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Datums

Explain the purpose of datums


Define common terms related to datum features
Interpret information provided by datum feature
symbols
Describe methods for representing datum
surfaces on drawings
Explain how to establish datum reference
frames

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Identify the degrees of freedom of a part


Explain how to establish datum targets
Identify datum target points, areas, and lines
Describe methods for representing datum axes
on drawings
Describe methods for representing datum
center planes on drawings

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Datums
Represent true geometric counterpart of a
datum feature
Reference features of an object
Establish location and size dimensions

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Datum Feature Simulator


Opposite shape of datum feature
Two types:
Theoretical datum feature simulator
Physical datum feature simulator

Manufacturing examples:

Machine tables
Surface plates
Gauge surfaces
Surface tables
Specially designed rotation devices
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Datum Feature Symbol


Do not apply to centerlines, center planes,
or axes
Draw using thin lines
Use any letter to identify a datum feature
except I, O, or Q
Use double letters when number of datums
exceeds number of letters in alphabet

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Datum Feature Symbol

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Datum Feature
Datum plane

Datum
feature

Simulated datum plane

Part

Physical datum
feature
simulator

Surface of
manufacturing or
verification equipment

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Datum Feature Terms


Actual mating envelope
Simulated datum
Tangent plane

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Datum Feature Symbol


Placement for Surfaces

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Datum Surface
Can be controlled by geometric tolerance
Datum plane measurements do not take
variations in datum surface from datum
plane into account

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Geometric Control of Datum Surface

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Datum Reference Frame (DRF) Concept


Select three perpendicular datum features
based on their importance to part design
Assign precedence and datum reference
order
Primary datum
Secondary datum
Tertiary datum

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Datum Reference Frame Concept

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Datum Reference Frame


Concept: Inspecting the Part
All parts have six degrees of freedom
Three degrees of translation
Three degrees of rotation

Movement is either translational or rotational

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Degrees of Freedom

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Establishing Multiple Datum


Reference Frames
Datums X, Y, and Z
establish one datum
reference frame
Datums L and M
establish second
datum reference
frame

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Datum Features
Specified Individually
Place a note next to datum feature symbols
indicating how many datum features to
consider separately
Place the note 2X INDIVIDUALLY next to
datum feature symbols of two separate
datum features identified by same letter

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Datum Target Symbols


Identify datum targets
Useful on parts with surface or contour
irregularities
Connect to datum target point, line, or area
with a leader

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Datum Target Symbols

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Datum Target Points


Establish primary datum plane by locating at least
three points on primary datum surface
Establish secondary datum plane by locating at
least two points on related secondary datum
surface
Establish tertiary datum plane by locating at least
one point on related tertiary datum surface
Dimension using baseline or chain dimensioning
Location dimensions originate from datums

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Datum Target Points

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Datum Target Points


Datum plane established by locating pins at
datum target points

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Datum Target Areas


Used to establish datums using areas of
contact
Locating pins are flat end tooling pins with
pin diameter equal to specified size of target
area
Top half of the datum target symbol
identifies size of target area
Use datum target point at center location
when area is too small to accurately or
clearly display on drawing
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Datum Target Areas

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Datum Target Lines


Indicated by a target point on edge view of
surface and a phantom line on surface view
Locating pins are cylindrical or knife-edged
with datum target line along tangency where
pins meet the part
Surface is often placed 90 to the pin to
create datum reference frame

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Datum Target Lines

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Partial Datum Surface

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Coplanar Surface Datums


Used to establish coplanar surfaces as one
datum plane
Specify number of surfaces with a note such
as: "2 SURFACES" below related feature
control frame

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Coplanar Surface Datums

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Datum Axis
Represents two theoretical planes
intersecting at 90
Represented in drawings with centerlines
Pitch cylinder for screw threads establishes
datum axis unless otherwise specified
When not using pitch cylinder for screw threads,
place note such as "MAJOR DIA" or "MINOR
DIA" next to datum feature symbol

Simulated datum axis established by


inspection equipment
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Datum Axis

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Datum Feature Symbol


Placement for a Datum Axis

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Coaxial Datum Features


Separate datum reference letters by a dash in
one compartment of the feature control frame

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Datum Axis Established with


Datum Target Symbols
Primary datum axis established by two sets
of three equally spaced targets
Identify datum target points in correlation to
adjacent cylindrical datum feature when two
cylindrical features of different diameters
establish a datum axis

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Datum Axis Established with


Datum Target Symbols
Cylindrical datum target areas and circular
datum target lines can be used to establish
datum axis
Target area represented by two phantom lines
with section lines between
Datum target line represented by phantom line all
around part

Establish secondary datum axis by placing


three equally spaced targets on cylindrical
surface
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Movable Datum Target Symbols


and Datum Target Points
When datum targets establish a center
point, axis, or center plane on a RMB basis,
datum feature simulator movement is
normal to true profile

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Movable Datum Target Symbols


and Datum Target Spheres
Circular phantom line represents spherical
datum feature simulator to establish datum axis

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Datum Center Plane


Axis and center plane datum feature symbols
align with/replace dimension line arrowhead or
appear on feature, leader shoulder, dimension
line, or feature control frame

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Datum Center Plane

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Translation Modifier
Added to feature control frame following
datum feature reference and any other
applicable modifiers
Specifies that basic location of datum
feature simulator is unlocked and free to
translate within specified geometric
tolerance

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Translation Modifier

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Using Contoured Surface


as Datum Feature
3D mathematical coordinate system defines
compound surface feature on a part
Datum simulator results from mathematical data
Common when design copies contour of an
actual object that has few or no flat surfaces to
use as datums

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Identify the datum feature, part, simulated datum


plane, physical datum feature simulator, and
datum plane.

A) Datum feature
B) Datum plane
C) Part

D) Simulated datum plane


E) Physical datum feature simulator
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Fill in blanks for Part I A and B and Part II A, B, C, and D.


Provide dimensions for Part II B, C, and D.
Part I:
A) Datum feature symbol
B) Feature control frame

Part II:
A) Datum plane A
B) 12.2 minimum
C) 12.8 minimum
D) 0.1 geometric tolerance
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Identify items AF.

A) Basic dimension
B) Datum feature symbol
C) Target point
D) Datum target symbol
E) Datum reference
F) Target number
G) Datum target line

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Identify items AC.

A) Datum target
area
B) Datum target
symbol
C) Target area
size

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Identify whether the datum reference symbol


represents a datum surface, datum axis, or datum
center plane in items AC.

A) Datum surface
B) Datum center plane
C) Datum axis

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Actual mating envelope


The smallest size that can be contracted about an
external feature or the largest size that can be
expanded within an internal feature.

Coaxial datum features


Exist when a single datum axis is established by
two datum features that are coaxial.

Coplanar surfaces
Two or more surfaces that are on the same plane.

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Datum axis
The center axis established when a cylindrical
datum feature is used.

Datum center plane


The plane that splits a symmetrical feature, such
as a slot or tab.

Datum feature
An actual feature on a part that is used to
establish the datum.

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Datum feature simulator


A perfect theoretical boundary or a physical
boundary used to establish a datum or simulated
datum from a specified datum feature.

Datum feature symbol


A symbol used to identify an object feature
specified as a datum and referred to as a datum
feature.

Datum plane
The theoretically exact plane established by the
simulated datum of the datum feature.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Datum reference frame (DRF)


The "frame" created by three datum features that
are perpendicular to each other and used for
layout purposes.

Datum target lines


Datum targets indicated by the target point
symbol "X" on the edge view of the surface and
by a phantom line on the surface view.

Datum target
A point, line, or area of contact on a part used to
establish a datum when it is not possible to use a
surface.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Datums
A surface, plane, point, or axis considered
theoretically perfect. A datum is assumed to be
exact.

Degrees of freedom
The number of coordinates it takes to exclusively
control the position of a part.

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Normal
Term used to describe a feature that is
perpendicular to a plane surface and radial to a
curved surface.

Order of precedence
The order in which the datums appear in the last
three compartments of the feature control frame.
The primary datum is given first, followed by the
secondary datum and then the tertiary datum.

Primary datum
The primary datum reference established in the
datum reference frame. The primary datum is first
in the order of precedence.
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Primary datum plane


A datum plane established by at least three points
on the primary datum surface. These points are
used to provide stability on the primary plane.

Rotational
Movement around an axis.

Secondary datum
The secondary datum reference established in
the datum reference frame. The secondary datum
is second in the order of precedence.
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Secondary datum plane


A datum plane established by at least two points
on the related secondary datum surface. Two
points provide the required stability for the
secondary plane.

Simulated datum
A point, axis, line, or plane consistent with or
resulting from processing or inspection
equipment, such as a surface plate, inspection
table, gage surface, or a mandrel.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Simulated datum axis


The axis of a perfectly cylindrical inspection
device that contacts the datum feature surface.

Simulated datum center plane


The center plane of a perfectly rectangular
inspection device that contacts the datum feature
surface.

Simulated datum plane


The plane derived from the physical datum
feature simulator. It coincides with the datum
plane when the datum plane is in contact with the
simulated datum plane.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Tangent plane
A plane that contacts the high points of the
specified feature surface.

Tertiary datum
The tertiary datum reference established in the
datum reference frame. The tertiary datum is third
in the order of precedence.

Tertiary datum plane


A datum plane established by at least one point
on the related tertiary datum surface. One point of
contact at the tertiary datum plane is all that is
required to complete the datum reference frame
and provide stability.
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Three degrees of rotation


Occurs when a part can rotate about each axis in
the datum reference frame.

Three degrees of translation


Occurs when a part can move without rotation in
each of the three directions from the mutually
perpendicular planes.

Translational
Refers to uniform movement without rotation.

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