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Save Water, Save Jakarta Campaign as Land Subsidence Mitigation in Jakarta

(Luthfan Harisan Jihadi, Abu Abdillah Ali, Zufialdi Zakaria, & Muhammad Bey Anural)

PERSPEKTIF:

SAVE WATER, SAVE JAKARTA


CAMPAIGN AS LAND SUBSIDENCE MITIGATION IN JAKARTA
Luthfan Harisan Jihadi1), A bu A bdillah A li1), Zufialdi Zakaria2),
& Muhammad Bey A nural1)
1

Student at the Dept. of Geological Engineering, Padjadjaran University, Jatinangor, Sumedang


Lecture at the Dept. of Geological Engineering, Padjadjaran University, Jatinangor, Sumedang

ABSTRACT
Jakarta, a very populated capital city of Indonesia, was built above alluvial deposit which is currently
subsiding relative to sea level at a high rate. As a result Jakarta becomes more often to be flooded with
water that delivered from other regions and also the sea level rises relative to land and shoreline move
toward the ground are increasing feasibility of tidal flood to occur. Consolidation process of the ground
acts as a cause to the land subsidence in Jakarta. The fact is water needs in Jakarta is high due to its
high population. Therefore, large amount in withdrawal of groundwater occurs and causes the ground to
settle. In order to decrease the rate of land subsidence, groundwater should be extracted in a proper,
more effective and efficient way. Younger generation is advised to save water using a fresh approach
which is easy to be understood and accepted. In the future, people in Jakarta w ill consider that saving
water as a norm w hich brings great benefit to their environment, Jakarta.
Keywords: Land subsidence; mitigation; counseling

INTRODUCTION
Ja k arta is a ca pita l city of Indone sia, located in the northwe st coast
of Ja va . It is the most im portant city
in Indonesia as an e conom ic, cultural
and political centre which p opula te d
by ove r than 8 m illion o f pe ople . All
those inhabita nts are livin g in the
area which is about 625 k m 2, thus
m ak ing Jakarta as the most populated
city in Indone sia . Topographica lly,
Ja k arta has slopes ranging on 0 0 to 5 0
which southe rn m ost area has an
altitude of about 50 m above average
num be r of se a le ve l (Abid in, e t al.
2007). Geologically, Jakarta is located
on Jak arta b asin. As m e ntio ne d b y
Yong et al. (1995), the Jakarta b asin
is com posed of Q uate rna ry d e posits
which ove rlie Tertiary basement rock,
and the top is co nsid e red to b e the
base of groundwate r basin. The top
la ye r in the Jak arta a rea is younge r
se dime nt that de rive d from s tream
se dim e nta tio n,
alluviu m ,
which
com pose d by Ka olinite and Montm orillonite (Anis uzzam an, 2013).

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La nd subsidence is a d e crease in
e le va tio n of la nd, rela tive ly to s e a
le ve l. The cause could be as a natural
process o f se dim e nts co nsolidatio n
that de rive d by fluid lo ss, e g.
groundwate r, that not repla ced by
anothe r fluid or as a process of
te ctonics. Howe ver, the cause of land
subsid e nce is m ostly de rive d by
hum an-induced is sue s, such as
groundwate r extraction, m etal mining
and oil-gas production (Hirose , e t al.
2001). As m e ntio ne d by Prim anita
(2 010, afte r Ng, 2011), la nd
subsidence could lead to other serious
problems, e.g. cracks in the buildings
and infrastructures, lo cal groundwater
syste ms da m age , als o le ad into a n
increase of tension cracks on land and
reactiva te faults .
O ve r than a decade, a lo t of data
obta ined from studies are s howing a
sig n of land de fo rmatio n in Jak arta.
Moreover, land subsidence in Jak arta
was alre ady recogniz e d in 1926
(Abid in, e t al. 2007). Alluvium layer in
Ja k arta, compose d b y Ka olinite a nd
Montm orillonite , has a ve ry hig h
pote ntial to deform, i.e . shrink ing o r

Bulletin of Scientific Contribution, Volume 12, Nomor 1, April 2014: 54-61

swe lling, e spe cia lly in the n orthe rn


coast of Jakarta (Anissuzaman, 2013).
Naturally, la nd subsid e nce would
occur in the se dim e nt la ye r, cause d
by its cha racteristic e ve n without
hum an inducem e nt. The e stim ate d
subsidence rates in 1997-2005 are 1 10cm per ye ar and reached 20cm pe r
ye ar, according to Abid in, e t al.
(2 007).
Urba n developme nt in Jak arta is
ve ry fa st. In a ye ar, Ja k arta
popula tio n can increase in a bout a
m illion. The growth als o occurs in
wate r ne e ds which the problem is that
80% of Ja karta inhabitants a re u sing
unde rgro und wate r (U nite d Natio n,
2013). The report of groundwater use
based on regis te red we lls is a lre ady
hig h, about 17 million m 3 in a ve rage
pe r ye ar in 1900-1998, not include d
by unregis te red we lls which always
increasing as we ll as Jakarta developm e nt. As m e ntio ne d by Ardhia nie
(2 011), recent m inim um n um be r o f
groundwate r use could reach 270
m illion m 3 pe r ye ar. Excessive
e x traction of groundwate r is increaseing the subsidence rate; the correlateio n is m e ntio ne d in a survey by
Abid in, et al (2 011), that subsid e nce
rate in Ja karta is re lated to the rate of
pie zometric wate r level in the m id dle
and lowe r a quife r in Jak arta b asin.
Nowadays,
la nd
subsid e nce
occurrence in Ja k arta has be com e
m ore and mo re p roble m atic. In fact
that Ja k arta is re la tive ly lo w to s e a
le ve l and flat m ak ing it ve ry
susceptible to flood hazard, thus land
subsidence m ake it even worse . Als o,
la nd subsidence ca use d b uildings to
se ttle and dam age d the m . As the
popula tio n grows in Ja k arta, wate r
ne e ds als o be com e m uch big ge r
resulting in e x cessive groundwate r
e x tracting, thus increasing the
subsidence rate as Jakarta inhabitants
m ostly use the groundwate r to fulfill
the ir wate r ne e ds. Als o, rapid
population growth makes the h azard
risk e ven higher. Therefore, a solution
is ne e ded to minimize d the ris k that
cause d b y la nd s ubsid e nce.

METHOD
The m e thod that is use d in this
study is a literatural rese arch base d
on other previous studies that provide
data which rele va nt with la nd subsid e nce in Ja k arta. The se condary
data are ta k e n, the n co rre la te d b y
the ir rele va ncie s and analyz e d to
id e ntify a proble m , i.e . la nd subsid e nce in Jakarta. Thus, the cause of
the problem can be pinpointed. The n,
to de sign a solution is n ow p ossib le .
Main im portant points of the
solution is determined, and d e sig ne d
to ove rcom e the proble m in any
m e ans. Then, they are hypothe tica lly
de scribed as a plan to be imple m e nte d in study area. T hus, a co nclusio n
can be acquired in order to re duce o r
e ve n s olve the p roble m .
RESULT & DISCUSSION
Ba se d on the data, we k now about
the rela tion of wate r usage a nd land
subsid e nce rate in Ja k arta. An
increase in wate r usage b y Ja k arta
inhabitants will increase s ubsid e nce
rate in Ja k arta, and vice ve rsa. In
orde r to de crease the rate of la nd
subsidence, groundwate r should b e
e x tracted in a proper, mo re e ffe ctive
and e fficie nt way. And in this case
Ja k arta inhabita nts would tak e the
m ajor role .
As an id e a, Save Water, Save
Jakarta cam paig n is inte nde d to
reduce the water usage in Jakarta, a s
a m itigation of land subsid e nce. The
cam paign will spread the word about
actual situatio n and cause of la nd
subsidence in Jak arta to the o bject.
And als o it will guid e the object to
unde rstand and to act in a proper way
in using wate r. In this ca se , yo ung
ge ne ratio n is treate d as the m ain
object, since their capability to le arn
is hig h. Also, young generation will be
the m ain subject in Jakarta d e ve lo pm e nt in a n e ar future. The success
param e te r of this cam paig n is the
annual rate of water usage, by a ye ar
or two o f its im ple m e nta tio n. If the
annual rate is reduced, the camp aig n
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Save Water, Save Jakarta Campaign as Land Subsidence Mitigation in Jakarta


(Luthfan Harisan Jihadi, Abu Abdillah Ali, Zufialdi Zakaria, & Muhammad Bey Anural)

is consid e red success. If e ls e , the


cam paig n should be continue d or
revis e d.
The re are four important points in
Save
W ate r,
Sa ve
Ja k arta
cam paig n:
1. The e xistence and purpose o f the
cam paign have to be k nown by the
object.
2. The k nowle dge has to be accepted
by the o bject.
3. The object has to unde rsta nd
about the k nowle dge and k now
how to a ct b ase d o n it.
4. The campaign has to be in a form
that would be obeye d the o bject.
In orde r to be k nown by the
object, the cam paig n has to be
dis tributed. By tha t m eans, any media
that accessib le and ge ne rally can
touch the obje ct, will be use d. So cia l
site s on internet are considered as a n
e ffe ctive a nd e fficie nt m e dia , since
the y are free and used m ostly by the
object. The other advantages are that
socia l sites can deliver the ca m paig n
in an inte resting way since the y
provid e im age , audio , and vid e o
dis tribution, thus incre asing possibility
to approach the object. Als o, the
sharing and promoting system is built
in the site s and can be update d
pe riodica lly.
The refo re,
com m unication with the object can be
m ainta ine d.
The k nowled ge has to b e p acke d
in a way tha t the object will accept it
ope nly. Still, in a way tha t not le sse n
the k nowle dge its e lf. Thus, as an
e x ample, vis ual based story te lling is
an id e al fo rm to be u se d s ince the
object would have a te nde ncy to lik e
and rem e m be r som e thing that fu n
and colo urful, e spe cia lly the o bject
be twe e n 5-10 years old. Visual bas e d
story te lling ca n b e in m any fo rms,
such as com ic, m ahwa, m anga,
anim e, or cartoon. Be cause o f that,
the re is no problem if the o bject has
diffe rent ta ste in what she /h e lik e s.
Moreover, visua l base d s tory te lling
can be split into chap ters and this way
it be comes easy to read and can come
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pe riodically, thus it would n ot be too


boring to re ad.
Afte r the object k now a nd a ware
of the m essage that delive red b y the
cam paign, the ne x t ste p is to g uid e
the act als o by giving the object a
de e pe r unde rsta nding about the
m e ssage. The guid e ca n b e through
fo rmal e ducatio n, i.e . e le m e nta ry
scho ol, junior high school, and se nio r
hig h scho ol. Direct com m unica tio n
be twe e n tea che r a nd s tude nt would
de e pe n the unde rsta nding. Als o
som etimes a little push is needed as a
m otivation, which is a reward or e ve n
punis hm e nt. Those reward and
punis hment a re tak ing in a fo rm a s
score, thus student, whe ther like it or
not, have to le arn about the
k nowle dge in order to pass the exam.
R e ligio us reason als o act as a
guid e as lo ng as the o bject b e lie ve s
that sa ving wate r is a virtue, a nd n ot
to save water is a sin. In I slam , who
com m it excess is a sinner, Allah SW T
hate s the act of excess, including a n
e x cess in using wate r. Als o, the o ne
who waste fu l is the brother o f sata n.
The m essage could be give n through
lo cal m osque orga niz atio n. A poste r
about Aya t that m e ntio n it can be
pla ced in wudhu area o r e ve n insid e
the m osque (Fig ure 4 ). Ustadzs a ls o
can te ach the ir stude nt about the
m e ssage. This way, the order to save
wate r will be o be ye d b y the o bject.
CONCLUSION
Save Water,
Save
Jakarta
cam paign is needed to minimized the
risk that caused by land s ubsid e nce.
Younger generation is guided to s ave
wate r by the campaign, using a fresh
approach which is e asy to b e u nde rstood and accepte d. In the future,
pe ople in Jakarta will save water, thus
reducing the groundwater usage. And
in any means also reduces the ris k o f
la nd s ubsid e nce.
*)

Note: This paper was presented at: The 3rd


International Symposium on Earthquake and
Disaster Mitigation,
ISDEM
2013,
17-18
December 2013, Yogyakarta.

Bulletin of Scientific Contribution, Volume 12, Nomor 1, April 2014: 54-61

REFERENCES
Abid in, H. Z., Andreas, H., Djaja, R .,
Da rmawan, D., Gamal, M. (2007).
La nd Subsidence Characteristics
of Ja k arta Betwe en 1997 and
2005, as estimated using GP S
surveys (p. 1). Published online:
Springe r-Verlag.
Abid in, H. Z., Andreas H., Gumilar, I.,
Ga m al, M. 2011. Land Subsidence
and Urban Development in Jakarta. Indonesia Country R eport, 6572.
Anis suzaman, M d., M uslim , D., Arifuzzaman, Shadrina, N. 2013. The
R ole of C la y Mine rals on La nd
Subsid ence: A Case Study in Jak arta, Indone sia (p p.1, 4). 3rd
International
Conference
on
Ecological,
Environmental and
Biological Sciences, 188-191.
Ardhia nie , N. 2011. Ja k arta and
Excessive
Groundwate r
Explo ita tio n.
Tak e n
fro m :
http://www.amrta-institute.org/
news-a-press/73-jakarta-andexcessive-ground-waterexploitation.html
Ba dan Pusat Sta tistik. 2013. Banyaknya Penduduk Berdasarkan Has il
Registrasi Menurut Wilayah di
Provinsi DKI Jakarta. Taken from:
http://jakarta.bps.go.id/index.ph
p?bWVudT0yMzA0JnBhZ2U9ZGF0
YSZzdWI9MDQmaWQ9MzE=
Hirose , K., Maruyama, T., Murdo hardono, D., Effe ndi, A., Abid in, Z.
(2 001).
Land
Subsidence
Detection Using JERS-1 SAR
Interferometry (p. 2). Singapore:
C R ISP (C e ntre fo r R e m ote
Im aging, Se nsing a nd P rocessing), Natio nal Unive rsity of
Sin gapore.
Ho lle y, R ., Burre n, R ., Abid in, H. Z.
2011. Subsidence Mapping in
Jakarata-PSI Processing of L-band
ALOS PALSAR Data. FR INGE2011.
Ng, A. H., Ge , L., Li, X., Abidin, H. Z.,
Andreas, H., Zhang, K. (2 012).
Mapping la nd subsid e nce in
Ja k arta,
Indone sia
using
pe rsis te nt scatte rer inte rfe ro-

m e try (P SI) te chnique with ALO R


PALSAR . International Jo urna l of
Applie d Earth O bse rvatio n and
Ge oinfo rmatio n, 2 32 - 242.
Unite d Nation, 2013. Ja karta, Indone sia. Taken from
http://www.u n.o rg/cyberschoolbu
s/h abitat/profiles/jakarta.asps
Yong,
R . N., Turcott, E. 1995.
Groundwater abstraction-induced
la nd
subsid e nce predictio n:
Ba ngkok and Jakarta case studies
(p p.
2-3).
International
Symposium on Landsubsidence,
IAHS, 234, 89-97

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Save Water, Save Jakarta Campaign as Land Subsidence Mitigation in Jakarta


(Luthfan Harisan Jihadi, Abu Abdillah Ali, Zufialdi Zakaria, & Muhammad Bey Anural)

Figure 1. Map of land subsidence in Jakarta period 1982-1997 (Centre


fo r Environmental Geology, Ge ological Agency, ESDM;
Anis suzaman, 2013)

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Bulletin of Scientific Contribution, Volume 12, Nomor 1, April 2014: 54-61

Figure 2. DifSAR C om parison b e twe e n d iffe rent tim e s pan


in Jak arta, showing its land d e fo rmatio n
(Ho lley, et al. 2011)
Table 1 . Ja k artas P opula tio n T hrough 1 948-2006
Year
1948
1961
1971
1980
1990
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006

Population (000)
est. 2000
2973
4579
6503
8259
8379
8603
8725
8864
8961

(Lo and Yeoung, 1995; BPS Jakarta, 2007; in Abidin, et al. 2011)

Table 2 . Jak artas P opula tio n T hrough 2 007-2010


Year

Population

2007

7554461

2008

7616838

2009

8523157

2010

8524152

(Badan Pusat Statistik, 2013; Dinas Kependudukan Provinsi DKI Jakarta)

59

Save Water, Save Jakarta Campaign as Land Subsidence Mitigation in Jakarta


(Luthfan Harisan Jihadi, Abu Abdillah Ali, Zufialdi Zakaria, & Muhammad Bey Anural)

Figure 3. Showing e x tracted g roundwate r by regis te red we lls a nnually


in Ja k arta, (Hirose, 2001; Sudibyo, 1999)

Figure 4. Lo go o f Fa cebook , Twitte r, Blo gge r, and I nsta gram .


All rights reserved

Figure 5. Showing a n e x am ple o f com ic strip that conta ining a m e ssage


about saving wate r awareness.
(Taken from: http://waterthenew petrol.iesmanacor.cat/comics.html)

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Bulletin of Scientific Contribution, Volume 12, Nomor 1, April 2014: 54-61

Figre 6. Showing a n e x am ple o f com ic strip that conta ining a m e ssage


about saving water awareness.
(Taken from: http://waterthenew petrol.iesmanacor.cat/comics.html)

(Taken from: http://quran.com/17/26-27)

Figure 7. Aya t that m e ntio n a bout the a ct e x cess.

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