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1. Hardware Fundamentals
Ch 1 Identifying Components & their use
Ch 2 Measuring Voltages at different levels
2. Motherboards and their related components
Ch 1 Motherboards
Ch 2 Ports
3. Bios & CMOS
Ch 1 Bios & CMOS
Ch 2 Bios features & Configration
4. Operating Systems
Ch 1 Installing different Operating Systems like
DOS & Windows
Ch 2 Troubleshooting through Software
5. Antivirus Software
Ch 1 Viruses
Ch 2 Intallation of Norton Antivirus
Ch 3 Recovery of Sytem through Antivirus





Unit 1.Chapter 1
Name : Identifying components and their use
1.1.1 What is a computer?
The term computer is used to describe a device made up of electronic and
electro mechanical components. The computer itself cannot perform any task
and is referred to as hardware.
A computer system consists of three elements.

Fig 1.1.1 Components of a Computer System
1. Hardware
2. Software
3. People
Hardware : The physical components which you can see, touch and feel in
the computer system are called hardware Eg monitor, keyboard, mouse
Software : Software is used to describe the instructions that tells the computer how to perform a task. Software is categorized
1) System softwares ( eg . operating systems, compilers, editors etc)
2) Application softwares ( MS-word, excel, accounting packages etc)
People : People who operate the computer and also create computer software instructions.
1.1.2 Computer hardware
Basic components in a computer system are central processing unit (CPU),
memory, the input device and output device.

Computer systems – Micros, Minis and Mainframes.
Micro computer : Micro computer is also called as personal computer or PC.
It has a processor based on a single silicon chip. Personal computers come in
three different physical sizes, pocket pc’s, lap pc’s and desktop pc’s. Pocket
pc’s and lap pc’s belong to portable category. Microcomputer is used in small
Ex : IBM compatible or IBM clone and Apple Macintosh systems.
Multiuser microcomputers. Until recently microcomputers were personal
computers for individual use only. But now days several microcomputers can
be networked together for simultaneous used by several people.
Mini computers: Mini computer is simply a small mainframe computer. It is a
reduced version of mainframe. Attached printers are not so fast. So it has less
storage capacity less processing speed of that of mainframe computers. They
are usually used by small businesses. For example research groups, engineering firms, colleges etc. use mini computers.
Mainframe computers: A mainframe computer is a large expensive machine
whose processing speed is very high and has large amount of secondary storage and fast printers. A large mainframe computer may be used to meet the
data processing requirements of the entire organization.
Examples: airline booking systems, Railway booking systems , weather forecast etc.
1.1.3 System types
We can classify systems into the following categories :
8-bit, example : 8085 microprocessor
16-bit, example : 8086, 286, 386 processor
32-bit , example : 486
64-bit, example : Pentium - II
This gives us two basic system types or classes of hardware.
8-bit ( PC/XT) class systems
16/32/64 (AT) class systems

2 ATX Format Fig 1. 16-bit PC card (PCMCIA) bus Fig 1.1. Afterwards several expansion slots were developed for AT class systems. Example 16/32 bit PS/2 microchannel architecture (MCA) bus. Bus is the name given to expansion slots in which additional plug in circuit board can be installed. XT stands for eXTended PC. These systems has an 8-bit processor and an 8-bit INDUSTRY STANDARD ARCHITECTURE (ISA) bus for system expansion. 16-bit and greater systems are said to be AT class.Chapter 1 Name : Identifying components and their use 3 PC stands for personal computers.1. and AT stands for an advance technology PC.bit card Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus. AT systems can be similarly identified by having 16-bit of greater slots of any type (ISA. The XT basically was a PC system that included a hard disk for storage in addition to the floppy drive found in the basic PC system. The easiest way to identify a PC/XT system is by the 8-bit ISA expansion slots regardless of the processor present in the system. 16-bit (and latter 32 and 64 bit) processors and expansion slots are included. EISA.3 PS/2 Port 16 bit ISA bus 16/32 bit Extended ISA(EISA) bus 32/64 . PCI) slots. . The first AT class systems had a 16-bit version of the ISA bus which is an extension of the original 8-bit ISA bus found in the PC/XT class systems.

4 Motherboard .1. Motherboard Processor Memory (Primary) Hard disk CD-ROM Floppy Drive Keyboard Mouse Monitor Power Supply Cabinet Motherboard : motherboard is the important component of the computer as everything else is connected to it.1. Fig 1.4 Computer Hardware 1. Motherboard usually contain the following individual components.4 System components Component needed to assemble a basic modern PC system. And it controls everything in the system. Motherboard are available in several different shapes.

. Primary memory is often called as RAM(Random Access Memory).Chapter 1 Name : Identifying components and their use 1) Processor slot 2) Processor voltage regulators 3) Motherboard chipset 4) Level 2 cache 5) Memory SIMM or DIMM sockets 6) Bus slots 7) ROM BIOS 8) Clock / CMOS battery 9) Super I/O chips 5 Processor Fig 1.1. the processor is one of the most expensive parts of the computers and is also one of the smallest parts. It is usually used to load an operating system. Primary Memory Fig 1.5 Processor Chips The processor is often thought as the engine of the computer. The other type of system memory is ROM(Read only Memory)which is permanent because it contents are not erased even when power is switched off.1. It holds all the programs and data the processor is using at a given time.6 Memory Chips Memory : Is used to hold programs and data during execution. RAM is volatile because its contents are erased when power is switched off. Then the processor reads the commands from the memory and then executes them.

CD-ROM drive Fig 1. Floppy Disk Drive Fig 1.1. All PC’s made in the last 10 years use a standard 3 ½ inch. With the advancement in technology writable CD’s are also available.6 Hard disk drive Computer Hardware Fig 1.7 Hard Disk Drive A hard drive consists of spinning platters made up of aluminum or ceramic that is coated with magnetic media. The platters come in various sizes. so we need a very huge non-volatile memory. The hard drive with many different storage capacities can be created depending upon the density. which cannot be stored in RAM. In modern days floppy drive component is not as important as it was years ago. This is also called as Secondary memory. 1. There can be several programs in the system. They provide a simple way to carry information from one place to another. .1. and backup small amount of files.9 Floppy Disk Drive Floppy disks are the slowest and the smallest form of secondary storage. As the name applies they are read only medium.1. It consists of small disks similar to the gramophone records to hold digital information.8 CDROM Drive CD-ROM stands for compact disk read only memory. and data when the system is not in use are called as Hard disks. which can be used for storing all the programs.44 MB capacity floppy drive. size and number of platters.

10 Keyboard The keyboard is the main input device for most computers. The main advantage of mouse over keyboard is simplicity. . It is used to input text or enter commands into the PC.12 Monitor The monitor is the specialized high-resolution screen similar to a television. Users simply point and click to enter information. Mouse Fig 1. The actual display screen is made up or red. Monitor Fig 1.Chapter 1 Name : Identifying components and their use Keyboard 7 Fig 1. Which then determines the picture you see on the screen. green and blue dots that are illuminated by electron beam from behind. The video card sends the contents of its video memory to the monitor at a rate of 60 or more time per second.1. which then controls what dots are turned on and how bright they are. wireless keyboard. Nowadays keyboards with additional features are available like multimedia keyboard. The video card DAC chip controls the movement of the electron beam.11 Mouse With the invention of graphical user interface mouse is used to input information into the computer.1. And there are many operations that are much easier to perform with a mouse then a keyboard.1.

the power supply sends a special signal to the motherboard called Power_Good. . Therefore. the Power_Good signal goes down and forces a system reset or complete shutdown. 5 V and 12 V DC power that the system requires for the operations. Cabinet Fig 1. If this signal is not present continuously. the power supply also ensures that the system does not run unless the power supplied is sufficient to operate the system properly. If the tests are successful.3 V.1. The cabinet actually performs several important functions for your PC including protection to the system components.8 Computer Hardware Power supply Fig 1.14 Cabinet The box or outer shell that houses most of the computers. In addition to supplying power to run the system. The power supply completes internal checks and tests before allowing the system to start. and allowing installation of and access to the system components. The cabinet often includes a matching power supply and must also be designed with shape of the motherboard and other system components in mind. when the AC voltage dips and the power supply becomes stressed or overheated. directing cooling airflow. The main function of the power supply is to convert the 230 V AC into 3. the computer does not run.13 Power Supply(SMPS) SMPS(Switch Mode Power Supply): The power supply supplies power to every single part in the PC.1.

Speakers etc. A typical arrangement is shown below in fig 1. • 300 bps .First appeared in late 1990 and early 1991 • 19.1960s through 1983 or so • 1200 bps .2 kilobits per second (Kbps) • 28.1. The sending modem converts digital data into analog data.8 Kbps • 33. This is used to connect to Internet.1. and the receiving modem converts the analog data back into digital form. which can be transmitted over telephone lines. Modems. They provide additional computing capabilities.15 Modem Modem (Modulator and Demodulator) is typically used to send digital data over a phone line. For ex : Printers.Chapter 1 9 Name : Identifying components and their use Peripheral Devices Any external device. which is not necessary to perform the basic operation of computer. Modem Fig 1.Gained popularity in 1984 and 1985 • 2400 bps • 9600 bps .6 Kbps • 56 Kbps .16 Modems are available in different capacities. is called as peripherals.Became the standard in 1998 .

Gained popularity in 1999 Printers • The capability to produce a printed version often called a hard copy of a document is the primary function of a printer. 5) SMPS converts AC (Alternate Current) into DC (Direct Current). What is a computer? Name different types of computers? Name the system components? How many types of memories are there? What is SMPS? Which type of input is given to SMPS? What is the difference between ROM and RAM? Essay type questions: 1. keyboard. 2. 2) Software is used to make computer usable. 3. What is a MODEM? What is its use? 3. with theoretical maximum of up to 8 megabits per second (Mbps) . Name the types of system components and explain them briefly? 2. Short type Questions: 1. 7. mouse. 4. Discuss the use of SMPS? . 5. Summary: 1) A computer is made up of electromechanical and electronic components.10 Computer Hardware ADSL. Different types of printers are 1) Laser 2) Inkjet 3) Dot-Matrix. monitor etc. 6. memory. 3) Based on the microprocessor systems are classified as PC-XT and PCAT 4) Important components of a system are processor.

check the voltage at the Power_Good pin for +3v to +6v of power. yellow.2. and an ohmmeter measures resistance. orange. An ammeter measures current. Nearly all the connectors you need to probe have openings in the back where the wires enter the connector. testing the output of the power supply and checking for continuity in a circuit or cable. into a single instrument. In most cases. The technique is called back probing because you are probing the connector from the back. and possibly some additional ones as well. black and white wires coming out of power supply).CHAPTER :2 MEASURING VOLTAGES AT DIFFERENT LEVELS Chapter -2 11 Name : Measuring Voltages at different levels 1. the power supply is bad and must be replaced. Continue by measuring the voltage ranges of the pins on the motherboard and . Which usually means testing while the power supply is installed in the system.2. The meter leads are narrow enough to fit into the connector beside the wire and make contact with the metal terminal inside. You must measure the voltages when system is powered on. the system never sees the Power_Good signal and therefore does not start or run properly. A multimeter combines these functions. This shows whether a power supply is operation correctly and whether the output voltages are within the correct tolerance range. Fig 1. If the measurement is not within this range.1 Digital Monitor Digital multimeter (DMM)? One simple test that you can perform on a power supply is to check the output voltages. To test a power supply for the proper output.1 What is a multimeter? A meter is a measuring instrument. A multimeter can serve many purposes including checking for voltage signals at different points in a system. Measuring voltage: To measure voltage on the system that is operating you must use a technique called back probing on the connectors (These are the red. You must measure all voltages with the power supplies connected to a proper load. You must use this back probing technique to perform all of the following measurements. a voltmeter measures the potential difference (voltage) between two points.

0v Loose tolearance Min (-10%) Max( +8%) 2.9v Tight tolerance Min (-5%) Max( +5%) 3. the probes measure electrical resistance. which usually means that it must be installed in a system and the system must be running.5.12 ComputerHardware Hard Disk power connectors. usually can be read in several scales.97v 4. 2. Making these measurements on the 200mv or 2v scale would possibly damage the meter because the voltage would be much .25v 12. although it is nominally a +5v signal in most systems. The test leads make the connections so that you can take readings.5v.135v 4. 20v.75v 11. If you are measuring voltages for testing purposes any reading within 10 % of the specified voltage is considered acceptable.0v Replace the power supply if the voltages are measured out of these ranges.4v 12.1. although most manufactures of high quality power supplies specifies a tighter 5% tolerance.0v 6. for example. Usually.3v +/. except for the 3. direct current (DC) voltage. but most systems require the signal voltage to be within the tolerances listed. depending on the meters setting. or alternating Current (AC) voltage.6v Power_Good signal has tolerances that are different from the other signals. Signal Minimum Maximum Power_good +5v 3. 2v.12.63v 5. Desired Voltage +3. The trigger point for Power_Good is about +2. to a maximum of 200mv. 200v and 1000v. the specification requires that voltages must be within 5% of the rating . Again. DC voltage.3v current which must be within 4%. it is worth noting that any and all power supply tests and measurements must be made with the power supply properly loaded.4v 3.0v +/. Because computers use both +5v and +12v for various operations you should use the 20v maximum scale for making your measurements.2 Meters The DMM has a pair of wires called test leads or probes.5v 10. each system-unit measurement settings has several ranges of operations.465v 5. For ATX power supplies.8v 3.

CD ROM etc. And follow the above procedure to measure the power in the motherboard. Which has to be 230 V. but the readings at 5v and 12v are so small in proportion to the maximum that accuracy is low.1 and 2. Where as tolerance levels you can find from the above tables 2. start at the highest stage and work your way down. Follow the steps which are given below to check the power in Hard Disk Drive. 5) Repeat steps 3 and 4 for the yellow and black wires of Hard disk power connector. Using the 200v or 1000v scale works. . Using Multimeter to measure voltages:Initially you have to check if the current from wall socket is 230 V or not. For this go through the following steps: 1) Adjust the multimeter by roatating the knob of the multimeter and set it to any AC voltage higher than 230 V. 3) Now put the positive lead (Red) of the mutlimeter into Red wire from the back of the power connecter which goes to Hard disk and Negative lead (Black) into the black wire of the power connector of Hard disk. 3)Note down the readings. Floppy dirve. 1) Adjust the multimeter by roatating the knob of the multimeter and set it to any DC voltage higher than 12 v and maximum can be 20v. 4) Note down the readings.Chapter -2 Name : Measuring Voltages at different levels 13 higher then expected.2. But practically anything between 210 and 230 V is acceptable. If you are taking a measurement and are unsure of the actual voltage. 2) Now put the positive lead(Red) of the mutlimeter into phase(+ve terminal) and Negative lead (Black) into neutral(-ve teminal) of the wall socket. Which has to be +5 volts. CPU fan. 2) Switch on the system.

2. Power_Good signal is necessary to start the system. 3. 2. 4. What is a Multimeter? What is the difference between multimeter and digital multimeter? What is back probing?] What is Power_Good Signal? Essay type questions: 1. Digital multimeters are used to measure power supply in computer.14 Computer Hardware Summary:1. Short questions: 1. How is multimenter used to measure voltages? .

are usually left out of the base specification to keep costs down. 2. there are drawbacks. memory and expansion slots and connects directly or indirectly to every part of the PC. Consequently. The second is an ATX design. It’s harder to upgrade the specification if integrated components can’t be removed. IBM refers to is as “system Board” or “ Planner Board” . such as networking or SCSI. replacing a single faulty component may mean buying an entire new motherboard.2 Evolution The original PC had a minimum of integrated devices. networking.1 What is a Motherboard? Motherboard is the most important component in any personal computer. Everything else.1. .usually remain separate. with a Pentium II Slot 1 type processor connector. as I/O ports and disk controllers were often mounted on expansion cards as recently as 1995. parts that not all users need. some other manufacturer refer to this as the “ Logic Board”. CPU and graphics . SCSI and sound . The basic changes in motherboard form factors over the years are covered later in this section . Similarly. just ports for a keyboard and a cassette deck (for storage).the diagrams below provide a detailed look at the various components on two motherboards. some code in ROM and the various interconnections or buses. Other components . It’s made up of a chipset(known as the “glue logic”). sporting the ubiquitous Socket 7 processor connector. However. more devices have been integrated into the motherboard. those parts of the system whose specification changes fastest RAM. It’s a slow trend though. and highly integrated motherboards often require non-standard cases. Many manufacturers have experimented with different levels of integration. It contains almost every important elements of the computer. The first a Baby AT design. including a display adapter and floppy or hard disk controllers.1.Unit II Chapter -1 Name : Motherboard 15 2.tend to remain in sockets or slots for easy replacement. The motherboard is the main circuit board inside the PC which holds the processor. were add-in components. typical of motherboards on the market in late 1998. circa 1995.typically graphics. Furthermore. Sometimes instead of the calling it “motherboard”. Over time. building in some or even all of these components. connected via expansion slots.

1.16 Computer Hardware Fig 2.2 ATX Design .1 Baby AT Design Fig 2.1.

The sheer size of an AT motherboard caused problems for upgrading PCs and did not allow use of the increasingly popular slimline desktop cases. LAN and even RAID controllers.but in time the peripherals integrated in this way became more diverse and included items such as SCSI. The PC motherboard form factors generally available include the following. the Baby AT. . Baby – AT NLX LPX Backplane systems ATX Proprietary designs BAT(Baby –AT) The Baby AT (BAT) format reduced the dimensions of the motherboard to a typical 9in wide by 10in long. All designs are open standards and as such don’t require certification. As higher speed devices become available. 2.obviating the need for separate sound or graphics adapter cards . and dictates what type case is motherboard will fit into. introduced in 1989. Initially this was confined to audio and video chips . In the late 1990s there was also trend towards putting peripherals designed as integrated chips directly onto the motherboard.and the lower-speed buses are relegated to supporting roles. The form factors refer to the physical dimensions and size of the board. an AT-style keyboard connector soldered to the board and serial and parallel port connectors which are attached using cables between the physical ports mounted on the system case and corresponding connectors located on the motherboard. These problems were largely addressed by the smaller version of the full AT form factor. they are linked by faster buses .2 Motherboard Form Factors Early PCs used the AT form factor and 12in wide motherboards. A consequence is that there can be some quite wide variation in design detail between different manufacturers’ motherboards There are several common form factors used for PC motherboards.1. there have been several improvements since. Whilst this remains a common form factor. and BAT motherboards are generally characterised by their shape.Chapter -1 Name : Motherboard 17 Motherboard development consists largely of isolating performance-critical components from slower ones. While there are cost benefits to this approach the biggest downside is the restriction of future upgrade options.

6in long. The ATX design gets round the problem by moving the CPU socket and the voltage regulator to the right-hand side of the expansion bus. Room is made for the CPU by making the card slightly wider. and shrinking or integrating components such as the Flash BIOS.1. three PCI). The dimensions of a standard ATX board are 12in wide by 9. and some ATX cases might allow the use of a Baby-AT motherboard. I/O logic and keyboard controller. following a new scheme known as ATX. Its size and layout are completely different to the BAT format. due to the distance between the power supply and the CPU. and Fig 2. . an additional chassis fan or active heatsink became a necessity to maintain good airflow across the CPU. This means that removing the processor requires the removal of some or all expansion cards first. Sometimes a second heatsink was also required on these voltage regulators and together the various additional heat dissipation components caused serious obstruction for expansion slots.2in. Some BAT designs allow the use of either AT or ATX power supplies. was designed to solve these issues and marked the beginning of a new era in motherboard design.5 ATX Motherboard there’s no obstruction whatsoever to the six expansion slots (two ISA. launched in 1996. AT power supplies only provide 12V and 5V outputs to the motherboard.18 Computer Hardware With the BAT design the processor socket is located at the front of the motherboard.3 Baby –AT Motherboard System cooling relied on the AT power supply blowing air out of the chassis enclosure and. requiring additional regulators on the motherboard if 3. This means the board need only be half as deep as a full size Baby AT. one ISA/PCI. and fulllength expansion cards are intended to extend over it.1. Problems were exacerbated by the increasing speeds of Pentium-class processors. the mini ATX variant is typically of the order 11.2in by 8. ATX The Intel Advanced/ML motherboard.3V components (PCI cards or CPUs) are used. Fig 2.

power cables and peripheral connectors are located on an edge-mounted riser card.3V output is also provided directly from the power supply. This allows notebook-style power management and software-controlled shutdown and power-up. is that the ATX needs a newly designed case. Baby. with correctly positioned cut-outs for the ports. with an emphasis on ease of maintenance. is an improvement on the LPX design for low-profile systems. which is mounted on rails in the chassis. On both designs. Proprietary designs motherboards that are not one of the standard form factors such as Fullsized –AT. parallel. allowing passive heatsinks to be used in most cases. ATX or NLX are called as proprietary. so well suited for low-profile desktop cases. This also helps reduce electromagnetic interference. and relocation of the peripheral connectors allows shorter cables to be used. All expansion slots.1. It uses a fullwidth I/O shield to allow for different combinations of rear-panel I/O. but the slot must be on the motherboard. however. A consequence of this. The ATX power supply has a side vent that blows air from the outside directly across the processor and memory modules. A 3. Mini-ATX is simply a smaller version of a full-sized ATX board. and neither ATX no MiniATX boards can be used in AT-style cases. Accessibility of the processor and memory modules is improved dramatically. which reduces the ease of maintenance when such a card is implemented. NLX Intel’s NLX design. introduced in 1997. but the slot must be on the motherboard. AGP card. which reduces the ease of maintenance when such a card is implemented. serial. The design allows for use of an Fig 2. PS/2 keyboard and mouse ports are located on a double-height I/O shield at the rear. thereby reducing system noise. typically 8.8in wide by 13in long. allowing simple removal of the main motherboard. .Chapter -1 Name : Motherboard 19 The ATX uses a new specification of power supply that can be powered on or off by a signal from the motherboard.AT.6 NLX Motherboard AGP card. The NLX format is smaller. Being soldered directly onto the board generally means no need for cable interconnects to the on-board I/O ports.

the components normally found on the motherboard are located on an expansion adapter card plugged into a slot. address and control bus on the motherboard. Systems using this type of constructions are called backplane systems. hard drive controller. What is a Bus? A bus is an electronic path on which signals are sent from one part of the computer to another. 2. • If the data bus is 8 bit wide then it can transfer 8 bits of information at a time and called an 8 bit bus. sound card. • On a 8 bit data bus transferring 16 bit data requires two data transfers .20 Computer Hardware Backplane systems: One type of proprietary design is the backplane system.1. it is actually connected to the data. DMA etc. address and control lines/buses on these slots.3 Motherboard components A conventional motherboard comprises of various components such as • • • • • • Expansion slots CPU(Main Processor) Coprocessor Memory BIOS and Support circuits of chipset for interrupt. In these systems. These buses are categorizes according to the number of BINARY DIGITS (bits) that thety can transfer at a time. the board with the slots is called a backplane rather than a motherboard. When an adapter card is connected to the expansion slot. Various expansion cards are connected to the motherboards through data. Expansion Slots What is expansion slot? The expansion slots are long thin connectors on the motherboard. One can connect various expansion cards such as display card. near the backside of the computer. on these slots. These systems donot have a motherboard. network card. modem card etc.

this makes its replacement. • The bandwidth of a bus is the measure of data that can fit in the bus at a given time. Data Bus : Is a set of wires or tracks on the motherboard. the expansion slot bus can be divided into the following categories. Pentium MMX. Pentium III. The CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT(CPU) functions as the brain of every PC. . This is similar to the way you can increase water output from a pipe.8086. Pentium –II. either you can increase the pipe diameter or you can increase the water flow.80386. It is usually inserted into the socket and is not soldered onto the motherboard as many other chips are normally done. 8 bit ISA 16 bit ISA MCA EISA VESA local bus or VL bus PCI local Bus CPU (Main Processor) The main component of any motherboard is the main processor chip which controls all the inner functions of the system. Some of the common CPU chips are inter 8088. in case of any problem.Chapter -1 Name : Motherboard 21 Another very common term while talking about bus is . Address Bus : is a set of wires or tracks on the motherboard Printed Circuit Board(PCB) which is used to specify address of a memory location Depending on the width and the technology.80486. Data bus is used to transfer data from one part of the computer to another part.80286. its “ bandwidth”. very easy. Pentium – IV etc. You can increase the data movement through a bus either by increasing the bus width( from 8 bit to 16 bit) of by increasing the bus bandwidth (8 Mhz to 20 Mhz). Pentium.

• DIP(dual In-line Pin) memory chips were used on initial motherboards. The physical installation of RAM memory on the motherboard can take place in various ways. A math coproessor helps main processor in performing mathematical calculations Older system (XT. There is basically two type of memory used in a computer which are discussed in the previous chapter. For example. data and intermediate results during program executions. which is used to spped up main processor job by taking over some of the main processors work. Memory What is a memory? Memory is the place where computer stores the program(set of instructions telling ehe computer what to do). Coprocessor chips are used to help the main processor in carrying out its various functions.22 Computer Hardware Coprocessor What is a coprocessor? Coprocessor is a special purpose microprocessor. AT. It is VOLATILE type of memory. • Later SIMM ( single inline memory modules) became common. • RAM memory • ROM memory RAM memory RAM or random access memory is a read/write type of memory which is used by the processor to keep program. which lose ists content when the power supply to it is switched off. as data. and data that help the program in carrying out its operations. but the current feneration of CPU’s have math coprocessor built inside the main processor itself. AT-386) required a coprocessor chips to be inserted into special socket on the motherboard. Most common type of coprocessor is a math coprocessor. a marks sheet printing program will require students rollnumber. . name and marks obtained in various subjects etc. • Currently DIMM(dual inline memory modules) are most common memory module.

date. and time etc. It is pronounced “bye-os”. BIOS. • The BIOS also contains a program called Power-On-Self-Test or POST. video adapter etc.e it does not lose its content when the power supply to it is switched off. Phoenix. Data is written into it by the manufacturer. ROM is Non-Volatile type of memory i. but many compatible BIOS program BIOS program are available from Award. IBM made the original BIOS for their copyright product. Kilobyte is 1024 bytes Megabyte is 1024 Kilobytes Gigabyte is 1024 Megabytes Read Only Memory(ROM) ROM or Read Only Memory. communicate with each other. Nibble is collection of 4 bits. • A motherboard normally contains one or more of these ROM chips.Chapter -1 Name : Motherboard 23 Bit is a binary digit that is either 0 or 1. hard disk. as its name suggest is a read only type of memory it cannot be written. • On major advantage with the ROM is. This post program checks the motherboard and other devices connected to the computer during the system power-on time. information. BIOS program lets your application program and the hardware such as floppy disk. American Megatrends Inc. whereas as AT system requires 256KB of ROM. . BIOS What is BIOS? BIOS is an abbreviation if Basic Input Output System. CMOS(Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) Memory In old IBM XT or compatible system.64 KiloByte (KB) was normally sufficient for a XT system. (AMI) etc. Byte is collection of 8 bits. • The memory capacity of a ROM varies from one type of system to another. various manufacturers. • IBM AT and higher systems do not contain these jumper switches and instead use a CMOS memory to store the system configuration. It is one of the most important program stored in the ROM. detected what all components are connected to the computer system. with the help of jumpers.

Support Chips/Chipsets Apart from the processor chip and the memory. • A typical system required interrupt controller. • Many of these chipset maker include serial and parallel ports. Motherboard also contains many controller chips and other devices which everything together. • The IBM PC. . explaining the problem. When an AT or higher system is switched on. I/O peripheral interface chip etc. Cache Memory: A small amount (normally less than 1MB) of high-speed memory residing on or close to the CPU. Pentium etc. and display adapter on the chipset itself. use standard Inter chips intended for any computer built around an Intel CPU. and now just two or three of these VLSIC chips can do the work which were previously performed by dozens of different chips. • A typical chipset contains in one or two VLSIC chips all the support logic required by the processor to function as a complete system. Cache memory supplies the processor with the most frequently requested data and instructions. Bus controller chip. this battery helps it retains the information stored in it even when the system is switched off. Timer chip. Level 1 cache (primary cache) is the cache closest to the processor. Level 2 cache (secondary cache) is the cache second closest to the processor and is usually on the motherboard. to make the computer work as a complete unit. the BIOS displays some error message. • Modern developments in electronics have made it possible to produce VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATED CIRCUITS(VLSIC). Large-scale integration along with high –capacity memory chips has let to even fewer components on a PC’s motherboard. DMS controller. USB support. BIOS matches the information stored inside the CMOS with the components connected to the system and if it finds some mismatch or error.24 Computer Hardware • This CMOS memory receives power from a battery accompanying it. AT. Clock chip. floppy and hard disk controllers. • These set of VLSIC chips are called ‘CHIPSETS’. LAN and audio support. XT.

as an incorrectly setup motherboard can cause the system to malfunction or even crash. 3. see the white sticker on the side of the last ISA slot or the prints on the board itself. 5. SMPS etc. the configuration options are stored in CMOS RAM and are set using the SETUP utility in the BIOS ROM. 4. Short questions :1. 2. 5. NLX. Memory. Explain briefly about the Motherboard Form Factors? 2. Form factors of motherboard are Baby-AT. 4. LAN.Chapter -1 Name : Motherboard 25 Motherboard Configuration A typical motherboard has several options and proper configuration is required to select the required hardware setup. • In the AT and later machines. LPX. 3. 2. To identify motherboard model. The motherboard configuration should always be perfect. Integrated motherboards have features such as graphics. ATX. • Most of the PC and XT class motherboards are set/configured using jumpers or switches on the motherboard. Briefly explain the components of Motherboard? . Summary 1. Motherboard is the main circuit of PC. It holds important components like CPU. What is a motherboard? Name the components of a motherboard? What is Cache Memory? What is an integrated motherboard? How can I identify the model and manufacturer name for my motherboard? Essay Type questions: 1. audio. etc integrated onto the motherboard and aim at providing solutions for the cost-conscious users.

26 Computer Hardware Ports 2.2. USB ports are only a few years old. Parallel ports are a more recent invention and are much faster than serial ports. because serial ports have been around for decades. . the serial port has been an integral part of most computers for more than 20 years. The serial ports were originally used for devices that must communicate bi-directional with the system. PDAs and digital cameras. as do some printers.2.1Two serial ports on the back of a PC Essentially. serial ports provide a standard connector and protocol to let you attach devices. most modems still use the serial port. Newer parallel port standards now allow the parallel port to perform highspeed bi-directional communications. Although many of the newer systems have done away with the serial port completely in favor of USB connections. Such devices include modems. Few computers have more than two serial ports. mice. such as modems. UART Needed All computer operating systems in use today support serial ports. Fig 2.2 Serial ports How Serial Ports work? Considered to be one of the most basic external connections to a computer. That is. The name “serial” comes from the fact that a serial port “serializes” data. 1.1 Introduction The most basic communication ports in any PC system are the serial and parallel ports. scanners and any other devices that “ talk to” and receive information from the PC. to your computer.2. and will likely replace both serial and parallel ports completely over the next several years.

are bi-directional.2. The UART chip takes the parallel output of the computer’s system bus and transforms it into serial form for transmission through the serial port. Serial devices use different pins to receive and transmit data — using the same pins would limit communication to half-duplex. the primary use of a serial port was to connect a modem to your . Originally. high speed serial ports. it sends a stop bit to signal that the byte is complete.Unit II Chapter -2 Name : Motherboard 27 it takes a byte of data and transmits the 8 bits in the byte one at a time. Serial ports lower cable costs and make cables smaller. Bidirectional communication allows each device to receive data as well as transmit it. most UART chips have a built-in buffer of anywhere from 16 to 64 kilobytes. This buffer allows the chip to cache data coming in from the system bus while it is processing data going out to the serial port. After each byte of data. Serial ports rely on a special controller chip. Serial ports. in which information can travel in both directions at once. While most standard serial ports have a maximum transfer rate of 115 Kbps (kilobits per second). Fig 2. Before each byte of data. The Serial Connection The external connector for a serial port can be either 9 pins or 25 pins. to function properly.2 This 40-pin Dual Inline Package (DIP) chip is a variation of the Na- tional Semiconductor NS16550D UART chip. The disadvantage is that it takes 8 times longer to transmit the data than it would if there were 8 wires. also called communication (COM) ports. a serial port sends a start bit. the Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART). which is a single bit with a value of 0. In order to function faster. Using different pins allows for full-duplex communication. such as Enhanced Serial Port (ESP) and Super Enhanced Serial Port (Super ESP). The advantage is that a serial port needs only one wire to transmit the 8 bits (while a parallel port needs 8). meaning that information could only travel in one direction at a time. can reach data transfer rates of 460 Kbps. It may also send a parity bit.

Pin is grounded. 6.28 Computer Hardware computer.Transmit Data . 4. Let’s take a closer look at what happens at each pin when a modem is connected.Computer sends information to the modem.3 Close-up of 9-pin and 25-pin serial connectors 9-pin connector: 1. The pin assignments reflect that. .Modem tells the computer that it is ready to talk. Receive Data . Carrier Detect . 3. Fig 2. 2.2.Computer tells the modem that it is ready to talk.Data Terminal Ready .Data Set Ready . 5.Computer receives information sent from the modem.Signal Ground .Determines if the modem is connected to a working phone line.

Not Used: Transmit Current Loop Return (+) 10. Signal Ground .Computer sends information to the modem.Chapter -2 Name : Motherboard 7.Computer asks the modem if it can send information. Clear To Send . Ring Indicator .Modem tells the computer that it can send information. Transmit Data . Not Used 20. 7. Not Used 2. 3. 9. Receive Data . 8. Not Used: Transmit Current Loop Data (-) 12. Data Terminal Ready . Not Used 14. Not Used 13. Not Used 15. Data Set Ready . Request To Send . Not Used 11. Not Used 17. Not Used: Receive Current Loop Data (+) 19. 5.Computer 29 .Modem tells the computer that it can send information. Not Used 18. 8. 9. Clear To Send . 6. 25-pin connector: 1. Request To Send . Not Used 16.Pin is grounded. computer acknowledges signal (sent from modem) that a ring is detected.Modem tells the computer that it is ready to talk.Once a call has been placed. 4.Computer receives information sent from the modem.Computer asks the modem if it can send information. Received Line Signal Detector Determines if the modem is connected to a working phone line.

21.2. While USB is becoming increasingly popular. 23.3 Parallel ports How Parallel Ports Work? If you have a printer connected to your computer.Once a call has been placed. Not Used 22. Fig 2. Ring Indicator .4 A typical parallel port on the back of your computer Parallel ports can be used to connect a host of popular computer peripherals: Printers Scanners . Not Used 24.30 Computer Hardware tells the modem that it is ready to talk.. Not Used: Receive Current Loop Return (-) Voltage sent over the pins can be in one of two states. Not Used 25.2. while Off (binary value “0”) means that it is transmitting a signal between +3 and +25 volts. On (binary value “1”) means that the pin is transmitting a signal between -3 and -25 volts. On or Off. 2. computer acknowledges signal (sent from modem) that a ring is detected. the parallel port is still a commonly used interface for printers.. there is a good chance that it uses the parallel port.

When a PC sends data to a printer or other device using a parallel port. a top printer manufacturer at the time. Fig 2. DB-25. These 8 bits are transmitted parallel to each other. IBM engineers coupled a 25-pin connector.5 Instead. making this strange hybrid cable an unlikely de facto standard. Other printer manufacturers ended up adopting the Centronics interface. .Chapter -2 Name : Motherboard 31 CD burners External hard drives Iomega Zip removable drives Network adapters Tape backup drives Parallel Port Basics Parallel ports were originally developed by IBM as a way to connect a printer to your PC. the company wanted the computer to work with printers offered by Centronics. IBM decided not to use the same port interface on the computer that Centronics used on the printer. The standard parallel port is capable of sending 50 to 100 kilobytes of data per second. as opposed to the same eight bits being transmitted serially (all in a single row) through a serial port. When IBM was in the process of designing the PC. it sends 8 bits of data (1 byte) at a time. with a 36-pin Centronics connector to create a special cable to connect the printer to the computer.2.

1 Comparison of DB-25 and Centronics 36 Parallel ports SPP/EPP/ECP The original specification for parallel ports was unidirectional.32 Computer Hardware Table 2. Bidirectional communication allows each device to receive data as well as transmit it. This mode is commonly known as Standard Parallel Port (SPP) and has completely replaced the original design. IBM offered a new bidirectional parallel port design. Many devices use the eight pins . With the introduction of the PS/2 in 1987. meaning that data only traveled in one direction for each pin.2.

2.6 EPP Parallel Port Close on the heels of the introduction of EPP. It was targeted specifically for non-printer devices that would attach to the parallel port.2. Fig 2.3 ECP Pins . particularly storage devices that needed the highest possible transfer rate.2.Chapter -2 Name : Motherboard 33 (2 through 9) originally designated for data. Microsoft and Hewlett Packard jointly announced a specification called Extended Capabilities Port (ECP) in 1992. originally just used as grounds. ECP was designed to provide improved speed and functionality for printers Table 2. While EPP was geared toward other devices. Table 2. Using the same eight pins limits communication to half-duplex. to be transferred each second.2 EPP Pins Enhanced Parallel Port (EPP) was created by Intel. 500 kilobytes to 2 megabytes. meaning that information can only travel in one direction at a time. Xircom and Zenith in 1991. EPP allows for much more data. can be used as data pins also. This allows for full-duplex (both directions at the same time) communication. But pins 18 through 25.

you can do so through the BIOS on most computers. Most computers have at most two serial ports. 2.34 Computer Hardware In 1994. A sample list of USB devices that you can buy today includes: .D. would use the parallel port as well. but so did some printers and a variety of odd things like Palm Pilots and digital cameras. connecting devices to computers has been a real headache Fig 2. often with limited success and not much speed. If you need to manually select a mode. the IEEE 1284 standard was released. both the operating system and the device must support the required specification. In order for them to work. Things like Zip drives. to install the software for some of the cards. Modems used the serial port. EPP and ECP. Unfortunately. and they are very slow in most cases. It included the two specifications for parallel port devices. Just about every peripheral made now comes in a USB version.2. easy-to-use way to connect up to 127 devices to a computer. The goal of USB is to end all of these headaches. Devices that needed faster connections came with their own cards.7 USB Connector • • • • • Printers connected to parallel printer ports. ECP and EPP and will detect which mode needs to be used.4 What is USB? Anyone who has been around computers for more than two or three years knows the problem that the Universal Serial Bus is trying to solve — in the past. the number of card slots is limited and you needed a Ph. standardized.2. The Universal Serial Bus gives you a single. which had to fit in a card slot inside the computer’s case. depending on the attached device. and most computers only came with one. which need a high-speed connection into the computer. This is seldom a problem today since most computers support SPP.

serial ports and special cards that you install inside the computer’s case). Telephones 12. Video phones 13. Webcams 8. Speakers 11. Mice 4. too. serial ports and special cards that you install inside the computer’s case). so the installation of the device drivers is quick and easy. Printers 2. The operating system supports USB as well. Modems 10. These USB connectors let you attach everything from mice to printers to your computer quickly and easily. so the installation of the device drivers is quick and easy. Scientific data acquisition devices 9. These USB connectors let you attach everything from mice to printers to your computer quickly and easily. Compared to other ways of connecting devices to your computer (including parallel ports. Network connections How USB Ports Work ? Just about any computer that you buy today comes with one or more Universal Serial Bus connectors on the back. USB devices are incredibly simple! USB Connections Connecting a USB device to a computer is simple — you find the USB connector on the back of your machine and plug the USB connector into it. USB devices are incredibly simple! Just about any computer that you buy today comes with one or more Universal Serial Bus connectors on the back. too. . Storage devices such as Zip drives 14. Flight yokes 6. The operating system supports USB as well.Chapter -2 Name : Motherboard 35 1. Compared to other ways of connecting devices to your computer (including parallel ports. Digital cameras 7. Joysticks 5. Scanners 3.

and the cable has an “A” connection on it. you can plug any “A” connector into any “A” socket and know that it will work. If the device has already been installed. By using different connectors on the upstream and downstream end.2. the computer activates it and starts talking to it.8 USB Connections If it is a new device. .10 Typical “B” connection “A” connectors head “upstream” toward the computer. Many USB devices come with their own built-in cable.9A typical “A” connection Fig 2. If not.2. you know that it will work. The USB standard uses “A” and “B” connectors to avoid confusion: Fig 2.2. then the device has a socket on it that accepts a USB “B” connector.36 Computet Hardware Fig 2. it is impossible to ever get confused — if you connect any USB cable’s “B” connector into a device. USB devices can be connected and disconnected at any time. Similarly. the operating system auto-detects it and asks for the driver disk. “B” connectors head “downstream” and connect to individual devices.

Parallel port allows you to connect to Printers. 2. Serial port allows you to connect to Mouse. USB port. USB allows you to connect you to Webcam. 3. Explain briefly how parallel port works? 3. 3. 5. 2. Name the different types of ports in a Computer? Name few devices that connect to Parallel Port? What is USB port? In how many forms serial port is available? What is the maximum number of devices which you can connect using USB? 6. 4. EPP and SPP? Essay type Questions: 1. 4.Chapter -2 Name : Motherboard 37 Summary: 1. Expand ECP. Short Type Questions: 1. Modem etc. Parallel port. Explain about UART and its need? . What is the use of USB ‘A’ connector and USB ‘B’ connector? 7. Explain briefly how serial port works? 2. Videophones. Scanners etc. The main type of ports available on a PC are Serial port.

Basic Input Output System: This refers to the collection of drivers for the various hardware components attached to the computers. disk drives.1 BIOS Chip BIOS in most PCs has four main functions POST (Power-On Self Test): The POST tests your computers processor. and other basic system settings. CMOS setup : This is normally a menu driven program that allows you to configure the motherboard and chipset settings. BIOS. keyboard and other important components. that does support your new hardware.1. Hard disks. Fig 3. . Bootstrap Loader: A routine that finds the operating system and loads it in RAM. along with date and time. chipset. Floppies. this problem can be solved by replacing your BIOS with a newer one. passwords. Some older PC’s cannot co-operate with all the modern hardware because their BIOS doesn’t support that hardware. or by installing a device driver for the hardware. video adaptor.38 Computer Hardware BIOS & CMOS 3.1. BIOS stand for Basic Input Output System.1 Introduction: All motherboards must have a special chip containing software called the ROM BIOS or BIOS. memory. The operating system cannot call a BIOS routine to use it.

1. multiple-stage boot loaders are used. It will then be able to load the operating system proper. until the last of them loads the operating system. in which several small programs call upon each other. A boot sequence is the set of operations the computer performs when it is switched on which load an operating system. but only a second-stage boot loader. 3. and may load device drivers and other programs that are needed for the normal operation of the OS. stored in ROM. on the IBM PC and compatibles. Boot loaders may face peculiar constraints.2 Bootstrap loader Definition: A routine that finds the operating system and loads or boots it. but is tailor-made specifically so that it is capable of loading enough other software for the operating system to start. and finally transfer execution to it. A BIOS (basic I/O system). but is tailor-made specifically so that it is capable of loading enough other software for the operating system to start.1.Unit III Chapter -1 Name : Bios & Cmos 39 3. The name bootstrap loader comes from the image of one pulling oneself up by one’s bootstraps This program doesn’t have the full functionality of an operating system. In modern PC machines the way a computer boots is roughly: 1. until the last of them loads the operating system. If an operating system is found it is loaded and given control of your computer This program doesn’t have the full functionality of an operating system. contains . Second-stage boot loader The small program is most often not itself an operating system. such as NTLDR. Often. for instance. The system will initialize itself. in which several small programs summon each other.3 Booting In computing. the first stage of boot loaders is always 512 bytes in length and ends with the AA55h value (which the BIOS looks at to ensure that it is a proper boot loader). multiple-stage boot loaders are used. especially in size. Often. booting is a bootstrapping process that starts operating systems when the user turns on a computer system. LILO or GRUB.

4. etc. the sequence is essentially the same. 5. waiting a minute for the television to come up is not acceptable. The program found at the MBR is the boot loader which is specific to the OS being booted. Most embedded systems must boot almost instantly — for instance. 6. they bring up some services before others. Therefore they have their whole operating system in ROM or flash memory. The OS finishes initializing itself then starts optional services and device drivers before the machine begins to respond to normal input. BIOS has four components. Typical modern PCs boot in about a minute (of which about 15 seconds are taken by the preliminary boot loaders. The boot loader finds the OS and prepares the hardware (memory. 3. which pulls part of the operating system from hard disk. The steps for the system to start is called booting sequence. so it can be executed directly.) for starting the OS. 4. but the BIOS is in the ROM of a network card which fetches the boot loader program from the network. Expand BIOS? 2. In the case of a network boot. 3. What is boot sequence? . where a machine may be diskless. while large servers may take several minutes to boot and to start all services . Summary: ensure high availability. BIOS stands for Basic Input Output System. Bootstrap loader is a program. Short type questions: 1. Bootstrap loader is multistaged. 2. and the rest by the one loading the operating system). The boot process is considered complete when the computer is ready to interact with the user or the operating system is capable of running ordinary applications. BIOS includes low level routines which can directly talk to hardware. disk.40 Computer Hardware the program that checks the disk drives for a MBR (master boot record). 2.

What are the different components of BIOS? 5.Chapter -1 Name : Bios & Cmos 3. Name few companies who make BIOS? 4. Define bootstrap loader? List the stages in it? Long type questions: 1. Describe different steps of booting a system? 41 .

some basic settings are provided for your information. IDE Advanced BIOS features includes Virus Program . HALT. Enable or disable as you wish. Cache – Allows the system to use the cache memory Quick POST .2.. Boot Sequence . You may enable or disable the following: • Chipset Special Features • L2 Cache Size – . Floppy Disk Drive. Boot Numlock CPU Serial Number -This identifies the CPU serial number in Intel CPUs.This deals with the rate by which holding a keyboard character down produces repeated characters on the screen. VGA/ EGA. Video BIOS Shadow – Advanced Chipset Settings You should not need to bother with this section. • • • • Typematic Rate Settings . Swap Floppy Drives – Used if you have two floppy drives and you wish to assign the A and B drives letters interchangably Fast A20 Gate – Is used to increase speed of the computer.Will scan your hard drive at startup and warn you of trouble.Controls the order in which bootable information is searched.Allows BIOS to boot-up faster by skipping some tests. However.42 Computer Hardware figuration 3.1 : Standard BIOS features inculde date and time.

If you are using one or more expansion cards and your motherboard also has the same options. Power Management This is for sophisticated tweaking. Integrated Peripherals Enable the ports you intend to use.Chapter -2 Name : Bios Features and Configuration • • • • • • 43 DRAM Parity Checking – DRAM Parity/ECC Mode – DRAM Clock Control – DRAM Frequency – AGP Mode – AGP Aperture – There will most likely be many more options available to you. you need to disable the motherboard options to allow the use of the expansion cards. It is best to leave these alone at least for the initial boot-up. leave at default (disable) as available. and maybe forever. Most selections should be left at default. but two deserve your attention: • PnP OS Installed • Reset Configuration Data – . But for now. which we are not doing now. and maybe best left alone permanently. Your manual will best describe the different options available. if you are interested. PnP/PCI Configuration This section controls aspects of “Plug-n-Play” and the PCI bus. disable the ports you intend not to use: IDE Ports USB Serial & Parallel Ports Motherboard Integrated Hardware – Expansion Card Hardware .

This section allows you to control computer settings related to minute voltage settings. feel free to use it. such as voltage levels.44 Computer Hardware PC Health Also known by other names.2 Configuration of system through BIOS CMOS ( Complementary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor) : You can change hardware configurations that are stored in the CMOS. or Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor. If you use it. internal processor temperature. CPU multiplier selection. a few clicks will set all default settings automatically without your need to attend to individual settings. the entire BIOS system will lock and you will only be able to use your computer after the entire BIOS system is reset. Defaults In many BIOS versions. There are two passwords. Should you loose it. 3. In some versions you can set the temperature at which the computer would automatically shut down. be very sure to record your password somewhere safe. Some versions offer “Failsafe” defaults as well as “Optimized” defaults. Passwords Many BIOS versions have a Password section to allow for the use of passwords. 1) System Password: This feature helps user to set password to protect unauthorized users from using the system. If a Default section is available in your BIOS version. this section monitors some very basic operational settings. fan speed. and the system bus speed. 2) CMOS setup Password: This allows the system administrator to only set the system configuration for the users.2. SoftMenu / Frequency-Voltage Control This is for use by those with “jumperless” motherboards. which we can set. .

plus a lot more. which never (should. CMOS is the name of a technology which needs very low power so the computer’s battery is not too much in use. For more information on optimizing these performance .2. how fast your PCI bus communicates with its adaptor cards. The reason for this is that the CMOS setup allows you to specify how fast your computer reads from memory. whether or not your CPU’s cache is enabled or disabled.1 CMOS setup Note: The above CMOS setup varies from manufacturer to manufacturer To perform its tasks. These are permanently saved in a little piece (64 bytes) of CMOS RAM (short: CMOS). whether or not your cache is enabled or disabled. now it’s part of such a highly Integrated Circuit (IC). Therefore.. so its contents will not be lost after the PC is turned off. The memory was in earlier times a part of the clock chip.) lose its information. the BIOS need to know various parameters (hardware configuration). there is a battery and a small RAM memory on board. The CMOS power is supplied by a little battery.. Your PC’s performance can be highly affected by the CMOS settings.Chapter -2 Name : Bios Features and Configuration 45 Fig 3.

In order for your hard drive to work with your system. That means you have to act very quickly in order to enter BIOS. Therefore. Luckily. The one you need to use could be F1. F2. Design Variations Each manufacturer also has a different design and arrangement to its BIOS Setup Utility. so the boot up has become faster. After you know the key. As computers become more powerful and faster. then you’ll be able to press the key at just the right time to enter BIOS. it must be configured in the CMOS setup. The exception to that rule is SCSI drives with adaptor cards. In fact. Floppy drives can be setup in the CMOS as well. the CMOS setup allows you to specify disk drive and memory configuration. During boot up. The first thing you must do is to discover what letter or key on the keyboard you must press (at exactly the right time) in order to get into BIOS. Microsoft now has what is called Rapid Booting in which their systems boot up within seven seconds. the use of the Pause button (upper right-hand corner of the keyboard) can help. and other configuration options can be changed as well. Ctrl. use the following list of BIOS settings only as a rough guide. Getting Into CMOS setup Before you can begin BIOS configuration. as most have their own built in BIOS. Wouldn’t you know. You enter by pressing the correct key. it is necessary to get into the BIOS Setup Utility.46 Computer Hardware settings. It will be stated very clearly on the screen and is often (not always) in the lower left corner. each manufacturer uses a different key. Additionally. the BIOS entrance page will flash on the screen for a second or two. You may have to boot up once or twice just to have enough time to look around that page and see which key they want you to use to enter BIOS. . or any other key. The BIOS Setup Utility is entered during the booting-up of the system. a: can be made to be b: in many systems. Alt.

Chapter -2 Name : Bios Features and Configuration 47 General Rule There are several approaches to Bios settings. this is an initial configuration of BIOS. IDE will either be on the setup menu or on its own menu. The Floppy Disk Drive is set to 1. For the purpose of this configuration. Many BIOS Utilities have a Default Section where you can set all default settings automatically without the need to attend to individual settings. In HALT select ON to stop the PC from repeatedly rebooting. 5. Video is set to VGA/EGA. The date and time are correct. However. At least for now. There is certainly merit to that approach. Advanced BIOS Settings The following can be enabled or disabled.44MB.5 inches. using the Enter key. we sug- . so it is wise to take a conservative approach.(Only some BIOS have this. Some like to use BIOS settings to make their system run exactly the way they prefer.) Perform an IDE Auto-Detection now. and arrow directions. Standard CMOS Setup Make sure that: 1. only use default settings when possible. 4. Set IDE for Auto-Detection. You can use your mouse or use the keyboard for selections. BIOS Help is usually at Alt+H. It’s a good idea to use it. 3. 3. 2. Escape key.

enable. then for this initial boot-up set CDROM as first. This deals with the rate by which holding a keyboard character down produces repeated characters on the screen.Set to the speed of the system bus. “Second Boot Device”. This identifies the CPU serial number in Intel CPUs. • DRAM Clock Control .This is usually disabled. disable. • CPU Serial Number . if your System Boot is on floppy disk.Disable. Advanced Chipset Settings You should not need to bother with this section.48 Compur Hardware gest you do the following: • The Virus Program . hard drive as second. and A: Drive as third. You may enable or disable the following: • Chipset Special Features . enable ECC Error Checking. • Boot Numlock . and so on.Select which one you are using. • DRAM Parity/ECC Mode . • Video BIOS Shadow . However. then set A: Drive as first.Enable. If you turn your computer off daily. • Fast A20 Gate . • L2 Cache Size . • Swap Floppy Drives . • DRAM Parity Checking .Enable only if using parity memory. If your System Boot is on the O/S Installation CD.(If available) Disable. Only enable if you have two floppy drives and you wish to assign the A and B drive letters interchangeably. However. • Quick POST . • Typematic Rate Settings . . In other versions you have separate settings for “First Boot Device”. and CD-ROM as third. hard drive as second.Disable or default. some basic settings are provided for your information. and also.Privacy buffs disable it. • Cache .(If available) Set to match size of your external cache.Leave at default.If you leave your computer on most of the time. • Boot Sequence -In some versions you may select options.Enable or disable as you wish. if available.Enable.

set to AUTO when possible. • AGP Aperture . which we are not doing now. Know what you’re doing before changing these settings.Set to the speed of your memory (such as 166).Enable.Device options may be available. .Enable. • DRAM Frequency . if used. disable the ports you intend not to use: • IDE Ports . Your manual will best describe the different options available. leave at default (disable) as available. this is normally fine. It is best to leave these alone at least for the initial boot-up.Enable if you will use both. and maybe best left alone permanently. if you are interested.Sets the amount of memory space available for graphics. Set to 64 MB. some super-tweaker types may like playing with the settings in this section. At a later time. There will most likely be many more options available to you. Serial & Parallel Ports .” If available. and maybe forever. most new drives do. A wrong setting can cause damage.Chapter -2 Name : Bios Features and Configuration 49 which should be the default. leave at default. if so.Enable IDE HDD Block Mode if your hard drive supports it.Enable IDE pre-fetch only if your IDE interface supports it. Integrated Peripherals Enable the ports you intend to use. . . which most likely it does. • AGP Mode . But for now. Power Management This is for sophisticated tweaking. if used. • • USB . Otherwise. .Set to “uto.

or network hardware as you wish.50 Computer Hardware . fan speed. this section monitors some very basic operational settings.Usually set to Disabled. sound.If not controlled by jumpers. Leave all settings at default or AUTO. internal processor temperature.If you are using one or more expansion cards and your motherboard also has the same options. This section allows you to control computer settings related to minute voltage settings. EPP.Set the parallel port mode to ECP. if a system reconfiguration has previously caused a serious error that rendered the O/S un-bootable.Enable or “Yes”. In some versions you can set the temperature at which the computer would automatically shut down. or both. you may wish to enable this option. This is the section that would also be used by those wishing to overclock their computer system (Not recommended right now). you need to disable the motherboard options to allow the use of the expansion cards. and the system bus speed. This allows you to run “Plug-n-Play” programs. SoftMenu / Frequency-Voltage Control This is for use by those with “jumperless” motherboards. • Motherboard Integrated Hardware . • Reset Configuration Data . If you don’t know which to pick. but two deserve your attention: • PnP OS Installed . you may enable or disable video. such as voltage levels. • Expansion Card Hardware . This allows you to add hardware and software without trouble (in theory). PnP/PCI Configuration This section controls aspects of “Plug-n-Play” and the PCI bus. It will enable you to reset the Extended System Configuration Data (ESCD) when you exit BIOS setup. . Most selections should be left at default. However. CPU multiplier selection. PC Health Also known by other names. leave at default.

2.Chapter -2 Name : Bios Features and Configuration 51 Defaults In many BIOS versions. This will automatically reboot your machine. or the floppy System Boot Disk is in Drive A:. Passwords Select change password option to set new password. Exit BIOS Setup Utility. Now system prompts Enter New Password :******* Retype New Password :******* New password installed. Using CMOS we can set the password when system is booting. Some versions offer “Fail-safe” defaults as well as “Optimized” defaults. Make sure your O/S Installation Disk with System Boot is in the CD-ROM drive. 4. Short questions: 1. You have now finished BIOS configuration Summary: 1. CMOS includes various items through which we can decide the systems behavior. BIOS is powered by a battery which resides on motherboard. If a Default section is available in your BIOS version. What is CMOS setup? . 3. 4. a few clicks will set all default settings automatically without your need to attend to individual settings. CMOS is a menu driven program to configure BIOS. feel free to use it. To Finish: 1. Click “Save” 2. 3. press any key to continue.

How do you set system password and CMOS password? 2. Name few BIOS features? 3. What are the features available in ADVANCED BIOS SETTINGS? Essay Type questions: 1. Name few BIOS features and explain briefly? 3. How do you configure BIOS? Name few features of CMOS? .52 Computer Hardware 2.

1 Introduction : Operating system: It is a software which allows the users to use computers. the following procedure would completely erase your hard disk and the data would be unrecoverable. Warning . Windows 9x. If your system has no problems booting you will be presented with a Windows boot disk menu. like Windows 9x. You will be presented with following message: . Before a new hard disk can be used it needs to be setup. Linux.if you are setting up a hard disk which contains data. so choose the option to boot without CD-ROM support. 4. FDISK. which is incapable of performing any work. Without OS a computer is a mere machine. Solaris etc In this chapter we will learn how to install DOS and Windows 98 operating system.Unit IV Chapter -1 Name : Installing different operating systems like DOS and Windows 53 4. From A: command prompt type fdisk. OS/2 . This gives you the option to start the system with or without CD-ROM support.COM are the files required in your bootable floppy disk. You should end up in the MS DOS prompt A: (A drive). It forms the basis for next generation of operating systems. Ex : DOS.1.1.EXE and FORMAT. DOS is one of the oldest operating system. Start the partition and format procedure by booting your PC using a Windows boot disk. This involves partitioning and formatting the hard disk.2 Hard Disk Partitions This procedure explains how to setup a new hard disk. Windows 98 or ME boot disk contains the required software to perform this procedure. Make sure you set the BIOS so that the boot sequence is set to detect the floppy disk first. At this stage you do not need the CD-ROM support.

. From the menu. You will now be presented with the FDISK main menu as shown below. choose option 1 . Another menu will present the following options.54 Computer Hardware Choose “Y” to enable large disk support.Create DOS partition or Logical DOS drive.

Your drive is now known as C: (C drive). FDISK verifies the integrity of your drive and will ask you if want to use the maximum available size of your hard disk to create the primary partition and set it active. Press “Esc” to return to the menu. Don’t worry about the message as you do not have any data in the new hard disk. ALL DATA ON NONREMOVABLE DISK DRIVE C: WILL BE LOST. Like D. When the partition has been created successfully you will be notified by the system. E .Create primary DOS Partition. To keep things simple we will create one large partition. The format will proceed and would show you a progress . Choose “Y” to use maximum available space. When the system reboots. If you want to create extended DOS partitions. While booting from floppy disk you might get error message like “Invalid media type reading drive C” this is OK for this stage as the hard disk is not formatted. And remaining space can be utilized to create logical drives in the extended partition. specify the size of the partitions in the bytes for primary partition. You need to restart your system for the changes to take affect. Proceed with Format (Y/ N)?”. Leave boot disk in the drive. F etc. From A: command prompt type format c: You will get a message saying “WARNING.Chapter -1 Name : Installing different operating systems like DOS and Windows 55 Choose option 1 . Choose “Y”. Press “Esc” again to exit FDISK. choose start without CD-ROM from the boot disk menu.

Configuring your BIOS for the Install: To find out how to access the BIOS please refer to your motherboard manual or the manufacturer of your computer. Run Z:\INSTALL Read Copyright agreement Click on OK Choose the hard drive on which you want to install the program and click on NEXT 5. When you have completed your choices. You are restricted to eight Notes under DOS. Click on MS-DOS and click on NEXT 8. Repeat the above procedure with the Notes. click on NEXT 10. 3. You are now ready to install an operating system 4.4 Windows 98 Installation This is what you will need before installing windows 98.1. 1. Computer with CD-ROM Access. This could be around 5-30 minutes. The time it takes to format a hard disk depends on the size and speed of the drive. click on NEXT Click on FINISH to complete the installation 4.56 Computer Hardware indicator. 2. (The system bios can usually be entered on .3 DOS Installation 1. When you have completed your choices. Once the format is complete you need to reset your system. ensuring that it is highlighted. Please note that you are restricted to a maximum of nine versions under DOS. click on NEXT 9. Windows 98 CD. When you have completed your choices. 2. Click on the right-hand arrow and repeat procedure for each version you wish to install. Choose the directory (Default \BIBLE) and click on NEXT 6. Repeat the procedure for the Topics.1. Click on each versions you wish to install. 4. Click on INSTALL DATA FILES TO HARD DRIVE and click on NEXT 7. Use the scroll bar on the right to view all available versions.

8. Just press enter. please wait. Now the graphical Windows 98 Setup Screen will come up. 7. Scandisk will now run. United States should be chosen by default. Setup will now prompt you what type of install. 6. After ScanDisk completes Windows will copy a few important files for setup.Chapter -1 Name : Installing different operating systems like DOS and Windows 57 boot. Type in the required information and click next 17. Select your country settings. Choose typical if you have a desktop computer or portable if it is a laptop. Click continue and wait for the setup wizard to complete. Setup will now check for installed components and disk space. Insert CD and restart PC. 10. Now your computer will install some drivers so please wait a few moments. 14. Setup then wants to do some system tests. just choose continue. Now it will ask you in which directory to install Windows to. be patient. Press enter. Setup will now prepare the directory. 2. 12. Starting The Setup: 1. please wait. If you are unsure or don’t want to enter the BIOS then just test the computer by putting the CD-ROM in the drive and rebooting the computer. 15. (Start Windows 98 Setup from CD-ROM) 4. F10 or DEL key. Make sure you save the settings before exiting. 11. 9. please wait. 5. Select Option 1. 16. Windows will prompt you to install components. This will take a pretty long time. Then the Windows 98 Startup Menu will come up. 13. Now finally the main part of Setup is here. Now a blue setup screen will come up. . The default directory is just fine so click next. Setup will start copying files. usually by pressing the F1. If a network card is detected a network information screen will appear. This is the recommended way to install windows 98. 18. F2. Once the Windows 98 Setup Menu comes up choose option 2 (Boot from CD-ROM) 3. F8.

Enjoy your new freshly installed Windows . Windows will continue to setup Windows items. Once setup is done copying files Windows will restart automatically. Now the License Agreement. Now finally you have reached the Windows Desktop! 39. Next click on Finish. 24. date. Setup will now install plug and play devices. 35. Setup will now finalize the hardware and install settings. The Windows 98 Startup Menu will appear. If you select “”I don’t accept the Agreement” then setup will end. Setup will continue installing hardware. Windows will boot for the third time. Windows will start booting for the second time. Now Windows will prompt you for user information. Now input your product key computer. 37. The computer will restart automatically once again.58 Computer Hardware 19. 33. Select option 1 (Boot from Hard Disk) 36. Click next to continue. 26. 32. 23. enter it and click continue. Once selected click on apply and then ok. 27. 34. Now setup will prompt you to enter in your time. The Windows 98 Startup Menu will appear. Read and if you agree click on “I accept the Agreement” and click next. 20. 28. and time zone. Select option 1 (Boot from Hard Disk) 30. 29. Windows will update system settings. 38. Select option 1 (Boot from Hard Disk) 21. The Windows 98 Startup Menu will appear. 25. If everything is working properly then you shouldn’t worry about them. You also may need to install your hardware drivers. Your computer will restart automatically. 31. The Windows 98 booting screen will appear! 22.

4. compilers etc and Application software is used to solve users problems for ex: MSWord. What is an operating system and give examples? Expand DOS? Define system and application software? Briefly explain the procedure to install DOS? Long type questions: 1. 3. 3. Short type questions: 1. Before an Operating system is installed a hard disk has to be partitioned using FDISK and FORMAT commands. There are two types of software’s. Accounting packages etc. 2. Spreadsheet. Operating system is an interface between the user and the computer.Chapter -1 Name : Installing different operating systems like DOS and Windows 59 Summary: 1. they are System software which is used to make the system usable for ex : Windows 9X. Briefly explain the procedure to create partitions in hard disk? . Briefly explain the procedure to install windows? 2. 2.

Packard. Memory and major peripherals. ROM. 1 1) Audio codes 2) On screen text messages 3) Hexa-decimal numeric codes Manufactured supplied diagnostic software.2. This manufacturer specific software normally consists of a suit of tests that thoroughly examines a system. . What is tested in POST ? Whenever you startup your computer it automatically performs a series of checks that check the primary components in the system.Compaq. For example SCSI drives. It detects sever motherboard problems. The types of diagnostic software are as follows. Peripheral diagnostic software: Many hardware devices come with specialized diagnostic software designed to test their particular functions. Operating system diagnostic software: Operating systems such as windows 9x and windows NT include a wide variety of software designed to identify and monitor the performance of various components in the computer. Dell and others make diagnostic software that is designed for their system. This software some of which is included with the system when purchased. In some cases. Hewlett. such as CPU. POST. it halts the boot process and generate an error message that often identifies the cause of the problem. On detecting the problem POST reports the problem in three ways. The POST detected problems are called the fatal errors. The power on self-test operates whenever any PC is switched on. For example IBM.60 Computer Hardware 1. the diagnostic software is installed on a special partition on the hard drive and can be accessed during a start up. If the POST encounters the problem that prevents the system from operating properly. These tests are brief and are designed to catch hard errors. assist user identifying many problems they can occur with a computer component.1 Introduction There are several types of diagnostic software available for PC’s.

Expanding each type displays the actual hardware installed in the computer. you see list of types of devices found in the system.1 Device Manager Windows 9x System/Performance Monitor The windows 9x system monitor and the windows NT system monitor performes the same function. . Both programs track specific elements of a system performance and display them in graphical format. Each entry has a properties dialogue box that enables you to configure the device. Fig 4.Unit IV Chapter -2 Name : Troubleshooting through software 61 For example we have Windows 9x device manager from the system control panel.2. and update its driver. view the hardware resources that it is using.

2.3 Resource Meter System Information and diagnostics Windows 98 system information program is an excellent addition to the operating system that provides detail information about the computer hardware and software. .62 Computer Hardware Fig 4.2.2 System Monitor Windows 9x Resource Meter This application continuously monitors the windows 9x system. GDI(Graphics Device Interface) resources. user . Fig 4.

Norton Utilities Diagnostics: This comes with Norton Utilities. including tests of the system CPU.Chapter -2 Name : Troubleshooting through software 63 Fig 4. extended and expanded memory. hard and floppy drives. For example AMIDiag(AMI) American Megatrends. This type of software is often bundled with other system maintenance and repair utilities to form a general PC software tool kit. which is an essential collection of system data safeguarding.2. Checkit Pro. Inc: is one of the largest manufacturers of PC ROM BIOS software today.4 Microsoft System Information After market diagnostic software: There are a number of manufacturers making general-purpose diagnostic software for PCs. Offers an excellent suite of testing capabilities. and video adapter and monitor. and . and has numerous features and enhancements which are not found on the simpler ROM version. troubleshooting. conventional. The AMI BIOS is found on many PCs. testing. AMIDiag is an extensive reporting and diagnostics functions support virtually all hardware found in PCs today.

And there are several other diagnostic tools like Micro-Scope. Short type questions: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Expand POST? How do POST report errors? What is trouble shooting? List the various types of Software’s available to troubleshoot? Give examples of third party softwares to troubleshoot? Long type questions: 1) Briefly explain Operating system diagnostic software with examples ? . Summary : 1) Troubleshooting stands for identifying the source of problem. PCTechnician.64 Computer Hardware repairing utilities. QAPlus/FE etc. Third party general-purpose software’s. There are three other disk utilities available which are Speedisk. Disk Doctor and Calibrate that help in hard drive diagnostics and software level repair. 2) Different methods of troubleshooting include POST.

they are spreading faster than they are being stopped. Virus: A virus is just a computer program. a virus usually tells your computer to do something you don’t want it to do. and it can usually spread itself to other files on your computer—and other people’s computers. very rarely computers used to get infected by virus i. a virus that “simply” stops a computer and displays a message until a key is pressed. For example. But unlike an application. possible with your backups also infected.1 Viruses They’re the common cold for computers. These software “pranks” are very serious. Further. those who create viruses cannot halt their spread.1.2 Most common entry points : The first question that you should ask yourself is: How do viruses get into a . causing billions of dollars worth of damage in a short amount of time. It requires a determined effort from computer users to be “virus-aware”. Like any other program. They can spread very fast across open networks such as the Internet. 5. Delayed action : Thus you won’t know you’ve got it until you have been infected for a considerable time. It is: Hidden : You cannot see it with the normal DIR command. could be fatal. it contains instructions that tell your computer what to do. even if they wanted to. Self-Replicating : It automatically copies itself.e once in a year. and even the least harmful of viruses could be life threatening. rather than continuing the unawareness that has allowed computer viruses to become such a problem. Five years ago. in the context of a hospital lifeSupport system.Unit V Chapter -1 Name : VIRUSES 65 5. we’ll show you how they operate and how to protect your PC.1. thus infecting other files and disks. What is a virus? A virus is a malicious piece of software with the following characteristics. where as the chance you receive a virus today is increased.

They do however make use of replication (propagation) techniques. They could also replicate inside the memory of a PC. their objective is to copy themselves and then infect other systems.1. Their infections or replications usually take place through e-mails.3 Types of Viruses: Worms: Worms are different to other viruses since they do not infect other files. In fact. Trojan Horses (or Trojans): . Their sole objective is to propagate or spread to other systems as quickly as possible. The most common entry-points used by viruses are the following: · Removable disk drives · Computer networks · Internet -E-mail -Web pages -File Transfers (FTP) -Downloads -Newsgroups 5. computer networks and Internet IRC Channels.66 Computer Hardware computer. or attack it? If you know the answer to this question you can prevent infection by protecting these possible virus entry-points.

The virus encodes or encrypts itself so that antivirus programs cannot easily detect it. Logic Bombs: These activate and damage an infected system only when one or more condition/ s are met. They take their name from Greek mythology (the famous wooden horse in which Greek soldiers hid so that they could enter the city of Troy undetected and then attack it). Encrypted: Rather than a virus category.Chapter -1 Name : Viruses 67 Trojans cannot be considered viruses as such. the virus de-encrypts itself and. They are not considered viruses as such. they install other programs on the computer which could be harmful. Trojans work in a similar way. . A virus could belong to another category and be also encrypted (if it uses this technique). In order to perform these activities. since they do not replicate. this is a technique that viruses could use. They seem to be harmless programs which get into a computer through any channel. encrypts itself again. when it is finished. but rather depend on the actions taken by the user (the user usually copies and/ or executes them unintentionally). When that program is executed (they have names or characteristics which trick the user into doing so).

these documents contain elements known as macros. Macros are small programs that the user can include in certain types of files.6 Advent of Antivirus Software .1. especially boot sector.68 Computer Hardware Polymorphic: These are virus that use a new technique to avoid detection by antivirus programs (they are usually the hardest viruses to find). By attacking the places in which files are stored.4 Symptoms of Virus It may appear that you have a virus in your computer. As we have already mentioned. 5. They change with every infection they carry out. but you cannot be sure that this is the case until it is detected using an antivirus tool (programs that detect and eliminate viruses). etc. However. although other types of files and documents can also be infected.1. 5. there are viruses designed to infect files that are not programs. Other elements prone to virus attack are the storage devices themselves. operations slowing down. They target program files. the content of the infected disk is lost. In this way. 5. they create a large number of copies of themselves. the computer will not start. A program is simply a file with an EXE or COM extension. files and/ or folders disappear. Some actions that can be carried out by a virus are obvious enough to be recognized and could include: messages displayed onscreen.1. which can be run to perform specific operations. the damage produced by the virus will affect all of the information they contain. The main targets of viruses are files located in storage devices such as hard and floppy disks.5 What do virus infect. the properties of some files change.

While most viruses are just annoying time-wasters. for example) significantly increased the odds that the average computer user would confront a virus because they spread so rapidly. 2. created by researchers and released in a controlled environment to examine their effect. Better be safe than sorry and confirm that they really sent it. intrusive mail that clogs up the network. Do not open any files attached to an email if the subject line is questionable or unexpected. which is unsolicited. suspicious or untrustworthy source. 3. Delete chain emails and junk email. Some viruses can replicate themselves and spread through email. Do not open any files attached to an email from an unknown. even if it appears to come from a dear friend or someone you know. 5. Viruses have been around since the early 1960s. Do not download any files from strangers. Two years ago. These types of email are considered spam. the advent of viruses that spread via e-mail (MelissaLoveLetter. Do not open any files attached to an email unless you know what it is. Do not forward or reply to any to them. the ones that do deliver a destructive payload are a real threat. But widely available Internet and e-mail access hastened their spread. though until the 1980s they were largely laboratory specimens.1. almost since the earliest computers existed. they spread slowly and passed via the “sneaker net”: floppy disks traded by people and shared between computers.Chapter -1 Name : Viruses 69 Virus experts have recorded more than 40. 4.000 viruses and their variant strains over the years. . If the need to do so is there always save the file to your hard drive before doing so. though only about 200 of those viruses are actively spreading in the wild.7 Virus Detection and Prevention Tips: 1. 5. When viruses first appeared in the wild in the 1980s. E-mail viruses today account for about 81 percent of virus infections and can infect thousands of machines in a matter of minutes.

and email . or execute any files or email Back up your files on a regular basis. download. so you’ll want to be protected. Over 500 viruses are discovered each Check with your product vendors for updates which include those for your operating system web browser. When in doubt.70 Computer Hardware 6. You should store your backup copy in a separate location from your work files. Ensure that the source is a legitimate and reputable one. If a virus destroys your files. 7. at least you can replace them with your back-up copy. Update your anti-virus software regularly. 8. don’t download the file at all or download the file to a floppy and test it with your own anti-virus software. Exercise caution when downloading files from the Internet. Not executing is the more important of these caveats. If you’re uncertain. always err on the side of caution and do not open. These updates should be at the least the products virus signature files. 9. . one that is preferably not on your computer. Verify that an anti-virus program checks the files on the download site. You may also need to update the product’s scanning engine as well. One example is the security site section of Microsoft located at http: // www.

files disappear. Internet. 2. 4. 5.Chapter -1 Name : Viruses 71 Summary: 1. Viruses usually infect the storage devices and the files stored on that. Common entry points of viruses are infected floppies. system does not start. logic bombs. Types of viruses are worms. 3. Virus is a self replicating code which can cause lots of damage. encrypted and polymorphic. Short type questions: 1) What are computer viruses? And why should I worry about them? 2) How does a computer get infected with virus? Long type questions: 1) What are the types of Viruses? Explain them in detail? 2) What are the symptoms and indications of a virus infection? 3) How do you detect and prevent virus? . Symptoms of viruses are change in file sizes. system slowdown. Trojans. Compact Disks.

2. AVG. 5. ControlPanel. Settings. including Norton AntiVirus (click Start. e-Scan. There are many antivirus software available for example Norton. McAfee. click Next.3 Installing and Configuring Norton AntiVirus These instructions may not reflect the exact appearance of Windows on your computer due to differences in Windows releases. Pccillin etc. 1. This will help ensure that you catch any potential virus problems before it spreads and becomes a major catastrophe. . 5. especially before making hard disk backups.2. if you run windows 9x or windows NT. • Print this document for reference during software installation. you must obtain a third party program to scan your system.2 Before You Start • If any anti-virus program is currently installed on your computer. • Close this window before you begin the software installation. uninstall it before proceeding. In addition it is important to select an antivirus program from a vendor that provides regular updates. • Close all other programs. These updates are essential because there are new viruses constantly being introduced. Although both Microsoft and IBM provide antivirus software in MS and PC – DOS respectively. Start the Norton Anti-Virus installer. To continue. you should perform a scan for virus programs periodically. Add/Remove Programs).72 Computer Hardware 5.1 Introduction: It’s a good idea to make scans with an antivirus program regular part of your preventive maintenance programs. No matter which of these programs you use.2.

accept the terms of the License Agreement and click Next.Antivirus 1. To continue. 73 .Unit V Chapter -2 Name : Installation of Norton .

and click Next.74 Computer Hardware Select any snap-ins to install. select Unmanaged and click Next. . 1.In the Norton Setup Type window. The Destination Folder is the location on your hard drive where Norton AntiVirus will be installed. 1. Click Next.

In the Initial Settings window. click Install. put a check-mark in the File System Realtime Protection box. and click Next. 1.Chapter -2 Name : Installation of Norton .Antivirus 75 1. To continue. .

click Close. .76 Computer Hardware 1. Read the Technical Support window. If an Old Virus Definition File window appears after the file copy and installation processes are through. 1. then click Next.

In the Run Options window. then click Next. Read the LiveUpdate window.Chapter -2 Name : Installation of Norton . select whether or not to Run 77 . 1.Antivirus 1.

2. clear (un-check) the box. . Click Finish to continue. Click Next.78 Computer Hardware LiveUpdate after installation based on the following criteria: A) If your computer has a permanent or semi-permanent high-speed connection. so that after your computer restarts in later steps. B) If you use modem Dialup Networking to connect to the Internet. check the box. you can dial into the Internet before running LiveUpdate manually. 1.

Antivirus We recommend that you restart your computer at this stage of the process. click Close. If you see an Old Virus Definition File dialog box after restarting. 79 . 16.Chapter -2 Name : Installation of Norton . click Yes.

near the clock. If your computer is already connected to the Internet. and then doubleclick the Norton AntiVirus Corporate Edition yellow shield icon in the Windows System Tray located at the bottom right of the Windows Desktop. skip to step #20. Make sure you computer is connected to the Internet.80 Computer Hardware Updating Virus Definitions with LiveUpdate 17. In the Norton AntiVirus Corporate Edition window that appears. click the LiveUpdate button. 18. . 19. and Virus Protection Update has started already.

.Chapter -2 Name : Installation of Norton . When the LiveUpdate process is through. In the LiveUpdate window that appears.Antivirus 81 20. click Finish in the LiveUpdate window that appears. select Internet and click Next. 21.

. such as at lunch time. 24. near the clock. under the item Scheduled Scans. click the item New Scheduled Scan. and click Next.82 Computer Hardware Scheduling Automatic Virus Scans 22. 23. and click Next. fill in the Name and Description fields as desired. In the Norton AntiVirus Corporate Edition window that appears. Double-click the Norton AntiVirus Corporate Edition yellow shield icon in the Windows System Tray located at the bottom right of the Windows Desktop. Set the scan to run at a time when you expect your computer to be powered on.

83 .Chapter -2 Name : Installation of Norton .Antivirus 25. and click Save. Designate the drive(s) you wish to scan by clicking the necessary checkboxes. 26 The Daily Scan job which was created now appears under the Scheduled Scans folder on the left side of the window.

AVG etc. Norton. Short type questions: 1) Define Antivirus software? 2) Name few antivirus softwares available? 3) Can Antivurs software be infected? Why? Long type questions : 1) Briefly explain the installation of Norton Antivirus? .84 Computer Hardware Summary : 1) Antivirus software is used to scan the Computer for viruses. 2) Frequently used antiviurs software are Mcafee.

Unit V Chapter -3
Name : Recovery of System through Anti-Virus patches


5.3.1 Automatic Updates of Patches:
Many of the newer versions of antivirus programs have an automatic update
feature. To use this feature, just connect to the Internet, start the antivirus
program, and click on the Update button. The Update process is completely
automated. Some programs allow you to choose to update automatically
without having to even click a button. These programs will automatically
update when you connect to the Internet.
Even if your program is set to automatically update, you should always check
to make sure that the update is actually occurring. At least once a week, you
should open your antivirus program and check to make sure that a very recent
date is listed for the time of the last update. Also, when virus activity is
extremely high, you may want to manually update in addition to the automatic
1. Double-click the Norton AntiVirus Corporate Edition yellow shield
icon in the Windows System Tray located at the bottom right of the
Windows Desktop, near the clock.

2. In the Norton AntiVirus window, click File and Schedule


Computer Hardware

3. In the Schedule Virus Definition Updates window, click the
Schedule button.

4. In the When section of the window, select a day and time you would
normally expect your computer to be powered on (up and running,
already connected to the Internet), and click OK.

5. In the Schedule Virus Definition Updates window that reappears,
click OK to save your changes.

Chapter -3
Name : Recovery of System through Anti-Virus patches


6. Exit the Norton AntiVirus program.
5.3.2 Manually Downloading
If you do not have an automatic update feature or if that feature doesn’t work
properly (it has been know to happen!), you will have to go to the
manufacturer’s Web site to manually download the virus updates. Norton
Antivirus users will go to McAfee VirusScan users can
surf over to Find the latest update for the operating system
that you are using and download it to your computer. If you have the choice
of opening or saving the file, choose Open and the file will automatically install.
If you have chosen to Save the file, you will have to complete the installation
by finding the file and double-clicking on it.
5.3.3 Scan for Viruses
1. Click on start button and go to programs or click on desktop icon
of Norton antivirus or click on the Norton antivirus icon on
status bar.
2. Click on the options available for your use. Ex: 1) If you want to scan
floppy, click on floppy option. 2) If you want to scan C drive, select
and click on it.
3. It scans and reports if any infected files are present with several
4. They are 1) Clean the virus. 2) If it cannot clean it will ask for
“Quarantine or delete” the file.
5. This is the time when you have to download the patches form the
vendor’s site and install. And now again scan the system to clean the
virus, which could not get cleaned in the previous attempt.


Computer Hardware

6. If this is not helpful to clean the virus. It is better to report to the
1. Patches can be updated either manually or
2. Schudule scan for viruses must be adopted to
protect your PC from getting infectecd.
Short type questions:
1. Give the procedure for manual download of patches?
2. Give the peocedure for autmatic download of patches?
Long type questions:
1. What is the procedure to remove virus from a computer?

FAQ’s . Virus and its threats 9. UPS 8. General dos and Don’ts about the Computer 2. Important internal devices of CPU 3. Internet Explorer b. Trouble shooting of Sound and Video Card 5.Table of Contents 1. How to secure Web browsers? a. Flash Memory & Cache Memory 4. Frequently Asked Questions . Firefox 10. Printers 7. Troubleshooting Device Manager Issues in Win XP 6.

driver CDs. call in someone with more expertise. And if you do decide to proceed with any of our Advanced Steps. Points to remember while troubleshooting • Prior to opening your computer's case. Many manufacturers offer online chat. o Keep the computer plugged into the wall but the power switch turned off when working with its internal components. o Remember to hold on to the metal part of the computer's case when handling any electrical parts. and warranty information in a safe place. Static electricity can severely damage your computer's internal components. • Hardware.) vary from machine to machine. etc. email support. as digging around inside the case can void the warranty.Basic Hardware Tips The troubleshooting tips provided here are to primarily solve an existing problem. • Keep all of your computer documentation. and other software tools vary by manufacturer. what they do. therefore knowledge of the same is necessary. . check to see if the machine's warranty is still valid. please be careful before proceeding. built-in software that controls the keyboard. • Take the appropriate safety measures. Often. • You may also try calling your PC's manufacturer for tech support. RAM. mouse. BIOS (basic input-output system. and other hardware and functions). remove. display. In case performing a certain action makes you uncomfortable. graphics card. arm yourself with a working knowledge of computer components. or replace any internal components. especially if you've already paid for it. tech support can provide quick fixes or will replace faulty components that are still under warranty. purchase an antistatic wrist strap and mat. before making any hardware adjustments – o First. processor. send it back to the manufacturer for repair. If so. and other options in addition to phone support. • Location of the computers core internal components (hard disk drive. • Before you reseat. firmware. Be sure to use your computer’s manuals before changing any settings. not to create a new one. and how they interact with one another.

you will be able to understand and learn the following  How to maintain the Computers cleanly  How to take care of the disks  Materials used for Computer cleaning  Cleaning the case & other Plastic materials  Cleaning the key board and Mouse Do:       Always shut down your computer properly Do regular Scan disk to check the hard disk surface for damage Defragment the hard drive periodically Delete all files and programs you no longer need from your computer Use an anti-virus program to prevent a virus on you computer Back up data to floppy disks or zip disks to ensure you have a copy Don't:  Do not eat around the computer  Do not drink around the computer  Do not use magnets around a computer Taking Care of disks Do:  Delete all files you no longer need from your disk  Use an anti virus program to scan for viruses on a disk  Do not try to erase and record information on a disk by write-protecting it Don’t:      Do Do Do Do Do not not not not not use magnets around a disk separate the disk remove the disk while it is in use store in extremely hot or cold locations spill liquids on the disk .Unit -1 General Do’s and Don'ts By completing this module.

An ink eraser works best  For cracks and tight places.Cleaning Hardware  Follow instructions in the manual or in help files that came with the computer or other hardware devices  Before cleaning anything. NEVER SPRAY WATER ON A COMPUTER OR OTHER ELECTRICAL DEVICES! o Wipe the surfaces with the damp cloth  For more difficult marks use the eraser. unplug it from the electrical wall socket When to clean a computer  Computers do not need to be cleaned too often if they are kept in a clean environment  Clean the computer when it looks dirty or when a device (like a mouse) does not work right  The two things that need the most cleaning are the screen and mouse Materials needed for cleaning a computer  Most cleaning materials can be found in a home or any store o soft lint-free cloth’s o soapy water .a drop or two of dishwashing detergent in a gallon of water o cotton swabs o eraser o water spray bottle to hold the soapy water o used fabric softener cloth  You may have to buy the following at a computer or office supply store o floppy disk drive cleaner kit o CD-ROM drive cleaner kit o compressed air Cleaning the case and other plastic surfaces  Use a damp lint-free cloth to clean the case o Spray the water on the cloth. It will leave streaks. use a slightly damp cotton swab Cleaning a monitor's screen  Wipe the screen with the damp lint-free cloth  Use a dry cloth to dry the screen  Use fabric softener cloth to help remove static charges on the screen o static charges attract dust to the screen o a fabric softener cloth has anti-static chemicals on it o wipe the screen very lightly with the used fabric softener cloth o Do not use a fresh fabric softener cloth. Cleaning the keyboard  Use a slightly damp cotton swab to clean in-between the keys  Wipe the outside of the keyboard with a damp cloth .

Be sure to rotate the rollers to get all of the dirt off them o Wash the ball in warm soapy water. The cleaning disk is slightly abrasive and can wear down the drivers read/write heads . You can easily damage the computer or hurt yourself o Do not touch the chips or other electrical components o Use a vacuum cleaner to remove dust carefully o Use compressed air or the blower option on a vacuum cleaner to blow out dust and other particles Floppy disk drives and other drives with removable media  Follow the instructions on the cleaning kit  Do not clean your drives too often. especially the floppy disk drive. Wipe dry with a lint-free cloth o Blow out the inside of the mouse to remove any dust o Put the mouse back together after it has dried Inside the computer's case  The inside of the computer rarely has to be cleaned and it is not recommended that this be done  If you must clean inside your computer follow the following precautions o Be very careful. Use compressed air to remove paper pieces and dust from under the keys  Do not take a keyboard apart to clean it! You may not get it back together again Cleaning a mouse  Clean the outside of the mouse with a damp cloth  To clean the inside of the mouse o Take the mouse apart  turn the mouse upside down  rotate the retaining ring until it comes free  turn the mouse right-side up and catch the ring and ball in your hand o Use damp cotton swabs to clean the rollers inside the mouse.

Video Conference Intel or AMD Dual core Processors Intel or AMD Dual Core Processor 2. Mouse. you will be able to understand Ideal configuration for the various purposes. USB Devices 800 MHz FSB 400 Mhz and 1 GB Standard Memory 120 GB SATA For Developers For TV.0 Ghz onwards 800 Mhz FSB 800 Mhz and 1 GB Standard Memory 160 GB SATA 2.6 GHz onwards Display Integrated with mother board If networked As per need Sound Card NIC Keyboard. S No Item Processor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 For Normal Office applications Intel or AMD basic level processors Processor Speed System Bus Standard Memory and Type Hard Disk 1.4 Ghz onwards 800 Mhz FSB 800 Mhz and 1 GB Standard Memory 160 GB SATA AGP card AGP card with 64 MB RAM Stereophonic 10/100 Mbps As per need Integrated 10/100 MBps As per need For Multimedia Development Intel or AMD Core 2 or Quadra processors 3Ghz 1024 MHz FSB 800 Mhz and 2 GB Standard Memory 2X160 GB SATA AGP with 256 MB RAM Stereophonic 10/100 Mbps As per need .Ideal PC CONFIGURATION By completing this module.

Drive Sound Card Connecting Cards Graphics Card RAM Processor System Fan Mother Mother Board Board . Video Card and Net work card  Installing Storage device Main parts of the computer: Floppy Drive Net Net work work Card Card CD .Unit .II Important internal devices of CPU By completing this module. you will be able to understand and learn the following  Important parts of CPU  Mother Board and its components  Memory – RAM & ROM  Sound card .

graphics cards. It is important to know what these are for. memory chips. The processor is also known as the CPU or Central Processing Unit. video. Note: Diagram of a motherboard. • This is the circuit board that contains the slots and sockets that everything else plugs into. depending on your motherboard. then the motherboard is the backbone of the computer. networking ports and USB ports.Processor: The processor is the main part of the computer. as the number of them on your motherboard will affect the number of hard disks. The greater the number of GHz the faster the speed of Personal Computer (PC) and the more expensive the processor will be. Note that the location of these components vary. sound cards. Mother Board: • If the processor is the main part of the computer and the RAM is the memory. • Many motherboards now come with onboard sound. eliminating the need for a sound card. • Several different types of slots can be found on your board. modems. network cards. optical cards. .

PCI slot: This is for cards like sound card. More and more devices like printers and scanners are connecting the computer using USB. a parallel port for a printer or scanner. a couple of LAN ports. There are several different types of memory.AGP slot: This is for the graphics card. . network least four. so make sure that mother board have plenty . which will form part of the back panel of your PC. serial ports that will rarely be used. modem etc. four USB ports and a sound port. In the example on the right there are PS/2 ports for connecting keyboard and mouse. These slots will be the ones you use most often. 4 slots = better. Back panel of CPU: There will also be a number of ports on the edge of your motherboard. CPU socket: Make sure that the socket type is right for the processor you have chosen and the case chosen. DIMM slot: This is for your memory. you only need one AGP slot. 2 slots = good.

If a template is readily available. a ROM chip becomes unusable / useless. • The most expensive stage of ROM manufacture.Read-Only Memory • It is an integrated-circuit memory chip that contains configuration data. RAM versus ROM • • • RAM provides the user random access to stored data provides only short-term memory. • ROM is commonly called firmware because its programming is fully embedded into the ROM chip. as data is fully incorporated at the ROM chip's manufacture. ROM . However. The more memory you add to a computer in theory the faster it will be.Memory RAM-Random Access Memory: • Memory is also known as RAM. duplicating the ROM chip is very easy and affordable. is creating the template. • ROM gives permanent and secure data storage. since data is permanently etched into the ROM chip. therefore. since data stored in RAM is lost when power is turned off RAM's data can frequently and speedily be altered and changed at will • ROM provides the user random access to stored data • Provides long-term storage. • ROM is hardware and software in one. • A ROM chip is also non volatile so data stored in it is not lost when power is turned off. if a mistake is made in manufacture. • ROM cannot be reconfigured at all . data stored can neither be erased nor replaced.

LAN Adapter or NIC (network interface card) is a piece of computer hardware designed to allow computers to communicate over a computer network. network adapter. Video Card: • A video card also referred to as a graphics accelerator card. Installing RAM . Most motherboards now come with built in sound chips. and numerous other terms. display adapter. graphics card. • It operates on similar principles as a sound card or other peripheral devices.Sound Card: • Responsible for any noise that comes out of your PC (apart from the whirring of fans and spinning drives). • It is an item of personal computer hardware whose function is to generate and output images to a display. Network Card: • A network card.

Inserting Sound and Graphics card Storage Device • A Hard drive is the main storage area of the computer. • Make sure the pin 1 on the cable is connected to pin 1 on the HDD connector. • A hard drive works in a similar method to the floppy disk. Steps in –‘Inserting the Hard Disk’: • Place hard disk drive into the HDD mounting slot of the case. or not magnetizing sections creating a zero. • Screw the HDD to the case using screws provided with the HDD or the ATX case. Pin 1 is the red or pink strip on the edge of an ATA cable. data is stored by magnetizing sections of the disk creating a one. • Insert the ATA 66 cable into the ATA connector of the HDD. • Ensure the IDE/ATA connector is facing outwards. All software is likely to be stored on it along with all the files. • Most new IDE/ATA cables are designed so that it will only go in one way which will correspond to pin 1. .

so you shouldn't have any problems. . DVD drives. • Connect the other end of the ATA 66 cable to the primary ATA socket of your motherboard as shown. • All of these devices read information from an optical disk which is different from the magnetic media like floppy disks. then it is better to use your secondary IDE socket for the CD/DVD-ROM. The power cable is designed to go in one way.• Push the power cable into the power connector as shown. CD RW burners and DVD burners. Steps in – ‘Installation of CD-ROM / DVD-ROM • Connect the IDE cable to the drives IDE connector. Optical drive: • An optical drive is a collective term for CD drives. • Connect the other end of the IDE cable to the IDE socket on your motherboard as shown below. • The IDE socket could be your primary or secondary socket depending which socket you choose. Ensure sure you connect the cable to pin 1. If your HDD is on the primary IDE socket and your secondary IDE socket is free. Pin 1 is the red or pink strip on the edge of an IDE cable. • Ensure the pin 1 on the cable connects to the pin 1 on the ATA socket. • Make sure the pin 1 on the cable is connected to pin 1 on the drives IDE connector.

• It is a technology that is primarily used in memory cards and USB flash drives (thumb drives. • Flash memory is non-volatile. which means that it does not need power to maintain the information stored in the chip.III Flash Memory & Cache Memory  By completing module you will be able to understand about the flash Memory and important types of flash memories available in the market  Cache memory and it’s importance • Flash memory is non-volatile computer memory that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. flash stick. digital cameras and mobile phones. where it is often used instead of EEPROMs or battery-powered SRAM for game save data. • The application examples include: PDAs (personal digital assistants) and laptop computers. . memory stick. digital audio players. Popular flash memory devices Memory Stick: A Memory Stick is an IC (Integrated Circuit) which is stored in a compact and rugged plastic enclosure. • It is a specific type of EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory) that is erased and programmed in large blocks. "Cap N' Go") for general storage and transfer of data between computers and other digital products. handy drive. • Flash memory offers fast read access times (although not as fast as volatile DRAM memory used for main memory in PCs) and better kinetic shock resistance than hard disks. jump drive.Unit. • It has also gained popularity in the game console market. Memory Sticks are designed to store data and to enable the transfer of data between devices equipped with Memory Stick slots.

sometimes called a cache store or RAM cache. • Memory caching is effective because most programs access the same data or instructions over and over. Current SD Card capacities range up to 16 GB. . Cache Memory • Cache Memory is a special high speed mechanism.Compact Flash: A Compact Flash card is an IC (Integrated Circuit) which is stored in a compact and rugged plastic enclosure. • In Personal Computers. Multi Media Cards (MMC) are designed to store data and to enable the transfer of data between devices equipped with MultiMediaCard (MMC) slots. Multimedia Card (MMC): A MultiMediaCard (MMC) is an IC (Integrated Circuit) which is stored in a compact and rugged plastic enclosure. Compact Flash cards are designed to store data and to enable the transfer of data between devices equipped with Compact Flash slots. SD Card: A SD Card (Secure Digital Card) is an IC (Integrated Circuit) which is stored in a compact and rugged plastic enclosure. Current MultiMediaCard (MMC) capacities range up to 2GB. • Some memory caches are built into the architecture of microprocessors. is a portion of memory made of high-speed static RAM (SRAM) instead of the slower and cheaper dynamic RAM (DRAM) used for Main Memory. • A memory cache. SD Cards are designed to store data and to enable the transfer of data between devices equipped with SD Card slots. There are two types of caching are commonly used are memory caching and disk caching. By keeping as much of this information as possible in SRAM. It can be either a reserved part of main memory or an independent high speed storage device. Current Compact Flash capacities range up to 8GB. the computer avoids accessing the slower DRAM.

Disk caching works under the same principle as memory caching, but instead of using
high-speed SRAM, a disk cache uses conventional main memory.

The most recently accessed data from the disk is stored in a memory buffer. When a
program needs to access data from the disk, it first checks the disk cache to see if the
data is there.

Disk caching can dramatically improve the performance of applications, because accessing
a byte of data in RAM can be thousands of times faster than accessing a byte on a hard
For example, Internet connection is the slowest link in computer. So the browser
(Internet Explorer, Netscape, Opera, etc.) uses the hard disk to store HTML
pages, putting them into a special folder on the disk.
The first time you ask for an HTML page, the browser renders it and a copy of it is
also stored on your disk. The next time, on your request to access this page, your
browser checks if the date of the file on the Internet is newer than the one
If the date is the same, your browser uses the one on your hard disk instead of
downloading it from Internet. In this case, the smaller but faster memory system
is your hard disk and the larger and slower one is the Internet.

There are other caches like page cache, L1 cache, L2 Cache, virtual memory.
L2 Cache: If there is some special memory bank in the motherboard which is small but
very fast and two times faster than the main memory access. That's called a level 2 cache
or an L2 cache.
L1 cache: If there is smaller but faster memory system directly into the microprocessor's
chip and this memory will be accessed at the speed of the microprocessor and not the
speed of the memory bus, That's an L1 cache.

If the question that “ why can’t we make all memories at the same speed in such away that there
is no need of cache memory?” is rised
The answer would be : “ Yes, memories can be all made at the same speed. But it’s too
expensive. To reduce the charges, we have to use a small memory for cache.”

Unit - IV
Sound & Video Card Troubleshooting
By completing this module you will be able to understand and learn about the trouble
shooting of Sound and Video card in the system.

Sound card trouble shooting
I. Making sure that you have a card and drivers for the installation

First, be sure that you have a sound card installed on your system and have speakers or
headphones connected to it.

The sound card is usually a card in the back of your machine, although some newer
machines have them installed on the motherboard.

Check that the wire from your speakers or headphones is connected to the "Speaker Out"
or " Spk Out" slot on the back of you machine.

Once you have checked these connections and you know that you have a sound card and
headphones or speakers, follow this guide:
Check that you have the drivers for the card installed:
1. In Windows 95/98/NT, go to "Start" - > "Settings" - >
"Control Panel" and double click the "Multimedia" icon.
This should bring up the "Multimedia Properties" box
2. On the Audio tab, you should see two areas: Playback and
Recording. If these are greyed out and have "None" listed
under preferred device for these sections, then your
sound card drivers have not been installed

3. If you have a device listed here, such as "AWE64 Wave
Out" or "Sound Blaster 16" then your drivers are installed.
Make sure to check the "Show volume control on the
taskbar" option

If you do not have drivers installed.
1. Consult your sound card documentation or follow this basic
guide on how to install drivers for your sound card.
2. You will need the disk or CDROM that was given to you
along with your sound card initially

3. Switch to the "Devices" tab of the Multimedia Properties box

4. Click "Add."
5. Choose "Unlisted or Updated Driver" and
click "OK."

6. Enter the path to the disk or CDROM that came with the Sound Card and hit "OK."
7. Select your card and click "OK"
8. Your machine may need to reboot

Checking Sound Levels and Speaker Volume

Once you know you have a card and drivers installed,
check the volume and make sure it is at an audible level.

the video adapter card is a board that is plugged into your computer's system board and monitor to provide display capabilities. For a quick refresher. 4. and not muted. and the motherboard. Before doing this you should ensure that both master volume and "wave" levels are set to their maximum. Here are some of the common problems that can arise from video cards and some suggested solutions. However. you should consider other solutions such as updating the driver. There are many different types of video cards available on the market. you may need to use headphones or amplified speakers. most are susceptible to the same common types of problems. The hardware components include : the monitor. A few common video card related problems along with the possible trouble shooting tips are dicussed below : No Display on the Monitor . Make sure the "Play Control" or "Master" and the "Wave" controls are set to a high enough level and make sure that your speakers have the volume turned up high enough 3. If the sound level available from your card is too low." (Actual Volume Control Options may vary slightly depending on your configuration. • Before you take such drastic measures. Video Cards There are several video-related components that are responsible for displaying the characters. Go to the system Volume Control by double clicking the small speaker icon next to the "Time" field on the taskbar. If you do not have this icon. video card (also referred to as the video adapter card). and the power switch is on Troubleshooting Video Card • Resolving video card problems can be costly if you opt to replace the hardware when a problem does occur. Problems with any of these components can cause problems with your computer's display. follow the instructions above on getting to the "Multimedia Properties" box and click "Show volume control on the taskbar. If you add speakers be sure the power supply is plugged in.) 2.1.

This will require you to check the documentation that was sent with the hardware. Although these may seem like simple trouble shooting steps. In the case of a broken pin. • Troubleshooting this problem will require you to locate the video card inside your computer and verify the following: o Assuming that the video card adapter is separate from the motherboard. . o This particular problem can be caused from several different things such as a video card that is not properly seated or a loose connection from the video card to the monitor. o Verify the correct jumper settings for video cards that are mounted to the motherboard. you should check that the card is properly seated.• One common problem that occurs is that the operating system. o Also check that the cable running from the monitor to the VGA port is secure. o The cable running from the monitor to the video port may also be the one of the reason for the problem. A bent pin can usually be straightened using a pair of sharp-nosed pliers. never appears. In other words. o Assuming that you have already ruled out the monitor as being the source of the problem. you will need to contact the manufacturer of the monitor to determine if the cable can be replaced. the computer starts up but nothing appears on the monitor. such as Windows XP. your next step should be to take a look at the video card. o Sometimes one end of the card may come out of the slot when it is initially screwed. resulting in no display appearing on the monitor. o Examine the monitor cable to ensure that there are no broken or bent pins. it is often the simple ones that people over looked.

A poor display can be caused by a number of different things. • The monitor may flicker. These steps are outlined in detail under the heading "Updating Video Drivers" later in the article. This will force Windows XP to start using the standard VGA driver. Therefore. o From the boot menu select the Safe Mode option. This is a popular method used to get more performance out of a hardware component such as a video card adapter. • Text that appears on the screen may be distorted and difficult to read. instead of the video driver that is used when the operating system is started normally. o The video problem discussed above can also be the result of over clocking. an incorrect video driver may have been installed such as one that is not compatible with the operating system. you can install the correct video driver using Device Manager. this would indicate that there is an operating system video related problem. this is definitely a problem that you are going to want to correct as soon as possible. A poor display can also lead to other problems such as head aches and sore eyes. however. You can determine which driver version is currently installed in Windows XP by completing the steps outlined below: . o • For example. Poor Display A poor display on a monitor can mean a number of different things like • Images may appear to be fuzzy.Operating System does not appear • If the contents of the start up process appear on the monitor but the display is blank after it is complete. o Once the computer is started in Safe Mode.  The problem can once again be resolved by starting Windows XP is Safe Mode and configure the video card to operate at its default speed. You should first verify that the latest driver for the video adapter has been installed. Trouble shooting this problem in Windows XP o you will have to start the computer in Safe Mode by pressing [F8] when the Starting Windows message appears. it can result in display problems.

Click the Advanced button. • Select the Properties button under Adapter Type to locate specific driver information including the driver version. a 17 monitor will have resolution of 800x600.1. • You can find the version information beside the Driver Version field. Click the Properties button under Adapter Type as shown below. 6. From the Display Properties dialog box. • Select the Settings tab shown below to change the resolution settings. Typically. Click the Adapters tab. Use the slider under Screen resolution to settings. • If the latest driver is installed. Compare this version with the latest version on the manufacturer's Web site. 4. 5. Incorrect display settings can cause problems with your display. Screen Resolution • To configure display settings. 2. click the Settings tab. Right click the Windows desktop and click Properties. right click the Windows XP desktop and click Properties to open the Display Properties dialog box. 3. Click the Driver tab. • If the driver needs to be updated complete steps four through seven listed under the section entitled "Updating Video Drivers". a adjust the inch default . you may need to adjust the resolution and refresh rate (this is the rate at which the video card redraws the screen) for the video adapter card.

Use the drop down arrow to adjust the refresh rate to about 70 MHZ. • To check the monitor selection. • In Windows XP. • As with the screen resolution. • Lower refresh rates tend to cause flickering so it is important to verify this setting. • In case the monitor listed is not correct. Click the Advanced button and select the Monitor tab. • The screen resolution may also be limited if the wrong monitor is selected. once again open the Display Properties dialog box and select the Settings tab. you will once again need to check the driver. Refresh Rate • In case the problem still persists after adjusting the resolution. • If you are unable to select the desired resolution that should be supported by the video card. . your next step should be to adjust the refresh rate. if you are unable to select the desired refresh rate. you can use Device Manager to make sure the card has been properly detected. • Select the Monitor tab as shown below. you will need to again check that the operating system has correctly identified the card. • It is usually recommended that you use the drivers supplied by the manufacturer instead of the drivers included with Windows. you will need to update the driver for the monitor. Remember that a higher refresh rate will reduce the amount of flickering.Use the Settings tab from the Display Properties dialog box to change the resolution. • Once again. select the Settings tab and click the advanced button. • You can adjust the refresh rate using the Settings tab from the Display Properties dialog box. If the card has not been properly identified. go back to the video driver to make sure the latest one is installed.

The documentation or manual that came with your monitor should identify the values that are supported. • If updating the video adapter driver does not solve the problem. o From the Run command type DxDiag.Use the Monitor tab to adjust the refresh rate Note: It is important to verify that the monitor supports the screen resolution and refresh rate configured in the Display Properties dialog box. Problems Displaying Videos or Animations Problems with videos and animations are usually attributed to a display adapter driver that does not support DirectDraw.exe and click OK. • This can be accomplished using the DirectX Diagnostic Tool. your first step should be to determine if the video card adapter driver supports DirectDraw. verify that your video card is indeed supported by the operating system installed on your computer. . o Windows XP will perform a series of tests. • If videos and animations are not correctly displayed on the monitor. click the Test DirectDraw button. o If your display does not pass each of the tests. o From the Display tab. you will need to update the video adapter.

you can see a list of all the hardware components within Device Manager • The video card should be listed under Display Adapters as shown • In case it is has not been recognized by Windows XP. 2. click Device Manager. From the Hardware tab. it may be listed under Unknown Devices. you can update a device driver using the steps listed below: 1. video subsystem problems. you can check the Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) to determine if the video card adapter is supported. Updating Video Drivers This is one of the most common problems with video cards. This information can be used to retrieve the latest driver from the manufacturer's Web site Device Manager will list the Display Adapter installed in the computer If you are running Windows XP. • Faulty or incorrect video drivers can result in such things as operating system instability. Right click My Computer and click Properties. and so on • Most video cards are provided with drivers on a floppy disk or a CD-ROM • One may use the drivers that usually come along with the hardware or visit the manufacturer's Web site to obtain a more recent one • The drivers should come with a text file outlining the installation process • The first step in updating the driver is to identify the make and model of your video card • In Windows XP.• If you are running Windows. Double click on the video adapter listed to identify the make and model. .

Click Finish once the updated driver has been installed. double-click the video adapter listed under Display Adapters. Windows searches for an updated driver and instructs you if an updated driver has been found. Click Update Driver as shown below to open the Hardware Update Wizard. Device Manager is an OS feature that lets you view and change the properties of all devices attached to your computer. Click Next. 6. click the Update Driver button • The majority of video adapter card problems can be solved by ensuring that the correct driver is installed and that the display settings are properly configured based on the capabilities of your hardware. you can:  Determine if the hardware on your computer is working properly  Change hardware configuration settings  Identify the device drivers that are loaded for each device and obtain information about each device driver  Change advanced settings and properties for devices  Install updated device drivers  Disable.3. and uninstall devices  Reinstall the previous version of a driver  Identify device conflicts and manually configure resource settings . From the Driver tab. 7. 5. Within Device Manager. Choose the Install from a List or Specific Location option if you have the updated driver so you can indicate the file location. chances are the manufacturer of your video adapter card already has a solution. enable. Accept the default option. Install the Software Automatically. 4. Unit -V Troubleshooting Device Manager Issues in Win XP By completing this module you will be able to understand and learn the trouble shooting the device manager. • In case you are unable to resolve the problem using the recommendations described as given above. When you use Device Manager.

To access Device Manager. and change resource settings. and you have a thorough understanding of computer hardware. click the Hardware tab. use any of the following methods:  Click Start. If you are an advanced user. although all of these properties are listed. Print a summary of the devices that are installed on your computer Typically. and then click Device Manager You can view the Details tab to see the following device information: NOTE: Not all of these properties will be populated for a given device. In other words. you can use Device Manager's diagnostic features to resolve device conflicts. Or  Right-click My Computer. Or  Right-click My Computer.  Troubleshooting Device Conflicts in the Device Manager . and then click Control Panel  Click Performance and Maintenance. Device Manager is used to check the status of computer hardware and update device drivers on the computer. and then clicks Device Manager. and then click System  Click the Hardware tab. clicks Manage. click Properties. and then type "devmgmt. and then click Device Manager Or  Click Start.msc" (without the quotation marks). some may not contain information when viewing a particular device. click Run.

the problem device has a symbol that indicates the type of problem  A black exclamation point (!) on a yellow field indicates the device is in a problem state. Driver tab. there is a description of the device. When you click the Resources tab. When you double click a specific device in Device Manager. A disabled device is a device that is physically present in the computer and is consuming resources.Troubleshooting Information  If there is a problem with a device. this check box is selected. some devices may have a Resources tab. and Settings tab. it may be possible to click the Change Setting button to manually adjust the resource values. Note that this does not indicate a problem or disabled state. but does not have a protected-mode driver loaded  A blue "i" on a white field on a device resource in Computer properties indicates that the Use automatic settings feature is not selected for the device and that the resource was manually selected. and the device should function correctly. Note the Use automatic settings check box. indicating the possibility that all of the functionality may not be available. This list indicates a conflict with an error code. At the top of the property sheet. A green question mark "?" in Device Manager Means that a compatible driver for this device is installed. NOTE: Some sound cards and video adapters do not report all of the resources that they use to Windows. For example. However. to edit the Input/Output Range setting: . If Windows successfully detects a device. or those sound cards that are using Sound Blaster emulation for Sound Blaster compatibility. NOTE: Some devices may have other tabs besides the General tab. or no conflicts at all. This can cause Device Manager to show only one device in conflict. you see a property sheet. Note that this applies only to Windows Millennium Edition (Me). Also. Note that a device that is in a problem state can be functioning  A problem code explaining the problem is displayed for the device  A red "X" indicates a disabled device. This can be verified by disabling the sound card. it may be necessary to change the configuration by selecting a different basic configuration from the list. the window in the middle of the tab indicates which resource types are available for the selected device. If the particular configuration you want for the device is not listed as a basic configuration. or by using the standard VGA video driver to see if the conflict is resolved. or some combination of these. it is listed in the hardware tree. if the resource settings are based on Basic Configuration <n> (where <n> is any number from 0 to 9). The property sheet has a General tab. Note that this is a known problem with S3 video adapters and 16-bit Sound Blaster sound cards. Not all property sheets have the same tabs. The list box at the bottom contains a Conflicting device list.

and type of printer. Refer the User Manual • Read the manual thoroughly and follow the steps to connect the printer to PC o o In general. make sure it is on. 3. you may need to contact the manufacturer of your computer or motherboard to inquire about how to obtain and install a BIOS update for your computer. Click the Use automatic settings check box to clear it. and then click Disable. If it is plugged into a surge protector. model. that we normally face. the printers are having connectivity with parallel port of PC and nowadays the USB connectivity is also available with the printer. Check the plug at Power outlet  Ensure the printer is plugged into a live outlet. Check the manufacturer's web site • Suppose if you have missed somewhere the user manual of printer. However in many cases. following these simple set of procedures. Also we can connect the printers in the network if they are coming with RJ 45 connectors. you may access the concerned manufacturer’s web site for the details of the printer. If the issue continues to occur. 1. 4.  Click Change Setting. What if the power is on but there is no print out? .  Click the appropriate I/O range for the device NOTE: To disable a device in Device Manager.VI General troubleshooting tips for printers By completing this module you will be able to understand and learn how to manage general printer problems. right-click the device. and a logical approach may save your time or money. 2. UNIT . It is not possible to describe all of the steps one might take to fix every make.

before you start doing something .  Most printers will beep once or twice during or after initialization. refer to the user manual/manufacturer's web site. try to find out the reason for it.  If there are error lights. 6. etc. 7.  In case it is there check if it is properly filled or not. On most dot matrix printers it is a photo diode. . In case it is beeping .  If the printer test-prints OK. Make sure that the power is on and there is no error lights (LEDs) lit. if you do not follow instructions in the user manual. Most printers have a paper-out detector.  Online means. Please check whether the connectivity between PC and printer as per user manual or not. • Turn the power off & unplug it. 8. Check wether it has ink or toner  Check wether the ink or toner of the printer is there . it is an indication that something is wrong. Check wether it has enough paper for printing purpose  Be sure the paper is installed correctly and there is enough of it. Most of the printers will beep when out of paper or out of ink. Check wether you are able to give a test-print. They are usually initiated by pressing a button or two while turning on the printer. you don’t have any problem with print mechanism of the printer. 9. Check your user manual. 5. 10. Check whether the printer is jammed? • Paper jams are frequently the reason for malfunction in many printers. If form-fed paper is not aligned correctly (usually on the left side) the diode won't see it.  Check if the heads of the toners are clean or not.  Most printers have a built-in diagnostics program which can be very useful for troubleshooting problems and test-printing without a computer. One must have to clean them periodically. Then you may check the connectivity of the printer. o Don't move a print head unless the instructions direct it. You can damage the belt. o Don't be in a rush with your printer as you can easily damage a printer or even get hurt.  You should hear the print mechanism initialize when power is applied and most printers have at least one light which will be illuminated when it is on. most of the printers are connected directly to the PC. If it beeps more than that or beeps constantly. Always read the manual on how to clear a jam. Check whether it is online or not.

and AC-DC Inverter. Turn-off the printer.g USB. 12. UPS is an electronic device that continues to supply electric power to the load for certain periods of time during a loss of main power from electricity board or when the power fluctuates from normal limits.o Laser printers have some very fine wires to remove static charges from the paper near the fuser mechanism which will break if you are not very careful. Check whether the software (print drivers) installed or not  We have to check the correct device drivers (software) of the printer installed in OS. an AC-DC Charger. To make a power supply uninterruptable. 11. Check wether the RAM is sufficient  The printer memory could be full and not getting prints and prints may be stuck in print queue. the fuser itself can be very hot (it fuses/melts toner to the paper). .VII Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) By completing this module you will be able to understand various types of UPSs available in the market. DOS. DB25 etc) c) Many printers now require an IEEE 1284 and Bi-Directional. UNIT . Try another cable. we need energy storing backup for the period of time in the form of battery. d) Check for bent pins.  Refer installation steps in windows. wait a few seconds and turn it back on. Linux in to user manual or vendors web site 13. Check the printer connectivity with right port in BIOS settings  Check Cable connectivity with printers Check the following points a) The pins of DB25 connector are properly connected or not b) Check the various connectivity’s of either side (e. The generic standard for UPS system defines the limits on the amplitude and duration of deviation of the output voltage acceptable for switching power supply loads. Also. USB cables shouldn’t be longer than 15 feet.  Is there something else connected to the printer port? Disconnect it and uninstall the device drivers for it.

Inline UPS also called as line interactive UPS which under normal condition smoothes and to some degree regulates the input AC voltage by a filter and a tap changing transformer.VIII Virus By completing this you will be able to understand viruses and its threats Virus and its threats  A virus is a computer program which can copy itself or infect the system without the knowledge of the user. Online UPS always delivers all or at least a portion of the output power through its inverter even under normal conditions. whenever a file with virus in an infected system is accessed from another system. in case the primary AC Power source fails. 2) Delta Conversion UPS includes an additional “Delta Convertor” that delivers a portion of the output power directly to the load and provides the power UNIT . formatting the hard disk etc.  Some viruses may cause damage to the system by infecting the files. deleting the files.  To protect the system from virus one should have knowledge of each program or a file they download into their computer. we can use anti-virus software which can help the system by protecting it from virus. Since it is difficult. The transfer time typically is 1-5 ms and the power to the load will be interrupted.  A virus can spread from one system to the other system. . 1) Double Conversion Online UPS is continuously processing the whole power through series connected AC-DC rectifier /charger and DC-AC inverter. the transfer switch from AC to Battery and provides output power.Types of UPS • • • Stand By UPS Inline UPS Online UPS Stand by UPS includes a transfer switch that switches the load to the battery /inverter. When the power fails. The bidirectional inverter/charger is always connected to the output of the UPS and uses a portion of AC power to keep battery charged. There are two types of online convertors 1) Double conversion and 2) Delta Conversion.

So disable that option  Beware of the latest virus threats which may help you in detecting them and take the appropriate action to avoid it List of anti virus tools available for preventing virus in to the system are given below: AVG free . so that it prevents from accidental deletion and changes made to the files on the disk  While using Microsoft office make sure that macro virus protection option is enabled Note: A Macro virus is a computer virus that infects Microsoft word and similar application by inserting some undesirable text into the documents or by making some changes to the documents  Take backup of the files which you feel important .cleaner4. Quick Heal. Avira Anti virus . Bit defender anti virus 2008. Bit defender free edition.Tips and tools to prevent virus into the system  Keep anti-virus software up-to-date and make sure that it is working properly  Scan the files with anti-virus software before you download it from the Internet and execute it  Be careful while exchanging the files between the systems through disks or through network . UNIT.2.This will help you in recovering the file when it is completely affected by virus  Scan the system with anti-virus software daily and keep your operating system up to date with all the latest patches  Some viruses start executing as soon as they appear on the Outlook Express preview pane. Cleanwin Anti virus. McAfee Avert Stinger 3. AVG Internet security.8.IX Tips to deal with a few common PC problems 1) Problem: Computer does not Power up / start up Initial Steps:  Make sure that the PC's power cable is plugged firmly into a wall socket or power strip and that the power strip is on  Try plugging the PC or the power strip into another wall socket  Ensure that the power cable is firmly connected to the PC's power-supply outlet . CalmWin (open source) free anti virus.While using the disk make sure that it is write protected. Avast 4 Home edition.0.

. Plug in the power cable. a thinner red Serial ATA (SATA) cable.except the monitor. you'll see either a wide. If the computer turns on. flat. If the warranty has expired and you are comfortable doing so. your motherboard or processor is likely fried. add the peripherals back in one at a time until you can identify the problem device  Unplug all external devices from the PC -. Consider taking it to a repair shop or replacing the computer altogether Procedure to replace power Supply: • Turn off your computer and all the peripherals (such as your monitor.except the monitor. there's a good chance you'll need a new motherboard or a new computer. gray IDE cable. Verify that the power supply is connected to the motherboard  Make sure that all internal cables are connected and that all of the PCI expansion cards and RAM chips are tightly seated  Examine the motherboard for noticeable signs of damage. If the computer powers on without the devices. If you see problems. add the peripherals back in one at a time until you can identify the problem device If none of these steps solves the problem. begin plugging in additional cables and modules until you identify the faulty component  Replace your power supply with a known working one or a with new one.including a CD drive or digital camera -. Consult a technician for further advice  Remove the RAM and PCI cards and unplug your hard drive(s). printer.  If none of these steps work.including a CD drive or digital camera -. proceed to the Advanced Steps below. modem. and scanner). Check to see that the power supply is switched to the "on" position  Make sure that the power supply is switched to the voltage appropriate to your region  Attach a working power cable to the PC's power supply and plug it in  Unplug all external devices from the PC -. or a round gray or black SCSI cable. Otherwise. If the computer powers on without the devices. check to see if your computer is still under warranty and send it back to the manufacturer. Advanced Steps:  Unplug the computer and open the PC's case. talk to your volunteer consultant. such as cracks or burns. Depending on your drive.

contact a technician or buy a new monitor. If the monitor does not work. Advanced Steps:  Examine the video card for noticeable damage. static-free area. your video card may not be working and you'll need to open the desktop's case If none of these steps solves the problem. check to see if your computer is still under warranty and find out how to send it back.  If your display is still not working. The power supply is enclosed in a metal box located in the corner of your computer case. After that. contact a repair shop or consider replacing the video card (or try swapping in a compatible card). If the warranty has expired. open up the PC's case. you'll likely need a new video card  Reseat the video card. tighten them. Connect it to the display and to the computer  Obtain a working monitor and hook it up to your PC. Remove the computer case or panels to expose the interior of your PC. and proceed to the Advanced Steps below. but Monitor is blank.• Unplug your PC and all the peripherals from their outlets. unplug all peripherals from the back of the computer. If you spot defects or burnt components. To replace the card yourself. 3) Problem: Computer won't Boot From Hard Drive (not able to get to Windows Splash Screen)? . such as a tile floor or a kitchen table. Initial Steps:  Ensure that your computer can boot normally and that all of the usual power lights are on  Make sure that the monitor is plugged firmly into a working wall socket or power strip and that the power strip is on  Try plugging the PC or power strip into another wall socket  Verify that the monitor's power button is switched to the "on" position  Make sure the monitor's brightness and contrast controls are properly adjusted (check your monitor's manual for information on how to do this)  Check to see that the monitor cable is plugged firmly into the back of the display and that the pinned end is tightly screwed into the computer's video output on the back of the case  Remove the existing cable and replace it with a known working monitor cable. 2) Problem: Computer Powers up/ starts off. • Move to a well-lit. If you find loose components or connections. unplug the computer.  Inspect the RAM and all drive cables to make sure they are all tightly seated and connected. If this display works.

try loading it and rebooting  If the BIOS has a failsafe default option. Trojans. If you don't hear or feel motion. and proceed to the Advanced Steps. scan your computer for viruses. try loading it and rebooting  Attempt to enter your PC in Safe Mode.Initial Steps:  Make sure that there is no bootable media in your floppy or CD drive  Listen to make sure your hard drive is spinning. as they could be instrumental in diagnosing your problem. quickly press the F8 key. so consult your BIOS documentation for more in-depth info on what those beeps mean.  If the warranty has expired. spyware. usually you'll need to push the F1 or Delete key as the computer boots) and write down the current settings before proceeding further  Keep an eye out for any built-in diagnostic tools. proceed to the advanced steps given below:  Remove all external drives or devices and try restarting the computer  If you receive a series of beeps or error messages. (As your computer boots. or if you don't see an error message on the screen. Otherwise. write them down. run Windows' built-in diagnostic tool to check your drive for bad sectors and file system errors  While still in Safe Mode. Beep codes vary by manufacturer. open up the PC's case."  If the BIOS has an auto detect feature. you might be able to find an error by using these  If no diagnostic tools exist. and other threats that could be causing problems  If none of these steps solves the problem. proceed as follows  Enter your computer's BIOS (access key varies by machine.) If you can get in. run it to make sure that it can actually detect your hard drive  If your BIOS has an optimized default option. unplug the computer. go to the BIOS's hard drive section and make sure it's configured as "Auto. check to see if your computer is still under warranty and find out how to send it back. Advanced Steps:  Make sure that the hard drive is firmly connected to both the power supply and the motherboard  Reseat the video card .

write those down. Clear the CMOS by resetting the jumper on the motherboard. and perform a system restore  While in Safe Mode run your antivirus and anti-spyware programs. If none of this works you may want to take the drive in for service or replace it altogether. burn files to a CD. Select the option for "Last Known Good Configuration. Initial Steps  Make sure that there isn't a disk in your floppy or CD drive  Remove external drives or devices  Enter the Windows Advanced Options menu by pressing the F8 key during the BIOS's Power-On Self Test (POST). starting with the slot closest to the processor. you likely have a faulty stick of RAM  Make sure that the correct hard drive is set as the primary (master) drive and that the proper cable is connected. Before you do so. remove them all and try adding them back. From there. you can attempt to restore the master boot record. the . and update or remove the faulty devices via Windows' Device Manager. consult the motherboard or computer's documentation and be very careful while handling these components  If your computer has more than one stick of RAM.  Remove the PC's main power supply and replace it with a known working one. or consult a professional. You may eventually have to reformat your hard drive and reinstall Windows Advanced Steps:  Enter the Windows Advanced Options menu and choose the option that enables the bootlog. then boot into Safe Mode to compare the new bootlog and the original one. attempt to back up your data using back-up software. back up your data first. If at all possible. If you get error messages that certain drivers aren't loading correctly.  Restart. If the PC boots with one and not the other. (See the back of the hard drive to set master and slave settings  Replace the hard drive cable(s) with known working ones. You can then reinstall the drivers manually or ask Windows to locate a driver for the device  Insert your Windows Emergency Startup disk or the original CD-ROM and go to the Recovery Console. 4) Problem: Windows won't Boot (After BIOS POST has been completed) orPC crashes." (Note: if this works. boot into Safe Mode with networking. you will lose any recently installed software or newly created files.)  Enter the Windows Advanced Options menu. Remove any detected threats  If that fails.

or CPU not securely into place. . 9) Problem: The HDD is not being detected by the BIOS.  Check that your main power cable is plugged into the ATX power supply. or could be faulty. Please refer to your motherboard manual to confirm what the beeps are trying to tell you. 1 long 3 short: Graphics card is not securely into place. there is no display on monitor. 6) Problem: The power LED comes on but the PC does not boot. Refer to your motherboard manual to set it correctly. Check CPU jumpers to verify if CPU frequency is correctly set.  Check if you connected the IDE cable to the motherboard correctly.  Different BIOS manufacturers use various number of beeps to indicate faults with various hardware. and there is no display on monitor.  Check if the processor is firmly into the socket.  Make sure you have connected the ATX power connector to the motherboard.  Check if the cable for the power switch at front of the PC is connected to the correct pins on the motherboard. or faulty video memory. Continuous high/low beeps: No CPU. 8) Problem: The PC boots but the CPU speed is incorrect.  The CPU frequency jumper setting is incorrect. or faulty. Continuous beeps: No memory. or memory not securely into place. or could be faulty.  Check wether the pin 1 on the IDE cable connected to pin 1 on the IDE sockets on both motherboard connector and HDD connector.first logical sector on your hard drive where the BIOS loads a program to boot your computer 5) Problem: The PC does not boot. 7) Problem: The PC does not boot. the power and HDD LED does not come on. In an Award BIOS motherboard you will get following kinds of beeps: 1 long 2 short: Graphics card is not securely into place. but is beeping.

. Check if the HDD jumper is set to master and any other device sharing the same cable is set to slave.  Install the manufacturer supplied device driver. hence cannot install Windows.  If you do not have a device driver disk. so that you can install Windows.  This is because the CD/DVD-ROM device driver is not installed. you can use the windows boot disk which will provide access to your CD/DVD-ROM. 10) Problem: Cannot access my CD/DVD-ROM in DOS mode.