You are on page 1of 30

International Journal of

Cross Cultural Management


http://ccm.sagepub.com

Brazilian National Culture, Organizational Culture and Cultural Agreement:


Findings from a Multinational Company
Adriana V. Garibaldi de Hilal
International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 2006; 6; 139
DOI: 10.1177/1470595806066325
The online version of this article can be found at:
http://ccm.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/6/2/139

Published by:
http://www.sagepublications.com

Additional services and information for International Journal of Cross Cultural Management can be found at:
Email Alerts: http://ccm.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts
Subscriptions: http://ccm.sagepub.com/subscriptions
Reprints: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.nav
Permissions: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav
Citations (this article cites 13 articles hosted on the
SAGE Journals Online and HighWire Press platforms):
http://ccm.sagepub.com/cgi/content/refs/6/2/139

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

Cultural Perspectives

CCM

International Journal of

2006 Vol 6(2): 139167

Cross Cultural
Management

Brazilian National Culture,


Organizational Culture and
Cultural Agreement
Findings from a Multinational Company

Adriana V. Garibaldi de Hilal


Federal University of Rio de Janeiro COPPEAD (Graduate School of Business), Brazil
The present study looks into the organizational culture of a Brazilian company,
concentrating on its main Brazilian branches as well as on its European, Latin American,
Central American, North American and Asian branches, making a total sample of 36 cities
and 1742 respondents. Results indicate the influence of national culture on organizational
culture, as the dimensions found clearly reflect the ambiguity and double-edged ethic
characteristic of Brazilian culture. This study also shows the importance of hierarchy, and of
relational networks, which stresses the relevance of the cultural element in organizational
structure and functioning. In brief, understanding the double-edged ethic that governs
Brazilian culture helps us understand apparently different, ambiguous or even contradictory
behaviors reflected in the organizational culture practices of a Brazilian company with
international operations. Moreover, there is little empirical research that directly deals with
what combination of factors makes individuals agree or disagree over their cultural
viewpoints. Consequently, we consider that this study attempts to deal with that issue as the
cultural clusters were obtained using a multivariate approach, using demographic variables
and the identified organizational dimensions. Thus results suggest the organizational context
may increase or reduce the probability of nationality affecting the cultural agreement of
group members.

ABSTRACT

KEY WORDS cross cultural research cultural agreement Latin American multinational
national culture organizational culture

During the 1980s and 1990s, culture became


a widely discussed subject in organizations,
when western organizational scientists

became interested in the culture of their


countries and on the links between culture
and organizational forms of life (Morgan,
Copyright 2006 SAGE Publications
www.sagepublications.com
DOI: 10.1177/1470595806066325

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

140

International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 6(2)

1997) in order to explain the superior performance of Japanese companies as compared


to North American ones. Some authors
argued that the key to competitiveness lay in
the possibility of organizational culture (OC)
change (Deal and Kennedy, 1982; Ouchi,
1981; Pascale, 1981; Sathe, 1985), with the
first specific studies dating back to the beginning of the 1970s (Clark, 1972; Pettigrew,
1973) and Schein (1985) formally articulating
the conceptual framework to analyze and
intervene in the culture of organizations.
Culture is treated as a variable in the
perspective of popular authors such as Peters
and Waterman (1982), Deal and Kennedy
(1982), and Schein (1985). On the other
hand, culture is treated as a metaphor in the
symbolic perspective expressed in the work of
anthropologists like Geertz (1993), whose
focus is on meaning. Other debate focuses on
the possibilities or not of measuring OC.
Organizational symbolists advocate the
dense description of organizations, involving
qualitative in-depth case studies, as opposed
to qualitative but thin descriptions based on
interviews with managers. However, it can
be argued that thick descriptions are difficult
to replicate and that the result is highly subjective, as ethnographic researchers consider
that objectivity in organizational research is a
myth (Ott, 1989).
Within the quantitative approach, on the
other hand, the biggest advantage of the use
of survey techniques to study OC is the fact
that the same methodology can be applied to
different organizations in the same way, thus
providing a basis for comparisons or generalizations. One of the drawbacks is the fact
that there is no protection against overgeneralization (Denison, 1984). Those who
prefer qualitative research argue that cultural
processes are the result of unique social constructions and that they are, therefore,
impossible to measure with quantitative standardized measures (Cooke and Rousseau,
1988). Among the intercultural scientists (e.g.
Laurent, 1983; Maznevski, 1994; Tromp-

enaars, 1993), Hofstede (1997, 2001) is one of


the best-known authors. He has an intermediary position and argues that both methodological approaches have limitations and, as
a consequence, should be seen as complementary.
According to Hofstede (1997), the core of
OC is in the practices shared by its members.
Consequently, national cultures would differ
mainly on their basic values, while OCs
would differ more superficially in terms of
their practices, which would be the visible
parts of culture and could be manageable
within certain limits.
However, most studies on OC have considered the organization as a whole (Martin,
1992). This kind of research emphasizes
the existence of a unique general OC and
focuses on harmony and organizational
consensus, instead of on conflict and subcultural consensus (Martin, 1992). Although
most researchers accept the existence of
organizational subcultures (Trice and Beyer,
1993), they have emphasized the homogeneity of culture and its cohesive function instead
of its differentiation potential (Gregory,
1983).
Given the perceived need for further
research within organizations that takes into
account clusters of ideologies, cultural forms
and behaviors that identify groups of people
within organizations (Trice and Beyer, 1993),
the present study adopted a sub-cultural
perspective, perceiving the organization as
composed by a multiplicity of different subcultures. This perspective emphasizes the
existence of differences, although it does not
deny the possibility of the existence of consensus in relation to certain values (Martin,
1992). A critical factor that defines the relationship and the existence of sub-cultures is
how much they reflect their own particular
values. Here, possibilities offer a spectrum
that can include great differences (which can
imply deeply rooted conflicts and culture
clashes) as well as groups that share similar
values and have similar ways of perceiving

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

Garibaldi de Hilal: Brazilian Culture and Cultural Agreement 141

and interpreting the organizational context


events (which would foster inter-group cooperation).
According to Kilduff (1993), organizational members from different nationalities
will probably tend to develop specific cultural
perspectives while they modify and transform
the cultural routines of the organization so
as to adapt them to their own cultural bias,
possibly using different practical approaches
to deal with organizational problems.
Thus the complexity of the internal environment of organizations with international
operations increases the probability that their
culture tends to differentiation; that is, multiple systems of meanings, and therefore of
practices, tend to coexist simultaneously. The
different systems of meanings, or the different
sub-cultures, usually greatly affect the operations of those organizations. Groups with
different cultural viewpoints tend to interpret
and to respond to the same organizational
events in different ways accepting, modifying, questioning or even ignoring the rules
and procedures that emanate from the
dominant culture (Jermier et al., 1991).
Additionally, ethnocentrism, which is the
tendency to evaluate others according to our
own cultural point of view (Rocha, 1991),
increases the probability of misunderstandings that can result in undesirable conflict
levels, thus affecting the performance of the
organization (Gregory, 1983).
Moreover, in a relational society such
as the Brazilian one, we have to consider
the influence of relational networks on the
organizational culture and sub-cultures.
Within the relational perspective interaction
among actors can lead to a certain homogeneity of attitudes and practices, thus significantly influencing the existence of cultural
agreement (Burkhardt, 1994), and therefore
helping to define OC clusters.
Consequently, based on Hofstedes framework for OC, the first purpose of this study
was to identify the OC dimensions (i.e. values
and practices; where practices involve sym-

bols, rituals and heroes) of a Brazilian company, concentrating on its main Brazilian
branches as well as on its European, Latin
American, Central American, North American and Asian branches. The second purpose
of this study was to determine if values and
practices are uniform in the sampled organization or if there are different organizational
culture clusters.

Organizational Culture
Authors such as Schein (1992) and Pettigrew
(1985) present OCs as implying shared
values, and confusion derives from the fact
that such literature does not make a clear distinction between the values of the leaders and
those of the other members of the organization. Hofstede (1997) defines OC as the
collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of an organization
from those of another, and he argues that
the values of the founders and of the main
leaders undoubtedly shape OCs, but the
ways in which these cultures affect the ordinary members of the organization would be
limited to shared practices. Thus the values
of founders and leaders would become the
practices of the other members of the organization. In brief, what an individual has to
learn when he or she joins an organization is
mainly a question of practices, as most values
are developed and learned in the family and
at school.
Hofstede et al. (1990) empirically derived
six independent dimensions that describe the
numerous organizational practices: (1) process
oriented versus results oriented; (2) employee
oriented versus job oriented; (3) parochial
versus professional; (4) open system versus
closed system; (5) loose control versus tight
control; and (6) normative versus pragmatic.
These six dimensions are descriptive but not
prescriptive: no position in each of the six
dimensions is intrinsically good or bad. What
is good or bad depends on each case, on what
is desired for the organization and on the

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

142

International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 6(2)

strategic options. Moreover, Hofstede pointed


out that the OC dimensions he identified
would not necessarily apply to any kind of
organization in any country. OCs are gestalts
and their knowledge can only be totally
appreciated by insiders. However, a conceptual framework allows us to make significant
comparisons between cultures of different
organizations, or between the sub-cultures of
different parts of the same organization.

Brazilian Culture Overview


Brazil is the only other country in the western
hemisphere that has the continental proportions, the regional contrasts and the demographic diversity that can be compared to the
US and Canada.
According to Hess (1995), Brazil, in spite
of its western-like institutions, is a country
where western culture has mixed and mingled
with non-western cultures for centuries. This
mixture of western and non-western, as well
as modern and traditional, is what Da Matta
(1997a) has called the Brazilian dilemma, or
what Brazilians call the Brazilian reality. Brazil
is a country where institutions operate
through personal relationships as much as
general rules. Diversity is not the best word for
describing Brazil and Brazilians; mixture is
better. Brazil is a nation of mixed races
(miscegenation), religions (syncretism), and
cultures (diasporas, borderlands).
In cultural anthropology and studies of
Brazilian national culture, Da Matta (1997a,
b) has influenced a number of scholars (such
as David Hess, 1995; Roberto Kant de Lima,
1995; Livia Neves Barbosa, 1995; Rosane
Prado, 1995; and Martha de Ulhoa Carvalho,
1995) with his framework for interpreting
Brazilian culture.
Hess (1995) describes Brazil as the product
of a particular colonial legacy that includes a
class of wealthy landowners who supported a
highly centralized Portuguese state. In turn
the state imposed a latifundia, or plantation
agricultural system in Brazil, where the

plantations were controlled by patriarchs


who exercised nearly absolute authority over
their dominions. According to Buarque de
Holanda (1995), the colonial legacy also
includes the origins of the traditional Latin
American personalism,1 the lack of social cohesion and the looseness of the institutions.
Additionally, the Tocquevillian legacy of
comparative analysis influenced a number of
20th-century thinkers such as Louis Dumont
(1980). Dumonts studies focused on two key
dimensions for comparing values and patterns of social relations across societies: hierarchy and equality, and holism and individualism.
In the ascribed form of hierarchy used by
Dumont, ones social position is assigned at
birth or is limited by ones family position. In
a traditional hierarchical society, laws apply
differently to different groups of people. Of
course, there are remnants of the ascribed
kind of hierarchy even in the most modern of
societies, but the legal recognition of such
hierarchy is considered an affront to the
fundamental value of equality.
The concepts of holism and individualism
are closely related to those of hierarchy and
equality. In a hierarchical society everyone
occupies a definite position, and peoples
identity is rooted in their association with a
particular position in society.
Da Mattas approach to Brazilian culture
departs from these key concepts as developed
by Dumont. Da Matta uses the term persons
to describe the category of identity, in which
one is defined by ones position in the family
or in a hierarchically ordered social group. In
contrast, in an individualistic society identity is
rooted in ones own life history and choices
and people are individuals linked by the rules
of the game, which are assumed to apply
equally to all (or universally). Although in an
individualistic society people certainly have
personalistic loyalties, ones identity as an
individual rather than as a person tends to
prevail. Likewise, in a personalistic or relational
society, there are domains of society that
operate according to individualistic and egal-

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

Garibaldi de Hilal: Brazilian Culture and Cultural Agreement 143

itarian principles, but, in general, personal


loyalties tend to prevail.
Da Matta argues that Brazil is somewhere
between the two ideal polar extremes (hierarchical and holistic, and egalitarian and individualistic). He rejects the model of two
Brazils, in which a traditional culture located
in the lower classes of the cities and in the
rural areas is opposed to a modern Brazil in
the upper classes and in the big cities, showing
how in societies like Brazil, Dumonts distinctions can be applied simultaneously throughout
the society. Instead of working with an either or
model, he opted for a both and model, as both
tendencies are present in any number of
social groups, institutions and practices. Thus
Brazilians are constantly negotiating between
a modern, egalitarian code and a traditional
one. In some situations, modern practices
predominate. However, frequently, hierarchical and personalistic/relational practices
encompass modern ones.
Thus Brazil is neither modern nor traditional but both. Da Matta also developed an
analysis of intermediary terms or symbols, as
in Brazil there is a tendency to move toward
a middle ground of mediation and ambiguity.
Those mediating terms become sites for the
conflict of values and the encompassment of
the modern by the traditional.
This seems to apply to Latin American
countries as a whole, as Latin American
history and social structure seem to imply.
For example, the injustices of the Latin
American authoritarian and hierarchical system are blunted by the existence of a number
of mediating institutions: extended kin networks, nepotism, the famous Brazilian jeitinho
or the Argentine gauchada (the art of bending
rules), and all sorts of social practices that
would appear corrupt in North America and
Western Europe. In short, personal relationships form the flip side of official hierarchies.
Personalism is more than a cultural system that
gives people a social address in the hierarchical society; it is also a resource that people
can use to get around the official rules of the

hierarchical society. Of course, personalism


does not work the same way for everyone.
The networks of the weak are usually smaller
and less influential. As a result, although
personalism can be used as a resource to subvert hierarchy, as an overall system it ends up
reproducing the general hierarchical order
(Hess, 1995).
Perhaps the most well known of Da
Mattas studies of mediation is his discussion of
the street and the home (1997a). The space of the
home is identified with the hierarchical and
relational/personalistic moral world, whereas that of the street is egalitarian and individualistic. Of course, in Latin America, and
especially in Brazil, the two worlds of home
and street interact considerably. As a social
space, the home, and institutions modeled on
the home, such as the workplace, are places
where relations among family members and
servants or among superiors and subordinates institute hierarchies of race, class, age
and gender. The street is a different sort of
place where those hierarchies are suspended.
The street is the place where the egalitarian
and individualistic principles of the marketplace or legal system are in operation. The
home is the place where people find their
identity, while the street is the place of individual anonymity. In certain situations the
home encompasses the street and all matters
are treated in a personal, familiar domestic
way; in others the street encompasses the home:
the domain of personal relations is totally
submersed and the axis of impersonal laws
and rules prevails. There is, therefore, a
double-edged ethic that operates simultaneously
and that determines different behaviors that
apply to the street (where behavior is free of
the sense of loyalty, free of the meaning of us,
ruled by the criteria of individualism, by laws
and by the rules of the market) and to the
home (where behavior is ruled by personal
relations, the sense of loyalty and emotions,
by reciprocity and friendship).
In brief, in a dynamic sense, behaviors
continually oscillate in Brazil in particular

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

144

International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 6(2)

and in Latin America in general: people can


express apparently different or even contradictory opinions and behaviors depending on
whether they position themselves in the street
or in the home.

Methodology
The methodology used in this study was
based on a research design that combined
quantitative research with a qualitative
exploratory procedure.
The research took place in a Brazilian
company that, owing to issues of confidentiality, will be called company XYZ. The
main criterion used in its selection was the
fact that it has approximately 81,500
employees, thus allowing us to replicate the
research design used by Hofstede et al. (1990)
in their OC study. The field research was
done in 36 cities, including 17 in Brazil2 as
well as the international branches located in
Europe (namely Milan, London, Securities
UK (also in London), Lisbon, Madrid, Paris,
Frankfurt, Vienna and Amsterdam); in Latin
America (namely Buenos Aires, the capital
city of Argentina, Asuncion and Ciudad del
Este both cities located in Paraguay
Santiago, the capital city of Chile and La
Paz, the capital city of Bolivia); in Central
and North America (namely Panama, Grand
Cayman, Miami and New York); and in Asia
(namely Tokyo).
The qualitative exploratory research
aimed at collecting information and trying to
gain some insights about the specific features
of XYZ in order to adjust the contents of the
questionnaire to the specificities of this organization, and as input for the interpretation
of the quantitative data. It consisted of six
one and a half hour in-depth semi-structured
interviews conducted in Portuguese by the
researcher. For the interviews, six managerial level employees were selected using as
selection criteria the fact that they were
reputed to be communicative and had the
necessary experience and knowledge.

The survey sample was defined in two


stages. For the first stage, involving the selection of the cities or units where the data were
collected, we used intentional sampling to
cover the five Brazilian geographical areas.
The initial intention of using stratified probabilistic sampling in the Brazilian units had to
be discarded because the data collection had
to be tailored to the needs of each regional
division to cause the minimum interference
in the work flow. Consequently, in each of
the Brazilian units we selected an intentional
sample of, on average, 74 employees (including, on average, 37 managerial employees
and 37 non-managerial employees per unit).
In the European, Latin American, Central
American, North American and Asian units,
as there were fewer employees per functional
category, the research took the form of a
census and hence included all the managerial
and non-managerial employees present at
the time of the survey. The total surveyed
sample was of 1968 respondents. After eliminating the questionnaires that were annulled
or not returned, we were left with a final
sample of 1742 respondents (including, on
average, 33 managerial employees and 33
non-managerial employees per Brazilian
unit).
The survey consisted of 131 pre-coded
questions3 plus an open question. Questions
were extracted from various publications on
Hofstedes questionnaire on OC. However,
certain questions were developed based on
the results of the qualitative phase of the
study. The questionnaire also included five
questions on demographics: sex, age, number
of years working for the company, educational level and nationality. To assure that
the questionnaire mostly reproduced an
instrument already used by Hofstede et al.
(1990), Geert Hofstede was personally consulted and directly involved.
The anonymous self-administered questionnaire was prepared in several versions:
Portuguese, English, Spanish, Dutch, German,
Italian, French and Japanese. Following

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

Garibaldi de Hilal: Brazilian Culture and Cultural Agreement 145

Adler (1982) we used back-translation. After


being translated, the questionnaire was pretested with a small group of retired XYZ
employees to check that the understanding
was the desired one.
Following Robinson (1950) and Shweder
(1973), in order to obtain etic or comparable
OC dimensions we prepared an ecological
matrix, calculating the mean of each item or
variable for each of the 36 units.4 Subsequently, we applied ecological factor analysis
(principal component) with orthogonal varimax rotation to provide a factor solution
explaining the maximum share of variance
to the fewest number of factors. Moreover,
ecological factor analyses are characterized
by flat matrixes (matrixes with fewer cases
than the number of variables).5 However, the
original database had in fact 1742 respondents, and not just 36 cases, thus being considered adequate using Hofstede et al.s
(1990) criterion.
Considering the fact that the questionnaire mostly reproduced an instrument
already used by Hofstede et al. (1990) and
that the small modifications introduced did
not affect its design or any of the variables
held to be key by Hofstede, we considered
that the constructs were already validated.
Moreover, internal consistency was also verified based on the existing literature (such as
Blake and Mouton, 1964; Burns and Stalker,
1961; and Peters and Waterman, 1982). It
should be noticed that the six practice
dimensions identified by Hofstede et al.
(1990) together explained 73% of the variance.
The first step was to calculate the 131
131 product moment correlation matrix of
the 20 mean scores for each possible pair of
questions, verifying that the matrix was
appropriate for multivariate analysis as, on
average, it presented mean correlations
between the variables.
For analytic purposes we followed Hofstede et al.s (1990) recommendations. First,
we divided the questions into three categories

(57 questions on values; 61 on perceived


practices and typical-member scores; and 13
on reasons for promotion and dismissal) and
conducted separate factorial analyses for
each category. As the ecological correlations
tend to be stronger than individual correlations we expected to find high percentages of
explained variance. In order to avoid giving
undue attention to trivial things in ecological
factorial analysis, the number of factors
should be fewer than the number of cases
and fewer than what is technically possible
based on eigenvalues larger than 1, only
taking into account variables with loadings
higher than 0.5 or 0.6.
Then the scores of each of the 13 identified dimensions (4 on values, 6 on practices
and 3 on heroes) were put in a 0100 scale
using the formula: Final score (0,100) = (original score 50 / 3.090245) + 50 (in order to
have approximately 99.9% of the observations within the interval of the normal curve).
Following this scores were ranked to better
visualize the relative position of each unit in
relation to the others (with 1 indicating the
highest score and 36 the lowest). It should be
noticed that three scores presented values
outside the 0100 range, and were considered as outliers: namely Amsterdam with a
score for factor V3 (work centrality) of 12;
Madrid with a score for factor P3 (individualistic relational) of 19; and, Frankfurt
with a score for factor V4 (need for survival)
of 106, indicating a strong relationship
directly or inversely (depending on the value
being positive or negative) linked to the
meaning of the corresponding factor.
Next we calculated the product-moment
correlation matrix of the 13 dimensions plus
the 5 demographic variables for the 36 units,
in order to identify significant correlations at
the .05 level. In order to identify clusters of
cultural agreement we submitted the 13 OC
dimensions plus the 5 demographic variables
for the 36 units to a hierarchical cluster
analysis, using Ward Method and square
Euclidean distance. From the resulting

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

146

International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 6(2)

dendrogram we selected four clusters. To


explain the main features of each cluster we
used the option reports case summaries (SPSS
11.0 program), computing, for each cluster,
the minimum, maximum and mean value of
each of the 13 OC dimensions and of the 5
demographic variables.
Finally, in order to verify if the identified
clusters were in fact significant, we submitted
the original 131 variables (except the demographic variables as they had already been
used in the cluster analysis), to Multiple
Discriminant Analysis MDA stepwise
procedure and Wilks Lambda Method, in
spite of this involving a certain degree of
circularity.

Results
The first purpose of the analysis was to
identify the OC dimensions (i.e. values and
practices, where practices involve symbols,
rituals and heroes). The second purpose of
this study was to identify clusters of cultural
agreement.
Based on the 131 survey pre-coded questions, the 131131 product-moment correlation matrix showed that values correlated
with other values and also with practices; perceived practices and typical-member scores
correlated among each other; and the reasons
for promotion and dismissal correlated
among each other, but also with other items.
Before analyzing the value, practice and
hero dimensions a word of caution is necessary. In the Brazilian branches (PC4 to
PC20), almost 100% of the employees are
Brazilian and the vast majority are local,
from the region where the unit is located.
Exceptions are PCs 18 and 19 (namely
Campo Grande and Cuiab in the CenterWest region of Brazil) that only have 40%
and 50%, respectively, of local employees,
the rest belonging to the other Brazilian
regions. However, the same situation is
not necessarily true of the non-Brazilian
branches, where the local employees reflect

the percentage of employees originally from


the country where the unit is located. Thus
the composition of local as opposed to
Brazilian employees in the non-Brazilian
branches has to be taken into account when
analyzing the value, practice and hero
dimensions. Table 1 indicates the approximate percentages of local and Brazilian
employees in each of the non-Brazilian
branches. Moreover, very few of the
Brazilian employees belong to headquarters
usually only the top managers while all
the others are usually hired locally according
to local regulations, and are hardly ever
transferred between branches.
Value Dimensions
We obtained the following four independent
factors that together explained 52.41% of the
variance:
V1 Need for security
V2 Need for authority
V3 Work centrality (the importance of
work)
V4 Need for survival.
Tables 2 to 5 show the variables with loadings approximately higher than 0.50 or 0.60
that were considered to explain each factor.
It should be noticed that items with negative
loadings were reworded negatively.
Factor V1 need for security which is a
combination of collectivism and elements of
uncertainty avoidance (see items in Table 2)
shows that in relational societies, people are
part of personal networks from which they
derive their identity, thus justifying the
importance given to good physical working
conditions, to having training opportunities,
to cooperation between co-workers and to
having a good relationship with the hierarchical superior. On the other hand, relational and hierarchical societies usually justify the
fact that it is not considered important for
employees to be consulted by their direct
superior in decisions, or to have the freedom
to adopt their own approach to work.

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

Garibaldi de Hilal: Brazilian Culture and Cultural Agreement 147


Table 1

Percentage of local and of Brazilian employees per branch

PC

Unit

1
2
3
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

Santiago
Asuncion
Buenos Aires
Ciudad del Este
La Paz
Panama
Grand Cayman
Miami
New York
Tokyo
London
Securities UK
Lisboa
Madrid
Paris
Milan
Frankfurt
Vienna
Amsterdam

Table 2

% of local
employees

% of Brazilian
employees

90
93
88
93
90
76
20
19
28
29
58
36
88
45
64
86
75
50
85

10
7
6
7
10
18
40
70
42
62
35
55
12
55
18
14
25
40
15

% of other
origin

6
40
11
30
9
7
9

18

10

Total
%
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

V1 Need for security (high)

Code

Loading

OT9
OT15
OT19
CG17
OT8
OT7
OT20
OT11
CG10

0.840
0.829
0.809
0.740
0.734
0.707
0.693
0.677
0.670

CG23
CG28
OT5
OT4
CG21
FV6
CG22
CG16

0.665
0.648
0.633
0.626
0.624
0.597
0.593
0.568

Description
Being consulted by direct superior in his or her decisions not important
Having an element of adventure and variety in the job not important
Having training opportunities important
For young people to be critical of their teachers is all right
Working with people who cooperate well with one another important
Having freedom to adopt your own approach to job not important
Having good fringe benefits important
Having opportunities for high earnings important
The employee that quietly does his or her duty is not one of the greatest assets
of an organization
Both parties compromising a bit best resolves conflicts with opponents
Large corporation is a more desirable place to work than small company
Having good working relationship with superior important
Having good physical working conditions important
People like work
Would continue working if did not need the money
Parents satisfied when children become independent
Good personal relationships not more important than high income

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

148

International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 6(2)


Table 3

V2 Need for authority (high)

Code

Loading

FV1
CG19
CG6
OT12
FV2
CG9
CG15
OT10
OT1
OT13
FV4
OT2
CG5

0.723
0.710
0.689
0.664
0.660
0.651
0.633
0.633
0.628
0.610
0.599
0.577
0.564

OT18

0.552

OT6

0.520

Table 4

Description
Does not prefer consultative/participative manager
Rules should not be broken
Decisions by individuals are usually of higher quality than group decisions
Serving your country important
Own manager autocratic or paternalistic
Management authority should not be questioned
It is often necessary to bypass hierarchical lines
Making contributions to success of organization not important
Having sufficient time for personal and family life not important
Living in an area desirable to you and family not important
Subordinates frequently afraid to express disagreement with superiors
Having challenging things to do not important
Main reason for having hierarchical structure is that everyone knows who has
authority over whom
Working in a well defined work situation where requirements are clear is
important
Having security of employment important

V3 Work centrality (high)

Code

Loading

CG8
CG26
CG18

0.818
0.679
0.638

Description

CG20
0.627
OT16
0.620
CG12
0.599
FV7
0.580
OT14
0.525
OT11 0.520 2nd
loading

Table 5

Parents should stimulate their children to be best in class


Having a job you like not more important than having a successful career
The individual who pursues his or her own interest makes the best possible contribution to society as a whole
When people fail it is often their own fault
Working in a prestigious and successful company important
Competition between employees does not do more harm than good
Feel proud working for this organization
Having opportunities for advancement to higher level jobs important
Having opportunities for higher earnings important

V4 Need for survival (high)

Code

Loading

CG25
FV5
CG1
CG27
CG3
CG7

0.618
0.607
0.557
0.528
0.516
0.509

Description
Even a lousy job is better than no job at all
Intend to continue working for this organization until retirement
Most people can be trusted
Ones job is more important than ones leisure time
Most organizations would be better off if conflict could be eliminated forever
A good manager should have precise answers to most of the questions that subordinates may raise about their work

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

Garibaldi de Hilal: Brazilian Culture and Cultural Agreement 149

The need for security also justifies the fact


that having an element of adventure and
variety in the job is not important, that a
large corporation is a more desirable place to
work than a small company, that having
good fringe benefits and opportunities for
high earnings is important and that compromise is the best way to resolve conflict with
opponents.
However, the items that state that the
employees would continue working even if
they did not need the money, that parents
should be satisfied when children become
independent, that people like work and that
good personal relationships are not more
important than a high income, all typical of
individualistic and capitalistic modern societies, show an apparent contradiction with
the high need for security. In fact those
statements are representative of the traits of
duality and ambiguity usually present in
Latin American societies.
In connection with V2 need for authority (Table 3) which clearly relates to power
distance, the following comments are appropriate.
The fact that it is often necessary to
bypass the hierarchical lines fits the famous
jeitinho brasileiro or gauchada argentina; that is,
the Latin way of bypassing rules in order to
get things done, typical of relational societies
where excessive formalism is bypassed, in
practice, alleviating pressures and emphasizing the importance of personal relationships.
That is in apparent conflict with the item that
states that rules should not be broken, typical
of hierarchical societies. However, those
statements are representative of the traits of
duality and ambiguity usually present in
Latin American societies.
The item that states that making a real
contribution to the organizations success is
not important shows a vision of the organization as the street in opposition to the
home. According to Da Matta (1997a), we
live in a society where there is a permanent
state of confrontation between the public

world of universal laws and the market and


the private universe of the family, relatives
and friends. Additionally, in connection with
the preferred and perceived type of manager,
which includes the typology of autocratic,
paternalistic, consultative and participative
manager (key element of the classical power
distance dimension) our study indicates a
clear preference for the autocratic and
paternalistic types.
However, careful analysis of the scores of
the 36 units makes us realize that, while those
statements would be mainly valid for the
other Latin American branches (which have
the highest scores and therefore a higher need
for authority), the same does not apply to any
of the Brazilian units, where the scores are
consistently below the midpoint of the scale
(50), indicating that both the preferred and
perceived managers tend to be consultative
or participative. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that sometimes the limited experience
of the respondents can influence their perception of the type of manager they in fact have.
One also has to consider that management
training courses normally glorify consultative
or participative management as being superior
and more modern rather than more autocratic or paternalistic management styles, not
considering the cultural profile of the audience. This could suggest the existence of
consultative or participative rituals, without
necessarily implying the implementation of
managerial models that are actually consultative or participative. From this perspective,
consultative or participative management
styles might be reduced to a ritualistic representation of participation just because they
are perceived as the politically correct discourse by the managerial establishment.
The items that state that decisions by
individuals are usually of higher quality than
group decisions, that management authority
should not be questioned, that subordinates
are frequently afraid to express disagreement
with their superiors and that the main reason
for having a hierarchical structure is that

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

150

International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 6(2)


Table 6

Value scores and rankings

PC

V1

V2

V3

V4

RV1

RV2

RV3

RV4

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

69
70
75
64
66
61
61
65
61
60
62
60
56
60
61
51
63
66
63
61
41
37
36
31
43
45
15
38
28
32
23
17
32
43
48
36

88
83
91
45
40
38
30
42
39
45
41
39
28
37
37
40
49
36
41
31
72
53
63
45
41
70
57
53
56
58
44
35
49
51
76
58

38
53
45
50
55
52
40
32
43
57
54
45
48
64
60
78
52
53
59
54
67
49
37
44
33
72
70
63
55
51
49
53
52
16
68
12

33
60
42
47
59
48
55
32
41
40
62
47
43
59
46
47
46
57
36
43
56
53
42
75
106
44
51
48
40
35
45
13
64
74
77
35

3
2
1
7
5
14
12
6
13
18
10
16
19
17
15
20
8
4
9
11
25
27
29
32
24
22
36
26
33
30
34
35
31
23
21
28

2
3
1
17
26
29
35
21
28
19
23
27
36
30
31
25
16
32
22
34
5
13
7
18
24
6
10
12
11
8
20
33
15
14
4
9

31
16
26
22
12
20
30
34
29
10
14
27
25
6
8
1
18
17
9
13
5
24
32
28
33
2
3
7
11
21
23
15
19
35
4
36

34
7
27
19
9
16
12
35
28
29
6
18
24
8
20
17
21
10
31
25
11
13
26
3
1
23
14
15
30
33
22
36
5
4
2
32

Note: R indicates the ranking of the factor.

everyone knows who has authority over


whom are typical of societies with high power
distance, justifying clear authority lines and
traditional hierarchy.
Factor V3 work centrality which
clearly relates to masculinity (see items in
Table 4), links the importance given to work-

ing in a prestigious company with icons of


modern capitalistic societies, such as the
value attributed to competitiveness (parents
should stimulate their children to try to be the
best in class, competition between employees
is not harmful, the importance attributed to
ones career, and the fact that peoples failure

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

Garibaldi de Hilal: Brazilian Culture and Cultural Agreement 151

is considered their own fault). This symbiosis


suggests that the desired values of work and
competitiveness are inscribed in the relational
universe, in permanence and tradition, where
the prestige of the organization grants prestige to its members, being the basis of their
identification system.
Factor V4 need for survival (Table 5)
which contains other elements of uncertainty
avoidance, shows how in relational and
traditional societies (where employees intend
to continue working for the organization
until retirement and where most people can
be trusted), modern capitalistic values are
encompassed (namely the item that states
that ones job is more important than ones
leisure time). Moreover, the fact that even a
lousy job is better than no job at all clearly
indicates the specific difficulties of the labor
market, frequently perceived as permanent.
The scores and rankings of Factors V1 to
V4 are in Table 6. In connection with V1
need for security it should be noted that the
apparent contradiction between the scores of
Asuncion PC2 and Ciudad del Este
PC21 both Paraguayan cities, could be
explained by the fact that Ciudad del Este is
a small town on the borders of Paraguay,
Brazil and Argentina, with immigrants of
different origins, which give the city a peculiar profile.
Practice Dimensions
Of the 12 independent factors obtained we
decided to keep the following 6 that together
explain 71.25% of the variance:
P1 Employee oriented versus job oriented
P2 Results oriented versus process
oriented
P3 Isolated versus relational
P4 Egalitarian versus hierarchical
P5 Parochial versus professional
P6 Informal versus formal.
Tables 7 to 12 list the variables with loadings
approximately higher than 0.50 or 0.60 that
were considered relevant to explain each

factor. In order to name the six dimensions


we indicated in bold type the four items that
we considered key to define each dimension.
The 24 key items (46) were submitted to an
ecological factorial analysis of principal component using varimax rotation and together
explained 82.35% of the accumulated variance of the mean scores between units. The
scores and rankings of the different company
units are shown in Table 13.
Factor P1 employee oriented v job oriented (Table 7) shows that the organization
is perceived as interested only in the work of
the employees and not in their well-being
and, that in general, important decisions are
taken by individuals. It also shows the fascination that Brazilian organizations have for
hierarchy and tradition, as indicated by the
items that state that decisions are centralized
at the top and that changes are implemented
by management decree.
In such an environment of individuals,
impersonal rules substitute for relationships.
Thus the fact that the organization does not
have relevant links with the local community
and contributes little to society could be
explained by the historical indifference of the
forms of association that imply solidarity, as
stated by Buarque de Holanda (1995). To
exemplify, in individualistic societies, such as
North American society, the concept of community is founded on the equality and homogeneity of all its members. In Latin America
in contrast, the community is heterogeneous,
hierarchical and complementary. Its basic
unit is not the individual, but relationships
and persons, and groups of friends. Moreover, when employees become embedded in
the relational networks, the perception of
formal hierarchies would decrease, with personal relationships forming the flip-side of
official hierarchies.
Factor P2 results oriented v process
oriented (Table 8) shows that the major
emphasis is on following organizational procedures correctly, and that following the
correct procedures is more important than

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

152

International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 6(2)


Table 7

P1: Employee oriented v job oriented

Code

Loading*

Description

PP30
PP49
PP26
PP43
PP48
PP18
PP32
PP23
PP28
CT6
CT3
PP25
PP6
PP42
PP53

0.848
0.841
0.797
0.771
0.725
0.725
0.718
0.697
0.648
0.580
0.565
0.562
0.550
0.526
0.571 2nd
loading

No special ties with local community


Pragmatic not dogmatic in matters of ethics
Organization contributes little to society
Decisions centralized at top
Changes implemented by management decree
Job competence is what counts regardless of how it was acquired
Managers keep good people for own department
People only told when they have made a mistake
Organization only interested in work people do
Typical member sloppy
Typical member direct
Peoples private life is their own business
Important decisions made by individuals
Little attention to physical work environment
Each day is pretty much the same

* Items with negative loadings are reworded negatively.

Table 8

P2: Results oriented v process oriented

Code

Loading*

Description

PP1
PP21
PP53
PP3
PP14
PP11
PP45
PP41
PP37
PP6

0.808
0.770
0.690
0.686
0.639
0.635
0.599
0.565
0.516
0.505 2nd
loading

Major emphasis on correctly following organizational procedures


People identify primarily with own branch or location
Each day is pretty much the same
Uncomfortable in unfamiliar situations people avoid taking risks
Many people wonder about purpose and importance of their work
Organization and people closed and secretive
Correct procedures are more important than results
Not aware of competition of other organizations
Our branch worst of organization
All important decisions taken by individuals

* Items with negative loadings are reworded negatively.

Table 9

P3: Isolated v relational

Code

Loading*

CT2
CT7
CT4
CT1
PP29
CT5

0.854
0.853
0.788
0.746
0.708
0.604

Description
Typical member warm
Typical member relational
Typical member flexible
Typical member initiating
Newcomers are helped to adapt quickly to job and group
Typical member fast

* Items with negative loadings are reworded negatively.

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

Garibaldi de Hilal: Brazilian Culture and Cultural Agreement 153


Table 10

P4: Egalitarian v hierarchical

Code

Loading*

Description

PP50
PP36
PP47
PP2
PP54
PP20
PP7

0.730
0.717
0.708
0.683
0.649
0.597
0.514 2nd
loading

Ordinary members never meet their top managers


Meeting times only kept approximately
People from the right background better chance of being hired
Little concern for personal problems of employees
Administrative discontinuity
Top managers resent being contradicted
Subordinates have to work according to detailed instructions from superiors

* Items with negative loadings are reworded negatively.

results. This factor also shows that the organization is perceived as a closed system
as indicated in the items that state that the
organization and its people are closed and
secretive and that they are not aware of competition from other organizations.
Yet, just like in a set of mirrors, the
dimensions present their own opposites as
shown in Factor P3 isolated v relational
(Table 9) where the view of the home, of
the relational axis is clearly represented.
XYZ is an organization that exists in a complex system of social relationships, of links
among its members. In the Brazilian case, in
certain situations the street is encompassed
inside the home, treating the organization
as if it were a large family. The result is a discourse where personal relationships constitute the framework of the whole system. In
the street, society is encompassed by the
axis of impersonal laws, hiding the domain of
personal relationships. Brazil can be read or
understood from both perspectives, and both
possibilities are institutionalized in the organization.
Consequently, the ethic that applies
depends on how the organization is perceived (as the street or as the home, i.e. isolated or relational), thus implying the concept
of a double-edged ethic. There are interpretation codes and ways of behavior that are
opposite and that are valid only for certain
people, actions and situations.

Factor P4 egalitarian v hierarchical


(Table 10) complements factor P1 (employee oriented v job oriented), also showing
the fascination that Brazilian organizations
have for hierarchy and tradition, describing
an organization that could be interpreted
using the code of the street, the code of laws
and of individualism, as indicated by the
items that state that ordinary members never
meet their top managers, that top managers
resent being contradicted and that subordinates have to work according to detailed
instructions from their superiors.
Factor P5 parochial v professional
(Table 11) shows how long-term planning,
rational thinking and the fact that quality
prevails over quantity can be embedded in a
closed system, represented by the item that
states that only very special people fit into the
organization.
Factor P6 informal v formal (Table 12)
shows formality in discourse, in dealing
with each other as well as regarding the dress
code. Such formality fits the hierarchically
process-oriented structure, as shown in the
item that states that subordinates have to
work according to detailed instructions from
their superiors.
All in all (Table 13), the analysis of the
value and practice dimensions appears to
denote that the relational universe provides
the appropriate environment that would
facilitate existence in societies with high

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

154

International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 6(2)


Table 11

P5: Parochial v professional (closed system)

Code

Loading*

PP8
PP46
PP40
PP16
PP34

0.830
0.821
0.704
0.657
0.642

Description
We think three years ahead or more
Our top managers only decide on the basis of facts
We let quality prevail over quantity
Everybody is conscious of costs of time and materials
Only very special people fit into our organization

* Items with negative loadings are reworded negatively.

Table 12

P6: Informal v formal

Code

Loading*

PP39
PP10
PP33
PP51
PP7

0.746
0.693
0.558
0.536
0.536

Description
Style of dealing with each other formal
Cooperation and trust between branches normal
We always speak seriously of the organization and of our job
We always dress formally and correctly
Subordinates have to work according to detailed instructions from
superiors

* Items with negative loadings are reworded negatively.

power distance, reducing, in practice, the distance imposed by hierarchy and by bureaucracy, offering alternative functional routes
typical of societies with a double-edged ethic.
Hero Dimensions
We obtained the following three factors that
together explained 61.82% of the variance:
H1 Relational hero (impersonal v relational)
H2 Moral hero (pragmatic v moral)
H3 Caxias6 hero (privileges v efficiency).
Tables 14 to 16 list the variables with loadings approximately higher than 0.50 or 0.60
that were considered relevant to explain each
factor, indicating in bold the items selected to
name the dimensions. The nine key items
(33) were submitted to an ecological factor
analysis (principal components analysis using
varimax rotation) and together explained
85.62% of the accumulated variance of the
mean scores between units. The scores and

rankings of the different company units are


shown in Table 17.
In relational systems, everything is translated into personal terms. Heroes are the
paradigmatic figures of the social world,
either as an example to be followed or as a
model to be avoided and banned. In Da
Mattas (1997a, b) perspective, in Brazil
people live more according to an ethic of
vertical loyalty and identity, rather than
according to the horizontal ethics that
appeared with capitalism. Thus the identification with a hierarchical superior is much
easier than with an equal or colleague, so
fostering the existence of heroes. Two factors
are always present in Latin American culture: first, the need to separate theory from
practice, and second, the realization that
there are two conceptions of what reality
entails: the relational world and the impersonal world, the moral world and the pragmatic world, the world of work and efficiency

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

Garibaldi de Hilal: Brazilian Culture and Cultural Agreement 155


Table 13

Perceived practices scores and rankings

PC

P1

P2

P3

P4

P5

P6

RP1

RP2

RP3

RP4

RP5

RP6

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

53
67
61
45
33
35
35
39
35
35
43
40
44
32
33
34
40
23
36
35
65
78
66
33
49
59
66
62
61
70
41
64
68
63
82
76

61
59
55
33
44
48
40
51
50
50
39
41
43
43
40
49
51
41
51
43
55
12
46
97
55
53
48
47
48
35
80
71
33
38
51
97

57
49
81
53
50
39
47
44
45
50
47
41
55
74
57
65
58
51
52
44
61
26
69
68
42
45
47
47
52
38
19
42
42
65
59
56

84
89
45
53
43
58
39
61
58
53
57
58
55
37
45
45
54
45
62
60
69
50
44
37
41
56
79
27
44
52
33
52
17
10
55
32

69
58
79
47
55
47
56
49
50
58
45
39
33
57
51
48
50
60
38
45
86
74
78
30
53
35
20
51
39
38
76
20
27
49
31
60

56
57
50
45
44
31
47
39
42
50
43
44
57
51
48
52
41
43
44
55
61
65
76
89
51
68
56
48
17
66
52
71
66
53
7
14

16
6
14
18
32
27
29
24
30
28
20
23
19
35
34
31
22
36
25
26
9
2
8
33
17
15
7
12
13
4
21
10
5
11
1
3

5
6
9
34
23
19
29
14
15
16
31
28
26
25
30
17
13
27
11
24
7
36
22
1
8
10
18
21
20
33
3
4
35
32
12
2

10
20
1
14
19
33
21
28
26
18
22
32
13
2
11
6
9
17
15
27
7
35
3
4
30
25
23
24
16
34
36
31
29
5
8
12

2
1
21
17
27
10
29
6
8
16
11
9
14
31
23
24
15
22
5
7
4
20
25
30
28
12
3
34
26
19
32
18
35
36
13
33

6
10
2
22
13
23
12
20
18
9
24
26
31
11
16
21
17
8
28
25
1
5
3
33
14
30
35
15
27
29
4
36
34
19
32
7

11
10
20
24
25
33
23
32
30
19
29
27
9
17
22
15
31
28
26
13
8
7
2
1
18
4
12
21
34
6
16
3
5
14
36
35

Note: R indicates the ranking of the factor.

and the world of privilege. The three hero


factors also show the ambiguity and contradictions typical of Latin American cultures,
where opposites are different sides of a
mirror that reflects society and its duality.

The analysis of the 13 dimensions


suggests that Brazilian branches, in general,
are distinct from the other subsidiaries with
scores that vary around the Brazilian positions. In general, Brazilian culture is reputed

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

156

International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 6(2)


Table 14

H1 Relational hero (impersonal v relational)

Code

Loading

MP1
MP5
MD4
MP3
MD3

0.879
0.804
0.756
0.750
0.661

Table 15

Seniority with organization important for promotion


Commitment to organization not important
Serious conflict with superiors reason for dismissal
Being politic and knowing how to negotiate not important
Married man/woman having sexual relations with subordinate reason for
dismissal

H2 Moral hero (pragmatic v moral)

Code

Loading

MD6

0.797

MD2

0.785

MD5

0.631

MP6

0.511

Table 16

Description

Description
Appropriating without permission US$ 100,000.00 worth of company property
reason for dismissal
Not having relationships that protect you in case of a lay-off is not reason for
dismissal
Appropriating without permission US$100.00 worth of company property
reason for dismissal
Having a good relationship with those higher in the hierarchy not important for
promotion

H3 Caxias hero (privileges v efficiency)

Code

Loading

MD1
MP2
MP4

0.756
0.672
0.631

Description
Poor performance is reason for dismissal
Proven performance important for promotion
Diplomas and formal qualifications not important for promotion

to be flexible and adaptable, apparently less


prone to extremes and favoring solutions that
emphasize harmony instead of open conflict
(Da Matta, 1997a). This also suggests the
importance of the relational universe and its
role as a social amalgam, neutralizing tension
and dissatisfaction.
Clusters of Cultural Agreement
The first purpose of this study was to identify
the OC dimensions. The second purpose was
to determine if values and practices are uniform in the sampled organization or if there
are different organizational culture clusters.
In order to identify clusters of cultural agree-

ment the 13 OC dimensions plus the 5


demographic variables for the 36 units were
submitted to a hierarchical cluster analysis,
using Ward Method and square Euclidean
distance. From the resulting dendrogram we
selected the following four clusters (Figure 1).

Cluster 1 Latin American cluster


(Santiago, Asuncion, Buenos Aires,
Panama, Ciudad del Este and La Paz).
Cluster 2 Brazilian cluster (the 17
Brazilian units: PC4 to PC20).
Cluster 3 Asian American cluster (New
York, Tokyo, Miami, Securities UK,
Grand Cayman and Madrid). It is worth

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

Garibaldi de Hilal: Brazilian Culture and Cultural Agreement 157


Heroes: scores and rankings

Table 17
PC

H1

H2

H3

RH1

RH2

RH3

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

60
51
43
33
36
34
35
37
36
35
34
35
36
32
32
37
31
37
32
40
83
63
66
55
61
66
76
67
75
62
57
69
61
77
61
58

51
28
30
52
71
54
58
36
24
40
37
51
57
51
46
56
51
69
59
61
54
59
33
48
75
29
54
45
15
19
63
65
40
82
59
75

83
74
95
47
49
30
54
38
16
47
48
45
50
66
44
59
41
62
57
60
68
41
33
38
57
57
34
57
47
43
48
15
51
59
55
32

14
18
19
32
26
30
28
23
25
29
31
27
24
35
33
21
36
22
34
20
1
9
8
17
11
7
3
6
4
10
16
5
13
2
12
15

21
33
31
18
4
16
12
29
34
27
28
20
13
19
24
14
22
5
9
8
15
11
30
23
3
32
17
25
36
35
7
6
26
1
10
2

2
3
1
21
18
34
15
30
35
22
19
24
17
5
25
8
28
6
10
7
4
27
32
29
12
11
31
13
23
26
20
36
16
9
14
33

mentioning that in this cluster there are


two European units, namely Securities
UK and Madrid.
Cluster 4 European cluster (Milan,
Lisbon, London, Paris, Frankfurt,
Vienna and Amsterdam).

In order to verify if the identified clusters


were, in fact, significant, we submitted the
original 131 variables (except the demographic variables as they had already been
used in the cluster analysis), to Multiple Discriminant Analysis and the results obtained
did not present any classification errors.

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

158

International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 6(2)

Figure 1

Dendrogram

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

Garibaldi de Hilal: Brazilian Culture and Cultural Agreement 159

According to some authors (e.g. Fine and


Kleinman, 1979; Van Maanen and Barley,
1985) social interaction is the essential condition for developing collective understanding.
However, it should be noted that for Hogg
and Abrams (1988) the uniformity of group
behavior is the result of the individuals selfconcept as group members and not of their
interactions. On the other hand, the variable
that, apparently, best discriminates between
groups is nationality: as clearly shown by the
dendrogram (Figure1).
Martin (1992) proposed that OCs could
be studied from three different perspectives:
1 Studies that follow the integration
perspective describe OCs as being
universally accepted by all organization
members. Integrative research typically
describes culture as the strength of
organizational solidarity.
2 Studies that follow the differentiation
perspective focus on the different cultural
streams that coexist in organizations. It
is believed that cultural agreement only
exists within the limits of small subgroups,
i.e. of organizational sub-cultures.
3 Studies that follow the fragmentation
perspective state that there would not be
clear patterns of cultural agreement in
organizations.
The differentiation perspective supports
the belief that an OC comprises a variety of
different sub-cultures. Cultural consensus
and consistency would only exist within the
limits of each sub-culture. Moreover, each
sub-culture would develop its unique meaning system and there would not be cultural
agreement between sub-cultures (Martin,
1992). The differentiation perspective thus
depicts culture as a mosaic of homogeneously colored pieces with clear boundaries
(Hannerz, 1992). Although we believe in the
existence of sub-cultures, Greenberg (1999)
argues that there are some problematic
features in their description. One of these
issues is the existence of clear boundaries

between sub-cultures. Considering the fact


that multiple factors, and not only one factor,
simultaneously affect the development of
cultural agreement, and taking into account
that some of the variables are correlated,
then cultural consensus could develop among
different groups without having clear boundaries. On the other hand, the determination
of the factors or dimensions and their components, which implies a relatively high
degree of researcher subjectivity, would also
affect the boundaries that delimit the different clusters of cultural agreement.
Another problematic feature is the
emphasis on the fact that each sub-culture
has a unique meaning system. That would
suggest that the members of each group have
developed a unique shared understanding
involving all the cultural domains that form
the system of meaning. However, it might be
possible that a sub-culture developed cultural
agreement in some domains but not in
others. That would imply that the clusters of
cultural agreement might not develop consensus in connection with the complete
system of meaning. As Sackmann (1991,
1992) demonstrated, differences between
clusters of cultural agreement can develop
around some areas of cultural knowledge but
not around others.
Although we consider that OCs can be
described in terms of clusters, we agree with
Greenberg (1999) that cluster configuration
is not a permanent characteristic, but that
different clusters of cultural agreement can
emerge due to changes in the organizational
context, or as different issues acquire relevance attracting the attention of organizational members to different affiliations. This
suggests that the three cultural perspectives
might be interrelated or interwoven instead
of parallel states. That being the case, OCs
could oscillate between the states of integration, differentiation and fragmentation
(Greenberg, 1999). Consequently, as the
organization changed and the attention of
its members was focused on different view-

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

160

International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 6(2)

points, the OC could become more integrated, differentiated or fragmented. For


example, when an organization felt threatened by competition, or in the specific case of
XYZ by privatization, it could develop consensus in order to defend itself and survive.
On the other hand, in other circumstances, such as an internal issue involving
differences in benefits between new employees and those working for the company for a
longer period of time (i.e. before the company was restructured), could foster the
formation of cultural agreement clusters
based on that premise. Once the issue was
dealt with, or when another issue took precedence, new clusters of cultural agreement
could substitute for the former ones.
Additionally, multiple factors, sometimes
not easily detectable, can influence cultural
agreement cluster formation in such ways
that the organization could instead develop a
web of cultural agreement that could lead it
to a state of cultural fragmentation, thus
implying the non-existence of clear patterns
of cultural agreement.
The possibility of the three culture perspectives being interrelated also suggests that
researchers may have to reconsider the depth
of their OC definitions. Many researchers
have defined OC as dependent on shared
assumptions about values and practices
(for example, Peters and Waterman, 1982;
Schein, 1992). According to Hofstede (2001),
deeply held assumptions in connection with
values are formed during the early stages of
life and are, therefore, very difficult to
change. Consequently, if researchers believe
that shared understanding in an organization
can oscillate between integrated, differentiated or fragmented cultures, then it may be
appropriate to consider that OC exists at the
more superficial level of practices, as has
been argued by Hofstede et al. (1990).
Moreover, in hierarchical and relational
organizations, social interaction, through
relational networks, is usually of great relevance. In that type of organization, the

leaders can use social interaction mechanisms to coercively or persuasively influence


the cultural understanding of group members. In that context, organizational leaders
could use relational networks to try to control
the development of shared understanding. If
the organization had only one powerful
leader, that individual could foster the development of cultural agreement in the entire
organization. On the other hand, if there
were multiple leaders in the organizational
context (as seems to be the case in organization XYZ, where power, is chiefly concentrated in the regional superintendencies)
interacting with different groups, then different sub-cultures could emerge, based on
the various directions signaled by those different leaders. That would confirm Pfeffers
(1981) and Smircich and Morgans (1982)
argument that organizational leaders have
many opportunities to influence shared
understanding and practices.

Conclusions
According to Motta and Caldas (1997) one of
the key factors that differentiates the culture
of one organization from the culture of
another, and probably the most important
factor, is national culture. The basic assumptions, costumes, beliefs and values, as well
as the artifacts that characterize the culture
of an organization, are always somehow
encompassed by the corresponding national
culture. It is therefore impossible to study the
culture of organizations that operate in a
society, without studying the culture of that
society. Thus the study of the organizational
culture of a Brazilian company requires
understanding Brazilian culture. For these
authors, Hofstedes (1980) most important
finding refers to the importance of national
culture in order to explain the differences in
work-related attitudes and values.
Brazilians, no matter how differentiated
they may be in their racial and cultural
matrices and in their ecological-regional

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

Garibaldi de Hilal: Brazilian Culture and Cultural Agreement 161

functions, or in respect of being old settlers


or recent immigrants, have come to know
themselves, to feel themselves, and to act as a
single people, belonging to the one same and
only culture. They are a national entity
distinct from all others, speaking the same
language, differing only in regional accents.
They take part in a body of common traditions that is more meaningful for all than are
any of the existing sub-cultural variants, as is
clearly shown in the dendrogram (Figure 1)
where Brazil forms an individual separate
cluster. Nevertheless, the cultural uniformity
and national unity must not blind us to the
disparities, to the contradictions and antagonisms that subsist beneath them as dynamic
factors of major importance (Ribeiro, 2000).
Lying hidden beneath Brazilian cultural uniformity is a profound social distance reproduced in organizations in the stratification
that separates those with power from their
subordinates, where hierarchy, authority,
privilege and tradition mingle with modern
forms of management, usually derived from
individualistic ideologies, revealing the ambiguity and duality of Brazilian culture.
For Sergio Buarque de Holanda (1995)
Brazilians inherited their characteristics from
the Iberians: Hispanic arrogance and Portuguese laxness and plasticity as well as an
adventurous spirit and appreciation of loyalty
in both. The mixture of all those ingredients
probably resulted a certain slackness and
anarchy, lack of cohesion, disorder and
indiscipline (as stated in item CT6 typical
member sloppy of Factor P1 employee
oriented v job oriented). From such perception would derive the tendency towards
hierarchy and authoritarianism. On the other
hand, for Ribeiro (2000) those defects are
also the source of the creativity of the adventurer, the adaptability of someone who is not
rigid but flexible (see item CT4 typical
member flexible of Factor P3 isolated v
relational), the vitality of someone who faces
fate and fortune with daring and the originality of an undisciplined people.

Thus Brazilian organizations usually


present a high power distance. The way
workers and executives are treated seems, on
the one hand, to be based on masculine type
controls and use of authority, and, on the
other hand, on feminine type controls and on
the use of seduction and favor typical of relational networks. Moreover, organizations are
at the same time producers and product of
their culture. The OC cannot be considered
a photograph of the organization but an
interpretation of the complex organizational
reality as perceived by its members. Consequently, the dimensions identified in this
study partly reflect the OC dimensions
identified by Hofstede et al. (1990), but they
also show unique features based on the specificities of the organization and of Brazilian
culture.
Organizations are symbolic entities: they
function according to implicit models in the
minds of their members, and these models
are culturally determined. In terms of values
it is crucial to answer the questions of who
decides what, and how can one be assured
that what should be done will be done
(Hofstede, 2001).
In terms of the usefulness of the OC
construct for management, the research
approach can be generalized to organizations elsewhere. However, the conclusions
and the 10 (6 on perceived practices and 4 on
heroes) dimensions cannot be generalized.
This is because demographic characteristics
such as age, education and gender, and personality also play roles. Theories, models and
practices are culture specific: they may apply
across borders, but this should always be
proved.
Results show the influence of national
culture on organizational culture, as the
dimensions found clearly reflect the ambiguity and double-edged ethic characteristic
of Brazilian culture in particular and of Latin
American culture in general. This study also
shows the importance of hierarchy and of
relational networks, which stresses the rele-

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

162

International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 6(2)

vance of the cultural element in organizational structure and functioning. Quoting


Hofstede (2001: 377): The structure and
functioning of organizations are not determined by a universal rationality. There is no
best way that can be deduced from technicaleconomical logic.
Also in connection with the importance
attributed to hierarchy is the issue of power
redistribution, which includes all forms of
empowerment such as consultative and
participative forms of management. In
organizations with a high need for authority,
if power redistribution is imposed, it may
become self-destructive (because, according
to Hofstede, 2001, if it succeeds, continued
imposition would no longer be possible) or,
for example, it may just be reduced to a ritualistic representation of participation because
it is perceived as the politically correct discourse by the managerial establishment.
In hierarchical and relational organizations, according to Da Matta (1997a), once
people are positioned in a network of personal relationships they are automatically
treated as friends and can be a potential
source of power resources and a means of
social and political manipulation by reciprocity and favor.
In brief, understanding the relational
double-edged ethic that governs Brazilian
culture helps us understand apparently
different, ambiguous or even contradictory
behaviors reflected in the OC practices of a
Brazilian company with international operations. Furthermore, according to Stevenson
and Bartunek (1996), most organizational
culture studies that admit the existence of
different cultural clusters either focus on
detailed ethnographic descriptions of the
various sub-cultures that coexist in an organization or examine how those sub-cultures
affect the organization. There is, therefore,
little empirical research that directly deals
with what combination of factors makes individuals agree or disagree over their cultural
viewpoints. Consequently, we consider that

this study attempts to deal with that issue as


the cultural clusters were obtained with a
multivariate approach, using the 5 demographic variables and the 13 identified
organizational dimensions.
The results of this study suggest the
internal organizational environment can also
affect the extent to which the cultural agreement of organizational members is influenced by nationality. The situational context
has the potential to strengthen or weaken the
identification of individuals with their group
and the internalization of their identity
group values (Hernes, 1997; Larkey, 1996).
The organizational context may therefore
increase or reduce the probability of nationality affecting the cultural agreement of
group members. In this sense, it should be
noticed that several of the non-Brazilian
branches have high percentages of employees of Brazilian or Latin origin.
Furthermore, monolithic organizations
have high levels of occupational segregation
where the senior managerial level would
basically be composed of members of the
same nationality as the head office (i.e.
expatriates), while all other levels would
generally be occupied by local individuals,
from the host country or of the same nationality as the head office but locally hired and
thus subject to local employment regulations,
as seems to be the case in the non-Brazilian
XYZ branches.
Additionally, Edstrm and Galbraith
(1977) dealt with the issue of how international firms could extensively use personnel transfers to implement socialization programs that would result in an international
network of verbal information that would
allow a higher decentralization and foster a
more open and positive attitude towards
other nationalities and cultures, building on
commitment to the organization as a whole,
and thus favoring cultural agreement.
However, that practice does not as a rule
exist in XYZ, where the transfer of locally
hired personnel from the non-Brazilian

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

Garibaldi de Hilal: Brazilian Culture and Cultural Agreement 163

branches to the branches in Brazilian territory is practically non-existent. In such


context, where the organization has a monolithic profile and where transfers for socialization are non-existent, organizational
members tend to identify strongly with their
local groups, and their interpretation of the
organizational reality tends to be in agreement with the values and beliefs of their
local group, thus stimulating differentiated
practices from those of the home office.
Summing up, the analysis of organizational culture is a key factor in order to
manage change in an organization, and, as
such, its understanding requires the identification of values and practices as well as the
existence of clusters of cultural agreement
and the possibility of coexistence of different
systems of meanings. Specifically in the case
of organizations with branches in different
countries with different national cultures, it
must be noted that organizational values
have to be legitimized by the cultural values
of the host society and cannot be studied as if
they were the exclusive production of organizations, as if organizations operated in a
vacuum. Thus, according to Hofstede (1997),
the core of OC is in the practices shared by
its members. Consequently, national cultures
would differ mainly on their basic values,
while OCs would differ more superficially in
terms of their practices, which would be
the visible parts of culture and could be
manageable within certain limits.
Finally, if managers understand the
factors that lead to cluster formation in their
organization, they may be able to use the
information to prepare themselves to manage across different groups in order to
achieve goals that involve the entire organizations participation, as well as dealing with
conflict between groups by creating bridges
between the different commonalities, thus
providing the organization with an important leverage point for organizational culture
management.

Notes
1

The term personalism is usually used for the


particular kind of holism evident in Latin
American societies (also known as relational
societies, or collectivistic societies). Romani and
Zander (1998) defined individualism as the
prioritization of the individual in relation to
the group and collectivism as the prioritization
of the group. However, they distinguish
between elective and forced groups. Elective
groups, such as clubs, would be those where
the priorities of the individuals prevail as they
can choose whether to belong to the group or
not. On the other hand, in forced groups
such as the family, the relationship between
individuals would prevail. According to
Dumont (1966, 1980) holism would be the
priority given to the social links among
individuals or to relationships, while
individualism would be the priority given to
individuals. In this sense, the opposite of
individualism would be holism and not
collectivism. Thus individualism and collectivism
would be separate dimensions that could
coexist in the same individuals or groups of
individuals. In connection with this issue,
Triandis (1995) argued that social groups
could have, for example, very individualistic
behaviors at work and very collectivistic
behaviors in the family. Consequently, it
would be important to see how social groups
perceive their work environment: if as
elective or as forced groups. If the
organization were perceived as an elective
group, the fact that the group privileges the
interests of the group would not necessarily
define a collectivistic attitude. In brief, the
opposite of individualism would be to prioritize
relationships (holism) and not to prioritize the
group (collectivism), as groups can be elective
or forced.
The following 17 Brazilian cities were
selected to make part of the sample: South
Region: Porto Alegre, Curitiba and
Florianpolis. SE Region: So Paulo, Rio de
Janeiro, Belo Horizonte and Vitria. NE
Region: Salvador, Recife, Fortaleza, So Luis
and Natal. North Region: Belm and
Manaus. Center-West Region: Campo
Grande, Cuiab and Goinia.
Values: 22 items coded OT on work
organization, 7 items coded FV with various
formats and 28 items coded CG on general
beliefs.
Perceived practices: 54 items coded PP on

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

164

International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 6(2)

perceived practices and 7 items coded CT on


the behavior of a typical organization
member.
Heroes: 7 items coded MP on reasons for
promotion and 6 items coded MD on reasons
for dismissal.
(a) Variables with 5-point importance scales
(i.e. the 22 questions on work goals and the 7
questions on reasons for promotion) were
standardized to eliminate acquiescence. For
example, standardizing across the 22 goals
replaces the scores with the distance from
their common overall mean divided by their
common standard deviation. The overall
mean of the standardized scores for the 22
goals for each group is always zero. As we
were interested in eliminating acquiescence
as a group phenomenon, we singlestandardized group means across goals (first
calculating group means and then
standardizing). In order to avoid negative
scores and decimal points we gave the
standardized scores a mean of 500 and a
standard deviation of 100; also their sign was
reversed so that a very important goal would
score around 700 and the least important
goals would score below 300.
(b) For the other questions the answers
showed a clear midpoint (such as undecided
between agree and disagree) so unit means
were not standardized. In this case, means
were also inverted so that the highest values
indicated agreement and the lowest ones
disagreement, using the following formula:
100 (variable * 10) and thus transforming
original values into two-digit values.
(c) In ecological analysis nominal or
categorical variables had their frequency
distributions dichotomized at the most
meaningful point and the answers
summarized in percentages:
FV1 preferred manager: we used the
percentage of consultative manager +
participative manager, representing about
86% of the preferences.
FV2 perceived manager: we used the
percentage of authoritative manager +
paternalistic manager, representing about
52% of the perceptions.
FV5 time that they intend to work for the
organization: we used the percentage of
employees that intend to leave the company
before retirement (representing
approximately 57% of the intentions).
Sex: we used the percentage of men,
representing 61% of the sample.

Nationality or percentage of local employees:


For the Brazilian units we computed the
percentage of employees from the region the
unit belonged to. For all other units we
computed the percentage of employees from
the country the unit belonged to.
Hofstede (2001) argues that that instruments
designed to study culture have their reliability
supported by literature. In fact, the
calculation of Cronbachs alpha or of
measures of sampling adequacy such as
Bartletts sphericity test would be equivalent
to committing the reverse of the ecological
fallacy, in the sense that the individual and
the social levels of analysis should not be
confounded (Hofstede, 2001).
Da Matta (1997b) presents a trilogy of
heroes that coexist in Brazilian society: the
caxias, the renouncer, and the rogue.
The caxias is named after the Brazilian
Duke of Caxias, symbolizing order, rules and
hierarchy. The renouncer rejects the social
world as it is; he or she is emblematic of a
different reality. The rogue rejects formal
rules, is of course excluded from the labor
market, and is in fact totally averse to
work.

References
Adler, Nancy (1982) Understanding the Ways of
Understanding: Cross-cultural Management
Methodology Reviewed. Montreal, Canada:
McGill University Press.
Buarque de Holanda, Sergio (1995) Razes do
Brasil. So Paulo: Companhia das Letras.
Burkhardt, M. (1994) Social Interaction Effects
Following a Technological Change: A
Longitudinal Investigation, Academy of
Management Journal 37(4): 86998.
Burns, T. and Stalker, G. (1961) The Management
of Innovation. London: Tavistock.
Clark, A. (1972) Mutual Relevance of
Mainstream and Cross-cultural Psychology,
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 55:
46170.
Cooke, R. and Rousseau, D. (1988) Behavioral
Norms and Expectations. A Quantitative
Approach to the Assessment of
Organizational Culture, Group and
Organizational Studies 13: 24573.
Da Matta, Roberto (1997a) A Casa & a Rua:
Espao, Cidadania, Mulher e Morte no Brasil. Rio
de Janeiro: Editora Guanabara.
Da Matta, Roberto (1997b) Carnavais, Malandros e

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

Garibaldi de Hilal: Brazilian Culture and Cultural Agreement 165


Heris: Para uma Sociologia do Dilema Brasileiro.
Rio de Janeiro: Rocco.
Deal, T. and Kennedy, A. (1982) Corporate Culture.
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Denison, D. (1984) Corporate Culture and
Organizational Effectiveness. New York: Wiley.
Dumont, Louis (1966, 1980) Homo Hierarchicus:
The Caste System and its Implications. Chicago:
The University of Chicago Press.
Edstrm, Anders and Galbraith, Jay (1977)
Transfer of Managers as a Coordination and
Control Strategy in Multinational
Organizations, Administrative Science Quarterly
22(June): 24863.
Fine, Gary and Kleinman, Sherryl (1979)
Rethinking Subculture: An Interactionist
Analysis, American Journal of Sociology 85(1):
120.
Geertz, Clifford (1993) The Interpretation of Cultures.
New York: Basic Books.
Greenberg, Danna (1999) Disentangling
Cultures: Similarity, Interaction and Cultural
Agreement in the Multinational
Organization, Doctoral dissertation, Boston
College, Carroll School of Management.
Gregory, Kathleen (1983) Native-view
Paradigms: Multiple Cultures and Culture
Conflicts in Organizations, Administrative
Science Quarterly (28): 35976.
Hannerz, Ulf (1992) CenterPeriphery Relations
and Creolization in Contemporary Culture,
in B. Sjgren and J. Janson (eds) Culture and
Management: In the Field of Ethnology and Business
Administration. Stockholm: The Swedish
Immigration Institute and Museum and the
Institute of International Business, Stockholm
School of Economics.
Hernes, Helga (1997) Cross-cutting
Identifications in Organizations, in S.
Sackmann (ed.) Cultural Complexity in
Organizations: Inherent Contrasts and Contradictions.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Hess, David (1995) Introduction, in D. Hess
and R. Da Matta (eds) The Brazilian Puzzle.
New York: Columbia University Press.
Hofstede, Geert (1997) Cultures and Organizations.
Software of the Mind. London: McGraw-Hill.
Hofstede, Geert (1980, 2001) Cultures
Consequences, 1st and 2nd edns. London: Sage
Publications.
Hofstede, Geert, Neuijen, Bram, Ohayv, Denise
Daval and Sanders, Geert (1990) Measuring
Organizational Cultures: A Qualitative and
Quantitative Study across 20 Cases,
Administrative Science Quarterly 35: 286316.
Hogg, Michael and Abrams, Dominic (1988)

Social Identifications: A Social Psychology of


Intergroup Relations and Group Processes. London:
Routledge.
Jermier, J.M., Slocum, J., Fry, L. and Gaines, J.
(1991) Organizational Subcultures in a Soft
Bureaucracy: Resistance Behind the Myth
and Facade of the Official Culture,
Organization Science (2): 17094.
Kant De Lima, Roberto (1995) Bureaucratic
Rationality in Brazil and in the United States:
Criminal Justice Systems in Comparative
Perspective, in D. Hess and R. Da Matta
(eds) The Brazilian Puzzle. New York:
Columbia University Press.
Kilduff, Martin (1993) The Reproduction of
Inertia in Multinational Corporations, in S.
Ghoshal and D.E. Westney (eds) Organization
Theory and the Multinational Corporation,
pp. 25974. New York: St Martins Press.
Larkey, Linda (1996) Toward a Theory of
Communicative Interactions in Culturally
Diverse Workgroups, Academy of Management
Journal 21(2): 46391.
Laurent, Andre (1983) The Cultural Diversity of
Western Conceptions of Management,
International Studies of Management and
Organization 13(12): 7596.
Martin, Joanne (1992) Cultures in Organizations:
Three Perspectives. New York: Oxford
University Press.
Maznevski, Martha (1994) Synergy and
Performance in Multi-cultural Teams, PhD
thesis, University of Western Ontario.
Morgan, G. (1997) Images of Organization.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Motta, Fernando Prestes and Caldas, Miguel
(1997) Cultura organizacional e cultura brasileira.
So Paulo: Editora Atlas.
Neves Barbosa, Livia (1995) The Brazilian
jeitinho: An Exercise in National Identity, in
D. Hess and R. Da Matta (eds) The Brazilian
Puzzle. New York: Columbia University
Press
Ott, J. (1989) The Organizational Culture Perspective.
Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Ouchi, W. (1981) Theory Z: How American
Businesses Can Meet the Japanese Challenges.
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Pascale, R. (1981) Managing on the Edge. New
York: Simon and Schuster.
Peters, T. and Waterman, R. (1982) In Search of
Excellence. New York: Warner Books.
Pettigrew, Andrew (1973) On Studying
Organizational Cultures, Administrative Science
Quarterly 24: 57081.
Pettigrew, Andrew (1985) The Awakening Giant:

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

166

International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 6(2)


Continuity and Change in Imperial Chemical
Industries. Oxford: Blackwell.
Pfeffer, J. (1981) Management as Symbolic
Action: The Creation and Maintenance of
Organizational Paradigms, in B. Staw and L.
Cummings (eds) Research in Organizational
Behavior. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Prado, Rosane (1995) Small Town Brazil:
Heaven and Hell of Personalism, in D. Hess
and R. Da Matta (eds) The Brazilian Puzzle.
New York: Columbia University Press.
Ribeiro, Darcy (2000) The Brazilian People. The
Formation and Meaning of Brazil. Gainesville, FL:
University of Florida Press.
Robinson, W. (1950) Ecological Correlations
and the Behavior of Individuals, American
Sociological Review 15: 3517.
Rocha, E. (1991) O que Etnocentrismo, 8th edn.
So Paulo: Ed. Brasiliense.
Romani, L. and Zander, Lena (1998) Individualism
and Collectivism. A Critical Review and Attempts to
Refine the Concepts with a Holistic Approach.
Stockholm: IIB, Stockholm School of
Economics.
Sackmann, Sonja (1991) Cultural Knowledge in
Organizations: Exploring the Collective Mind.
Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Sackmann, Sonja (1992) Cultures and
Subcultures: An Analysis of Organizational
Knowledge, Administrative Science Quarterly 37:
14061.
Sathe, V. (1985) Culture and Related Corporate
Realities. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin.
Schein, Edgar (1985, 1992) Organizational Culture
and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Shweder, R. (1973) The Between and Within of
Cross-cultural Research, Ethos 1: 53145.

Smircich, Linda and Morgan, Gareth (1982)


Leadership: The Management of Meaning,
Journal of Applied Behavioral Science (3): 25773.
Stevenson, William and Bartunek, Jean (1996)
Power, Interaction, Position and the
Generation of Cultural Agreement in
Organizations, Human Relations 49(1): 75104.
Triandis, Harry (1995) Individualism and
Collectivism. San Francisco: Westview Press.
Trice, H. and Beyer, J. (1993) The Cultures of Work
Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice
Hall.
Trompenaars, Fons (1993, 1998) Riding the Waves
of Culture: Understanding Cultural Diversity in
Business. Avon: The Bath Press.
Ulhoa Carvalho, Martha de (1995) Tupi or Not
Tupi MPB: Popular Music and Identity in
Brazil, in D. Hess and R. Da Matta (eds) The
Brazilian Puzzle. New York: Columbia
University Press.
Van Maanen, John and Barley, Stephen (1985)
Cultural Organization: Fragments of a
Theory, in P.J. Frost, L.F. Moore, M.R.
Louis, C.C. Lundberg and J. Martin (eds)
Organizational Culture, pp. 3153. Newbury
Park, CA: Sage Publications.

ADRIANA V. GARIBALDI DE HILAL is


Associate Professor of Organizations and
International Business in the Federal University
of Rio de Janeiro COPPEAD (Graduate
School of Business), Rua Saubara 110,
Condominio Greenwood Park, Itanhanga Barra
da Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
[email: hilal@coppead.ufrj.br]

Rsum
MCulture nationale Brsilienne, culture organisationnelle et pacte culturel :
Rsultats dune tude dune entreprise multinationale (Adriana V. Garibaldi
de Hilal)
La prsente tude examine la culture organisationnelle dune entreprise brsilienne, en fixant
son attention sur ses implantations principales brsiliennes aussi bien que sur ses succursales
europennes, latino-amricaines, centramricaines, nord-amricaines et asiatiques, constituant un chantillon total de 36 villes et de 1742 personnes ayant rpond. Les rsultats montrent linfluence de la culture nationale sur la culture organisationnelle, car les dimensions
mises en vidence refltent clairement lambigut et lthique double tranchant caractristique de la culture brsilienne. Cette tude montre galement limportance de la hirarchie,
et des rseaux de relations, qui souligne la pertinence de llment culturel dans la structure

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

Garibaldi de Hilal: Brazilian Culture and Cultural Agreement 167

et le fonctionnement dune organisation. En bref, comprendre lthique double tranchant


qui rgit la culture brsilienne nous aide comprendre des comportements apparemment
diffrents, ambigus ou mme contradictoires rflts dans les pratiques en matire de culture
organisationnelle dune entreprise brsilienne oprant linternational. Dailleurs, il y a peu
de recherche empirique qui traite directement de la combinaison des facteurs faisant que des
individus saccordent ou non au-del de leurs points de vue culturels. En consquence, nous
considrons que cette tude sattaque ce problme car les groupes culturels y sont obtenus
partir dune approche multivariable, en utilisant des variables dmographiques et les dimensions organisationnelles identifies. Ainsi, ses rsultats suggrent que le contexte organisationnel puisse augmenter ou rduire la probabilit que la nationalit influe sur lharmonie
culturelle entre les membres dun groupe.

aaa  #Lv
Adriana V.
V.Garibaldi
Garibaldi de
deHilal
Hilal
Adriana
Lva #Lv
b%ULv/m>OUULv`361742
y#po a7n
aa N z
aN an7
_#0,!^LvaoT8
x N#&<xxa
#a`)t
sXQs 0
z u/]Sa
u

a g)>7s

Downloaded from http://ccm.sagepub.com at University of Oxford on July 21, 2007


2006 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.