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Shahd Abdelhameed 1742 10.

Noble Gases
What are Noble Gases?

All the elements in this group have fully


occupied outer shells.
They are the least chemically reactive
elements. The stable arrangement means that
the noble gases do not form chemical bonds
with each other or other elements.
The noble gases are in group 0 of the periodic
table.
They will not react with other atoms because they have
a full outer shell of electrons and no overall charge.
They are monatomic which means they exist as individual atoms.
They were once labeled group 0 in the periodic table because it was believed
they had a valence of zero, meaning their atoms cannot combine with those
of other elements to form compounds
The reactivity follows the order Ne < He < Ar < Kr < Xe < Rn.
Atoms which have lost or gained electrons to form ions will also
have a full outer shell of electrons but because they have a charge
they will form ionic bonds with other oppositely charged ions.
Ions and noble gases both have a full outer shell of electrons
and therefore can have the same electron structure.

Common properties

they
they
they
they

are non-metals
are very unreactive gases
are colourless
exist as single atoms (they are monatomic)

Chemical properties:

The noble gases are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and nonflammable under
standard conditions, and monotonic gases that have low chemical reactivity.

Physical properties:

Atomic mass, boiling point, increases down a group in the periodic table.
Down Group 0, interatomic forces INCREASE resulting in an increased melting
point, boiling point, and solubility.
The increase in density down the group is correlated with the increase in
atomic mass.
Because noble gases outer shells are full, they are extremely stable, tending
not to form chemical bonds and having a small tendency to gain or lose
electrons.

Shahd Abdelhameed 1742 10.4

All members of the noble gas group behave similarly.


All are monatomic gases under standard conditions.
Very low boiling and melting points compared with elements of other groups.

Boiling point
The noble gases all have low boiling points. This is a typical property of non-metals.
You can see from the graph that helium, at the top of group 0, has the lowest boiling
point in the group. The boiling points then increase as you go down the group.

Density
The density of a substance is a measure of how heavy it is for its size. You can see
from the graph that helium, at the top of group 0, has the lowest density in the
group. The densities then increase as you go down the group. Radon, at the bottom
of the group, is the densest gas known (1 g/dm3 = 0.001 g/cm3).

Shahd Abdelhameed 1742 10.4

The melting
and boiling
points (physical properties) of a noble gas are close together, differing by less than
10 C (18 F) that is to say, they are liquids over only a small temperature range.
The noble gases have weak interatomic forces and consequently have very low
melting and boiling points. They are all monatomic gases under standard conditions,
including those with larger atomic masses than many other elements that
are solids under standard conditions.

Electron- Configuration:
The noble gas atoms, as do the atoms in most other groups on the periodic table,
increase steadily in atomic radius from one period to the next due to an increasing
number of electrons. The size of the atom is related to several properties. For
example, the ionization potential decreases with an increasing radius because
the valence electrons in the larger noble gases are farther away from
the nucleus and so are not held as tightly together by the atom. Noble gases have
the largest ionization potential among the elements of each period. This reflects the
stability of their electron configuration and points again to their relative lack of

chemical reactivity.

Shahd Abdelhameed 1742 10.4

Uses of Noble gasses


Noble
gas

Main use

Helium

Used in balloons and airships. It is much less dense than air, so


balloons filled with it float upwards.

(Helium
balloons)
Neon

Used in advertising signs, it glows when electricity is passed through


it. Different coloured neon lights can be made by coating the inside of
the glass tubing of the lights with other chemicals.

(Neon
tube)
Argon
(Blue light
bulb)
Krypton
(Laser eye
surgery)

Used in light bulbs. The very thin metal filament inside the bulb would
react with oxygen and burn away if the bulb were filled with air
instead of argon. Argon stops the filament burning away because it is
unreactive.
Used in lasers. Krypton lasers are used by surgeons to treat certain
eye problems and to remove birthmarks.

Shahd Abdelhameed 1742 10.4


Helium

It changes from a solid to a liquid at -272oC.

It changes from a liquid to a gas at -269 oC.

Helium gas is an unreactive (inert), colourless, and


odourless

Helium gas is used to surround the welding because it is unreactive so


oxygen cannot get to the hot metal to react with it

Neon
It changes from a solid to a liquid at -249oC.
It changes from a liquid to a gas at -246 oC.
Neon gas is an unreactive, colourless, and light.
Neon is a very common element in the universe but is fairly rare on the Earth
Neon or neon-helium gas lasers produce an intense beam of red light. They
are used in the bar code readers at supermarket checkouts.

Argon

It changes from a solid to a liquid at -189oC.

It changes from a liquid to a gas at -186 oC.

Argon is a colourless, odourless, non-flammable, non-reactive gas