peta kerja

© All Rights Reserved

2 views

peta kerja

© All Rights Reserved

- HIRA Welding
- Elastomeric Bearing - 15m Span
- 24.Concepts of Feeder Design and Performance in Relation to Loading Bulk Solids Onto Conveyor Belts
- Effective Width in Shear of Reinforced Concrete Solid Slab Bridges Under Wheel Loads
- JHA UL 019 Lighting System
- Finite element modelling of rock mass cutting by cutters for PDC drill bits
- ME 211 course outline
- Ls Dyna Database Manual
- Mechanics of Materials Lec02
- ME-A 2013 Gate Mechanical
- jlim02
- eccmr-03
- First Order-Agitated Vessel Final-Ved
- GATE-ME-A
- Strenght
- Ce Question 2013
- 2006 Int Ansys Conf 335
- AssessmentOfConcreteBridgeJoints Priestley
- 1. Introduction
- Mechnical Engineering

You are on page 1of 14

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/commatsci

thermo-mechanical numerical models

D.G. Karalis a,, N.G. Tsouvalis b, V.J. Papazoglou b, D.I. Pantelis b

a

Hellenic Navy, Hellenic Naval Academy, Mechanics & Materials Division, Marine Materials Laboratory, Hazjikyriakou Avenue, Piraeus 185 39, Greece

Shipbuilding Technology Laboratory, School of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechniou Avenue, Zografou,

Athens 157 73, Greece

b

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 13 November 2013

Received in revised form 30 May 2014

Accepted 27 July 2014

Keywords:

Thermo-mechanical modelling

Finite element analysis

Convergence ow diagram

Repair welding

a b s t r a c t

In this paper the authors propose a practical ow diagram for the systematic development and solution of

complex thermo-mechanical nite element analysis models. The proposed diagram consists of three different phases and provides a step-by-step guide for the development of the nal thermo-mechanical model,

taking into account convergence issues, mesh density and estimation of time step magnitude. In phase I, a

preliminary thermo-mechanical analysis is carried out in order to get an idea of the model behaviour, the

required resources and the feasibility of the overall analysis. In phase II the nal thermal model is developed

in full, taking into account the mechanical results obtained at the end of phase I, whereas in phase III the

nal mechanical model is generated on the basis of a continuously modied thermal model. The proposed

procedure presented herein in the form of a ow diagram provides the capability for gradual output of the

numerical results (preliminary results, thermal results, mechanical results), while paying attention to the

time-consuming problem of results convergence required for a numerically accurate analysis. The former is

an important issue for large-scale complex simulation projects, whereas the latter provides evidence that

the development of the numerical model has been realized on the basis of the modelling laws. For better

presentation and understanding, the proposed procedure is applied to the study of a nite element analysis

thermo-mechanical model, where increased intricacy generally exists.

2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1.1. Introduction

The thermo-mechanical response of steel or aluminium plates

during welding or plate forming by line heating has been investigated by several researchers during the last decades. Most of the

research is focused on either or both the thermal and the mechanical part of the structural response through a combination of experimental and numerical simulations. The numerical part of the

investigation still attracts high interest due to its extreme intricacy

and the uncertainty in predicting the structural response prior to

the treatment (welding or line heating) itself. An extensive review

has been conducted in [14].

In a fully uncoupled thermo-mechanical nite element model,

the analysis is usually carried out in a staggered approach: the thermal problem is solved rst, followed by the solution of the mechanical problem. The latter mechanical analysis runs on the basis of the

thermal results in order to account for the thermal stress and phase

Corresponding author. Tel.: +30 210 45 81 656, +30 697 37 97 661.

E-mail address: KaralisDimitris@TEEmail.gr (D.G. Karalis).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.commatsci.2014.07.045

0927-0256/ 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

change effects on the structural response of the structure. This is performed by importing to the mechanical model the nodal temperatures at each time increment and calculating the thermal strain.

From the aforementioned staggered approach it is deduced that

both thermal and mechanical models must normally run with the

same analysis parameters, namely time step magnitude and mesh

density. If, for example, the material undergoes phase transformation accompanied by volume change during a specic short temperature range, a small constant time step and a ne mesh are required

in the areas of transformation for both the thermal and the mechanical analysis. This allows for the accurate monitoring of the transient

stress developed during the transformation temperature range [5].

Thus, for the entire analysis there should be an exact correspondence between the mesh density and the time step magnitude

between the two models. This requirement renders the whole procedure of model development very complex and time-consuming.

1.2. The three major problems: mesh density, time step and

convergence of results

The rst problem arising during the thermo-mechanical modelling is that the thermal and the mechanical models are completely

Therefore the mesh density selected for the solution of the thermal

problem is, in most cases, inappropriate for the solution of the

mechanical problem.

Secondly, the time step required for the accurate solution of the

mechanical analysis may be too large compared to the time step

required for the accurate solution of the heat ow problem, where,

for example, extreme temperature gradients are encountered. The

latter is also valid in the opposite case as, at high temperatures, the

structure may exhibit extreme material non-linearities.

A third problem pertains to the results convergence criteria.

The development of a numerical model by means of the nite element method is generally terminated when the analysis has

reached (a level of) results convergence. For example, classical

convergence criteria are based on the stabilization of nodal results,

such as temperatures or displacements with regard to mesh density and time step. It is actually not worthy remeshing the model

or reducing the time step if the nodal results do not change values

versus simulated time.

It should be emphasized at this point that in general there are

four types of convergence in nite element analyses:

i. convergence of equilibrium iterations due to non-linearities

(e.g. material, contact or geometrical non-linearities),

ii. convergence in the solutions of the linearized systems of

algebraic equations in case of iterative solvers,

iii. convergence of the results due to mesh renement and

iv. convergence of the results due to time step reduction.

In most commercial nite element software platforms, specic

optimum values and tolerances are already pre-set in order to

control best the convergence of the equilibrium iterations due to

non-linearities and convergence of the equations in case of iterative solvers. In the present study, emphasis is given only to the last

two convergence types, namely time step and mesh renement, as

they are the main user-dependent parameters that strongly inuence the entire simulation and results convergence. The procedure

followed towards the convergence of results governs directly the

overall simulated time, the numerical analysis cost and affects

the accuracy of the results. For example, some of the complex simulations presented in [6,7] have lasted a few days, time that could

have been strongly increased if a few more additional analyses

have been required due to convergence issues. At this point, it

should be mentioned that in most publications dealing with complex thermo-mechanical simulations the convergence criteria have

not been described at all, as the authors provide only the models

setup and the numerical results. Hence, the end reader of the aforementioned papers comes to understand that the authors have

somehow performed a convergence analysis prior to publishing

the results obtained by means of the nite element method. This

convergence analysis is of great interest as it is complicated,

time-consuming and strongly user-dependent.

In sum, a common time step and mesh density are normally

required for both the thermal and the mechanical analysis. These

two common parameters must allow both physical problems to

be modelled satisfactorily, but they must also provide an acceptable level of results convergence for both models.

1.3. The aim of this paper

The authors aim at proposing a practical ow diagram for the

systematic development and solution of complex FEA thermomechanical models. In this ow diagram a progressive development of several thermal and mechanical models will be presented

on the basis of different mesh densities and time steps, aiming at

reaching the convergence of the thermal and mechanical results.

289

of such staggered thermo-mechanical models is missing from the

international literature and that the whole process is a real labyrinth for both experienced and inexperienced users dealing with

thermo-mechanical modelling. Please note that the aim of the

authors is to discuss the proposed ow diagram and present the

steps followed for creating the nal thermo-mechanical model

with regard to mesh density and selection of time step and not

to provide the mathematically-based analysis for its development.

The latter has already been discussed in the literature [835]. The

implementation of the proposed ow diagram requires a commercial thermal and mechanical or multi-physics FEA software package for which code verication has been already performed.

2.1. The physical model

In order to discuss the proposed ow diagram, a thermomechanical simulation will be employed. The latter concerns the

weld treatment of a welded bracket under load, by means of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding. The whole conguration of the simulation is presented in Fig. 1.

The bracket shown in Fig. 1 is made of typical carbon structural

steel (containing 0.45% w/w carbon) and consists of a bent ange

and a triangular reinforcing web welded on the ange. The welds

AC and AB exist along both sides of the web. Treatment is performed along the AB weld on the side towards the +z semi-axis

(the one that is visible in Fig. 1) using a TIG torch without ller

metal and aims at treating the existing weld close to the melting

temperature. Such treatments are applied to repair in-situ cracked

or defected welds (repair welding). The welded bracket is xed at

its smaller side (see red1 triangles in Fig. 1 that refer to the xations). After the material has cooled to ambient temperature, uniform pressure is applied on the other side of the bracket (see red

arrows in Fig. 1) tending to buckle the triangular reinforcing web.

The latter pressure simulates the operational load present on the

bracket after the completion of the treatment. The treated length

lAB is equal to 128 mm, whereas the ange and web thicknesses

are equal to 25 mm and 12.5 mm respectively. The power of the

welding torch was set equal to Q = 3770 W whereas the speed was

set equal to v = 6 mm/s. This simulation is quite complex involving

the existence of extreme non-linearities as temperatures are raised

to the steel melting point. It represents a difcult-to-solve numerical

analysis, as thermal, mechanical and thermally-induced mechanical

1

For interpretation of color in Fig. 1, the reader is referred to the web version of

this article.

290

procedure.

2.2. The numerical model

From the description of the aforementioned weld treatment, it

is deduced that the numerical analysis consists of two parts: thermal and mechanical. Normally, during the rst thermal part, the

transient temperature distribution for the whole bracket is calculated, whereas in the second mechanical part, the total transient

displacements and stresses are calculated, including any residual

stresses. Note that, during the second part of the analysis, apart

from the thermal stresses derived from the thermal treatment,

additional stresses are generated due to the externally applied

pressure. It is concluded from the above that the mesh density

and the time step of both models should be able to model all transient phenomena related to the weld treatment (temperature distribution, thermal stresses, residual stresses and distortion), as

well as the general mechanical response like local stresses raised

at the geometrical discontinuities of the structure and induced

by the externally applied forces and the weld treatment itself [1].

Typical questions during model development pertain to (a) the

ow diagram proposed in the following to reach the common mesh

density and time step that offer adequate convergence of the

results for both models, and (b) the overall time and computing

resources required to complete the analysis. These questions

become more critical and difcult to be answered as the modelled

physical structure becomes more complicated and bigger in size

[6,36,37]. A large-scale structure implies that each trial run of

the thermo-mechanical analysis aimed at reaching an acceptable

level of convergence will last at least for a considerable amount

of time.

For the thermomechanical simulation of the aforementioned

treatment, a three dimensional nite element model was set up

using ALGOR nite element code [22]. A staggered approach

was employed by solving at rst for temperatures and then for

displacements and stresses (uncoupled formulation). First-order

eight-nodded solid heat transfer elements were used for the

thermal part and rst-order eight-nodded solid thermoplastic elements (instead of second order elements with midside nodes [2,3])

were used for the mechanical part in order to account for the worst

scenario with respect to available element types. Mesh compatibility was retained between the two analyses. The heat source was

modelled by employing a moving Gaussian distribution. The kinematics, the constitutive formulations, the modelling, as well as the

boundary conditions were applied as per [6,7]. The temperature

eld was considered unaffected by the structural response. The

steel was modelled as isotropic, having yield stress equal to

380 MPa [6,7,38,39] and temperature dependent properties including plasticity and strain hardening. Cooling was implemented by

means of conduction, convection and radiation. At the beginning

of the simulation, the bracket is considered free from welding

residual stresses. The stress free reference temperature of the

material was set at ambient temperature (25 C).

3. The philosophy of the spatial and temporal renement

aiming at results convergence

Prior to presenting the ow diagram some logical questions

arise: how is the mesh renement and time step modication performed, in order to achieve satisfactory convergence of the results?

What is the philosophy behind this temporal and spatial renement? When convergence can be considered as satisfactory?

The progressive time step reduction and the gradual mesh

renement play an important role affecting the accuracy of the

entire simulation. Taking into account the variety of different elements and analysis types that exist nowadays in most commercial

nite element platforms, the development of an efcient set of

equations between the reduction of the time step and the gradual

mesh renement that leads to results convergence is a very

difcult and triggering task. In the current proposed diagram, this

spatial and temporal renement is based on the repetitive execution of the thermal and the post-mechanical model. This execution

provides feedback pertaining to the appropriateness of the spatial

and temporal renement that was applied. The latter methodology

has the advantage of applicability in most thermomechanical

simulations except of casting simulation where it is not directly

applicable due to material ow.

The gradual reduction of the initial time step that is applied by

the analyst is strongly affected by all the temperature and time

dependent phenomena that take place during the entire simulation. It is well known, that in a typical transient non-linear thermomechanical analysis, temperature and time dependent magnitudes

exist. Temperature dependent magnitudes can refer, for example,

to the material properties, coefcient of heat convection and convection heat, radiation; whereas time dependent magnitudes can

refer to the moving heat source, heat convection, operational loads,

pressures, existence of gaps, etc.

As a basis for the discussion of the next paragraphs, Fig. 2

depicts typical examples of the temperature dependent heat

capacity, the thermal conductivity, the convection lm coefcient,

the yield stress and the thermal dilatation of a typical mild steel

that undergoes several microstructural transformations depending

on the peak austenitization temperature (Tpeak) [6,7]. In the same

gure, the time dependent moving heat source of a welding arc

is also presented [6]. Furthermore, in Fig. 2f, the temperature

depended axial stress response of an axially xed steel specimen

that undergoes phase change transformation is shown [5,6].

In nite element simulations, the temperatures in the thermal

analysis and the displacements in the mechanical analysis are calculated for every node of the model and are exported at every time

step. Therefore the applied gradual reduction of the initial time

step value should nally:

i. Provide small temperature differences at every node of the

model between all successive analysis steps, so that the temperature dependent phenomena are accurately modelled.

For example, a very small time step can result in very small

nodal temperature differences between all successive analysis steps. It is up to the researcher to decide, whether the

latter temperature difference can accurately model the

non-linear material properties at the areas of solid state

transformations (see Fig. 2a, c and d) or whether it is enough

to accurately account for the convection heat losses (see

Fig. 2b). On the other hand, a relatively bigger time step

can provide larger nodal temperature differences between

successive analysis steps and thus hiding or articially

minimizing the effects of phase change on the transient

mechanical response of the structure. Taking into account

that the steel phase transformation temperature range is

approximately DTtr = 300 C, a practical guideline is to select

the maximum allowable time step that provides temperature differences of maximum 30 C, or 10% of DTtr. This small

temperature difference will later provide the basis for an

accurate mechanical analysis where small thermally

induced stress differences are also required. Therefore the

selected maximum allowable time step should additionally

keep the thermally-induced stress differences between successive analysis steps in a stress analysis smaller than a

small percentage of the material yield stress. In current

paper the value of 5% of the material yield stress is

291

Fig. 2. An example of temperature and time dependent magnitudes in a typical thermomechanical analysis, reprinted from [6,7]. (a) Material heat capacity and thermal

conductivity, (b) surface convection lm coefcient, (c) material yield stress, (d) material thermal dilatation, (e) three dimensional moving heat source, (f) axial stress

response of an axially xed steel specimen that undergoes phase change transformation.

strain. In conclusion, the maximum allowable temperature

difference required for the realistic modelling of the temperature dependent phenomena denes the maximum allowable time step value to be used. The latter will be obtained

after the repetitive execution and post-processing of the

thermal and mechanical models in all three phases of the

ow diagram that will be proposed later.

ii. Allow the time dependent magnitudes to be adequately

taken into account during the entire analysis. For example,

if the actual velocity of the moving source is high (see

Fig. 2e), a relative small time step is required in order to

length a1. Furthermore, if instant cooling of the weld metal

is applied during welding (e.g. underwater welding), only a

very small time step value will be able to capture the instant

change of the heat transfer coefcient, and thus correctly

calculate the transient heat transfer phenomena. Taking into

account that in most conventional welding simulations (a)

the size of the moving heat source is equal to several millimetres along the three axes, (b) the torch speed is equal to

several millimetres per second and (c) no forced convection

exists, a simple guideline is to set the initial value of time

step not larger than 1 s. Normally, the latter value is later

292

initial value in order to satisfy the convergence criteria.

Alternatively, a second practical guideline for the selection

of the initial value of time step pertains to divide the total

duration of the steepest part of the curve of the time dependent magnitude into minimum 3 different equal time steps.

In conclusion, the steepest part of the curve of the time

dependent magnitudes denes the maximum allowable

time step value to be applied. The latter will be deduced

after the iterative execution and post-processing of the thermal and mechanical results.

From the discussion above it is concluded that the nal time

step value that provides satisfactory convergence of the results

should be the minimum of the two maximum time steps derived

from items (i) and (ii) above.

As far as the gradual renement of the initial mesh density is

concerned, similar rules and observations that were described previously are valid. More specically, the applied gradual renement

of the initial mesh density should aim at providing enough elements at the areas of interest in order to accurately model the

material that is affected by:

i. The abrupt change of the temperature dependent magnitudes. For example, the narrow heat affected zone that is

generated between the weld pool and the base metal is

strongly affected by the temperature (and phase) dependent

material properties. A few elements along this zone would

not sufce to accurately obtain the highly transient phenomena that occur in this area. A practical guideline pertains to

employ an initial mesh density of minimum 3 elements

along the heat affected zone. In conclusion, the mesh where

an abrupt change of the temperature dependent magnitudes

takes place should be highly rened.

ii. The abrupt change of the time dependent magnitudes. For

example, in order to accurately apply the power of the heat

source along length a1 (see Fig. 2e), many elements are

required to be present along this length. It is obvious that

only one or two elements along this area would not sufce.

A practical guideline pertains to employ an initial mesh density of 3 elements per the shortest length among a1, b or c

(see Fig. 2e) for the whole area where the arc distribution

is applied. In conclusion, the mesh where an abrupt change

of the applied time dependent magnitudes takes place

should be highly rened.

iii. The stress concentrations generated by both residual or

applied operational loads. The former is of great importance

in case of welding residual stress analysis and requires a

rened mesh along the three axes especially at the vicinity

of the weld metal and the heat affected zone where residual

stresses present strong variability. The latter stress concentrations can be derived from a static stress analysis.

Similarly to the time step comments, the above discussion

shows that the nal mesh density should at least satisfy items

(i), (ii) and (iii) above, in order to provide satisfactory and accurate

modelling.

The third issue pertains to the criteria of the results convergence acceptance. This dilemma that is set at every sub-step of

the analysis (more specically at every rhombus of the ow diagram that will be proposed later) strictly depends on the

researcher and the way he deals with the scope of the analysis,

the areas of interest and the magnitudes being monitored. As

stated previously, it is actually not worthy remeshing the model

or reducing the time step if the nodal displacements (or temperatures) do not change values versus simulated time in a dis-

also valid for the stresses or heat uxes or other magnitudes

of interest. It must be mentioned here, that the convergence

study must be realized on the basis of the predicted results: a

literature research [33] has shown that authors have often used

reaction forces or displacements to perform their convergence

tests and subsequently made predictions for other results such

stresses or strains. Furthermore the tolerance of the results convergence criteria may strongly differ among researchers; a 15%

difference between the temperatures of two successive thermal

analyses results may seem enough for the termination of the

repetitive execution of the models in a general heat treatment

simulation; whereas it may be dealt as a considerable difference

in the case of a material phase-change response analysis. Furthermore, the criteria of the results convergence depend also

on the area of interest. In a residual stress analysis for example,

the researcher is mainly focused on the weld metal and the heat

affected zone; thus the residual stress results on these zones

must converge satisfactorily when the researcher decides to terminate his investigation (or the repetitive loop of the ow diagram that will follow). On the other hand, in a residual

displacement analysis, the area of interest is usually the far

end of the plates that present the maximum distortion. From

the discussion above it is derived that (a) the aim of the thermomechanical simulation, (b) the response of the area of interest of

the model and (c) the magnitudes being monitored, should be

the governing parameters that will allow the termination or

the continuation of the convergence study. Here the authors

would like to emphasize on the fact that an accurate thermalstress analysis requires a very accurate thermal analysis. It is

thus very important for the analyst to have the thermal analysis

accurately performed and the thermal results converged to an

acceptable level. Finally, in addition to what was discussed previously, a good practice in a thermal analysis where extreme

thermal gradients exist is to monitor the minimum temperature

calculated by the software at every time step. For example, in a

typical welding simulation without preheating, the minimum

calculated transient temperature of the model should always

be at least the initial material temperature. The execution of

the analysis with an inappropriate time step in combination

with a rough mesh can provide smaller or negative transient

minimum temperatures compared to the initial temperature of

the material.

To summarize the discussion that deals with the convergence

criteria, in current paper the analysis will be terminated when

the relative difference of the magnitudes being monitored (temperatures, stresses and displacements) between two successive

analyses is less than 10%. The latter value provides an acceptable

level of convergence in engineering terms taking into account that

welding simulations are very complex non-linear thermomechanical problems. Of course a smaller value can also be applied, which

represents a more strict criterion but has a negative impact on

computer resources and cost.

4. The proposed ow diagram

The proposed ow diagram consists of three different phases

(phases IIII), each one containing several sub-steps and execution

loops. For the readers convenience, each phase and sub-step are

discussed separately and are supported by gures of the relevant

nite element model. In the proposed ow diagram a progressive

development of several thermal and mechanical models will be

presented on the basis of different mesh densities and time steps,

aiming at reaching the convergence of the thermal and mechanical

results. In current FEA simulation the main magnitudes being monitored are:

the treated zone, which provides evidence that the desired

maximum temperature has been reached.

ii. The temperature distribution during cooling, in order to conrm that the residual stresses refer to the totally cooled condition of the material.

iii. The transient von Mises stress at the mid-length of the treated zone, which provides an indication of the plastically

deformed zones.

iv. The residual von Mises stress after the material has cooled to

ambient temperature and prior to the application of the

external load, in order to assess the resistance of the structure against brittle fracture and susceptibility to environmental (season) cracking.

v. The thermally-induced residual displacement after the

material has cooled to ambient temperature and prior to

the application of the external load.

vi. The nal von Mises stress, which provides the operational

stress.

vii. The nal displacement of the structure, which provides its

shape during operation.

4.1. Phase I: preliminary thermal and mechanical analysis

4.1.1. The linear loop

Phase I pertains to the preliminary investigation carried out

prior to the main analyses (phases II and III) aiming at obtaining

a general idea of the model behaviour, checking the feasibility of

the analysis and getting feedback regarding the time required to

complete the analysis and computer resources needed. The preliminary analysis is considered to be very important, as it is worth

knowing whether the analysis lasts a day or a week or whether

the non-linearities encountered will allow the completion or

cancellation of the simulation. Phase I contains two sub-steps,

the preliminary linear and non-linear thermomechanical analyses.

The ow diagram of phase I is shown in Fig. 3.

The preliminary linear transient thermal analysis, followed by a

linear transient (or static) mechanical analysis including external

forces and thermal stresses at several time steps, can provide some

answers to all of the questions raised, namely the location of areas

of greatest interest, mesh density and time step magnitude. At this

linear sub-step it is important to mention that both hand or analytical solutions and user experience can help determine the areas of

greatest importance or interest and can thus contribute to the

selection and estimation of a proper initial mesh density for both

models. As a general guide, a ner mesh is required in thermomechanical modelling at areas close to any heat input, heat sinks,

geometrical discontinuities and in areas of material, boundary and

geometrical non-linearities. Thus, the initial design of the mesh

density must take into account at least the aforementioned factors.

Initial time step selection is also discussed in [25,26]; a relative

small value has been suggested in previous sections in order to

capture the linear transient heat transfer phenomena to a satisfying level. In the case of welding, for example, the speed of the

welding torch and the size of the arc distribution selected for modelling the heat input [40] can help determine an initial value of the

time step. Notice that, in most thermo-mechanical simulations

(excluding repair welding of dynamically excited structures),

modal effects are not taken into account, which facilitates initial

time step estimation [13,22,26]. It has to be emphasized here that

at this step it is not important to accurately and precisely estimate

the aforementioned initial values. On the basis of the ow diagram

shown in Fig. 3, the repetitive execution of the linear models will

nally lead to the time step value and mesh density that provide

satisfying convergence of the preliminary results. Normally a gradual decrease of the initial time step and a mesh renement at the

293

this sub-step aims at obtaining a general idea of the model behaviour; thus a few repetitive executions should sufce.

In our example, the linear sub step has started by employing an

initial time step of Dt = 1 s and a coarse uniform mesh containing

NE = 4208 elements. From the executions of the linear thermal

analyses it was derived that the maximum thermal gradients

appear close to the weld line (line AB, see Fig. 1), whereas the

maximum stress gradients derived from the linear static stress

analysis, including both external forces and thermal stresses at

specic time steps, appear along the weld and at the triangular

reinforcing web. After the termination of the linear sub-step, the

nal locally rened mesh contained NE = 6079 elements and the

nal time step had been gradually reduced to Dt = 0.1 s. The loop

of the linear step was terminated when the relative difference of

the maximum thermally-induced residual displacement (prior to

the application of the external pressure) between two successive

analyses was less than 20%. The same criterion was also applied

for the von Mises stress and the maximum temperature developed

at mid-length of the treated zone. The latter value of 20% is larger

compared to the desirable value of 10% that was described in 3

but is considered as sufcient for the preliminary stage of the analysis. At this point, the maximum temperature difference of every

node between all successive time steps was less than 85 C which

refers to about 30% of DTtr (which is larger compared to the desirable value of 10%). The nal linear analysis results are depicted in

Fig. 4.

4.1.2. The non-linear loop

Following the ow diagram depicted in Fig. 3, the initial execution of the non-linear analyses should be carried out on the basis of

the time step value and mesh density derived from the previous

linear sub-step. Thus, the thermal model is executed followed by

the execution of the non-linear mechanical one. For this reason,

the calculated temperatures obtained from the thermal analysis

are imported into the mechanical model; the external forces are

then applied, after the weld treated bracket has cooled to room

temperature. This staggered execution is performed a few times

(see also Fig. 3), each time with a modied time step and mesh

density. Normally a gradual decrease of the initial time step and

an increase of mesh density at the critical areas should be applied.

Notice that, at this point, the model modications are performed

on the basis of both the thermal and the mechanical results, as

the common mesh density and time step must take into account

both heat ux and stress gradients. At the end of this loop the

model is expected to be able to model the non-linear transient

phenomena, to some extent at least, as it contains a crude mesh

that is locally rened to a small degree close to the areas of high

stress and heat ux gradients. It should be emphasized at this point

once again that high accuracy of temperatures and displacements

is not required at this phase (accuracy issues of the calculated

results will be discussed in the following phases) and, therefore,

a relative small number of loops is suggested. At the end of phase

I, apart from the preliminary level of the results convergence

obtained, the user can reach some basic conclusions regarding

the demands of the overall numerical simulation, computer

resources, time requirements and cost. It is also important to mention that, at this stage of the ow diagram, it is up to the analyst to

decide whether to undertake the simulated project or not.

In our example, the nal thermal and mechanical model at the

end of phase I contained NE = 7587 elements, whereas the time

step of the analysis was equal to Dt = 0.08 s. The loop of the nonlinear step was terminated when the relative difference of the

maximum thermally-induced residual displacement between two

successive analyses was less than 15%. The same criterion was also

applied for the von Mises stress and the maximum temperature

294

point, the relative difference approximates the target value of

10% that is required to terminate the convergence study but is still

sub-step the maximum temperature difference of every node

between all successive time steps was equal to 75 C which refers

295

Fig. 4. The results at the end of the linear loop (NE = 6079 elements, Dt = 0.1 s). (a) Transient temperature at the mid-length of the treated zone (Tmax = 864 C, Tmin = 25 C),

(b) temperature distribution during cooling (Tmax = 33 C, Tmin = 25 C), (c) von Mises static stress at the mid-length of the treated zone (rmax = 1063 MPa, rmin = 0 MPa), (d)

von Mises static stress due to the applied operational pressure only (rmax = 205 MPa, rmin = 0.5 MPa), (e) nal displacement magnitudes due to the applied operational

pressure only (dmin = 0 mm, dmax = 0.515 mm, scale factor 10).

every node along the treated zone between all successive time

steps was equal to 27 MPa which refers to 7% of the yield stress.

The results of the non-linear analysis are illustrated in Fig. 5. From

the results presented previously it is deduced that further executions are required until the termination of the project as the convergence of the results being monitored is larger than 10% and

the temperature and the stress differences between all successive

time steps are larger than 10% of DTtr and 5% of yield stress

respectively.

The basic differences between the model shown in Fig. 4 and

the updated one shown in Fig. 5 are concentrated around the areas

of high gradients, like those at both sides of the weld AB, at the

heat-affected zone and around points B and C (see also Fig. 1).

More specically, the model shown in Fig. 5 contains a ner mesh

along both sides of weld AB at its heat affected zone, along the

free edge of the triangular web and close to points B and C, where

higher thermal and stress gradients develop.

4.2. Phase II: nalizing the thermal model and obtaining the thermal

results

Phase II pertains to the main analysis of the thermal problem. It

aims at calculating the transient and residual temperature distribution of the structure under investigation. The ow diagram of

phase II is shown in Fig. 6.

At the beginning of this phase, the thermal model is executed

using the mesh density and the time step derived from phase I.

Depending on the convergence criteria, the models mesh is progressively rened until the desired level of accuracy in the areas

of interest is attained [33]. For example, the gradual increase of

mesh density as we approach the weld line AB will allow better

estimation of the size of the heat affected zones where phase

transformations occur during the overall treatment. Note that

the mesh of the thermal model must also be rened but to

a lesser degree at areas of high stress gradients of the mechanical model, as observed at the end of phase I. Notwithstanding

296

Fig. 5. The results at the end of phase I (NE = 7587 elements, Dt = 0.08 s). (a) Transient temperature at the mid-length of the treated zone (Tmax = 954 oC, Tmin = 25 C), (b)

temperature distribution during cooling (Tmax = 34 C, Tmin = 25 C), (c) transient von Mises stress at the mid-length of the treated zone (rmax = 360 MPa, rmin = 3 MPa), (d)

von Mises residual stress (rmax = 393 MPa, rmin = 0.5 MPa), (e) nal von Mises stress (rmax = 382 MPa, rmin = 0.6 MPa), (f) nal displacement magnitudes (dmin = 0 mm,

dmax = 0.522 mm, scale factor 10).

that the latter local mesh renement does not necessarily contribute to the accuracy of the thermal analysis results, it will contribute to the faster solution and convergence of the mechanical

model carried out in phase III. As long as thermal results convergence has been attained for specic mesh density, the thermal

model is re-executed by reducing the time step in order to conrm that changes of the time step do not signicantly affect the

temperature results. This procedure may require a few more

loops to complete in order to provide a better estimation of

the maximum temperatures reached in the heat affected zones

and to calculate the cooling rates in the transformation areas,

necessary for the post thermal-stress analysis (phase III). At this

stage of phase II, further remeshing or time step reduction are

not expected to strongly affect the results, thus the nal thermal

results, such as maximum temperatures and cooling rates, can

be obtained. Notice that mesh renement and step time reduction can be performed simultaneously for the case of analysts

it has to be emphasized that the thermal results include the temperature ranges and time steps of any microstructural transformations realized in specic areas of the model. These microstructural

changes can play an important role in the mechanical response of

the structure analysed in phase III; thus this stage requires maximum attention [15,39]. It should be mentioned at this point

that normally a distinct or some deviation (if any) is expected

between numerical and experimental thermal results due to the

unknowns involved in the analysis (e.g. heat input, arc efciency,

material properties, heat loss); thus adaptation or calibration of

the thermal model may be necessary, see Refs. [4,41]. The adaptation procedure may require a few more re-executions of the thermal model with modied input data. These adapted thermal

numerical results, later used for post-mechanical analysis (phase

III), are expected to more accurately address the problem of the

transient and residual response of the structure.

297

example required severe renement along both sides of weld AB

and its heat-affected zone in order to capture the high temperature

gradients and cooling rates (AB line, see Fig. 1). Local remeshing

has also been performed along the webs free edge and areas B

and C, where high stress gradients appeared during the end of

phase I. The latter remeshing is carried out in order to prepare

the mesh density for the mechanical analysis that will follow in

phase III. The mesh density, consisting of NE = 20,080 elements at

the end of phase II and the nal non-linear thermal analysis results

obtained using Dt = 0.037 s are presented in Fig. 7. The nal loop of

phase II was terminated when the relative difference of the maximum temperature at mid-length of the treated zone between two

successive analyses was less than 10%. The latter value satises the

criterion that was described in 3 for the termination of the

thermal part. At the end of phase II, the maximum temperature

difference of every model node between all successive time steps

was equal to 30 C (or 10% of DTtr) which is also within the desirable range. From the results depicted in Fig. 7 it is also deduced

that the maximum temperature calculated by the software

(Tmax = 1390 C) was not above the melting point of the material

which is equal to 1537 C [42]. Thus no melted zone was created.

If the actual treatment had resulted in the formation of a melted

zone then the thermal model developed during this phase should

have been further adapted with respect to the experimental or

actual results (if any), as indicated in Fig. 6 in order to compensate

for the unknown parameters that are involved in the numerical

analysis. The duration of the analysis of the nal converged

thermal model (single run) was 3.5 CPU-hours2 whereas its size

was equal to 3 GB.

2

CPU Intel Core i3 M350 @ 2.27 GHz (dual core, dual thread), RAM 4 GB, HDD,

Windows 64 bit OS.

298

Fig. 7. The nal mesh density of the thermal model as obtained at the end of phase II (NE = 20,080 elements, Dt = 0.037 s). (a) Transient temperature at the mid-length of the

treated zone (Tmax = 1390 C, Tmin = 25 C), (b) temperature distribution during cooling (Tmax = 39 C, Tmin = 25 C).

thermal model

Phase III aims at nalizing the mechanical model for the

mechanical analysis. Contrary to the procedure described in phase

II for the nalization of the thermal part, the modications per-

thermal model to be modied as well. Thus the user should modify

both the thermal and the mechanical models which is a time-consuming and computer-demanding procedure. The latter strongly

affects the overall analysis cost. The ow diagram of phase III is

depicted in Fig. 8.

of the mesh density and time step derived at the end of phase II for

the thermal model. Note that, at this point, the mesh density as calculated from the thermal model can capture to some degree the

stress gradients of the mechanical analysis. As long as the mechanical model does not meet the convergence criteria, it is further

modied and executed on the basis of a more detailed mesh in

the areas of interest. Again, as suggested in phase II, a relative wide

range of different mesh densities must be tested [33]. For this purpose, the thermal model is necessarily further rened and executed

as well, focusing also on the areas of high stress gradients derived

from the mechanical analysis. Again, attention of mesh renement

is paid to the areas of the isolated boundary conditions, the nodes

where the heat input is delivered, the geometrical discontinuities

of the model, the areas of microstructural transformations and

the areas where non-linearities are observed. Please note that the

modication and re-execution of the thermal model should not

provide better accuracy of thermal results in engineering terms,

as the nal temperature results have already been obtained at

the end of phase II; thus, the thermal model is further modied

299

of the mechanical analysis. It ought to be mentioned here that

the current loop offers a good chance for the researcher to conrm

that the thermal model has met the convergence criteria required

for the termination of phase II.

As long as the mechanical results have converged to the desired

level (which implies for example that maximum displacements

stabilization has been observed with respect to mesh renement

in a displacement analysis), both thermal and mechanical models

can be further executed with their time step modied in order to

check the sensitivity of the mechanical results on time step. The

latter loop process may require a few successive executions until

the nal time step values are stabilized. Simultaneous mesh renement and time step reduction can also be applied for the case of

expert analysts. At the end of this phase, mechanical results like

transient displacements and stresses and residual stresses can be

obtained. Once again, note that at the end of this phase the thermal

model has been further modied but the nal thermal results have

already been obtained at the end of phase II. The thermal model

obtained at the end of phase II should provide almost the same

Fig. 9. The nal mesh density of the mechanical model as obtained at the end of phase III (NE = 42,773 elements, Dt = 0.025 s). (a) Transient temperature at the mid-length of

the treated zone (Tmax = 1516 C, Tmin = 25 C), (b) temperature distribution during cooling (Tmax = 39 C, Tmin = 25 C), (c) transient von Mises stress at the mid-length of the

treated zone (rmax = 385 MPa, rmin = 0 MPa), (d) von Mises residual stress (rmax = 423 MPa, rmin = 0.2 MPa), (e) nal von Mises stress (rmax = 407 MPa, rmin = 0.4 MPa), (f)

nal displacement magnitudes (dmin = 0 mm, dmax = 0.55 mm, scale factor 10).

300

phase III, but due to the lesser degree of freedom it contains, it is

quicker to execute and can thus be used for further investigation.

In our example, strong stress gradients that appeared during

the mechanical analysis along the free edge of the web, on both

sides of welds AB and AC and at the geometrical discontinuities (areas B, C) have led to further local mesh renement of

the model. The model at the end of phase III containing

NE = 42,773 elements and the nal non-linear analysis results

obtained using Dt = 0.025 s are shown in Fig. 9. The nal loop

of phase III was terminated when the relative difference of the

maximum thermally-induced residual displacement between

two successive analyses was less than 8%. The same criterion

was also applied for the von Mises stress and the maximum

temperature developed at mid-length of the treated zone. At

the end of phase III, the maximum temperature difference of

every model node of the thermal analysis between all successive

time steps was reduced to 13 C (or 4.3% of DTtr) whereas the

maximum von Mises stress difference of every node along the

treated zone between all successive time steps of the treatment

was equal to 12 MPa (or 3% of the yield stress). From the above

it is derived that all criteria described in 3 were satised; thus

termination of the overall analysis was well applied. Here it has

to be mentioned, that the converged model presented in Fig. 9 is

able to capture the residual stresses developed along the treated

weld (see Fig. 9d). These stresses are also visible in the operational condition after the external pressure has been applied

(see Fig. 9e). Furthermore, as it is derived from the thermal

results, the difference of the calculated maximum temperatures

at mid-length of the treated zone between the thermal analyses

of phases II and III (1390 C and 1516 C respectively) was less

than 10%, which on the basis of the criteria described in 3 conrms the termination of phase II. Of course, in case of more

strict criteria (for example 5% of temperature differences) phase

II should have been further executed. The duration of the analysis of the nal converged mechanical model (single run) was 333

CPU-hours (Footnote 2), whereas it size was equal to 98 GB.

the treated zone between all successive time steps equal to

or smaller than 5% of the yield stress of the material.

It should be mentioned at this point that the overall simulation

described in Section 4 could have been performed directly in a single phase by employing a very dense mesh throughout the whole

model and a very small time step for the entire simulated time.

This cursory methodology, although being direct and simple,

does not provide evidence of results convergence, is not feasible

for large scale models and requires the largest computer resources

with respect to memory capacity and running CPU-hours. On the

other hand, it should be also stated that the proposed ow diagram

is certainly not unique and converged results may have been

obtained by carrying out a sensitivity analysis probably in a different manner instead of using the aforementioned diagram as a

systematic solution guide. It is again emphasized that there is very

limited literature available on how to perform a systematic model

development for thermomechanical simulations.

Concluding, in this paper a practical ow diagram for the systematic model development and solution of complex non-linear

thermo-mechanical nite element analysis models is presented.

The proposed diagram consists of three phases. In phase I, a preliminary thermo-mechanical analysis is carried out in order to get

an idea of the model behaviour, cost and feasibility of the overall

analysis. During this phase, both thermal and mechanical models

are progressively modied until a preliminary level of results convergence is met. In phase II the nal thermal model is developed in

full, taking also into account the mechanical results encountered at

the end of phase I, whereas in phase III the nal mechanical model

is generated on the basis of a continuously modied thermal

model. The proposed procedure, which has been presented in the

form of a ow diagram, allows for the gradual output of the numerical results (preliminary results, thermal results, mechanical

results), assuring at the same time that these results are the outcome of converged analyses. The gradual output of the numerical

results is an important issue for large-scale simulation projects;

whereas converged analyses is evidence that the development of

the numerical models has been run on the basis of modelling laws.

Acknowledgements

In conclusion, on the basis of the proposed diagram the analyst

has managed to determine the exact model density and time step

(that were unknown at the end of phase I, see Fig. 4) in order to

accurately capture the thermo-mechanical response of this specic

treatment by performing the minimum number of computer runs

(end of phases II and III, see Figs. 7 and 9 respectively) while being

able to provide a preliminary answer with respect to the analysis

feasibility at the end of phase I. Furthermore, in the example presented in this study, focus was given only on the seven items

described at the beginning of 4. Focusing on different magnitudes

and at different time steps may have required more or less number

of numerical executions compared to these applied here (phases I

III). In any case, the criteria of convergence acceptance strictly

depend on the researcher. Summarizing, in current paper the

authors have adopted the following criteria for the termination

of the proposed ow diagram:

i. Relative difference of the maximum thermally-induced

residual displacement between two successive analyses less

than 10%. The same criterion was also applied for the von

Mises stress and the maximum temperature developed at

mid-length of the treated zone.

ii. Maximum temperature difference of every model node

along the treated zone between all successive time steps

equal to or smaller than 10% of DTtr.

for the systematic development and solution of complex non-linear thermomechanical models arose during the work within the

EU funded project Shipbuilding Low Cost, Versatile and Safe

Welding by YAG Laser Applications SHIPYAG (contract number

G3RD-CT-2000-00251). The authors gratefully acknowledge that

part of the work presented in this paper was funded by the aforementioned European program.

References

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

L.-E. Lindgren, J. Therm. Stresses 24 (2001) 141192.

L.-E. Lindgren, J. Therm. Stresses 24 (2001) 195231.

L.-E. Lindgren, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 195 (2006) 67106736.

K. Satoh, Trans. Jpn. Weld. Soc. 3 (1972) 125134.

L. Andersen, Residual Stresses and Deformations in Steel Structures, PhD

Thesis, Department of Naval Architecture and Offshore Engineering, Technical

University of Denmark, 2000.

H.B. Clausen, Plate Forming by Line Heating, PhD Thesis, Department of Naval

Architecture and Offshore Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2000.

P. Tong, T.H.H. Pian, Int. J. Solids Struct. 3 (1967) 865879.

P. Tong, T.H.H. Pian, Int. J. Solids Struct. 5 (1969) 463472.

R. Scott, Numer. Math.-Numer. Math. 21 (1973) 317327.

W. Lord, J.H. Hwang, Comput. Electr. Eng. 1 (1974) 513520.

G.E. Ramey, N. Krishnamurthy, Comput. Struct. 4 (1974) 11851206.

K.J. Bathe, E.L. Wilson, Numerical Methods in Finite Element Analysis,

Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey, Canada, 1976.

[14]

[15]

[16]

[17]

[18]

[19]

[20]

[21]

[22]

[23]

[24]

[25]

[26]

[27]

[28]

[29]

[30]

[31]

M. Berkovic, Comput. Struct. 10 (1979) 195202.

S.E. Laux, R.J. Lomax, Solid-State Electron. 24 (1981) 485493.

G.A. Mohr, I.C. Medland, Eng. Fract. Mech. 17 (1983) 481491.

R.J. Melosh, Finite Elem. Anal. Des. 7 (1990) 115121.

J.H. Keyak, H.B. Skinner, J. Biomed. Eng. 14 (1992) 483489.

L.W. Marks, T.N. Gardner, J. Biomed. Eng. 15 (1993) 474476.

R.J. Melosh, Finite Elem. Anal. Des. 13 (1993) 105113.

C. Spyrakos, Finite Element Modelling in Engineering Practice, Algor

Publishing Division, Pittsburgh, PA, 1994.

R.S. Bains, J. Sugimoto, Eng. Anal. Boundary Elem. 14 (1994) 267275.

L. Demkowicz, Comput. Math. Appl. 27 (1994) 6984.

Y.Y. Zhu, S. Cescotto, Comput. Struct. 53 (1994) 275304.

R.D. Cook, Finite Element Modelling for Stress Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,

1995.

P. Morin, R.H. Nochetto, K.G. Siebert, SIAM Rev. 44 (2002) 631658.

J.-F. Hiller, K.-J. Bathe, Comput. Struct. 81 (2003) 639654.

Q. Gu, J.P. Conte, Convergence studies on nonlinear nite element response

sensitivity, in: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on

Applications of Statistics and Probability in Civil Engineering (ICASP9), San

Francisco, USA, July 69, 2003.

ABAQUS Version 6.5, Analysis Users Manual, ABAQUS Inc., 2004.

W. Huang, Int. J. Numer. Anal. Modell. 2 (2005) 5774.

301

[33] H. Schmidt, T. Alber, T. Wehner, R. Blakytny, H.-J. Wilke, J. Biomech. 42 (2009)

19261934.

[34] C. Veyhl, I.V. Belova, G.E. Murch, A. chsner, T. Fiedler, Finite Elem. Anal. Des.

46 (2010) 371378.

[35] K.-J. Bathe, P.-S. Lee, Comput. Struct. 89 (2011) 285301.

[36] D. Berglund, H. Alberg, H. Runnemalm, Finite Elem. Anal. Des. 39 (2003) 865

881.

[37] C.D. Elcoate, R.J. Dennis, P.J. Bouchard, M.C. Smith, Int. J. Press. Vessels Pip. 82

(2005) 244257.

[38] H.J.M. Geijselaers, Numerical Simulation of Stresses due to Solid State

Transformations. The Simulation of Laser Hardening, Thesis University of

Twente, Enschede, Hellendoorn, The Netherlands, 2003.

[39] D.G. Karalis, D.I. Pantelis, V.J. Papazoglou, Theoret. Appl. Fract. Mech. 54 (2010)

3743.

[40] J. Goldak, M. Asadi, R.G. Alena, Comput. Mater. Sci. 48 (2010) 390401.

[41] D.G. Karalis, V.J. Papazoglou, D.I. Pantelis, The accurate prediction of the

thermal response of welded structures based on the nite element method:

myth or reality?, in: Proceedings of the First International Conference of

Engineering against Fracture, Springer Science + Business Media, BV, 2009, pp.

513529.

[42] G.L. Huyett, Engineering Handbook, G.L Huyett, 2004.

- HIRA WeldingUploaded byAjit Bhosale
- Elastomeric Bearing - 15m SpanUploaded bymnsawant
- 24.Concepts of Feeder Design and Performance in Relation to Loading Bulk Solids Onto Conveyor BeltsUploaded bySrini Kumar
- Effective Width in Shear of Reinforced Concrete Solid Slab Bridges Under Wheel LoadsUploaded bySudathipTangwongchai
- JHA UL 019 Lighting SystemUploaded byRehan Iqbal
- Finite element modelling of rock mass cutting by cutters for PDC drill bitsUploaded bycarthik_raja
- ME 211 course outlineUploaded byBrian Arntfield
- Ls Dyna Database ManualUploaded byΔημήτρης Σίσκος
- Mechanics of Materials Lec02Uploaded byslayz0879
- ME-A 2013 Gate MechanicalUploaded bydeepaknayan
- jlim02Uploaded bybenten01
- eccmr-03Uploaded byPHAM Duong Hung
- First Order-Agitated Vessel Final-VedUploaded byDurgesh Bagri
- GATE-ME-AUploaded byaeroacademic
- StrenghtUploaded bygalati12345
- Ce Question 2013Uploaded byBharath Reddy ChinthiReddy
- 2006 Int Ansys Conf 335Uploaded bygnjzyy
- AssessmentOfConcreteBridgeJoints PriestleyUploaded bytrabajosic
- 1. IntroductionUploaded byMujtaba Rizvi
- Mechnical EngineeringUploaded byFlyNarutoFly27
- Fea Assingment 1 - Final -Online-123Uploaded byLoc Nguyen
- Instrumentation and FE Analysis of a Large-Span Culvert Built under a Railway, in FinlandUploaded byTeo Peng Keat
- Hes 3334Uploaded bysiamak1438
- Eng 2016 SyllabusUploaded byAkshay Rachakonda
- Saddle ForceUploaded byvpjagannaath
- 111 - Atom Isi Wps3Uploaded byburak
- EXPERIMENT 6 - CHE150-1L.docxUploaded byZac Castro
- 580646Uploaded bySheilly Tan
- NAGGAR, H. E.; HINCHBERGER, S. D. - An Analytical Solution for Jointed Tunnel Linings in Elastic Soil or RockUploaded byRicardo10985
- Studocu ComUploaded byJerick Madrileño

- MOST WayUploaded bysansansansania
- EASY FITUploaded bysansansansania
- 153-279-1-PBUploaded bysansansansania
- Abdul Shah Ed 2015Uploaded bysansansansania
- 224-364-1-SMUploaded bysansansansania
- Systematic Reviews Volume 3 Issue 1 2014 [Doi 10.1186%2F2046-4053!3!54] Stovold, Elizabeth; Beecher, Deirdre; Foxlee, Ruth; Noel-Storr, -- Study Flow Diagrams in Cochrane Systematic Review Updates- AnUploaded bysansansansania
- Journal of Cleaner Production Volume Issue 2014 [Doi 10.1016%2Fj.jclepro.2014.09.058] Liu, Fei; Xie, Jun; Liu, Shuang -- A Method for Predicting the Energy Consumption of the Main Driving System of aUploaded bysansansansania
- TransportationUploaded bysansansansania

- Copper oxychlorideUploaded byikarussg75
- Characterization of Copolymers of nUploaded bynidhi_247881127
- PHYSICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MANGO PUREEUploaded byNur Qistina
- 29 PTC Creo Simulate U.simmlerUploaded byDaniel Cringus
- IJCET_Template_Paper_format.docxUploaded bySourabhNiljikar
- Novel Report TGA TDAUploaded bySheraz Ali
- A0436 thermal behaviorUploaded bytahera aqeel
- ASTM_D3418_2012Uploaded byRodrigo Tomaz
- 2000 Thermal AnalysisUploaded byAlejandro Monroy Vergara
- DSC- DTA -TG prezUploaded byhydromania
- Phase Formation During Liquid Phase Sintering of ZnO CeramicsUploaded byJan Ja
- pozzolanic supplement for cement.pdfUploaded byjhoncardenas726
- 12249_2012_Article_9916Uploaded bySahera Nurhidayah Nasution
- AKTS Webinar E Learning VideoUploaded byPedro Lenos Pará Torres
- Optp Electronics DeviceUploaded bykaran007_m
- Transfer Nikotina u Gasnu FazuUploaded byNermina Đulančić
- Thermal Analysis of Polymers (1)Uploaded byMarister Oliveira
- C3. Paint Specification (WSS-M64J39-A1) v1Uploaded byChandrajeet Shelke
- Final Presentation on Super CapacitorUploaded byapi-3798420
- 2016_Influence of Cellulose on the Mechanical and Thermal Stability of ABS Plastic CompositesUploaded bySubramani Pichandi
- Dynamic MethodsUploaded bypainternetmx1
- SolidifikacijaUploaded byVahidin Hasanspahić
- Design and Analysis of Al-6081 T6 PistonUploaded byIJIRST
- Analise Termica Polimeros-ToledoUploaded byWagner de Queiroz
- Diagram Terner Ni-Al-Si Part IIIUploaded byTorang Aritonang
- thermal_analysis_of_cast_iron.pdfUploaded byRasoul Sadeghi
- ROLE OF HPLC IN PREFORMULATION (Irina Kazakevich)Uploaded bylivevilfr
- DTA & DSCUploaded byClarence AG Yue
- Trivedi Effect - Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Structural Properties of Chromium (VI) Oxide Powder: Impact of Biofield TreatmentUploaded byTrivedi Effect
- Chapter 2. Methods and InstrumentationUploaded bykim haksong

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.