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New app to learn Mixtec language

The application, based on a book by Donato Garca, was developed as


part of the Laboratory of Digital Citizenship, a program of the Spanish
Cultural Center in Mexico and Telefnica Foundation.
Internet users will be able to learn Mixtec language thanks to a new application based on the
book "Vamos a aprender mixteco" by Donato Garca.
The application, that includes 20 chapters of the book, was developed by Carlos Mondragn,
director of Manuvo, along with Rodrigo Garca and Natalia Alonzo as part of the Laboratory of
Digital Citizenship, a program of the Spanish Cultural Center in Mexico and Telefnica
Foundation.
The app is available for iPhone, iPad and Android systems.

The neandertals

About 150,000 years ago -- give or take 20,000 -- a guy fell into a well. Last month
he made science history.
The Altamura Man became the oldest Neanderthal to have his DNA extracted by
researchers. It took them more than 20 years to get around to doing it.
Scientists in southern Italy have known about him since 1993, when spelunkers
spied his skull staring blankly back at them from its nook in the Lamalunga cave,
deep under the town of Altamura.
The cave explorers told researchers at the University of Bari what they'd
found, according to their report published in March in the Journal of Human
Evolution and Phys.org.

The controversial Atlantic-Pacific train that China wants to build in South America
Gerardo Lissardy
BBC World, Brazil
May 18, 2015
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Chinese Premier Li Keqiang, gestures before an official meeting in Peru.
The Chinese Prime Minister Li Keqiang, started Monday in Brazil toured South America
with the bioceanic train as one of its priorities.
A train start Brazil's Atlantic coast, cross the jungle and the Andes, and reaches the
Peruvian Pacific: this is an ambitious plan that China promotes rail in the region.
The idea may charge a major boost with the tour that Chinese Premier Li Keqiang starts
Monday by Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Chile, seeking agreements on the train.
Beijing aims to increase its economic presence in South America and ease of access to
raw materials through the transoceanic route, which also generated interest from Brazil
and Peru.
Experts believe that the construction of the railway by China would mark a new stage in its
relationship with the region, but first must overcome engineering challenges,
environmental and political.
"It would be a trophy and a key part of the whole relationship, if it goes well," said Kevin
Gallagher, a professor at Boston University and author of studies on the China-Latin
America relationship.
"The whole project is a great promise, but must be done well or can become a nightmare,"
he said in an interview with BBC.
Star Plan
Keqiang begins his visit to Brasilia, at a time of slowdown in the Chinese and American
economies.
The region will grow this year less than 1% according to the IMF, complicated by a
possible recession in Brazil and the lack of infrastructure is one of its structural problems.
The China, Xi Jinping and Brazil, Dilma Rousseff, presidents shake hands during a
meeting in Brasilia in July 2014.
The China and Brazil, Xi Jinping and presidents Dilma Rousseff: their countries have
developed trade ties, but infrastructure as the train would mark a new stage according to
experts.
China, meanwhile, need natural resources to sustain its economic expansion and has a
primary interest in building railway projects in other regions.

In this context, the interoceanic railway project with an estimated cost of up to US $ 10,000
million, could cover the needs of the various countries involved.
It is the star among the investment plan of approximately US $ 50,000 million Keqiang is
expected to announce in Brazil, where he will meet with President Dilma Rousseff.
Map Bioceanic train
"Next step"
With his popularity on the floor and corruption scandals that hit his party, Rousseff
prepares a grant program of infrastructure to be launched in June.
There is envisaged that some of the stretches of the railway Megava to the border with
Peru are included, the Brazilian newspaper Folha de S. Paulo reported.
Sections and technical studies of the project on Brazilian soil began to link the port of Au
in Rio de Janeiro to Porto Velho, in the Amazon basin.
Amazon rainforest.
Some experts believe that if the railway route passes through the Amazon would have an
environmental impact, but less than a road.
The connection from there to the Pacific would give Brazilian producers an alternative to
the Atlantic and the Panama Canal to send raw materials to China.
"There is an economic logic behind the project," said Joao Augusto Castro Neves, Latin
America analyst at consultancy Eurasia Group.
In recent years the relationship between China and Brazil is very focused on the business
side, the increase in exports of products such as soybeans and iron to China.
But as Castro Neves, works as the Interoceanic train can add value to that link. "It's the
next step in the relationship," he said in an interview with the BBC.
Roces
The bi-oceanic rail project last year caused the differences between Peru and Bolivia,
whose president Evo Morales protested to learn that happen outside their country.
"I do not know if Peru makes us a dirty trick," said Morales in October and said the project
would be "shorter, cheaper" if through Bolivia
Peruvian President Ollanta Humala, during a climate summit.
Peruvian President Ollanta Humala, argues that the bi-oceanic train arrives north of his
country, "for reasons of national interest."
However, Peruvian President Ollanta Humala ruled out this possibility in November,
commenting on an agreement with China to begin studies of the project.
The train will pass "to the north of Peru, for reasons of national interest," Humala said.
Juan Carlos Zevallos, an economist who chaired the regulator Peruvian entity transport
OSITRAN said that in the north there are "certain consolidated development" of

infrastructure to exploit the railway, including the port of Paita, where he said that will lead
the way.
In his view, the project would ease to inject Peruvian products in Brazil, the largest regional
market. "That's the interest," he told the BBC.
"Test"
Experts anticipate possible problems with indigenous groups and environmental
advocates, given the possibility that the train passes them sensitive areas.
"By making a channel open the Amazon to the Pacific to the Chinese market (...). It would
be an illusion to believe that's not going to have an impact," said Paulo Adario,
Greenpeace strategist NGOs to protect the forest, told the BBC.
But he noted that "the railway has less impact than road transport industry" and called for
the corresponding analysis of their environmental effects are made.
A worker walks among the works of the Port of Au, in the Brazilian state of Rio de
Janeiro.
Au port develops Brazil in Rio de Janeiro could be one of the terminals of the bi-oceanic
train.
There are engineering challenges and costs to build a train that crosses the Andes and
descend quickly to the Pacific.
Castro Neves warned that without properly anticipate these challenges, the plan may be
paralyzed as has happened with other great ideas for infrastructure development in the
region.
"The issue is not just putting money," he said.
Gallagher said that the project will represent "a real test for the relationship" between
Beijing and the region.
"If China can build a high-speed train works and facilitates trade in Latin America, inclusive
and without harming the environment, will be the new kid on the block, hard to beat," he
said.

El polmico tren Atlntico-Pacfico que China quiere construir en Sudamrica


Gerardo LissardyBBC Mundo, Brasil

18 mayo 2015
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El primer ministro chino, Li Keqiang, inicia este lunes en Brasil una gira por
Sudamrica con el tren biocenico como una de sus prioridades.
Un tren que arranque en la costa atlntica brasilea, atraviese la selva y
los Andes, y llegue al Pacfico peruano: as es el ambicioso plan
ferroviario que China promueve en la regin.
La idea puede cobrar un impulso fundamental con la gira que el primer ministro
chino Li Keqiang inicia este lunes por Brasil, Colombia Per y Chile, buscando
acuerdos sobre el tren.
Pekn pretende aumentar su presencia econmica en Sudamrica y facilitar su
acceso a materias primas mediante esa va transocenica, que tambin genera
inters de Brasil y Per.
Los expertos creen que la construccin del tren por parte de China marcara una
nueva etapa en su relacin con la regin, pero antes debe sortear retos de
ingeniera, medioambiente y poltica.
"Sera un trofeo y una pieza clave de toda la relacin, si sale bien", dijo Kevin
Gallagher, profesor de la Universidad de Boston y autor de estudios sobre el
vnculo China-Amrica Latina.

"Todo el proyecto es una gran promesa, pero debe hacerse bien o se puede volver
una pesadilla", advirti en dilogo con BBC Mundo.

Plan estrella
Keqiang comienza su visita en Brasilia, en un momento de desaceleracin de las
economas china y sudamericana.
La regin crecer este ao menos de 1% segn el FMI, complicada por una posible
recesin en Brasil, y la falta de infraestructura es uno de sus problemas
estructurales.

Los presidentes China y Brasil, Xi Jinping, y Dilma Rousseff: sus pases han
desarrollado lazos comerciales, pero obras de infraestructura como el tren
marcaran una nueva etapa segn expertos.
China, mientras tanto, necesita recursos naturales para sostener su expansin
econmica y tiene un inters primordial en construir obras ferroviarias en otras
regiones.
En este contexto, el proyecto del tren interocenico, con un costo estimado de
hasta US$10.000 millones, podra cubrir necesidades de los distintos pases
involucrados.
Se trata del plan estrella entre las inversiones por unos US$50.000 millones que se
prev que Keqiang anuncie en Brasil, donde se reunir con la presidenta Dilma
Rousseff.

"Prximo paso"
Con su popularidad por el piso y escndalos de corrupcin que golpean a su
partido, Rousseff prepara un programa de concesiones de obras de infraestructura
a lanzarse en junio.
Est previsto que en all se incluyan algunos de los trechos de la megava frrea
hacia la frontera con Per, inform el diario brasileo Folha de S. Paulo.
Ya se iniciaron estudios tcnicos de tramos del proyecto en suelo brasileo, para
unir el puerto de A en el estado de Ro de Janeiro con Porto Velho, sobre la
cuenca amaznica.

Algunos expertos creen que si la ruta ferroviaria pasa por la Amazona tendra un
impacto ambiental, aunque menor que una carretera.
La conexin desde ese lugar con el Pacfico dara a los productores brasileos una
alternativa al Atlntico y el Canal de Panam para enviar materias primas a China.
"Hay una lgica econmica detrs del proyecto", dijo Joo Augusto Castro Neves,
analista para Amrica Latina de la consultora Eurasia Group.
En los ltimos aos la relacin entre China y Brasil se enfoc mucho en el aspecto
comercial, con el aumento de las exportaciones de productos como soja y hierro al
gigante asitico.
Pero segn Castro Neves, obras como la del tren interocenico pueden agregar
valor a ese vnculo. "Es el prximo paso de la relacin", indic en dilogo con a BBC
Mundo.

Roces
El proyecto del tren biocenico caus el ao pasado diferencias entre Per y
Bolivia, cuyo presidente Evo Morales protest al enterarse de que pasara por fuera
de su pas.
"No s si Per nos hace una jugada sucia", coment Morales en octubre y sostuvo
que el proyecto sera "ms corto, ms barato" si atravesara Bolivia

El presidente peruano, Ollanta Humala, defiende que el tren biocenico llegue al


norte de su pas, "por razones de inters nacional".
Sin embargo, el presidente peruano Ollanta Humala descart esta posibilidad en
noviembre, al comentar un acuerdo con China para iniciar los estudios del
proyecto.
El tren pasar "por el norte de Per, por razones de inters nacional", afirm
Humala.
Juan Carlos Zevallos, un economista que presidi el ente peruano regulador de
transportes Ositrn, dijo que en el norte del pas hay "cierto desarrollo
consolidado" de infraestructura para aprovechar el ferrocarril, incluido el puerto de
Paita, donde asegur que desembocar la va.
A su juicio, el proyecto dara mayor facilidad para inyectar productos peruanos en
Brasil, el mayor mercado regional. "Ese es el inters", seal a BBC Mundo.

"Prueba"
Los expertos anticipan posibles problemas con grupos indgenas y defensores del
medioambiente, ante la posibilidad de que el tren pase por zonas sensibles para
ellos.
"Al hacer un canal al Pacfico abres la Amazona al mercado chino (). Sera una
ilusin creer que eso no va a tener impacto", dijo Paulo Adario, estratega de la ONG
Greenpeace para la proteccin de la selva, a BBC Mundo.

Pero seal que "la va frrea tiene un impacto menor que la carretera para el
transporte de produccin" y pidi que se hagan los anlisis correspondientes sobre
sus efectos medioambientales.

El puerto de A que Brasil desarrolla


en Ro de Janeiro podra ser una de las terminales del tren biocenico.
Tambin hay desafos de ingeniera y costos para construir un tren que atraviese la
cordillera de los Andes y descienda rpidamente al Pacfico.
Castro Neves advirti que, sin prever correctamente esos retos, el plan puede
quedar paralizado como ha ocurrido con otras grandes ideas de desarrollo de
infraestructura en la regin.
"El asunto no es slo poner dinero", dijo.
Gallagher opin que el proyecto supondr "una verdadera prueba para la relacin"
de Pekn con la regin.
"Si China puede construir un tren de alta velocidad que funciona y facilita el
comercio de Amrica Latina, de modo inclusivo y sin daar el medioambiente, va a
ser el nuevo chico del barrio, difcil de superar", concluy.