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Mobile (Cellular) Network Dimensioning and Planning

Jaspreet Singh Walia 467355, jaspreet.walia@aalto.fi

28-10-2014

Abstract

The purpose of network dimensioning and planning of a telecommunications network is to ensure that the expected need will be met in an economical way, both for the operators and the subscribers. In the field of network building and expansion the main advances have been in planning the radio and transmission part of the network and in optimizing the processes and activities in the existing networks.

Second generation (2G) mobile communications have enabled voice traffic to go wireless. The third Generation (3G) mobile communications known as Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) uses variable data rates and also independence of service platforms. The variable bit rate enhances the usability and performance efficiency for both customers and operators but also poses greater challenges in network planning and optimization.

This report gives description of the main phases of network planning and important aspects like link budget modeling and network capacity, by providing solutions for the given problems.

1) Introduction:

Network planning is a rather iterative process from topology design, network synthesis to realization. Its purpose is to ensure that new networks and services meets the demand of subscribers and operators. Need of Network Planning:

Meet current standards and demands and also comply with future requirements.

High bit rate services require knowledge of coverage and capacity enhancements methods.

Uncertainty of future traffic growth and service needs.

Real constraints

o

Coexistence and co-operation of 2G and 3G for old operators.

o

Environmental constraints for new operators.

Network planning depends not only on the coverage but also on load.

Dimensioning

Radio network dimensioning is an iterative process in which possible configurations and amount of network equipment are estimated, based on the operator’s and subscriber’s requirements related to the following:

Coverage:

coverage regions area type information propagation conditions Capacity:

spectrum available

subscriber growth forecast

traffic density information

Quality of Service:

area location probability (coverage probability)

blocking probability

end user throughput

Dimensioning activities include radio link budget and coverage analysis, capacity estimation, and finally, estimations on the amount of sites and base station hardware, radio network controllers (RNC), equipment at different interfaces, and core network elements (i.e. Circuit Switched Domain and Packet Switched Domain Core Networks).

Detailed Planning

In detailed planning the target is to find the optimum configuration of BTS in each site in planning area or nominal configuration for different parts of the planning area. Several factors to be considered:

Propagation environment (macro, micro, indoor cell) Site characteristics (indoor, outdoor, wall, mast) Required capacity and coverage BTS antenna configuration has strong impact on interference level and on capacity Optimum combination among several options is to be selected to fulfill quality requirements. Main tool is link budget and cell size calculations. Detailed planning incorporates system level simulations for a certain cluster of cells to estimate maximum traffic or load of the network in different cells.[4]. In Monte-Carlo type of simulations a certain number of mobiles are located over a coverage area

and distributed homogenously or non-homogenously Results include coverage, capacity, and interference-related information (BTS TX powers, max. number of mobiles in each cell, one-cell-to-other-cell interference)

and distributed homogenously or non-homogenously – Results include coverage, capacity, and interference-related information (BTS TX powers,

Figure 1, System level simulations [4]

Network Optimization

Radio network optimization is performed to improve the performance of the network with existing resources. The goal is to better utilize existing network resources, to solve existing and potential problems and to identify possible solutions for future planning. Through Radio Network Optimization, the service quality and resources usage of the network are greatly improved to achieve a balance between coverage, capacity and quality. In general, the following steps are followed during the Radio Network Optimization process:

Data Collection and Verification

Data Analysis

Parameter and Hardware Adjustment

Optimization result confirmation and reporting.

Due to the mobility of subscribers and the complexity of radio propagation, most of network problems are caused by increasing subscribers and the changing radio environment. Radio Network Optimization is a continuous process that is required as the network evolves.

Common parameters in link budget calculations

Table 1, Uplink [1],[2]

Common parameters in link budget calculations Table 1, Uplink [1],[2] Table 2, Downlink [1],[2]

Table 2, Downlink [1],[2]

Common parameters in link budget calculations Table 1, Uplink [1],[2] Table 2, Downlink [1],[2]

2) Dimensioning Part

Municipality

Area(km 2 )

Urban/Sub-Urban/Rural

Espoo

  • 312.75 Sub-Urban

 

Helsinki

  • 213.26 Urban

 

Vantaa

  • 238.37 Sub-Urban

 

Kauniainen

5.88

Sub-Urban

Hyvink¡aa

322.62

Rural

Jarvenpaa

  • 37.55 Rural

 

Kerava

  • 30.62 Rural

 

Kirkkonummi

  • 366.10 Rural

 

Nurmijarvi

  • 361.84 Rural

 

Sipoo

  • 339.62 Rural

 

Tuusula

  • 219.51 Rural

 

Vihti

  • 522.06 Rural

 

Total Sub-Urban area= 556.95 km 2 Total Urban area= 213.26 km 2 Total Rural area= 2199.92 Km 2

Losses

Respective Values

Tx Power

 

46

dBm

Antenna Gain

 

18

dBi

Cable Loss

2

dB

EIRP

 

62

dB

UE Noise Figure

7

dB

Thermal Noise

-104.5 dB

Rx Noise

-97.5 dB

SINR

 

-9 dB

Rx Sensitivity

-106.5 dB

Control Channel Overhead

1

dB

Rx Antenna Gain

0

dB

Body Loss

0

dB

Interference margin; rural 3 dB; sub-urban 5 dB; city 8 dB Indoor penetration loss; rural 15 dB; sub-urban 15 dB; urban 20 dB

Maximum path loss = EIRP Interference margin Penetration loss Control channel overhead- receiver sensitivity Maximum path loss for rural= 149.5 dB Maximum path loss for sub urban= 147.5 dB Maximum path loss for city= 139.5 dB

For calculation purpose, frequency of LTE is taken as 1800 MHz h(ms)= 1.2 m h(bs)= 25 m

Medium/small size (i=2) a 2 = 0.8 + (1.1 log (f) 0.7)hms 1.56 log (f)

a 2 = -0.8213 Sub urban (i=3) a 3 = a 2 + 2(log (f/28)) 2 + 5.4 a 3 = 11.1173

Rural (i=4) a 4 = a 2 + 4.78 (log (f)) 2 18.3 log (f) + 40.9 a 4 = 31.1599

By using COST 231 extension of Okumura-Hata model, the radius covered by each cell site is calculated as r(rural) = 18.47 km r(sub urban) = 2.07 km r(city) = 1.24 km

Area type

Radius of cell

Area of cell

Coverage

Cell sites

Cost of cell

(r)

(3√3 r 2 )/ 2

area of cell (km 2 )

sites

Rural

18.47

886.3101

2199.92

2.4821= 3

300 x 10 3

Sub urban

2.07

11.1325

 
  • 556.95 3000 x 10 3

50.0292= 51

 

Urban

1.24

3.9948

 
  • 213.26 21350 x 10 3

53.3844= 54

 

Conclusion: More cell sites are needed in dense areas as compared to rural areas.

3) Network Capacity Provision Part:

Population in Kauniainen municipality = 9039 Market share of the mobile operator (Nu) = 55% of the population = 4971

Arrival rates for voice calls = λv = k1 × Nu = 1.7 × 10 4 × 4971

= Arrival rates for data services = λ D = k2 × √Nu = 8.9 × 10 3 × √4971

3.4797 per second

= 0.627 per second

Service type

Minimum rate (r)

Arrival rate (λ)

Duration (μ)

Total throughput

= r λ μ

Data service

500 kbps

  • 0.627 365 sec

per sec

 

114427.5 kbps

Voice service

16 kbps

  • 3.479 75 sec

per sec

 

4175.64 kbps

 

Sum Total Throughput

 

118.6 Mbps

Area of Kauniainen municipality = 5.88 km 2

Throughput density = 118.6 / 5.88

= 20.17 Mbps per km 2

a = -0.8213 Sub urban (i=3) a = a + 2(log (f/28)) + 5.4 a =

Calculation of SIR at cell edge:

Cell number

Distance of MS

Average path loss

from base station

L o + 10log 10 (d -α )

(d)

1

r

L 1 = L o + 10log 10 ((r) -α )

2

r

L 2 = L 2 = L o + 10log 10 ((r) -α )

3

2r

L 3 = L o + 10log 10 ((2r) -α )

4

(√7)r

L 4 = L o + 10log 10 (((√7)r) -α )

5

(√7)r

L 5 = L 4 = L o + 10log 10 (((√7)r) -α )

6

2r

L 6 =L 3 = L o + 10log 10 ((2r) -α )

7

r

L 7 = L 2 = L o + 10log 10 ((r) -α )

For Transmitted power, P ; Transmitter gain, G ; Radius of cell, r km and propagation loss exponent (α) = 2.5

Calculation of SIR at cell edge: Cell number Distance of MS Average path loss from base
= 0.0277 = -15.57 db (linear)
= 0.0277
= -15.57 db
(linear)

Since EIRP is same for all base stations, SIR at cell edge does not depend on cell radius.

Spectral efficiency:

η = A · log2 (1 + B · SIR)

[bps/Hz]

A = 0.88 , B = 0.8, SIR i = -7.57 db

η = 0.1662

W = 10 MHz Throughput (TP) = ηW = 1.6622 Mbps

TPdensity= TP/(Cell area)

Cell area = TP / TPdensity = 1.6622 / 20.17 = 0.0824 sq. km

Cell radius = 0.1781 km

Impact of propagation loss exponent (α):

α

Spectral efficiency

Throughput (Mbps)

Cell radius

(km)

2

0.2559

2.423

0.2150

2.5

0.1662

1.6622

0.1781

3

0.1113

1.113

0.1457

3.5

0.0733

0.7334

0.1183

4

0.0476

0.4764

0.0953

Conclusion:If the value for path loss exponent is more, spectral efficiency is less. Hence, throughput comes out to be less and same is the case for the cell radius. Since single cell reuse and omni directional antennas are considered in all cell sites, interference at cell edge is more and hence, SIR would be less.

References

[1] H.Holma & A.Toskala, “WCDMA for UMTS: HSPA Evolution and LTE”, John Wiley & Sons,

2010

[2] H.Holma & A.Toskala, “LTE for UMTS: OFDMA and SC-FDMA based radio access”, John

Wiley & Sons, 2009 [3] https://sites.google.com/site/lteencyclopedia/lte-radio-link-budgeting-and-rf-planning/lte-link- budget-comparison [4] http://www.comlab.hut.fi/opetus/4210/presentations/16_wcdma_rnp.pdf