You are on page 1of 10

History[edit]

Tea with milk that has not yet been stirred

Before it became Britain's number one drink, green tea exported from China was introduced in
the coffeehouses of London shortly before the Stuart Restoration (1660); about that time
Thomas Garraway, a coffeehouse owner in London, had to explain the new beverage in
pamphlet and an advertisement in Mercurius Politicus for 30 September 1658 offered "That
Excellent, and by all Physicians approved,China drink, called by the Chinese, Tcha, by other
nations Tay alias Tee, ...sold at the Sultaness-head, ye Cophee-house in Sweetings-Rents, by
the Royal Exchange, London". [2] In London "Coffee, chocolate and a kind of drink called tee"
were "sold in almost every street in 1659", according to Thomas Rugge's Diurnall.[3] Tea was
mainly consumed by upper and mercantile classes: Samuel Pepys, curious for every novelty,
tasted the new drink in 1660 and recorded the experience in his diary: [25 September] "I did
send for a cup of tee, (a China drink) of which I had never had drunk before". Two pounds, two
ounces were formally presented to Charles II by the British East India Company that same
year.[4] The tea had been imported to Portugal from its possessions in Asia as well as through
the trade merchants maintained with China and Japan. In 1662 Charles II's Portuguese
queen, Catherine of Braganza, introduced the act of drinking tea, which quickly spread
throughout court and country and to the English bourgeoisie. The British East India company,
which had been supplied with tea at the Dutch factory of Batavia imported it directly from China
from 1669.[5] In 1672, a servant of Baron Herbert in London sent his instructions for tea making,
and warming the delicate cups, to Shropshire;
"The directions for the tea are: a quart of spring water just boiled, to which put a spoonful of
tea, and sweeten to the palate with candy sugar. As soon as the tea and sugar are in, the
steam must be kept in as much as may be, and let it lie half or quarter of an hour in the heat of
the fire but not boil. The little cups must be held over the steam before the liquid be put in." [6]
Between 1720 and 1750 the imports of tea to Britain through the British East India Company
more than quadrupled.[7] Fernand Braudel queried, "is it true to say the new drink
replaced gin in England?"[8] By 1766, exports from Canton stood at 6 million pounds on British

boats, compared with 4.5 on Dutch ships, 2.4 on Swedish, 2.1 on French. [9]Veritable "tea fleets"
grew up. Tea was particularly interesting to the Atlantic world not only because it was easy to
cultivate but also because of how easy it was to prepare and its ability to revive the spirits and
cure mild colds:[10] "Home, and there find my wife making of tea", Pepys recorded under 28
June 1667, "a drink which Mr. Pelling the Pottecary tells her is good for her colds and
defluxions".

How to drink sake in Japan


Serving sake may look simple, but, as with many things in Japan, a subtle etiquette stands behind it Photo: Fotolia
Picture: Fotolia

Like sushi, sake is an integral part of Japanese cuisine


that foreign visitors often only have a superficial
understanding of. Here, Tokyo-based world champion
sake sommelier Kaoru Izuha presents her definitive guide
to Japan's national drink.

BY JO HN O ' CE AL LAI GH

JAN UA RY 24, 201 3 07 :00

World champion sake sommelier Kaoru Izuha


Enlarge

Kaoru Izuha is assistant manager of Mandarin Oriental, Tokyo's sushi restaurant


Sushi SORA and the most recent winner of the Kikisake-shi (sake sommelier)
category of the Kikisake-shi World Championship. The competition honours the
world's best sake sommeliers and Kaoru was awarded the accoldate from a pool of
25,000 certified sake sommelier competitors. Here she provides her beginner's guide
to sake, explaining the origins of the drink, how to order and serve it, and the best
dishes to enjoy it with.
What is sake?

Sake is a Japanese alcoholic drink made of fermented rice, koji (often translated as rice
malt or yeast made from rice) and water. In Japanese, the word sake also means
alcoholic beverages in general.
When did sake originate?
Theres some dispute about the drinks origins, but a book written around 713AD
mentions an alcoholic beverage made from rice. Another book written at around the
same time also includes a description of a fermented rice alcoholic drink. Both would
be considered rudimentary forms of modern-day Japanese sake.
How is sake made?
It can be a protracted process but, explained simply, sake is made when rice is ground,
washed and steamed. Then some of the steamed rice will be used to make koji, the
yeast derived from rice. After that the koji and the remaining steamed rice and water
are mixed and then allowed to ferment. More rice, koji and water is added to the
mixture thereafter, at which point the drink is filtered and bottled.
Who makes sake?
Sake makers or brewers are known as tji. Theyre similar to a chef de cave. Workers in
sake breweries are called kurabito.
Whats the best temperature to serve sake at?
That depends on what type of sake you are drinking the same drink can taste
noticeably different dependent on whether its served hot or cold. Sake can be
categorized in four different groups and each group has its own best temperature.
Kunshu sake is rich, with a fruity aroma and flavour and is often popular with foreign
visitors. It s typically served at between 8 and 15 degrees Celsius. Soshu sake is simple,
light and fresh; its the most common type of sake in Japan and is served at between 5
and 10 degrees. Junshu sake is a traditional type of sake thats rich and dense; its
served at between 15 and 18 degrees or 40 and 55 degrees. Jukushu sake is the most
expensive type and is served infrequently; its full-bodied and very rich with a spicy
aroma, and is served at between 15 and 25 degrees.
What are the popular and premium brands of sake?

There are about 1,600 producers of sake in Japan, and 99 per cent of them are
medium- or small-scale producers so there are always new variants to discover. That
said, some popular brands are Hakkaisan, Kubota, Dassai and Dewazakura. Two
premium brands of sake that you can also find abroad are Kakunko Junmai Daiginjo
and Dassai Junmai Daiginjyo 23Ni-wari San-bu both are highly recommended.
Dassai also goes very well with western dishes using white fish, especially if teamed
with herbs and lemon, so it can serve as a good introduction to the drink if you cant
make it to Japan just yet. Im also a fan of Kokuryu Ishidaya, which is a premium
vintage sake only made available in November each year.
How should you decide which sake to drink?
Really its best to firstly ask staff at the bar or restaurant or shop for their advice, as
there are so many different types of sake to choose from.
Where do people drink sake?
Japanese people drink sake both at home and when out at restaurants and bars. Sake is
particularly associated with a casual style of bar we have here in Japan called izakaya.
How do you order sake in a bar?
Each sake has a suggested temperature at which to drink it, so its worth asking the
sommelier or staff how best to enjoy a specific sake. However, some sakes can be
enjoyed at different temperatures, and can be ordered hot or cold dependent on your
preference. With regards to measurements, sake is usually served in a decanter called
Tokkuri in measurements of 180ml or 360ml, or in a 720ml bottle at a restaurant or
bar. You drink the sake from a small cup called sakazuki.
Is sake always served neat or can it be used in cocktails or in food
preparation?
Sake is an essential part of Japanese cuisine and its increasingly used as a cocktail
ingredient these days. One of the signature cocktails at our Mandarin Bar, the 88 is a
sake-based cocktail for example.
Should sake be drunk with food or by itself?

Either way is fine, but if youre not going to eat a meal while youre drinking sake try to
have it with some type of salty snack instead.
What type of cuisine goes best with sake?
Japanese cuisine in general is a good match. At Sushi SORA we serve around 25 brands
of sake which have been carefully selected to go particularly well with sushi. Thats not
to say sake doesnt go well with other cuisines. Some sakes react well to herbs and go
with French cuisine, and sake can taste good when paired with Chinese food too.
Is there any etiquette or customs or traditions you should keep in mind
when drinking sake?
If youre drinking with someone else, its good manners to pour servings for your
partner usually the younger person pours for the older person first. When someones
pouring sake for you its polite to hold your sake cup up with one hand and to put the
other hand under the cup. Have a sip before putting the cup back on the table.
Does sake have any significant ceremonial uses?
In Japanese Shinto-style wedding ceremonies the bride and groom take turns sipping
sake from three different bowls, each one larger than the one before. Sharing from the
bowls is meant to represent sharing joys and sorrows.

El Hongi o Saludo de esquimal, es el saludo tradicional de


las tribus de Nueva Zelanda. Segn sus creencias, una vez que
se recibe este saludo, se convierte en miembro de dicha tribu
debido al intercambio de aliento vital de quienes se saludan.

Hongi
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A U.S. airman and a Mori warrior exchange a hongi during a pwhiriceremony

A hongi is a traditional Mori greeting in New Zealand. It is done by pressing one's nose and
forehead (at the same time) to another person at an encounter.
It is used at traditional meetings among Mori people and on major ceremonies and serves a
similar purpose to a formal handshake in modern western culture, and indeed a hongi is often
used in conjunction with one.
In the hongi, the ha (or breath of life), is exchanged and intermingled. The breath of life can
also be interpreted as the sharing of both party's souls.
Through the exchange of this physical greeting, one is no longer considered manuhiri (visitor)
but rather tangata whenua, one of the people of the land. For the remainder of one's stay one
is obliged to share in all the duties and responsibilities of the home people. In earlier times, this
may have meant bearing arms in times of war, or tending crops, such as kumara.
When Mori greet one another by pressing noses, the tradition of sharing the breath of life is
considered to have come directly from the gods.
In Mori folklore, woman was created by the gods moulding her shape out of the earth. The
god Tne (meaning male) embraced the figure and breathed into her nostrils. She then
sneezed and came to life. Her name was Hineahuone (earth formed woman).

Tokyo (CNN)It's a bird -- It's a plane -- It's an insanely fast Japanese bullet train.
A Japan Railway maglev train hit 603 kilometers per hour (374 miles per hour) on
an experimental track in Yamanashi Tuesday, setting a decisive new world record.
A spokesperson said the train spent 10.8 seconds traveling above 600 kilometers
per hour, during which it covered 1.8 kilometers (1.1 miles).
That's nearly 20 football fields in the time it took you to read the last two sentences.
Takeo Ookanda, who runs an exhibition center next to the test track, said witnesses
erupted with excitement and applause when the new record was set.
"I was moved just like many other visitors here today," he told CNN. "This maglev
project... (increases) the hope that Japan can have a good growth again in the
future."
Fastest in the world
The train broke its own record from last Thursday, when it ran at 590 kilometers per
hour (366 miles per hour) on a test track.

Japan's trains as safe as they are fast 02:19


PLAY VIDEO

That beat the old record of 581 kilometers per hour (361 miles per hour), which
was set in 2003 during another Japanese maglev test.

Right now, China operates the world's fastest commercial maglev, which has hit
431 kilometers per hour (268 miles per hour) on a route through Shanghai.
By contrast, the fastest train in the United States, Amtrak's Acela Express, is only
capable of 241 kilometers per hour (150 miles per hour), though it usually plods
along at half that speed.
Look ma, no tracks!
Unlike traditional trains, maglev trains work by using magnets to push the train
away from the tracks and drive the train forward.

A Japanese maglev train during a test run.

Japan's maglevs don't use metal tracks instead, they float nearly 10 cm (4
inches) above special guideways, allowing for frictionless movement.
Japan Railways has been testing their train to figure out the best operational speed
for a planned route between Tokyo and Nagoya, scheduled to begin service in
2027.
That trip can take nearly 5 hours by car. But in the future, a maglev train could
finish the journey in 40 minutes.

Ford Motor said on Friday it would spend $2.5 billion to build a new generation of fuelefficient engines and transmissions in Mexico, creating 3,800 jobs. Ford said it would
expand its engine plant in the northern state of Chihuahua to build a new gasoline engine
that would be exported to the United States, Canada, South America and the Asia-Pacific
region. Production of Fords I-4 and diesel engines at the Chihuahua plant will also be
expanded, making it the biggest engine plant in Mexico. The company said it would also
build a transmission plant in the central state of Guanajuato, in partnership with the
German transmission maker Getrag.