. Only the United States requires that the other front and other rear corner be tested (The Figure 6.2 pendulum must be used.). 6.3.3 Pendulum longitudinal impacts 1. The United States has an impact speed of 2.5mph (4km/h), Canada (5mph). 6.3.4 Impacts into a fixed collision barrier 1. The United States has an impact speed of 2.5mph (4km/h), Canada (8km/h (5.0mph).

6.4 Insurance Institute for Highway Safety: Low-Speed Crash Test Protocol (Reference 6.8)
This protocol is summarized in Sections 6.4.1 through 6.4.6. The reader is cautioned that these sections are only a summary. The reader must refer to the actual protocol document in order to obtain a complete understanding of the protocol. 6.4.1 Requirements Following each of four tests (front into full-width flat-barrier, rear into full-width flat-barrier, right front into 30 degree angle-barrier and rear into pole), IIHS writes a damage estimate. Minor cosmetic damage to the exterior bumper surface is excluded, even if there is significant damage to other bumper parts. Although IIHS would like to see a zero damage estimate, there is no criterion for an acceptable or an unacceptable damage estimate. 6.4.2 Test vehicles 1. One vehicle is used for the front into full-width flat-barrier and rear into pole impacts. A second vehicle is used for the right front into 30 degree angle-barrier and rear into full-width flat-barrier impacts. 2. Front and rear license plates, front license plate bracket (if provided), and all associated fasteners are removed. The rear license plate bracket (if present) is left in place unless it is bolted or riveted directly to the external face of the rear bumper, in which case both the bracket and fasteners are removed. Bolt-on trailer hitch reinforcement members that are supplied as optional equipment are removed, but their fasteners are reattached to the vehicle where possible. 6.4.3 Full-width flat-barrier impact 1. Two tests - front into barrier and rear into barrier. 2. Impact speed of 5mph (8km/h). 3. The barrier is a 145.15t (160 tons) block of reinforced concrete, faced with a steel plate 8.0cm (3 inches) thick. The impact area on the steel plate is covered with 2cm (0.75 inches) thick plywood. 4. The barrier is perpendicular to the vehicle’s line of travel (forward or rearward).

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6.4.4 Right front into 30 degree angle-barrier impact 1. Impact speed of 5mph (8km/h). 2. A rigid steel fixture is bolted to the floor. It includes a steel plate 214cm (84 inches) wide, 92cm (36 inches) high and 4.5cm (1.75 inches) thick. The steel plate is covered with 2cm (0.75 inches) thick plywood. The bottom edges of the steel plate and plywood are 18cm (7 inches) above the floor level. Thus, the top edges are 110cm (43 inches) above floor level. The angle between the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle and the plane of the plywood is 60 degrees (90 minus 30 degrees). 6.4.5 Rear into pole impact 1. Impact speed of 5mph (8km/h). 2. Steel pole is 18cm (7 inches) in diameter and extends 92cm (36 inches) above the floor. 3. Normally, the longitudinal centerline of vehicle is aligned with the pole and becomes the target point. However, if some aspect of the bumper design (e.g., a trailer hitch) prevents a general assessment of the bumper’s performance, the longitudinal centerline is moved left or right of the pole. The target point is the midpoint of the span from the vehicle centerline to the inboard edge of the rear frame sidemember end. 4. The actual impact point on the bumper will not be more than 7.5cm (3 inches) either side of the target point.

6.5 Consumers Union bumper-basher tests (Reference 6.9)
These tests are summarized in Sections 6.5.1 through 6.5.5. The reader is cautioned that these sections are only a summary. The reader must refer to actual test documents in order to obtain a complete understanding of the tests. 6.5.1 Requirements The front and the rear bumper of a vehicle are each impacted three times — at the center, off-center and at a corner. Following the three tests on a front or rear bumper, the total cost for parts and labor to repair the damage to the body and bumper is estimated. Minor cosmetic damage to the exterior bumper surface is usually ignored if no other problems are found. Consumers Union does not use bumper repair cost as a Ratings factor. However, it does publish the repair cost for the front bumper, the rear bumper and the total for both bumpers in Consumer Reports magazine. 6.5.2 Bumper-basher Consumers Union uses an impact bar similar to that shown in Figure 6.2 for all impacts. However, it is not swung as a pendulum. Rather, it is hydraulically propelled, like a battering ram, in the horizontal direction. Weights, equal to the weight of the vehicle, are placed on the ram. 6.5.3 Center impact 1. The front bumper is impacted at a height of 20 inches (500mm) and the rear bumper at a height of 16 inches (400mm). An impact bar similar to that shown in Figure 6.2 is used for both impacts. 2. 5mph (km/h) impact at vehicle centerline. 6-11

6.5.4 Off-center impact 1. The front bumper is impacted on the driver’s side at a height of 20 inches (500mm). The rear bumper is impacted on the passenger’s side at a height of 16 inches (400mm). An impact bar similar to that shown in Figure 6.2 is used for both impacts. 2. 5mph (8km/h) impact with outside edge of impact bar at outboard surface of the body (fender/front bumper cover or quarter panel/rear bumper cover). Thus, the impact point is usually about midway between the vehicle centerline and the outboard surface of the vehicle. 6.5.5 Corner impact 1. The front bumper is impacted on the driver’s side at a height of 20 inches (500mm). The rear bumper is impacted on the passenger’s side at a height of 16 inches (400mm). An impact bar similar to that shown in Figure 6.2 is used for both impacts. 2. 3mph (4.8km/h) impact at 30 degrees on the corner.

6.6 Research Council for Automotive Repairs (RCAR) Low-Speed Offset Crash Test (Reference 6.10)
This test is summarized in Sections 6.6.1 through 6.6.5. The reader is cautioned that these sections are only a summary. The reader must refer to the actual test document in order to obtain a complete understanding of the test. RCAR states its standard insurance test reflects the typical low-speed impact, and provides the average level of damage, insurers are paying for every day. 6.6.1 Requirements Two impacts are conducted. The first is a 15km/h (9mph) impact by the front of the test vehicle into a fixed barrier with a 40% offset. The second is a 15km/h (9mph) impact by a mobile barrier, with a 40% offset, into the rear of the test vehicle. After each impact, the replacement parts required to reinstate the vehicle to its pre-accident condition are recorded. Also, the number of hours required to replace the damaged parts and to repair those items capable of repair, such that the vehicle is reinstated to the pre-accident condition are recorded. The cost of the replacement parts and the number of hours are estimated. Thus, the results of the crash test indicate the repairability and damageability status of the test vehicle. 6.6.2 Test vehicle The test vehicle is previously undamaged and representative of the series production. The test vehicle for the rear impact may be the same vehicle used for the front impact, provided the damage sustained during the front impact has no effect on the results of the rear impact.

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6.6.3 Front impact 1. One impact into a non-deformable barrier/former (see Figure 6.5). The former can be adjusted laterally to accommodate various vehicle widths. The former may be secured to a fixed barrier or placed on the ground with arresting devices to restrict its movement. The front face of the former is perpendicular to the direction of travel of the test vehicle. The mass of the barrier/former exceeds twice that of the test vehicle. The steering column side of the vehicle contacts the former. The test vehicle overlaps the former by 40%. 2. The test vehicle impact speed is 15km/h (9mph).

6.6.4 Rear impact 1. One impact by a mobile barrier into the test vehicle (Figure 6.6). The mobile barrier has a mass of 1000kg (2205 pounds). 2. The mobile barrier contacts the side of the vehicle opposite to the steering column side. The barrier overlaps the test vehicle by 40%. The barrier impact speed is 15km/h (9mph).

6.6.5 Damageability and repairability RCAR’s objective is “to improve the level of safety, security, quality, design and method of repair of motor vehicles in order to reduce costs to the insurance industry and to the motoring public”. To this end, RCAR has prepared a Design Guide (Reference 6.11) aimed at reducing the damageability and repairability cost incurred in low-speed impacts. Damageability is the measure of a vehicle’s ability to withstand the forces of a low-speed impact. It denotes which body structure and other components are damaged as a result of the impact. Repairability measures how easily, quickly and cost-effectively the damaged structure and components can be repaired or replaced. The RCAR Design Guide lists optimum damageability and repairability features of a bumper system as: 1. The system plays an important role in energy management during vehicle accidents. 2. The system withstands impacts up to 15km/h (9mph) without initiating damage to the body structure beyond the body mounting system. 3. The main bumper mountings are capable of transmitting impact forces into the rails for maximum energy absorption. They are not an integral part of the bumper, but separate items that can be replaced easily in the event of damage. 4. Any side mountings are of the quick-release type. 5. Bumper covers are thermoplastic. Hot air welding or adhesives may repair them. 6. Wrap-around bumpers afford much greater protection during minor parking incidents.

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FIGURE 6.5 RCAR FRONT CRASH PROCEDURE

The height of the barrier shall exceed the height of the front of the test vehicle. The test vehicle shall be free of any additional or propelling device at the moment of impact. Test Vehicle Mass: Net curb weight +75 kg for driver and a full fuel tank or equivalent ballast.

Left Hand Drive vehicle shown

KEY: U B VF R F = = = = = Offset 40% Overall width of test vehicle 15.0 + 1.0 - 0 km/h 150mm constant radius Test vehicle

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FIGURE 6.6 RCAR REAR CRASH PROCEDURE
Test Vehicle Mass: Net curb weight + 75 kg for driver and a full fuel tank or equivalent ballast.

KEY: MB MMB H h F r = = = = = = Mobile barrier 1000 kg ± 5 kg mass 700mm barrier height ± 10mm 200mm barrier ground clearance ± 10mm Test vehicle 50mm constant radius

Left hand drive vehicle shown KEY: MB U B VMB VF R F = = = = = = = Mobile barrier Offset 40% Overall width of test vehicle 15.0 + 1.0 - 0 km/h 0 km/h (handbrake off) 150mm constant radius Test Vehicle 6-15

7. Steel versus aluminum and composite bumper beams

7.1

Types of bumper beams
a) Steel Reinforcing Beams Steel reinforcing beams are produced using the cold stamping, hot forming or roll forming processes. The tensile strength of cold stamped and roll formed beams ranges from 900-1500 MPa (130-218 ksi). The tensile strength of hot stamped beams, after heating and quenching, ranges from 1200-1400 MPa (174-203 ksi). All steel beams have an elastic modulus of 207,000 MPa (30,000 ksi). Steel reinforcing beams are protected from corrosion by zinc coatings, aluminum coatings or electrocoatings. After mounting to a vehicleís frame, reinforcing beams are covered by cosmetic or energy absorbing fascias. b) Steel Facebars Steel facebars are typically cold stamped from low-carbon and high-strength steels having tensile strengths from 350-500 MPa (50-72 ksi) and an elastic modulus of 207,000 MPa (30,000 ksi). They are either chrome plated or painted for corrosion protection and appearance before being mounted to a vehicle’s frame. Most facebars are dressed up with plastic trim. c) Plastic Reinforcing Beams There are two types of plastic beams — glass reinforced plastic or unreinforced plastic. Examples of glass reinforced plastic beams include polypropylene (compression molded), unsaturated polyester (compression molded) and polyurethane (reaction injection molded). Examples of unreinforced plastic beams include polycarbonate/polybutylene (injection or blow molded), polyethylene (blow molded) and polypropylene (blow molded). Plastic beams have tensile strengths up to 275 MPa (40 ksi) and flexural moduli up to 15,000 MPa (2,200 ksi). d) Aluminum Reinforcing Beams Typically, aluminum beams are made by stretch or press forming extruded shapes made from the 6000 and 7000 aluminum series. After forming and heat treating, the beams have tensile strengths up to 550 MPa (80 ksi) and an elastic modulus of 69,000 MPa (10,000 ksi).

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7.2

Cost of bumper beams
Tables 7.1 and 7.2 provide typical costs for steel facebar and reinforcing beam bumper systems. The systems in both Tables meet low-speed [8km/h (5mph)] impact test requirements. However, it should be noted that the facebar system costs in Table 7.1 should not be compared to the reinforcing beam system costs in Table 7.2. The facebar systems in Table 7.1 are used on pickups while the reinforcing beam systems in Table 7.2 are used on passenger cars. Pickups have up to twice the weight of passenger cars. Thus, in an 8km/h (5mph) impact, the facebar systems in Table 7.1 receive up to twice the force that the reinforcing beam systems in Table 7.2 receive. Tables 7.1 and 7.2 indicate that the steel beam itself represents only 15 - 20% of the bumper system cost. Table 7.3 shows cost ranges for steel, plastic and aluminum reinforcing beams. It may be seen that steel reinforcing beams are $10- $15 less expensive than plastic beams and $15 -$20 less expensive than aluminum beams.

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TABLE 7.1 COST OF STEEL FACEBAR SYSTEMS 8km/h (5mph) Bumpers for Midsize and Full-size Pickups (U.S. dollars per facebar)

Steel Beam Stamping

Painting

Chrome Plating

Plastic Trim

Energy Absorbing Brackets $10 - 30

System Cost (Painted Facebar) $50 - 130

System Cost (Chrome Plated Facebar) $60 - 140

$15 - 25

$15 - 25

$25 - 35

$10 - 50

TABLE 7.2 COST OF STEEL REINFORCING BEAM SYSTEMS 8km/h (5mph) Bumpers for Passenger Cars (U.S. dollars per beam)

Steel Reinforcing Beam $15 - 20

Energy Absorber

Painted Fascia

System cost

$5 - 15

$80 - 100

$100 - 135

TABLE 7.3 COST OF REINFORCING BEAMS 8km/h (5mph) Bumpers for Passenger Cars (U.S. dollars per beam)

Reinforcing Beam Material Steel Unreinforced Plastic Reinforced Plastic Aluminum

Beam Cost

$15 - 20 $25 - 35 $25 - 30 $30 - 40

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TABLE 7.4 WEIGHT OF REINFORCING BEAM SYSTEMS 8km/h (5mph) Beams for Passenger Cars [kg (lbs.)]

Vehicle Mazda 626 Buick Park Ave. Pontiac Sunfire

Reinforcing Beam PP 7.03 (15.5) None Aluminum 5.76 (12.7) PUR Steel 5.76 (12.7) EVA

Absorber 0.00 (0.0) 3.40 (7.5) 2.86 (6.3)

TPO TPO PUR

Fascia 5.44 (12.0) 4.99 (11.0) 5.40 (11.9)

Total 12.47 (27.5) 14.15 (31.2) 14.02 (30.9)

Source: Phillip Townsend Associates, Inc. PP TPO EVA PUR = polypropylene = thermoplastic olefin = ethylene vinyl acetate elastomers = polyurethane

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8. Conclusions

1. Weight a) Steel reinforcing beams, especially ultra high-strength steel beams, are fully weight competitive with aluminum and plastic beams. b) Vehicle weight reduction is being achieved by utilizing the front bumper as a frame crossmember. Further weight savings may be achieved by optimizing the front bumper to absorb up to 15% of high-speed crash energy. Steel is the best material for both of these design options. 2. Styling Today’s steel bumpers provide the large sweeps and wrap-arounds desired by stylists. Production stamped bumper beams have depths-of-draw as large as 203 mm (8.0 in.). Production roll formed beams have sweep numbers as high as 60.

3. Cost a) For normal production volumes, steel reinforcing beams are more cost effective than aluminum or plastic beams. b) For low production volumes, utilizing the same steel beam on several vehicles reduces tooling cost.

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9. References
1.1 North American Bumper System Market, 1997-2001 Model Years, September 19, 1997, private study, CSM Corporation, 2365 Woodlake Drive, Suite 150, Okemos, MI 48864. 2.1 SAE J2329, Categorization and Properties of Low-Carbon Automotive Sheet Steels, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. 2.2 SAE J1562, Selection of Zinc and Zinc-Alloy (Hot-Dipped and Electrodeposited) Coated Sheet Steel, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 150960001. 2.3 SAE J403, Chemical Compositions of SAE Carbon Steels, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. 2.4 www.worldautosteel.org., AHSS Guidelines, AHSS Descriptions, Definitions 2.5 SAE J405, Chemical Compositions of SAE Wrought Stainless Steels, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. 2.6 www.astm.org, ASTM A463, Standard Specification for Sheet Steel, Aluminum-Coated, by the Hot Dip Process. 4.1 Sheet Steel Availability and Property Guide, insert to High-Strength Steel Bulletin, Edition 10, Auto/Steel Partnership, 2000 Town Center, Suite 320, Southfield, MI 48075-1123. 4.2 Automotive Steel Design Manual, American Iron and Steel Institute, 2000 Town Center, Suite 320, Southfield, MI 48075-1199. 4.3 High-Strength Steel Bulletin, Edition 5, Auto/Steel Partnership, 2000 Town Center, Suite 320, Southfield, MI 48075-1123. 4.4 Inland Ultra-High-Strength Steels Selection Guide, Inland Steel, Ultra High-Strength Steel Marketing, telephone 1-800-422-9422. 4.5 David W. Dickinson, Final Report to AISI Bumper Group, Bumper Component Welding, State-of-the-Art Survey, December 31,2000. 4.6 Linnert, Welding Metallurgy, American Welding Society, 1994. 4.7 American Welding Society, Welding Handbook, Volume 4, 1998. 4.8 Peterson High Speed Seam Welding, American Welding Society Metal Welding Conference VI, 1994. 4.9 Appreciating high-frequency welding, Welding Journal, July 1996. 4.10 American Welding Society, Welding Handbook, 8th Edition, Volume 2. 4.11 Walduck, R., Enhanced Laser Beam Welding, U.S. Patent 5886870, February 2, 1999. 4.12 Dykhno, I., et al, Combined Laser and Plasma Arc Welding Torch, U.S. Patent 5700989, December 23, 1997. 4.13 Categorization and Properties of Low-Carbon Automotive Sheet Steels, SAE J2329, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. 4.14 Steel, High Strength, Hot Rolled Sheet and Strip, Cold Rolled Sheet and Coated Sheet, SAE J1392, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. 4.15 Chemical Compositiions of SAE Carbon Steels, SAE J403, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001.

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5.1 High-Strength Steel Bulletin, Edition 9, Auto/Steel Partnership, 2000 Town Center, Suite 320, Southfield, MI 48075-1123. 5.2 NHTSA New Car Approval Program, Frontal-crash Test, web site NHTSA.gov/NCAP. 5.3 Crashworthiness Evaluation of Offset Barrier Crash Test Protocol, (Versioin IX), May, 2002, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, web site carsafety.org 5.4 Schuster, Dr. Peter, “Current Trends in Bumper Design for Pedestrian Impact”, December 31, 2004, www.autosteel.org 5.5 EuroNCAP (European New Car Assessment Program), www.euroncap.com 5.6 European Union/Vehicle Associations Pedestrian Safety Agreement, www.acea.be/ACEA/11072.001.pdf 6.1 High-Strength Steel Bulletin, Edition 17, Auto/Steel Partnership, 2000 Town Center, Suite 320, Southfield, MI 48075-1123. 6.2 High-Strength Steel (HSS) Stamping Design Manual, Auto/Steel Partnership, 2000 Town Center, Suite 320, Southfield, MI 48075-1123. 6.3 High-Strength Steel Bulletin, Edition 4, Auto/Steel Partnership, 2000 Town Center, Suite 320, Southfield, MI 48075-1123. 6.4 SAE J2340, Categorization of Dent Resistant, High-Strength and Ultra High-Strength Automotive Sheet Steel, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA, 15096-0001. 6.5 Weld Quality Test Method Manual, Auto/Steel Partnership, 2000 Town Center, Suite 320, Southfield, MI 48075-1123. 6.6 ANSI/AWS/SAE Standard D8.9-97, Standard Recommended Practices for Test Methods for Evaluating the Resistance Spot Welding Behavior of Automotive Sheet Steel Materials, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA, 150960001. 6.7 ANSI/AWS/SAE Standard D8.8-97, Specification for Automotive and Light Truck Component Weld Quality - Arc Welding, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA, 15096-0001. 7.1 Tailor Welded Blank Design and Manufacturing Manual, Auto/Steel Partnership, 2000 Town Center, Suite 320, Southfield, MI 480751123. 7.2 Stuart F. Brown, Welding’s Big New Bag of Tricks, Fortune Magazine, January 13, 1997

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American Iron and Steel Institute 2000 Town Center, Suite 320 Southfield, Michigan 48075 1-877-STEELINDUSTRY www.autosteel.org