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Building Design Using

Cold Formed Steel Sections

Structural Design to BS 5950-5:1998


Section Properties and
Load Tables

R M LAWSON BSc(Eng), PhD, ACGI, CEng MICE, MIStructE


K F CHUNG BEng, PhD, DIC, MIStructE, CEng, MHKIE
S O POPO-OLA BSc(Eng), MEng, PhD, DIC

SCI PUBLICATION P276

Published by:
The Steel Construction Institute
Silwood Park
Ascot
Berkshire SL5 7QN
Tel: 01344 623345
Fax: 01344 622944

2002 The Steel Construction Institute


Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study or criticism or review, as permitted
under the Copyright Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may not be reproduced, stored or
transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the
case of reprographic reproduction only in accordance with the terms of the licences issued by the UK
Copyright Licensing Agency, or in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the appropriate
Reproduction Rights Organisation outside the UK.
Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to the publishers, The Steel
Construction Institute, at the address given on the title page.
Although care has been taken to ensure, to the best of our knowledge, that all data and information
contained herein are accurate to the extent that they relate to either matters of fact or accepted practice or
matters of opinion at the time of publication, The Steel Construction Institute, the authors and the reviewers
assume no responsibility for any errors in or misinterpretations of such data and/or information or any loss
or damage arising from or related to their use.
Publications supplied to the Members of the Institute at a discount are not for resale by them.
Publication Number: SCI-P276
ISBN 1 85942 119 9
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data.
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

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FOREWORD
The authors of this publication are Dr R M Lawson and Dr S O Popo-Ola of The Steel
Construction Institute, and Dr K F Chung of Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
Dr Chung and Dr Popo-Ola were responsible for preparation of the design tables. The
work was funded by Corus Colors (formerly, British Steel Strip Products).
This publication is a revised edition of the 1992 publication Design of structures using
cold formed steel sections (SCI-P-089). It gives general information on the design of cold
formed steel sections to BS 5950-5: 1998 (now revised from the 1985 version), and
includes new design tables for a wide range of cold formed steel sections used in general
building construction.
The following individuals and organisations helped in the preparation of this publication:
Mr R Colver

Ayrshire Steel Framing

Mr V French

Ayrshire Metal Products (Daventry) Ltd

Mr B Johnson

Structural Sections Ltd

Mr I McCarthy

Metsec Ltd

Mr T Harper

Ward Building Components Ltd

Mr P Reid

Hi-Span Ltd

Mr J Jones

Albion Ltd

This publication is one of a general series on Building Design using Cold Formed Steel
Sections. The series includes:
C

Light Steel Framing in Residential Construction (P301, 2001)

Durability of Light Steel Framing in Residential Buildings (P262, 2000)

Case Studies on Light Steel Framing (P176, 1997)

Construction Detailing and Practice (P165, 1997)

Architects Guide (P130, 1994)

Fire Protection (P129, 1993)

Acoustic Insulation (P128, 1993)

Worked Examples (P125, 1993).

Other titles on light steel applications in modular construction by the SCI are:
C

Modular Construction using Light Steel Framing: Residential Buildings (P302, 2001)

Case Studies on Modular Construction (P271, 1999)

Building Design Using Modular Construction: An Architects Guide (P272,


1991).

The section property data, member design tables and associated information are
intended to be used at the scheme design stage. For more comprehensive data
concerning particular sections and their availability, the reader is advised to
contact manufacturers directly. All sections that are included can be obtained
from the manufacturers listed in the Appendix. For more information on steel
grades and coatings, contact Corus directly (see Appendix).
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CONTENTS
Page No
SUMMARY

vii

AIM OF THE PUBLICATION


1.1 Design tables
1.2 Limit state design

INTRODUCTION TO USE OF COLD FORMED SECTIONS


2.1 Materials
2.2 Methods of forming
2.3 Methods of protection
2.4 Common shapes of sections
2.5 Common applications
2.6 Fire protection

3
3
4
5
5
6
12

INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN OF COLD FORMED SECTIONS


3.1 Behaviour of thin plates in compression
3.2 Behaviour of webs
3.3 Behaviour of members in bending
3.4 Behaviour of members in compression
3.5 Serviceability limits

13
13
17
20
25
28

APPLICATION OF COLD FORMED SECTIONS IN BUILDING


4.1 Purlins and side rails
4.2 Floor joists
4.3 Stud walling
4.4 Trusses
4.5 Structural Frames
4.6 Curtain walling and over-cladding
4.7 Housing
4.8 Modular construction
4.9 Frameless structures
4.10 Connections

29
29
30
32
33
34
37
39
40
40
41

SECTION PROPERTIES OF COLD FORMED SECTIONS


5.1 Notation used in section property tables
5.2 Summary of assumptions in deriving the section property tables

47
51
52

LOAD AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF COLD FORMED


SECTIONS
54
6.1 Generic sections
54
6.2 Load capacity tables for beams
55
6.3 Load capacity tables for columns
55
6.4 Guidance on selection of cold formed steel sections
57
6.5 Example of use of load-span tables for beams
58

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REFERENCES

59

BIBLIOGRAHY

61

APPENDIX A: Contact Information

SECTION PROPERTY TABLES


C Sections
Z Sections

LOAD CAPACITY TABLES FOR BEAMS - S280


Generic C Sections
Generic Z Sections
LOAD CAPACITY TABLES FOR COLUMNS - S280
Generic C Sections

LOAD CAPACITY TABLES FOR BEAMS - S350


Generic C Sections
Generic Z Sections
LOAD CAPACITY TABLES FOR COLUMNS - S350
Generic C Sections

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70
Yellow Pages

A-1
A-3
A-35

Pink Pages

B-1
B-1
B-21
B-41
B-41

Green Pages

C-1
C-1
C-21
C-41
C-41

18 April 2002

SUMMARY
This publication reviews the design and application of cold formed steel
sections in building construction. The design of these sections conforms to
BS 5950-5: 1998: Code of practice for design of cold formed thin gauge
sections. Applications that are covered relate to steel frames, trusses and
secondary members in commercial, industrial and domestic buildings.
The main part of the publication presents design tables for general use of cold
formed sections. This data is tabulated in two parts: section properties, and
load tables. Section properties can be used in general applications, whereas
load tables can be used in direct selection of beam and column sizes.
The cold formed steel sections listed in this publication can be readily obtained
from manufacturers in the UK. Other references to the use of cold formed steel
are also given.
Berechnung von tragwerken aus kaltgeformten stahlprofilen
Zusammenfassung
Diese Verffentlichung gibt einen berblick ber die Bemessung und
Anwendung von kaltverformten Stahlprofilen im Bauwesen. Die Bemessung
dieser Profile entspricht BS 5950, Teil 5: Code of practice for design of cold
formed sections, Ausgabe 1998. Die behandelten Anwendungsflle beziehen
sich auf Stahltragwerke, Fachwerke und nichttragende Bauteile im Verwaltungs, Industrie- und Wohnungs-bau.
Der Hauptteil dieser Verffentlichung stellt Bemessungstabellen fr den
allgemeinen Gebrauch von kaltverformten Profilen vor. Dieses Daten sind in
zwei Teilen tabelliert: Querschnittsgr$en Belastungstabellen.
Die
Querschnittsgr$en knnen allgemein verwendet werden, whrend die
Belastungstabellen der direkten wahl der Trger- und Sttzenprofile dienen.
Die in dieser Verffentlichung enthaltenen, kaltverformten Profile knnen von
Herstellern im Vereinigten Knigreich bezogen werden. Andere Verweise zur
Anwendung von kaltverformtem Stahl sind ebenso enthalten.
Dimensionnement de structures en profils en acier form froid
Rsum
Cette publication passe en revue les mthodes de dimensionnement et les
principales applications des profils en acier form froid dans la construction.
Le dimensionnement de ces profils est en accord avec la BS 5950: Partie 5:
1998 - Recommandations pour le calcul des profils form froid. Les
applications prsentes ont trait aux cadres et portiques en acier ainsi quaux
lments secondaires utiliss dans les btiments industriels, commerciaux ou
pour habitation.
La partie principale de la publication prsente des tables de dimensionnement
pour les applications habituelles des profils form froid. Ces informations sont
rparties en deux catgories: les proprits des sections et les tables donnant les
charges de dimensionnement des lments. Les proprits gomtriques des
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sections peuvent tre utilises dans toutes les applications. Les informations
relatives au dimensionnement des lments permettent un choix rapide des
profils utiliser en tant que poutres ou colonnes.
Les profils en acier form froid repris dans la publication peuvent tre
aisment obtenus prs des producteurs du Royaume-University. Dautres
rfrences relatives lutilisation des profils en acier form froid sont
galement mentionnes.
Proyecto de estructuras usando secciones de acero conformado en frio
Resumen
Esta publicacin revisa el proyecto y aplicacin de secciones de acero
conformado en frio a la construccin de edificios. El proyecto de estas
secciones de acero se ajusta a la BS 5950: Parte 5: 1998: Norma de buena
prctica para el proyecto de secciones de acero conformadas en frio.
Las aplicaciones cubiertas se refieren a prticos de acero, cerchas y piezas
secundarias en edificios comerciales, industriales y de habitacin.
La parte principal de la publicacin presenta tablas de diseo para uso general
de secciones. Los datos se tabulan en dos partes: propiedades de las secciones
y cargas de proyecto de piezas. Las primeras son de uso general mientras que
las segundas pueden utilizarse para la eleccin directa de las proporciones de
vigas y columnas.
Las secciones de acero conformado un frio descritas en esta publicacin
pueden obtenerse fcilmente de los fabricantes del Reino Unido. Tambin se
dan otras referencias para el uso de secciones conformadas en frio.
Progettazione di strutture realizzate con profili in acciaio sagomati a freddo
Sommario
In questa pubblicazione viene presentato il dimensionamento e lutilizzo di
profili in acciaio sagomati a freddo. La progettazione di tali elementi in acciaio
risulta conforme alla normativa BS5950: Parte 5, 1998, `Guida alla
progettazione di profili sagomati a freddo. Le applicazioni che vengono
presentate sono relative a strutture intelaiate, a travature reticolari ed elementi
secondari per strutture ad uso commerciale, civile ed industriale.
Nella parte principale di questa pubblicazione sono riportate le tabelle
progettuali per differenti utilizzi dei profili sagomati a freddo. Questi dati sono
tabulati in due differenti parti: la prima e relativa alle caratteristiche
geometriche dei profili e la seconda riporta i valori dei carichi di progetto degli
elementi. Le caratteristiche dei profili possono essere utilizzate in applicazioni
di carattere generale mentre una scelta diretta delle dimensioni di travi e
colonne puo essere fatta sulla base delle caratteristiche portanti degli elementi.
Le sezioni dei profili sagomati a freddo riportati in questa pubblicazione
possono essere ottenute in brevi tempi da qualsiasi stabilimento del regno
Unito. Vengono inoltre forniti diversi riferimenti per lutilizzo dei profili in
acciaio.

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NOTATION
A cross-sectional area of section
b plate width between corners or stiffeners
be effective plate width in compression
B width of the section
Cb coefficient representing variation of bending moment along a member
D depth of web of section
2

E modulus of elasticity of steel (205 kN/mm )


es eccentricity of line of application of axial force from centroid of section
I

second moment of area of section (subscript x or y indicates major or minor


axis direction of bending)

K plate buckling coefficient


L length of member
Le effective length of member
My elastic moment resistance of the section
N support width (mm)
py design strength of steel
pcr critical buckling stress in plate
po reduced stress in section determined by web properties
Q factor representing reduced performance of section in compression
r corner radius
ry radius of gyration in y (minor) axis direction of bending
t

net steel thickness

Us ultimate strength of steel


Ys yield stress of steel
" effective length factor including torsional flexural buckling
8 slenderness of member
8y slenderness corresponding to B E/Y s
L Poissons ratio for steel (= 0.3)

Note:

For notation used in section property tables, see Section 5.1.

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1 AIM OF THE PUBLICATION


This design guide is aimed at practitioners in the building industry who
may have limited experience of the structural design of light steel framing
using cold formed steel sections. The publication presents an overview of the
design principles for cold formed steel sections in accordance with
[1]
BS 5950-5:1998 (revised from the 1985 version). Cold formed steel sections
are generally produced by cold rolling from galvanized steel strip.
Most structural engineers are familiar with the application of cold formed steel
sections (also known as cold rolled sections) in purlins and side-rails, which are
highly engineered products for specific applications. The general use of cold
formed sections as primary members of light steel framing requires a more
simplified design process appropriate to their applications as beams, floor joists,
columns, stud walling, members of roof trusses and sub-frames.
A wide range of uses of cold formed sections and light steel framing has been
realised in recent years, and common applications are in:
C

housing

medium-rise apartment buildings

mezzanine floors

roof trusses, including over-roofing in renovation projects

sub-frames for cladding, including over-cladding in renovation projects

framework of modular units

separating and infill walls

canopies.

This design guide concentrates on the general use of cold formed steel sections
in these structural applications. The information is presented under three broad
headings:
1. An introduction to the design of cold formed sections. It is appreciated that
the design of these sections may appear to be more complicated than that
of hot rolled sections. It is therefore important to understand the design
principles and also the practical considerations of the structural use of these
sections.
2. A review of the application of cold formed sections in buildings,
concentrating on the main design features and details. This also necessitates
a discussion on methods of cutting, joining and attachment of other
members and materials, which are fundamental to the practical use of these
thinner sections.
3. A series of tables on section properties and loads for the range of cold
formed sections that are readily available for general building use. The
section properties have been calculated based on first principles, in
accordance with BS 5950-5. The load tables (also determined in
accordance with BS 5950-5) can be used to obtain the required member
sizes for specific applications.

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1.1

Design tables

Section properties are presented for the gross and the effective sections on the
yellow pages (i.e. as influenced by local buckling under compression). These
properties may be used by structural engineers when designing members for
general application. Alternatively, designers may refer to the load-span tables
for beams or load-height tables for columns, which give the member resistances
directly (see pink pages and green pages for grades S280 and S350,
respectively).
The tables in this design guide may be used for general application of generic
C and Z sections as floors and walls. Manufacturers often design their sections
for specific uses, such as purlins, and establish the member performance based
on test data rather than calculations to BS 5950-5. This means that
manufacturers data may be more beneficial in certain cases.
Member resistance tables (in terms of working load capacity) are presented for
generic C or Z sections only. These load tables are useful for selection of
member sizes and are intended to be used for initial or scheme design.
However, for final design, the data provided by the manufacturer of the selected
sections should be used.
Manufacturers should be contacted directly with regard to availability, cutting
to length, hole punching, etc. A list of UK manufacturers and further sources
of information are presented in Appendix A.

1.2

Limit state design


[1]

In BS 5950-5 , the loads to be used in design are calculated from the working
loads multiplied by factors of 1.6 for imposed load and 1.4 for dead loads
(including self weight). These factored loads are used to determine the
moments and forces in the members, which are then compared to the resistance
of the members. Resistances may be as determined for all relevant modes of
failure, such as buckling, connection or local failure etc. The methods of
determining the member resistance and load bearing capacity of cold formed
sections are presented in Section 3.
Additional checks on deflections are made for working loads (i.e. for load
factors of 1.0) in order to ensure adequate performance in service. Light weight
floors should also be checked for their vibration response to normal activities
(see Section 6.1).
The methods in BS 5950 are not based on working load or permissible stress
design, although a global factor of safety of 1.6 may be used conservatively to
determine maximum working loads that the structure can support.
The load capacity tables are presented in terms of working loads.

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2 INTRODUCTION TO USE OF COLD


FORMED SECTIONS
2.1

Materials

Sheet steel used in cold formed sections is typically 0.9 to 3.2 mm thick
(although thinner steels are used in roofing and decking applications). It is
usually supplied pre-galvanized in accordance with European Standard
[2]
EN 10147 (issued by BSI in 1991 as BS EN 10147 as a replacement for
[3]
BS 2989 ). Galvanizing gives adequate protection for internal members,
including those adjacent to the boundaries of building envelopes, such as
purlins. The expected design life of galvanized products in this environment
exceeds 60 years (see Section 2.3).
Steel strip is produced by cold reducing hot rolled coil steel with further
annealing processes to improve the ductility of the material. It is a quality
controlled product with known and easily tested properties. Grade S280 steel
(formerly Z28) is a quality of steel specified as having a guaranteed minimum
2
yield strength of 280 N/mm . Grades S280 and S350 steels are the most
commonly specified grades, although it is often found that the actual yield
strength is considerably higher than the specified minimum. Steel with a
non-guaranteed yield strength may be used in some applications, provided that
the strength of the material is determined by tensile tests taken from the coil
from which the material was cut.

Stress

During cold forming of a section, the increase in yield strength of the steel
increases, due to cold working by the process of strain hardening, as
illustrated in Figure 2.1. The increase in yield strength by cold working may be
significant (> 10%) for highly stiffened sections with many bends. Strictly, the
yield point is not a clearly defined transition point, as it is for hot rolled steels.
The proof strength (at 0.2% strain) is often used as an effective yield value.

Increase of
yield stress
due to strain
hardening

Ultimate strength
Yield point
after cold working

Initial loading

Further loading
after cold working

Loss of ductility

Ductility after cold working

Fracture

Strain

due to cold working

Figure 2.1

The influence of cold forming on the stress-strain diagram of


strip steel

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Ductility is defined on the basis of minimum elongation at fracture over a


certain gauge length. This is specified for S280 steel as a minimum of 20%
(2)
elongation for a gauge length of 50 mm . Ductility reduces with cold working.
Cold working also has the effect of reducing the ratio of the ultimate to the yield
strength of the material.

2.2

Methods of forming

Manufacturers purchase strip steel in coils, normally of 1 m to 1.25 m width.


The sheets are then cut (slit) longitudinally to the correct width for the section
being produced and then fed into a series of roll formers. These rolls are set in
pairs moving in an opposite direction so that the sheet is drawn through and its
shape is gradually modified along the line of rolls. The number of rolls needed
to form the finished shape depends on the complexity of the section. The
overall length of the roll forming machinery can be over 30 m (see Figure 2.2).
Setting-up costs are high if special rolls are needed. Adjustable rolls are often
used, which permit a rapid change of section depth or width. Roll forming is
therefore most economic where large quantities of the same section are
produced at one time. The lengths of the members can be pre-programmed and
cut accurately. Holes for attachments and services can also be punched either
before or after forming.
An alternative method of cold forming is by press-braking. This is normally
only practicable for short lengths (up to 6 m, depending on the size of the
machine used) and for relatively simple shapes. This method can be
advantageous for small production runs, because of its lower setting-up costs.

Figure 2.2 Roll forms used for cold formed sections and sheeting

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2.3

Methods of protection

Hot dip galvanizing (zinc coating) of preformed strip steel offers protection by
sacrificial loss of the zinc surface which occurs preferentially to corrosion of the
steel. Guidance on thickness of galvanizing is given in Galvatite Technical
[4]
Manual . The specified sheet thickness includes galvanizing. A zinc coating
2
of 275 g/m (total on both faces) is the standard (G275) specification for internal
environments, and corresponds to a total zinc thickness of about 0.04 mm.
G100 to G600 coatings can also be obtained but these are generally
non-standard. The thicker coatings are used in applications where moisture
may be present over a long period. Zinc coatings can also be applied by hot
dipping of the sections after manufacture.
Galvanized steel has good durability because, unlike paint, scratches do not
initiate local corrosion of the steel. Similarly, cut ends do not corrode, except
where the rate of zinc loss on the adjacent surfaces is high. In some
applications it may be necessary to apply zinc-rich paint to the exposed steel.
[5]
White rust or wet storage stains may occur if galvanized sections are stored
in bundles in moist conditions, but this does not normally affect their long term
performance. Correct storage of bundles of sheets or sections is therefore
important.
A recent SCI publication Durability of light steel framing in residential
[6]
building shows that the design life of galvanized steel in warm frame
applications is at least 200 years, provided that the external envelope is
properly maintained.
Zinc-aluminium coatings also have high corrosion resistance and are sometimes
used in sheeting applications, but rarely on sections. Organic coatings are not
used for sections. Powder paint coatings, in addition to galvanizing, are often
used for specialist products such as lintels.

2.4

Common shapes of sections

Cold formed sections are used in many industries and are often specially shaped
to suit particular applications. In building applications, the most common
sections are the C and the Z sections. There are a wide range of variants of
these basic shapes, including those with edge lips, internal stiffeners and bends
in the webs.
Other sections are the top-hat section and the modified I section. The
common range of cold formed sections that are marketed is illustrated in
Figure 2.3. The sections can also be joined together back to back or toe to toe
to form compound sections.
The reason for edge lips and internal stiffeners is because unstiffened wide and
thin plates are not able to resist significant compression, and consequently the
sections are structurally inefficient. However, a highly stiffened section is less
easy to form and is often less practicable from the point of view of connection
to other members. Therefore, a compromise between structural efficiency and
practicability is often necessary.

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Z sections

Lipped Z

Zeta

C sections

Plain

Lipped

Sigma

Special sections

Top hat

Modified

sections

Eaves beam

Compound sections

Figure 2.3

2.5

Examples of cold formed steel sections

Common applications

Cold formed steel sections are used widely in building applications. Decking
is also used in composite floors, and in flat roofs. Roof and wall sheeting are
well established and are generally sold as colour-coated products with various
forms of organic surface coatings.
The main advantages of using cold formed sections are:
C

high load resistance for a given section depth

long span capability (up to 10 m)

dimensional accuracy

long term durability in internal environments

freedom from long term creep and shrinkage

capability to be formed to a particular shape for specific applications

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lightness, which is particularly important for buildings in poor ground


conditions

no wet trades, as a dry envelope is quickly achieved using light steel


framing

ease of construction, as members are delivered to site cut to length and with
pre-punched holes, requiring no further fabrication

ability to be prefabricated into sub-frames as wall panels etc;

robustness, but sufficiently light for site handling

connections are strong and easily made in factory or on site.

Examples of the structural use of cold formed sections are as follows:


Roof and wall members
A major use of cold formed steel in the UK is as purlins and side rails to support
the cladding in industrial-type buildings (see Figure 2.4). Purlins are generally
based on the Z section (and its variants), which facilitates incorporation of
sleeves and overlaps to improve the structural efficiency of the members in
multi-span applications.

Figure 2.4

Cold formed sections used as roof purlins

Light steel framing


An increasing market for cold formed steel sections is in site-assembled frames
and panels for walls and roofs, and for stand-alone buildings. This approach
has been used in a wide range of light industrial and commercial buildings and
also in mezzanine floors of existing buildings (see Figure 2.5).
Housing
In modern house construction, storey-high wall panels are factory-built and
assembled on site by platform construction. The panels are sufficiently light
to be handled on site. External insulation is used in order to create a warm
frame. Brickwork is attached by wall ties in vertical tracks fixed through the
insulation to the wall studs. Four light steel framing systems are available in the
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18 April 2002

housing sector in the UK. A major series of load tests has been carried out to
establish the global action of light steel frames to vertical and horizontal loads
(see Figure 2.6).

Figure 2.5

Cold formed sections used in site-assembled framing

Figure 2.6

Light steel framing for housing (Corus Framings Surebuild system)

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Lintels
A significant market for cold-formed sections is for specially shaped steel lintels
used over doors and windows inlow-rise masonry walls. These products are
often powder-coated for extra corrosion protection in cavity conditions.
Floor joists
Cold formed sections may be used as an alternative to timber joists in floors of
modest span in domestic and small commercial buildings. Spans of up to 5 m
can be readily achieved for C or sigma-shaped sections. Lattice joists may be
used for longer spanning applications.
Systems for commercial buildings
A prefabricated panel system using cold formed sections and lattice joists has
been developed for use in buildings up to 4 storeys height (see Figure 2.7).
Although primarily developed for commercial buildings, this system has wide
application in such as educational and apartment buildings.
Roof trusses
Roof trusses may be manufactured using cold formed sections for both new
construction and renovation projects. They may be of the traditional Fink or
Pratt truss form, or alternatively, they may be designed as open roof trusses
for habitable use. Over-roofing of existing flat roofs is also a large market for
[7]
long span trusses (see Figure 2.8).
Separating walls and partitions
Separating walls in framed buildings may be designed using C sections and
multiple layers of plasterboard to provide a high level of acoustic insulation and
fire resistance.
Space trusses
A three-dimensional space truss based on a 3 m square module using cold
formed C sections is marketed in the UK by Spacedecks Ltd..
Infill walling and over-cladding
A modern application of cold formed sections is in infill walls to support
cladding to multi-storey steel buildings, and as mullions and transoms in
standard glazing systems. Over-cladding systems have been developed for use
[8]
in building renovation .
Prefabricated modular buildings
Prefabricated modular units are a new application of the use of cold formed
sections. The units are manufactured and fitted-out in factory-controlled
conditions. When installed on site with their services and cladding, the units
form whole or part buildings with a high level of acoustic insulation and
[9]
structural integrity . They are also designed structurally for the stresses
imposed during lifting and transportation. Other applications are as
prefabricated toilet pod units in multi-storey buildings.

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18 April 2002

Figure 2.7

Cold formed lattice joists and modular wall panels

Figure 2.8

Roof truss used in over-roofing

Frameless steel buildings


Steel folded plates, barrel vaults and truncated pyramid roofs are examples of
systems that have been developed as so-called frameless buildings (i.e. those
without beams and which rely partly on stressed skin action).
Storage racking
Storage racking systems for use in warehouses and industrial buildings are made
from cold formed steel sections. Most have special clip attachments, or bolted
joints engineered for easy assembly, as shown in Figure 2.9.

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18 April 2002

Composite decking
A major structural use of strip steel is in composite decking in floors which are
designed to act compositely with the in-situ concrete placed on it. Composite
decking is usually designed to be unpropped during construction, and typical
spans are 3 to 3.6 m. This application, which is illustrated in Figure 2.10, is
[10] [11]
well covered in other publications
. More recently, deep decking has been
developed to achieve spans of 5 to 9 m in Slimdeck construction.

Figure 2.9

Typical storage racking system

Figure 2.10 Steel decking used in composite slab

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18 April 2002

Applications in general civil engineering include:


C

Lighting and transmission towers


These towers are often made from thin tubular or angle sections that may be
cold formed.

Motorway crash barriers


These relatively thin steel members are primarily designed for strength, but
also have properties of energy absorbtion under impact by permitting gross
deformation.

Silos for agricultural use


Silo walls are often stiffened and supported by cold formed steel sections.

Culverts
Curved profiled sheets are often used as culverts and storm pipes.

Other major non-structural applications in building include such diverse uses


as garage doors, and ducting for heating and ventilating systems.

2.6

Fire protection

Fire protection to cold formed sections in planar floors or walls is usually


provided by special fire-resistant gypsum plasterboards placed in one or two
layers to form the finished surface. Fire resistance periods of 30 or 60 minutes
can be achieved by this simple method of protection provided joints between
the boards are staggered.
Longer members such as beams and columns can also be boxed-out using
standard board protection, as in Figure 2.11. However, the required thickness
of fire protection is usually greater than that for hot rolled sections because the
[12]
thinner steel elements heat up more rapidly .

Figure 2.11

Box fire protection to columns using C sections

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18 April 2002

3 INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN OF COLD


FORMED SECTIONS
The main difference between the behaviour of cold formed sections and hot
rolled steel sections is that thin plate elements tend to buckle locally under
compression. Cold formed cross-sections are therefore usually classified as
slender because they cannot generally reach their full compression resistance
based on the amount of material in the cross-section. Therefore, effective
section properties should be used in structural calculations.
The benefits of cold forming on material properties may be taken into account.
A design formula for the increase in average yield strength is presented in
BS 5950-5, Clause 3.4, and this increase in strength is typically 3 to 10%,
depending on the number of bends in the section. For S280 and S350 steel
grades, the design strength of the steel, py is taken as the yield strength, Ys as
modified by Clause 3.4.

3.1

Behaviour of thin plates in compression

3.1.1 Elastic buckling


The full compression resistance of a perfectly flat plate supported on two
longitudinal edges can be developed for a width-to-thickness ratio of about 40.
At greater widths, buckles form elastically causing a loss in the overall
compressive resistance of the plate. This is due to the inability of the more
flexible central portion to resist as much compression as the outer portions
which are partly stabilised by the edge supports.
The critical compression stress at which elastic buckling of the plate occurs is
given by the expression:
pcr =
.

K B2 E
12 (1 & v 2)

t
b

185 103 5 (t/b) N/mm

(1)

where:
b is the plate width, and
t is the steel thickness.
The term 5, referred to as the buckling coefficient, represents the influence of
the boundary conditions and the stress pattern on plate buckling. Normally,
plates are considered to be infinitely long but have various support conditions
along their longitudinal edges. The two common cases are, firstly, simple
supports along both edges, and, secondly, one simple support and the other free
edge. In the first case 5 is 4, whereas in the second, 5 reduces dramatically to
0.425. This indicates that plates with free edges do not perform well under
local buckling. These cases are illustrated in Figure 3.1.

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18 April 2002

pcr

Buckled shape
e
edg
ted
r
o
p
Sup

e
edg
ted
r
o
p
Sup

Junction remains
straight

pcr

Edge is free
to displace

pcr

Adequate lip

Figure 3.1

pcr

Buckled shape

No edge lip

Local buckling of plates with different boundary conditions

The value of 5 may be enhanced considerably when the rotational stiffness


provided by the adjacent plates is included, or, alternatively, when the loading
conditions do not result in uniform compression. Different cases for sections
in bending and pure compression are given in Appendix B of BS 5950-5.

3.1.2 Post-critical behaviour


Plate elements are not perfectly flat, and therefore begin to deform out-of-plane
gradually with increasing load, rather than buckle instantaneously at the critical
buckling stress. This means that the non-uniform stress state exists throughout
the loading regime, and tends to cause the plate element to fail at loads less
than the critical buckling value. This is a dominant effect in the b/t range from
30 to 60 (for plates simply supported on both edges).
However, there are opposing effects for plate elements with higher b/t ratios.
Firstly, membrane or in-plane tensions are generated which resist further
buckling, and secondly, the zone of compression yielding extends from the
longitudinal supports to encompass a greater width of the plate elements. These
post-critical effects cause an increase in the load-carrying capacity of wide plate
elements (b/t > 60) relative to that given by Equation (1).
The parameter which is used to express the behaviour of plate elements in
compression is the effective width. This is the notional width which is
assumed to act at the yield strength of the steel. The remaining portion of the
plate element is assumed not to contribute to the compression resistance, as
illustrated in Figure 3.2.
Simplified
equivalent
stresses

Actual stress
distribution

beff /2
b
beff /2
Ys

Ys

Ys

Figure 3.2 Illustration of effective width of compression plate

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18 April 2002

The effective width concept can be modified to take the above factors into
account. A semi-empirical formula for the effective width, beff, of a plate
element under compression is presented in BS 5950-5, Clause 4.3, as follows:
beff
b

1 % 14

fc

4 &0.2

1/2

& 0.35

pcr

(2)

Where, fc is the compressive stress in the plate element, and pcr is the critical
buckling stress of the plate element, as defined previously. fc is limited to a
value of Ys , which is the design strength of the steel.
The relationship given by Equation (2) is plotted in Figure 3.3. Also shown in
this figure is the equivalent elastic buckling curve determined from Equation (1)
[13] [14]
and the corresponding AISI (American) requirements
.
The full
compression resistance of a real (slightly non-flat) plate element supported on
two longitudinal edges can be developed at a b/t ratio of less than
approximately 30, and this therefore represents the most efficient spacing
between stiffeners or folds in a cross-section. Values of effective width for plate
elements of increasing b/t ratios are presented in Table 3.1 (taken from
BS 5950-5).
1.0
b eff
b

BS 5950:Part5
AISI/EC3 Part 1.3
Elastic Buckling

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

50

100

150

200

250

b/t

Figure 3.3

Ratio of effective width to flat width (Ys = 280 N/mm ) of


compression plate with simple edge supports

3.1.3 Influence of stiffeners


There are two types of stiffeners: those at the edge of a plate element, and those
internally within a plate element. They are known respectively as edge and
intermediate stiffeners, in the form of lips and folds, as illustrated in Figure 3.4.
A rule of thumb is that edge stiffeners comprising a simple lip or right angle
bend should not be less in depth than one-fifth of the width of adjacent plate
element, if they are to be fully effective in providing longitudinal support.

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18 April 2002

Table 3.1

Effective widths of compression plate elements supported on two


longitudinal edges (Table 5 of BS 5950-5: 1998, reproduced with
the permission of the British Standards Institution)

b/t

beff/b

b/t

beff/b

b/t

beff/b

b/t

beff/b

20
21
22
23
24
25

1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
0.999
0.999

60
61
62
63
64
65

0.673
0.662
0.652
0.641
0.631
0.621

100
105
110
115
120
125

0.405
0.387
0.370
0.355
0.341
0.328

300
305
310
315
320
325

0.151
0.149
0.147
0.145
0.143
0.141

26
27
28
29
30

0.998
0.997
0.996
0.994
0.992

66
67
68
69
70

0.612
0.603
0.594
0.585
0.577

130
135
140
145
150

0.316
0.305
0.295
0.286
0.277

330
335
340
345
350

0.139
0.138
0.136
0.134
0.133

31
32
33
34
35

0.989
0.985
0.981
0.976
0.969

71
72
73
74
75

0.569
0.561
0.553
0.545
0.538

155
160
165
170
175

0.269
0.262
0.254
0.248
0.241

355
360
365
370
375

0.131
0.130
0.128
0.127
0.125

36
37
38
39
40

0.962
0.955
0.946
0.936
0.926

76
77
78
79
80

0.531
0.524
0.517
0.511
0.504

180
185
190
195
200

0.235
0.230
0.224
0.219
0.215

380
385
390
395
400

0.124
0.122
0.121
0.120
0.119

41
42
43
44
45

0.915
0.903
0.891
0.878
0.865

81
82
83
84
85

0.498
0.492
0.486
0.480
0.475

205
210
215
220
225

0.210
0.206
0.201
0.197
0.194

405
410
415
420
425

0.117
0.116
0.115
0.114
0.113

46
47
48
49
50

0.852
0.838
0.824
0.811
0.797

86
87
88
89
90

0.469
0.464
0.459
0.454
0.449

230
235
240
245
250

0.190
0.186
0.183
0.180
0.177

430
435
440
445
450

0.112
0.111
0.109
0.108
0.107

51
52
53
54
55

0.784
0.771
0.757
0.745
0.732

91
92
93
94
95

0.444
0.439
0.435
0.430
0.426

255
260
265
270
275

0.174
0.171
0.168
0.165
0.163

455
460
465
470
475

0.106
0.106
0.105
0.104
0.103

56
57
58
59
60

0.720
0.708
0.696
0.684
0.673

96
97
98
99
100

0.421
0.417
0.413
0.409
0.405

280
285
290
295
300

0.160
0.158
0.156
0.153
0.151

480
485
490
495
500

0.102
0.101
0.100
0.099
0.098
2

NOTE: These effective widths are based on the limit state of strength for steel with Ys = 280 N/mm and
having a buckling coefficient K = 4. For steels with other values of Ys or sections having K 4, see
Clause 4.4.1 of BS 5950-5.

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18 April 2002

A simple formula for the minimum size of stiffener is given in BS 5950-5. If the
stiffener is adequate, the plate element may then be treated as simply supported
along both longitudinal edges, with a 5 value of 4. In BS 5950-5, edge
stiffeners failing to meet this limit are considered to be ineffective and are
disregarded, leading to much reduced effective section properties.
Unstiffened
element

Simple
lip

Internal
element

a) Section with
unstiffened elements

Figure 3.4

Compound
lip

b) Sections with elements


stiffened by lips

Intermediate
stiffener

c) Section with
intermediately
stiffened element

Types of element and stiffeners

Intermediate stiffeners are intended to reduce the flat width of the plate
elements so that the section operates more effectively. They usually comprise
folds in the section. Again, a simple formula for the minimum size of stiffener
is given in BS 5950-5, Clause 4.7.1. Because these stiffeners stabilise two
adjacent plate elements, they have to be relatively robust (i.e. stiff). Typically,
a V shaped fold of height not less than one-fifth of the width of the adjacent
plate element on one side of the stiffener will generally offer effective support.
Thus, for a compression flange of 150 mm width, a single intermediate fold of
15 mm depth should be satisfactory.
An additional problem with intermediate stiffeners is that the stiffened
compression plate element tends to buckle towards the neutral axis of the
section in bending (a phenomenon known as flange curling). This means that
the effectiveness of very wide compression elements with multi-stiffeners is
reduced due to this deformation. Account is taken of this effect in BS 5950-5,
Clauses 4.7.2 and 4.7.3.

3.2

Behaviour of webs

Webs of cross-sections are subject to shear, bending and local compression at


their supports. It is often found that these local effects dominate the design of
cold formed sections. In purlin design, for example, the sections are supported
by cleats attached to the webs rather than sitting directly on the supports which
may reduce their effectiveness.

3.2.1 Web shear


Slender webs normally fail in shear by shear buckling. The buckling coefficient
5 in Equation (1) for a simply supported plate in pure shear tends to a value of
5.35. This leads to a critical shear stress qcr given by BS 5950-5, Clause 5.4.3
as:
qcr =

106

t
D

N/mm 2

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(3)

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18 April 2002

qcr is compared to the average shear stress acting across the full web depth.
Additionally, the average shear stress should not exceed 0.6 Ys representing the
limiting stress at which shear yielding occurs. In irregular sections, the
maximum shear stress should not exceed 0.7 Ys.

3.2.2 Web bending


Webs of sections in bending are subject to varying compressive stress, reducing
from a maximum at the junction with the flange to zero at the elastic neutral
axis position. Very deep webs can be influenced by local buckling in
compression. However, the varying stress in the web leads to a deeper plate
element before buckling than for a plate element under pure compression. This
is reflected in the theoretical value of the buckling coefficient 5 of 23.9 (rather
than 4).
The effective width concept is also used to determine the post-buckling bending
resistance of deep webs by considering two separate zones adjacent to the
neutral axis and to the compression flange. This behaviour is illustrated in
Figure 3.5(b).
b eff /2

b eff /2

Ys

b eff /2
Compression
Ys

b eff /2

Ys

Ys

Yc

Yc

Neutral
axis

Tension
a) Effective width of compression
flange and fully effective web
b eff /2

b eff /2

po

b) Effective width of web


in compression
b eff /2

po

b eff /2

Ys

Ys

Yc

Yc
Neutral
axis

Ys
c) Reduced stress, po
in fully effective web

Figure 3.5

d) Full yielding of web in tension


(non-symmetric section)

Effective width models for cold formed sections in bending

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In BS 5950-5, an alternative approach is used, whereby the maximum


compressive stress in the web is determined. This is given by the term po
calculated as in Clause 5.2.2.2 of BS 5950-5 (see Figure 3.5(c)):
p0 ' 1.13 & 0.0019

Dw

Ys

280

py

(4)

where Dw is the depth of the web

3.2.3 Web crushing


Local failure at supports, or at locations of point loads, can occur as shown in
Figure 3.6. This reduces the load-carrying resistance of the member. It is taken
into account by an empirical formula representing the web crushing load.
A

Cleat

Section A - A

Figure 3.6

Use of cleat to
avoid crushing

Web crushing at a support

This effect is largely a function of the width of the support, the thickness of the
steel, and the height/thickness ratio of the section. The crushing load Pw (in kN)
of a single vertical web with stiffened flanges is given in BS 5950-5, Clause 5.3,
as:
Pw = t2 k (1.33 ! 0.33 k)(1.15 ! 0.15 r/t)(2060 ! 3.8 D/t) (1 + 0.01 N/t) x 10!3

(5)

where:
t
D
N
r
k

is the steel thickness (mm)


is the section depth
is the support width
is the corner radius between the web and flange.
= Ys /228.

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Equation (4) applies where the reaction (or point load) is applied close to the
end of the member and where the web is free to move laterally. The equivalent
value for an internal support reaction or point load is approximately 50% higher
than that given by this equation.
It follows that the support reaction or point load should not exceed the web
crushing resistance. This can be best achieved by increasing the width of the
supports or the thickness of the steel section. Enhanced capacities are given for
double C sections with back to back webs, or webs with both flanges held in
[1]
position (see Table 8 of BS 5950-5 ).
Interaction between co-existent bending and web crushing may be taken into
account using the relationship of the form indicated in Figure 3.7. This means
that the bending resistance of continuous members may be reduced at internal
supports, unless wet crushing is prevented by use of a stiffening element, e.g.
an angle cleat.
1.0
M
Mmax

Acceptable zone
0.4

Figure 3.7

3.3

0.45

P
Pw

1.0

Influence of combined moment, M and web reaction, P for


double C sections

Behaviour of members in bending

3.3.1 Moment resistance of section


The effective properties of sections in bending may be taken into account from
first principles by considering the effective widths of the compression elements,
as illustrated in Figure 3.5. The neutral axis of the section is determined by
balancing tension and compression. The section modulus is then calculated
knowing the elastic neutral axis position. The effective bending resistance is
obtained by multiplying the elastic section modulus by the design strength of
the steel. Both the neutral axis position and the section modulus are therefore
functions of the operating stress of the compression flange.
For symmetric sections, the effective section modulus of the compression plate
is not greater than that in tension and therefore compression yielding occurs
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first. However, for some non-symmetric sections, tension yielding may occur
first causing plastification in the tension flange. This local yielding, as
illustrated in Figure 3.5(d) is permitted, provided the compression plate does not
yield.

3.3.2 Influence of section shape


Z-shaped sections displace laterally when loaded through their webs, because
the principal axis of bending is at an angle to the vertical axis through the web.
These sections are normally used as roof purlins, so that the orientation of the
principal axis counteracts that of the roof slope, as in Figure 3.8(a). Some
sections are specially formed to reduce the angular difference between the
principal and vertical axes to about 5E. Fixing to rigid flooring or deep sheeting
also assists in preventing lateral displacement.
Load
Load

Principal axis
of bending
close to vertical
Shear
centre

Shear
centre

Twisting about
shear centre

pe
slo
f
o
Ro

a) Z sections as purlins

Figure 3.8

b) C sections

Behaviour of different sections under bending

C sections twist when loaded through their webs because the shear centre of the
section is located outside the web (see Figure 3.8(b)). This is alleviated by
placing two sections back to back, or by providing lateral restraints to both
flanges. Fixing to rigid flooring also reduces twisting, depending on the location
and spacing of the fixings. The shape of C sections can be modified to a zeta
shape to bring the shear centre closer to the web.
Non-symmetric sections, as shown in Figure 3.5(d), may displace laterally under
major axis bending. These transverse bending stresses should be considered in
addition to primary bending stresses unless lateral movement is prevented.

3.3.3 Continuous members


For simply-supported members, it is the sagging (positive) moment conditions
that determine the bending resistance of the member. For members that are
continuous over one or more internal supports, moments are determined
elastically (i.e. using moment distribution or other elastic methods). Plastic
hinge analysis is not permitted because the slender sections are not able to
maintain their full bending resistance when rotations exceed the point at which
the section reaches yield. There is, however, some residual bending resistance
at large rotations as shown in Figure 3.9.
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18 April 2002

Elastic moment
Load

Support

Moments following
redistribution
a) Redistribution of moments for 'plastic' sections

Elastic
moment
capacity
Moment

Idealised behaviour
Actual behaviour
of 'slender' section

Rotation
b) Moment - rotation characteristics of 'slender' sections

Figure 3.9

Illustration of influence of section type on behaviour of


continuous beams

Design on the basis of elastic analysis means that the conditions at the internal
supports of continuous members often dominate the overall design (see the
relationship between moment and web crushing in Figure 3.7). In some cases,
this can lead to the conclusion that simply-supported members are stronger than
continuous members! Some purlin systems utilise the flexibility of sleeved or
overlapping purlins at the supports in order to achieve some elastic
redistribution of moment, and hence to lead to more efficient design of the
members (see Section 4.1). In order to make an accurate prediction of the
amount of redistribution that will take place, it is necessary to know the
moment-rotation behaviour of the sleeved or overlapped section in hogging.
This should be determined by testing.

3.3.4 Lateral torsional buckling


The above approach assumes that the members are laterally restrained i.e. they
cannot fail by lateral buckling. This is the case where simply supported
members are attached to floors etc. so that the compression flange is prevented
from displacing sideways (or laterally).
Where the lateral restraints are sufficiently wide apart, lateral torsional buckling
may occur. This effect is illustrated in Figure 3.10. The elastic lateral buckling
resistance moment of an equal flange I-section or a symmetrical C section bent
in the plane of the web is given in Clause 5.6.2.2 by the formula:
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18 April 2002

B2 AED
1
Cb 1 %
20
2 (LE/ry)2

ME =

LE
ry

0.5

(6)

where:
LE is the distance between points of lateral restraint
ry is the radius of gyration of the section in the lateral direction
Cb is the factor representing the shape of the bending moment diagram (unity
for constant moment).
Loading
y
z
Support
u
x

Figure 3.10 Deformations u and N associated with lateral-torsional buckling


Account may also be taken of the support conditions in modifying the effective
length LE. The ratio LE/ry defines the slenderness, 8 of the member. As the
slenderness reduces, so ME increases, and eventually the bending resistance, Mc
of the section is reached. Equation (5) may be converted to an effective
slenderness, 8LT of the beam according to the expression:
8LT =

uv8

where u
v

(7)
is approximately equal to 0.9 for C or I sections,
=

1
1 %
20

t
8
D

0.25

(8)

The effective slenderness may be non-dimensionalised to give the modified


slenderness ratio, &
8 LT, by dividing by 8y where 8y = B E/Y s (see Section 3.4.1).

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As the D/t ratio of these sections is very large, it follows that v tends to unity.
For a simply supported beam, its effective slenderness 8LT may be taken as 0.98
as a safe approximation. This reflects the beneficial effects of non-uniform stress
and torsional stiffness on lateral torsional buckling of the section in comparison
to a strut of slenderness 8.
The relationship between the modified slenderness ratio of the member and the
bending resistance, Mb of the section is shown in Figure 3.11. This is based on
the Perry-Robertson approach, as defined in BS 5950-5. The full bending
resistance of the section can only be reached when 8 is less than 40 Cb.

Moment ratio (M b /M c,Rd )

1.2
BS 5950 - 5
1.0
Elastic lateral
torsional buckling

ECCS TC7

0.8
0.6

EC3 Part 1.3

0.4

BS 5950 - 1

0.2
0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Modified slenderness ratio ( LT)


Modulus of elasticity E = 205 kN/mm
Design strength Y s= 280 N/mm

Figure 3.11

Shape factor = 1.1

Design curves for cold formed sections used as beams

Similar formulae may be developed for singly symmetric sections such as


C sections. However, in this case, the shear centre of a C section does not
coincide with the plane of the web. Therefore loads applied through the web
cause twisting of the section (see Figure 3.8(b)). In principle, therefore, single
C sections should be restrained against torsion if they are to be used effectively.
If not, then in-plane warping stresses due to torsion are created which should
be added to bending stresses.
The hogging (negative) moment region of continuous members requires special
consideration, because it is usually more difficult to restrain the lower flange of
the section than the upper flange. It is often assumed that the point of zero
moment may be considered as a point of effective restraint, and that the part of
the beam in hogging may be treated as a member with a linear variation of
moment. If this gives a bending moment resistance less than the applied
moment, then additional lateral restraints are needed. It should be noted,
however, that treating the point of zero moment as a point of effective restraint
is only appropriate when adequate torsional restraint is provided at the support
(see Clause 5.5.5. of BS 5950-1:2000). In purlin design, sag bars are generally
used to provide restraint to the lower flange in wind uplift conditions.

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3.4

Behaviour of members in compression

3.4.1 Members in pure compression


Members in compression are typically columns loaded by beams, or struts in
trusses. Columns are usually only laterally restrained at the beam-column
connections, unless they are built into a wall. The design of axially loaded
sections may be treated as a series of plates in compression. This leads to an
effective area of the cross-section when the effective widths of all the
compressive plate elements are combined, as shown in Figure 3.12. This ratio
of the effective to the gross area of the section is known as the Q factor and
it represents the efficiency of the section under axial compression.
Therefore, the compressive resistance of the section is:
PCS

Q A Ys

(9)

where A is the gross (unreduced) cross-sectional area of the column section.


Columns generally fail by buckling rather than pure compression, as shown in
Figure 3.13. Perfectly straight columns buckle elastically at an Euler load
given by:

PE =

B2 E Iy
2

B2

LE

EA

(10)

82

where 8 is the slenderness of the member between points of lateral restraints


(see Section 3.3.4), which is the effective length Le divided by the radius of
gyration.
The modified slenderness ratio, &
8 is defined as 8/8y, where 8y = B E/Y s in
which 8y corresponds to the slenderness of the equivalent perfect strut when
acting at the yield strength, Ys.

A
Centroid

a) Axial load applied


through centroid

B
Shear
centre

Modified
centroid

Eccentricity
=A-B

b) Reduced cross-section
in compression

Figure 3.12 Analysis of restrained section in compression

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Floor

Column

Lateral buckling
mode

Torsional - flexural
buckling mode

Section A - A
Floor

Figure 3.13 Buckling of column in compression between floors


Real columns are not perfectly straight; they fail before the Euler buckling load
is reached. This is taken into account by a Perry-Robertson type formula which
has a solution of the form:
Pc '

P E Pcs

(11)

N% N &PE Pcs
where N =

Pcs % (1 % 0) PE

,
Pc is the axial buckling resistance of the
2
column and 0 is an empirical factor accounting for the initial imperfection of the
column, given in Clause 6.2.3 of by 0 = 0.002 (8-20). (Therefore, Pc = Pcs when
8 # 20).
The variation of load ratio (Pc/Pcs) with slenderness ratio 8 is presented in
Figure 3.14.

3.4.2 Singly symmetric sections


In sections which are not doubly symmetric about both axes (see Figure 3.12),
the centroid of the effective section (B) may be at a different location to the
centroid of the gross section (A) through which axial forces are assumed to act.
This gives rise to combined bending and compression, which is taken into
account by a modified value of PcN such that:
PcN =

Mc Pc / (Mc + Pc es )

(12)

where Mc is the pure bending resistance of the section, and es is the eccentricity
of the applied load caused by the shift of neutral axis from the gross section to
the effective section (see, Clause 6.2.4).

3.4.3 Combined bending and axial loading


The interaction between bending and axial load may be taken into account by
the following relationship for members which fail by lateral buckling:

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Fc

Pc

Mx
Mb

My

Cb Mcy (1 & Fc/Pey)

# 1

(13)

where Fc is the axial load applied to the column, and Mx and My are the applied
moments in the x and y (major and minor axis) directions (see clause 6.4.3).
Mcx and Mcy are the design bending resistance based on an independent analysis
in the x and y directions. Cb takes into account the variation of moment along
the member (see Equation 6). Pc is determined for an axially loaded member,
as above, and PEY is the compression resistance for buckling in the y direction
(from Equation 9).
This equation takes into account the potentially weakening effects of the
combinations of different buckling modes.

3.4.4 Torsional flexural buckling


Thin open cross-sections are torsionally weak and may be more susceptible to
torsional failure than lateral buckling failure when loaded axially (as illustrated
in Figure 3.13). This is especially so for singly symmetric sections, such as
C sections, because of the separation of the centroid and shear centre
(representing the point about which the member twists).
Analysis for torsional flexural buckling is quite complicated and the approach
in BS 5950-5 is to modify the effective length for lateral buckling to take into
account the possibility of a lower torsional flexural failure mode. This is
achieved by the use of the effective length multiplication factor, ". Appropriate
" values for a range of common sections are presented in Appendix C of
(1)
BS 5950-5 .

Load ratio

1.2

BS 5950-5

1.0
Elastic Euler
buckling

0.8
0.6
EC3 Annex A

0.4

BS 5950 - 1

0.2
0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Slenderness ratio
Modulus of elasticity E = 205 kN/mm
Design strength Ys = 280 N/mm

Figure 3.14 Design curves for cold formed sections as columns

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3.5

Serviceability limits

3.5.1 Natural frequency


The natural frequency of light steel flooring systems should be calculated in
order to avoid perceptible vibrations.
According to current SCI
recommendations, the natural frequency of these floors should exceed 8 Hz
when calculated for a load equal to the self weight plus a permanent load of 0.3
2
kN/m . This is equivalent to a static deflection of 5 mm under the same load.
Assuming that the permanent load is approximately 33% of the total service
load, it follows that the maximum deflection under total design loading should
not exceed 15 mm. This deflection limit is equivalent to that for timber
construction.
The natural frequency limit often controls for floor spans greater than 5 m.

3.5.2 Deflection limits


Deflection limits are introduced for floors in order that there is no serious risk
of cracking of partitions or other components supported by these floors, or
perceptible movement. Traditionally, an upper deflection limit of span/360 is
used for floors subject to imposed load, reducing to span/250 when subject to
total loads. However, these limits may be too relaxed for light steel floors,
particularly in relation to control of vibrations (see above). Because of this, it is
proposed that the limit on imposed load deflections should be reduced to
span/450, and the limit on total deflection should be reduced to span/350 (but
not exceeding 15 mm, as required for control of vibrations).
Stricter limits are required for edge beams supporting cladding. For brickwork,
total deflection limit of span/500 is often used.

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4 APPLICATION OF COLD FORMED


SECTIONS IN BUILDING
The following Sections describe typical uses and potential applications of cold
formed steel sections in buildings. A common use of these sections is in purlins
and side rails in industrial buildings, but there are many new developments of
cold formed sections as primary structural members in housing, light industrial
and commercial buildings.

4.1

Purlins and side rails

Purlins are usually of Z shape, the argument being that the principal axis of
bending of the section is close to vertical when the section is orientated so that
the upper flange points up the roof for roof slopes of 10 to 15E, as shown in
Figure 3.8(a). This means that vertical roof loads do not cause serious twisting
of the sections. However, roof slopes in modern industrial buildings can be as
low as 5E, and this has created the need for modified section shapes. The
so-called Zeta section (see Figure 2.3) is one attempt to provide a section
shape more suitable for shallow roofs.
C shaped sections and their derivatives have also been developed for roof and
wall applications. The web shape can be modified to a sigma shape to reduce
the twisting of the section by bringing the shear centre of the section closer to
the web.
All purlins above a certain length are provided with sag rods which are intended
to prevent twisting during erection and to stabilise the lower flange against wind
uplift. The upper purlins are usually tied at ridge level.
Lateral forces on the members can usually be transferred by diaphragm or
stressed skin action of the roof sheeting. The upper flanges of the purlins are
considered to be laterally restrained by the sheeting.
The design of purlins has developed to an extent that empirical methods based
on testing are often the only economic solution. Purlins are usually designed to
be continuous in order to satisfy deflection limits. However, elastic design of
continuous members can be unduly onerous, when strictly interpreting the
requirements of BS 5950-5 (see Section 3.3.3).
This factor has been recognised by the purlin manufacturers and many
overlapped and sleeved systems at the supports have been developed. The
moment-rotation characteristics of these systems can be matched to the
performance of the purlin, leading to optimum design of the section. This
behaviour is illustrated in Figure 4.1. Overlapping systems provide better
hogging bending resistance then sleeved systems. Both provide double web
thickness, improving the shear resistance of the section at internal supports.
Shear forces are transferred to the supporting rafters by cleats bolted to the webs
of the purlins. The cleats are designed so that the lower flange of the purlin does
not bear directly on the rafter, and thus web crushing problems are avoided.
The shear or bearing strength of the connecting bolts provides the necessary load
transfer (see Section 4.10).
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Side rails are designed in a similar manner and are used in walling applications.
Vertical loads are resisted by the use of sag rods or bracing members in the
plane of the wall.
Sleeve or overlap

Joint rotation

0.10wL

Elastic moments

0.08wL

Redistribution moments
allowing for joint flexibility

Figure 4.1

4.2

Redistribution of moments in sleeved or overlap purlin system

Floor joists

Steel floor joists, usually of C section, may be used to replace timber joists in
housing and other masonry buildings. The joists may be built into walls or
supported on traditional joist hangers (see Figure 4.2). Thicker cold formed
sections may also be used to replace lighter hot rolled sections as secondary
beams in main frames.
Comparisons have been made of the design of cold formed sections with the
traditional alternatives. These comparisons have been characterised in terms of
four typical applications that may be encountered in domestic and commercial
buildings. The section sizes and weights resulting from these designs are
presented in Table 4.1. In practice, designs may be controlled by bending
resistance or stiffness requirements.
In terms of equivalent bending resistance, a series of 175 mm 37 mm timber
joists may be replaced by 100 mm 40 mm 1.2 mm thick C sections at the
same spacing. Other comparative performances may be taken from Table 4.2.
However, in practical applications, floor joists should also be designed for
relatively strict deflection and frequency limits which means that they are deeper
than for pure bending resistance (see Section 3.5).
The cold formed sections can also be manufactured with punched holes in their
webs to allow passage of small diameter pipes and other services. The depth of
these holes is normally less than half the member depth and has little effect on
structural performance. Provision of these holes for services overcomes the
problem of notching of timber joists. Attachment of the timber floor-boards
increases the stiffness of the light steel sections and provides lateral restraint if
fixed at regular intervals.

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Table 4.1

Comparison between section sizes for cold formed steel, hot rolled
steel and timber for different applications
Domestic building

Section type

Commercial building

Span = 4 m
Spacing = 0.6 m

Span = 5 m
Spacing = 0.6 m

Span = 5 m
Spacing = 1.2 m

Plain
C section

150503
W = 5.6

2No. 150503 2No. 150505


W = 11.0
W = 17.8

Lipped
C section

165631.6
W = 3.9

220631.8
W = 4.9

2No.
220632.0
W = 10.9

Timber

25075
W = 10.1

300 75
W = 12.1

2No. 30075
W = 24.2

Hot Rolled Steel

10251 RSC
W = 10.4

12776 UB
W = 13.0

15289 UB
W = 16.0

Span = 6 m
Spacing = 1.2 m
2No.
300652.0
W = 15.0
178102 UB
W = 19.0

Imposed loading

= 2.5 kN/m for domestic building


2
= 3.5 kN/m for office/commercial building
2
Dead loading
= 1.0 kN/m in all cases
W
= weight in kg/m
Data presented for S280 steel or standard timber grade.

Table 4.2

Structural equivalents of cold formed sections

Lipped C section

Timber

DBt

DB

70 40 1.2

150 37

100 40 1.2

175 37

100 40 1.5

175 50

100 65 1.6

200 50

120 65 1.6

225 50

127 65 1.6

225 63

165 65 2.0

250 75

Lipped C sections

Hot rolled steel

DBt

Designation

2 No. 220 65 2.0


(12.5 kg/m)

127 76 UB
(13.0 kg/m)

2 No. 300 65 2.4


(17.9 kg/m)

178 102 UB
(19.0 kg/m)

2 No. 300 65 3.0


(21.0 kg/m)

203 133 UB
(25.0 kg/m)

All dimensions in mm; S280 or grade S275 steel; Standard timber grade.
Based on equivalent bending resistance.

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Screw

Joint hanger
- connection to masonry

C section

C section - C section
cleat connection

Bent plate as cleat

Short C section
Truss connection
Screw

Figure 4.2

4.3

Examples of connections between C sections

Stud walling

Stud walling using C sections of 50 to 100 mm depth is a common form of


partition construction in commercial buildings. It is much lighter than traditional
blockwork and is quicker and easier to construct. Importantly, it is a dry
construction and is easily removable..
Plasterboard or similar materials are attached by screws to the stud walling to
form the finished surfaces. This adds considerably to the stiffness of the walls.
An 80 mm thick stud wall can be used to replace a 100 mm or 120 mm
blockwork wall. A tall wall constructed using C section studs is illustrated in
Figure 4.3. These walls may be assembled on site or pre-fabricated as storeyhigh panels.
Separating walls between compartments and between apartments are designed
to achieve a high level of acoustic insulation and fire resistance. This is achieved
by using multiple layers of fire-resistant plasterboard attached by resilient bars
to the studs, with insulation and quilt placed between the studs.
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An airborne sound reduction of over 53 dB and 60 minutes fire resistance can be


easily achieved by this form of construction. Improved acoustic insulation can
be achieved by using double stud walls (usually the case in party walls, and in
special applications, such as cinemas).

Figure 4.3

4.4

Tall wall constructed using C section studs

Trusses

Purpose-made steel trusses have been marketed for many years. As shown in
Figure 2.7, they comprise cold formed sections as flanges with bent bars or tubes
forming the bracing elements welded to the flanges. These can be designed to
span typically 5 m to 20 m (and up to 30 m in special applications) and can be
used as roof or floor joists.
Roof trusses for housing are rather different in shape, as the roof pitch is
commonly in the range of 20 to 45E. The traditional timber truss is of the Fink
truss form and the truss spacing is compatible with the size of tile battens
normally used. Various steel truss systems have been developed.
Two generic forms of light steel roof truss may be used:
C

Closely spaced roof trusses: the open roof truss uses bolted C sections which
provide for habitable roof space, as shown in Figure 4.4.

Widely spaced roof trusses: the more traditional Fink trusses may be spaced
wider apart (3 to 5 m) and purlins may span between. The space between
the trusses may be used for storage, etc.

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Both roof systems may be used in new-build and in renovation projects by overroofing. The Capella system, shown in Figure 4.5, has been specifically
developed for over-roofing in renovation applications.
Generally, the
connections between the members are bolted because of the relatively high
forces that are transferred. Over-roofing is covered in a recent SCI publication
[7]
Over-roofing of existing buildings using light steel .

Figure 4.4

Open-roof truss for habitable use

Figure 4.5

Widely spaced roof trusses with purlins between the trusses

4.5

Structural Frames

Cold formed sections can be used not only as secondary members but also as
beams and columns in primary structural frames. This has proved to be
successful in light commercial and industrial buildings and in mezzanine floors.
Often it is necessary to use C sections placed back to back in longer span
applications to increase their buckling resistance.
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Traditional C and Z sections can be made up into more complex assemblies, as


shown in Figure 4.6. The sections are thin enough to facilitate connections by
self-tapping screws. Alternatively, C sections can be bolted together to form load
bearing frames, as shown in Figure 4.7 for a school building. Bolted connections
can be made with autoform cleated ends and with pre-punched bolt holes.
Typical framing arrangements at junctions of floors and walls are shown in Figure
4.8. The transfer of vertical loads in the walls in platform construction can be
achieved by stiffening the ends of the floor joists.

Figure 4.6

Use of C sections to form joists, stud columns, and purlins

Figure 4.7

Load-bearing frames entirely composed of bolted C sections

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Load bearing
stud

Edge
support

Bottom
track

Angle
seat

Top track

Floor joist

(a) Balloon construction

Load bearing
stud

Edge
support

Bottom
track
Closure
section
Web
stiffener
Floor joist
Top track

(b) Platform construction


Figure 4.8

Typical framing arrangements at junctions of floors and walls

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18 April 2002

The Swagebeam is a special form of C section that has been developed to


enhance the shear and bending resistance of bolted connections between the
sections. This is achieved via the bearing action of indentations in the web of the
section and of embossments in the web cleats. A typical swagebeam connection
in a mezzanine floor is shown in Figure 4.9. This system has been used in
rectangular frames and in portal frames (up to 15 m span).

Figure 4.9

4.6

Swagebeam connection

Curtain walling and over-cladding

Curtain walling to multi-storey buildings consists of light frames which support


glazing, aluminium or steel panels, or stone veneer. These can be storey high
panels which are connected to the floor slabs. Cold formed steel sections can
be used for the sub-frame components to the cladding and there are a number
of recent examples of buildings where this has been used successfully both in
new construction and in renovation (see Figure 4.10). A dry envelope is erected
rapidly, which means that the internal fit-out can commence without the
cladding being on the critical path.
Over-cladding of existing buildings is an important market where light steel
sub-frames can be used to span directly between floors. The sub-frames are also
designed to allow for adjustments due to site tolerances (see Figure 4.11). A
variety of cladding materials may be used, such as composite panels or cassette
panels. The design requirements for over-cladding systems are reviewed in an
[8]
SCI publication Over-cladding of existing buildings using light steel .

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Figure 4.10 Use of cold formed sections as curtain walling

Figure 4.11 Use of light steel framing as sub-frame in over-cladding of existing


buildings
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4.7

Housing

Light steel framing used in low-rise housing has been successful in Australia,
Japan, USA, Canada and now in the UK. Currently, four light steel framing
systems are used in the housing sector in the UK. Modern methods of light steel
framing used in housing may be considered to be of three basic forms:
C

discrete members that are assembled on site to form to which cladding is


attached. These are similar to frame systems covered in Section 4.5.

wall panels, prefabricated in storey high units (platform construction). This


is a similar form of construction to that used in timber framed housing. The
wall panels are insulated externally to create a warm frame.

complete house modules or modular components. Other more sophisticated


steel/concrete boxes have been developed for applications in hotels or
apartment blocks (see Section 4.8).

In wall panel systems, the individual panels are prefabricated by self-piercing


rivets, or welding, and the panels are lifted into place, and bolted together on site
(see Figure 4.12).

Figure 4.12 Erection of light steel framing for a two-storey house


In the Surebuild system, steel floor joists sit on a Z shaped trimmer section
attached to the top of the lower storey wall panels, and the upper panels are
attached to the lower panels in so-called platform construction. The steel stud
wall panels use 75 32 mm C sections at 400 mm spacing. These are located
on the warm internal face of a 35 mm thick insulation board. The internal
finish is a fire resistant plasterboard designed to give 30 minutes fire resistance.
Heavier or multiple board systems can provide 60 minutes fire resistance.
Brickwork is attached by wall ties located in a vertical track which is screwed
through the insulation to the wall studs.

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The Metsec Gypframe system uses C sections attached by bolts in countersunk


holes. The Gypframe system is erected as two-storey high wall panels and the
floor joists are bolted to the webs of the wall studs. It is also constructed as a
warm frame and insulation is pre-attached to the panels.
The other housing systems that are available in the UK are by Ayrshire Steel
Framing and Forge Llewellyn Ltd.

4.8

Modular construction

Modular or volumetric systems are pre-assembled and generally fitted-out in the


factory, so that they are delivered to site as units which are self-supporting and
require only minimal site work to complete the assembly of units. The typical
framework of a pre-fabricated module is shown in Figure 4.13.

Figure 4.13 Modular construction using light steel framing


The units are generally less than 4.5 m wide and up to 12 m long because of the
requirements for transportation and lifting. The framework of the modules
comprises cold formed C sections, often supplemented by hot rolled sections at
the corner posts and bottom beam supports. Some systems are corner supported
which means that the braced walls act as deep beams. Others are continuously
edge supported.
Cladding and roofing is usually attached on-site to form the completed building.
Therefore, a variety of architectural features can be achieved. Modular units can
[9]
also be used in refurbishment .

4.9

Frameless structures

Over the last 20 years, there have been important developments in frameless
construction, where the members and the cladding interact by stressed skin
action. The main structural configurations that have been used are the folded
[16]
plate roof , the truncated pyramid and the barrel vault.
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The folded plate roof behaves as a series of inclined beams spanning between
end frames. The fold-line members (cold formed angles) absorb the axial thrusts
and tensions, and the sheeted web is in pure shear. From the point of view of
aesthetics and structural performance the slope of the roof would normally be
between 30 and 45E (to the horizontal) and most efficient spans are between
15 m and 25 m.
The truncated pyramid roof, as shown in Figure 4.14, comprises a compression
ring and a tension ring with hip members transferring the loads between. The
individual sheeted panels are prefabricated and they can be bolted together and
lifted into place in a few hours. Gutter outlets are placed along the valleys and
down the hollow section columns.

Figure 4.14 Example of truncated pyramid roof using cold formed steel sections

4.10 Connections
The common types of fixing between cold formed sections, and between sections
and sheeting, are:
Type

Usual Application

(a) Bolts

Connecting cold formed sections.

(b) Self-tapping screws

Fastening sheeting to sections (< 6 mm thick) or


sheeting to sheeting at sidelaps.

(c) Blind rivets

Fastening sheeting to sheeting at sidelaps.

(d) Powder actuated pins

Fastening sheeting to members (>6 mm thick).

(e) Spot welding

Factory joining of thin steel.

(f) Puddle welding

Site welding of sheeting to sections.

(g) Clinching

Usually factory installed by press-joining.

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(h) Self-piercing rivets

Usually factory installed.

(i) Nailing

Site installed using special nails.

These different types of fixing are reviewed as follows:


(a) Bolts: Bolt holes can be punched in cold formed sections; the connections
between members are usually arranged so that the bolts are loaded in shear.
In almost all cases, the resistance of the connection is determined by the
bearing resistance of the thinner steel section, rather than by shear of the bolt.
Countersunk bolts can be located in recessed holes punched into the
sections. In this way, the bolt head does not protrude and does not affect the
fixing of the plasterboard or other lining (see Figure 4.15).

Figure 4.15

Countersunk bolts between wall elements

Autoform ends may also be formed during the cutting and punching process;
these facilitate bolting (see Figure 4.16).

Figure 4.16

Creation of autoform ends to C sections

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In BS 5950-5, Clause 8.2.5.2 the shear resistance of bolted connections is


given as:
Pu

2.1 d t Ys

or Pu

(1.65 + 0.45 t) d t Ys

for t # 1 mm

(14)

for 1 mm < t # 3 mm

(15)

where:
d is the diameter of bolt (mm)
2
Ys is the design strength of steel in thinner plate (N/mm )
t is the thickness of steel in thinner plate (mm)
These shear resistances assume that the bolt end distance is at least 3d and
that washers are used under both the head and the nut. The resistances are
greater than the equivalent values in BS 5950-1, because of build up of
deformed steel in front of the bolt as the thinner section fails in bearing. They
also include a partial safety factor, given by the ratio of the ultimate to the
yield strength of the steel (approximately 1.4).
(b) Self-tapping screws: Self-drilling self-tapping screws are commonly used for
connecting thin steel components. A selection of the screws and the drill that
may be used is shown in Figure 4.17. The drill part of the screw forms a
hole in the steel plate and the tapping part forms the thread. This is a single
operation and gives a relatively strong and stiff form of attachment.
Thin-thick and thin-thin attachments may be made depending on the
length of the screw. The diameter of the screws is in the range of 4.2 to 8.0
mm, the most common size being about 6 mm for thin-thick connections.
The shear resistance (including partial safety factors) may be obtained from
Appendix A of BS 5950-5.

Figure 4.17 Different forms of self-drilling self-tapping screws and the


standard drill

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Typically, for a 6 mm diameter screw through 1 mm thick steel, the shear


resistance (including partial safety factors is 3.5 kN (thin-thick fixings) and
2.2 kN (thin-thin fixings). Premature failure of a fixing by pull-out should be
avoided by careful detailing.
Fixings have also been developed for stand-off applications where insulation
materials or timber are to be attached (Figure 4.18).

Figure 4.18 Stand-off type fixing for soft insulation materials


(c) Blind rivets can be in aluminium or alloyed metal (often termed monel).
They are fitted from one side into predrilled holes and a mandrel is pulled by
a special tool so that the rivet expands into and around the hole. These rivets
are commonly of 2.4 to 6.3 mm diameter (dependant on the hole diameter).
It is a relatively firm form of attachment with good pull out resistance and is
useful for thin-thin attachments, e.g. seams in profiled decking. Again,
Appendix A of BS 5950-5 can be used to obtain the shear resistance.
The huck bolt is a similar system, but is used for thicker materials. As for
the blind rivet it is fitted from one side in a pre-drilled hole. Tension is
applied to the stem of the bolt by a special tool and a malleable ring is
pushed to precompress the plates to be attached. When the correct tension
has been applied the outer part of the stem breaks off.
(d) Shot-fired pins (more correctly powder actuated fasteners) are often used
when fastening thin to thick steel. They are usually of 4.2 mm diameter and
the powder of cartridge is selected for the thickness of the steel. The shear
resistance of this type of fixing is given in Appendix A of BS 5950-5 as:
Pu = 3.2 t d Ys

(16)

The enhanced resistance, relative to a bolt of the same diameter, is due to the
tight fit and the precompression of the steel around the fixing.
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(e) Spot welding is a technique used mainly in the factory. An arc is created
between the tips of the welding tool on either side of the steel elements to be
attached. It is therefore most appropriate where the welding tool can be
supported and can be moved easily into place to form the weld.
The shear resistance of a spot weld (in N) is given in BS 5950-5, Clause 8.5.3
as:
Pu =

2.7 t d Y s

(17)

(f) Puddle welding is a common site technique in North America. An arc is


created between the manually held welding rod and the bare metal. In order
to weld through to the lower sheet or base steel, a hole is often cut in the
upper sheet and a weld formed around the cut edges.
(g) Clinching is a mechanical process in which two pieces of thin steel are
pressed together to form a local embossment in the surface of the steel.
Clinched connections are effective in shear but are ineffective in tension.
(h) Self piercing rivets have been introduced into the Surebuild system. The
machinery requires sufficient access to make the connection, and therefore
short gusset pieces are often introduced to facilitate these connections
between wall studs.
(i) Nailing of secondary timber elements to thin steel sections or sheeting is
feasible by using a twist-grip nail. This is practicable where the steel is
0.7 mm to 1.0 mm thick; thicker materials require too much effort to pierce;
thinner materials offer too little pull-out resistance.

4.10.1

Simple connections

Conventionally, connections between cold-formed steel sections comprising two


bolts per member are considered as simple (shear resisting) connections. Hot
rolled angles are often used, but cleats of this size are generally over-sized for
this application.
[17]

In a recent experimental investigation , it was demonstrated that cold-formed


steel web-cleats may be used for improved buildability. Both bolts and
self-drilling self-tapping screws may be used as fasterners for cold-formed steel
web cleats, and they are simple and easy for site installation. Typical shear
resistances of simple connections with cold-formed steel web cleats range from
9 kN to 20 kN, depending on the material and geometry of the cold-formed steel
web-cleats.
[17]

A set of design rules is available


to assess the shear resistance of simple
connections with cold-formed steel web cleats for different connection
configurations, depending on the practical spatial orientation of members.
Detailing rules on the minimum and the maximum dimensions for the position
of fasteners should be observed.

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4.10.2

Moment connections

In modern roof systems, the purlin-rafter connections between cold-formed steel


sections are highly engineered for the good structural performance of the
continuous purlin members. A number of different connection configurations
with sleeves or overlaps have been developed in various proprietary systems,
which offer partial continuity along the purlins, thereby achieving considerable
economy. Purlin-rafter connections are usually cleated connections in which the
bolts are designed to resist shear.
For beam-column connections, only a limited range of proprietary systems is
available. Mechanical enhancement may be used to increase the moment
resistance of the connections by mobilising bearing actions between the profiled
webs and profiled gusset plates. (A good example of this is the Swagebeam
system.)
An experimental investigation on lipped C sections with hot rolled steel gusset
[17]
plates , beam-column connections and also portal frames was carried out.
The webs of the back-to-back C sections were connected by bolts to the gusset
plate. The maximum moment that was resisted by these nominally simple
connections was up to 85% of the bending resistance of the connected members.

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5 SECTION PROPERTIES OF COLD FORMED


SECTIONS
Geometrical properties of cold formed sections are presented (see yellow pages)
in the following format:
C

Gross section properties

Effective section properties (including the effects of local buckling).

Gross properties are used to determine the elastic stiffness of members or the
moments in continuous structures or frames. Effective properties are used to
determine the load carrying capabilities of the sections.
The geometry of the various sections included in this design guide are presented
in Figures 5.1 and 5.2, and their dimensions are given in Tables 5.1 and 5.2.
These sections are available for general use, but the list is not exhaustive. The
tables include only those sections available for general structural applications.
This ignores the smaller C sections.
Gross section properties of the section include:
C

Height and thickness (which define the section)

Self-weight

Cross-sectional area

Second moment of area about x and y axes

Section modulus about x and y axes

Radius of gyration about x and y axes

Torsion and warping constants

Position of centroid and shear centre.

For Z sections, the second moment of area about the principal axes (u and v) and
also the angle, 2 between the principal axis u and the x axis, are also presented.
Effective section properties incorporate the influence of local buckling and are
used in resistance calculations. Properties are given for:
C

Effective area ratio, or Q factor

Section modulus about x and y axes

Second moment of area about x axes

Shift of neutral axis position.

Gross and effective section properties are also given for double (i.e. back to back)
C or equivalent sections, but not for Z sections.
The effective section modulus and second moment of area are based on a steel
2
2
design strength of 280 N/mm or 350 N/mm , as specified by the relevant
manufacturer.

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The Q factor is a term which defines the ratio of the effective to the gross
cross-sectional area of the section (see Section 3.4.1). The compression
resistance, Pcs, is based on the effective section, but ignores the effects of lateral
instability.
The bending resistance of the section, which is assumed to be laterally restrained,
is determined from:
Mc =

Z( Do

where Z( is the effective section modulus (for the x or y directions, as


appropriate) and po is the bending strength determined by the slenderness of the
web. Tension yielding is permitted in the evaluation of Z( for asymmetric
bending, which may mean that the value of Z( exceeds the elastic value for the
gross section.
The section property tables refer to those cold formed steel sections readily
available at the time of publication. Sections are continually being modified and
improved, and new sections manufactured. The individual companies
mentioned should therefore be contacted to establish their latest product range.
Manufacturers addresses and telephone numbers are given in the Appendix A.
The section property data may differ slightly for that given by manufacturers who
have carried out load tests to establish the key bending properties. In this
publication, more section property data are given than would be included in
manufacturers tables.
Load capacity tables for discrete beams and columns are presented in Section 6
for the generic sections listed in Tables 6.1 and 6.2, these being representative
of those manufactured by a number of companies. They should be used for
scheme design. Double sections are recommended for columns and heavily
loaded beams.

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Table 5.1

Dimensions of C sections included in the section property tables


Flange widths (mm)

Section type

Steel grades

Overall
depth (mm)

Top B

Bottom B

Ayrshire (CW) C Section

Lip (mm)

280 or 350

100 to 240

65

65

13

Ayrshire Swagebeam

280

220 to 300

65

65

18

Ayrshire (St Helens) Plain C


Section

280

75 to 175

50

50

Hi-span C Section

350

155 to 175

66

66

15

Metsec C Section

350

142 to 342

64 to 97

64 to 97

13 to 20

Metsec Plain C Section

280

52, 100, 152


63
74, 75
80

50
25
38 or 44
48

50
25
38 or 44
48

Albion C Section
(formerly Millpac)

350

127, 145
165 to 276
230, 300

50 to 62.5
62.5
70

50 to 62.5
62.5

15
15 to 20
20

Metsec Framing SFS Section

350

70 to 300

35 to 54

35 to 60

10 to 15

Structural Sections Ultrabeam

350

145 to 285

50 to 75

50 to 75

12 to 17

Ward Multibeam

390

145 to 350

60

60

14

Ward Multichannel

350

70 to 350

50 to 95

50 to 95

20

Generic C sections

280 or 350

100 to 300

55 to 65

55 to 65

15

Plain C section

Lipped C section

Swagebeam

t
x

y
Ultrabeam

Figure 5.1

Multichannel

Multibeam

C sections and their derivatives included in section property tables

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18 April 2002

Table 5.2

Dimensions of Z sections included in section property tables

Section type

Steel grades

Flange widths (mm)

Overall
depth (mm)

Top B

Bottom B

Lip (mm)

Ayrshire Zed Section

280

125
140 to 200
240
300

55
58
76
94

45
49
68
86

15 to 16
15 to 16
15 to 18
15 to 18

Aryshire Zeta Section

280

125
150 to 200

60
72

50
65

18
18

Aryshire Zeta II

350

225 to 285

78

68

18 to 20

Aryshire Zeta III

350

140 to 200

55

45

15 to 16

Hi-span Z Section

350

150 and 170


205
230 and 255

66
66
83

60
60
75

17 to 19
17 to 19
17 to 19

Metsec Z Section

350

142
172 and 202
232
262
302
342

60
65
76
80
90
100

55
60
69
72
82
92

19 to 21
19 to 21
19 to 21
19 to 21
19 to 22
19 to 22

Albion Z Section
(formerly Millpac)

350

120
145 and 175
200 and 225
240 and 300

50
50 to 62.5
62.5 to 75
75

50
50 to 62.5
62.5 to 75
75

15
15 to 20
20
20

Structural Sections UltraZed

350

145
170
200 to 285

62.5
67.5
76

56.5
61.5
71

14 to 15.5
14 to 15.5
18

280 to 350

100 to 300

55 to 94

45 to 86

15

Generic Z sections
B top

B top

B top

t
t

x D

x D

y
B bot

y
B bot

y
B bot

Zeta section

Z section

x D

UltraZED section
Btop

B top
y

y
t
t

x D

y
Bbot

y
B bot
Ayrshire Zeta III

Figure 5.2

x D

Ayrshire Z

Z sections and their derivatives included in section property tables

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18 April 2002

5.1

Notation used in section property tables

xx

major axis bending

yy

minor axis bending

section width

section depth

section thickness (including galvanizing)

es

(for C sections) horizontal distance of the shear centre of the section


from the web/flange junction

eN

shift of neutral axis

Xcg, Ycg

position of centroid

Xsc, Ysc

(for Z sections) position of shear centre

Ixx

second moment of area (gross or unreduced) for major axis bending

Iyy

second moment of area for minor axis bending

Ixy

product moment of area

Iuu

second moment of area about u axis

Iw

second moment of area about v axis

(for Z sections) angle between u and x axes

rxx

radius of gyration in major axis direction

ryy

radius of gyration in minor axis direction

Zxx

section modulus (gross or unreduced) for major axis bending

Zyy

section modulus (gross or unreduced) for minor axis bending

torsional constant (pure torsion)

Cw

warping constant

factor representing the effective cross-sectional area ratio for pure


compression (at a stress of Ys)

ZXR

effective section modulus for major axis bending (at a stress of Ys)

ZY1R

effective section modulus for minor axis bending (smaller outstand in


tension) (at a stress of Ys)

ZY2R

effective section modulus for minor axis bending (larger outstand in


compression) (at a stress of Ys

IXR

effective second moment of area (at a stress of Ys,)

Pcs

compressive capacity of short column (in kN)

Mcx

bending capacity of restrained beam in major axis direction (in kNm)

Mcy1

bending capacity of restrained beam in minor axis direction (smaller


outstand in tension) (in kNm)

Mcy2

bending capacity restrained beam in minor axis direction (larger


outstand in compression) (in kNm)

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18 April 2002

Shear centre
t

Mid-height of section

D/2

es

D/2

x cg

Centre of gravity

X sc

Xsc = es + x cg , Ysc = 0

Figure 5.3

Position of centroid and shear centre for C sections


y
B top

Shear centre

D/2

Ysc

y cg

xcg

D/2

Centre of gravity

X sc Mid-height of section

B bot

Xsc = es x cg

Figure 5.4

5.2

Position of centroid and shear centre for Z sections

Summary of assumptions in deriving the section


property tables

Gross section properties are independent of steel strength and operating stress
(i.e. the unreduced section).

The actual steel thickness used in calculations is the specified thickness less
the galvanizing thickness (0.04 mm).

Corner radii (internal) are taken as 2 section thickness, or as recommended


by the manufacturer. The effective width of the flat plates excludes corners.
Corners are included in calculating section properties.

The horizontal distance of the shear centre of the section from the adjacent
web/flange junction may be assumed to be zero for Z sections.

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Double (back to back) sections are assumed to act as compound sections.

Effective widths of compression plates are calculated using the appropriate


value of buckling coefficient, K (K $ 4) as given by Appendix C of BS 5950-5.

Effective section properties are calculated for the steel yield strength specified
by the manufacturers.

The effective section modulus, Zy is calculated for a stress in the compression


plate of py. This property is used in calculating the moment capacity of the
section. The effects of web buckling are included.

Tension yielding is permitted for non-symmetric sections.

The effective second moment of area is calculated on the same basis as the
section modulus.

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6 LOAD AND PERFORMANCE


CHARACTERISTICS OF COLD FORMED
SECTIONS
This Section refers to a series of Load Capacity Tables (see pink and green pages)
giving load carrying capacities of generic cold formed steel sections. Values are
given for the based on limitations of both bending resistance and deflection.

6.1

Generic sections

The generic sections are symmetric C and Z sections, with flange widths as given
in Table 6.1. The sizes have been selected to be typical of those marketed. Back
to back C sections are used as "double" sections. Properties for most of the
sections are given for steel grade S280 (pink pages); some sections are also given
for steel grade S350 ( green pages). These generic sections are representative of
sections of similar size and thickness produced by a number of manufacturers,
and can be used for scheme design in a particular application. Manufacturer's
data should be used for final design.
Table 6.1

Depth
(mm)

100
125
125
150
150
165
165
180
180
180
200
200
200
220
220
250
300
300

List of generic lipped C sections of grade S280 and S350 steel included
in Load Capacity Tables

Thickness
(mm)

1.2
1.2
1.6
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.0
2.4
2.4
2.4
3.0

Flange
Width
(mm)
55
55
55
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65

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Lip
(mm)

15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15

54

S280
Load Capacity Tables
(Pink pages)

S350
Load Capacity Tables
(Green pages)

Beam

Column

Beam

Column

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54

55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72

91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
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18 April 2002

Table 6.2

Depth
(mm)

List of generic lipped Z sections of grade S250 and S350 steel included
in Load Capacity Tables

Thickness
(mm)

100
125
125
150
150
165
165
180
180
180
200
200
200
220
220
250
300
300

6.2

1.2
1.2
1.6
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.0
2.4
2.4
2.4
3.0

Flange Width
(mm)
Btop

Bbot

55
55
55
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
76
94
94

45
45
45
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
68
86
86

Lip
(mm)

15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15

S280
Load Capacity Tables
(Pink pages)

S350
Load Capacity Tables
(Green pages)

Beam

Column

Beam

Column

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90

Load capacity tables for beams

For each section size and steel grade, a single load-span table is given. The table
gives values of maximum working load per span for a range of spans and restraint
conditions, at the limits of bending resistance, of total deflection and of web
crushing. For any particular situation, the minimum of the three values is to be
taken as the maximum working load that may be supported by each span of the
beam. Deflections tend to govern the choice of section as the span/depth ratio
of the member increases.

6.2.1 Bending resistance limits


The bending resistance of a beam depends on the distance between points of
lateral restraint, as explained in Section 3.3.4. The bending resistance in derived
in the tables is that given by BS 5950-5 for the particular section and restraint
conditions. Most beams used in floors are continuously restrained, if fixed
regularly to the flooring.
The load values in the table are the values of total working load per span which,
when multiplied by a factor of 1.6 (see Section 1.2), cause a bending moment at
midspan that is equal to the bending resistance. (That is WL/8 for distributed
loads and WL/4 for point loads.) The factor of 1.6 is conservative in all cases,
and becomes increasingly so as the ratio of dead to imposed load increases. No
distinction is made between single and multiple spans. This is a safe
assumption, based conservatively on the same moment at failure.
For C sections, values are given for both single and double sections. For Z
sections, values are only given for single sections.

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6.2.2 Deflection limits


Beam deflections depend on the section stiffness, the beam span, and whether
it is simply supported or continuous. Load values in the tables correspond to the
total working load per span at which the total deflection is equal to the limits of
either span/250 or span/350 (see comment in Section 3.5.2).
Deflections are calculated using a section stiffness based on the average of the
gross and the effective second moments of area of the section. The working load
is unfactored when calculating these deflections. Deflections for the double span
case are assumed to be 60% of the value for the single span case.
The limit of span/250 corresponds to the 'normal' limitation for beams in roofs.
The limit of span/350 should be used for lightweight floors. If it is assumed that
the self weight component for floors is about 30% of the total load, this limit
correspond to approximately L/450 under imposed load. Furthermore, the
deflection under total load should not exceed 15 mm in order to satisfy the
natural frequency limit of 8 Hz (see Section 3.5.1).

6.2.3 Web crushing limits


Additionally, values are given for each section for the load at which web
crushing will occur at supports or at a point load when no web stiffener or cleat
is present. The crushing resistance depends on the support width and the lateral
restraint to the top flange. Web crushing resistance is in accordance with BS
5950-5, depending on the location of the load and the restraint to the flanges.
As for bending resistance, the load values are working loads which, when
multiplied by a factor of 1.6, will equal the crushing resistance of the web. For
single spans, the total load W is twice the crushing resistance. Continuous or
multiple spans result in increased reactions at the internal supports. Thus, an
additional stiffening cleat is required for all continuous beam applications.

6.3

Load capacity tables for columns

For each section size and steel grade, a single load-height table is given. The
table gives values of the maximum axial working load for a range of effective
lengths for both axes of the section.
Values are given for single and double C sections. Double sections are assumed
to be attached together at regular intervals to form an equivalent I section. No
tables are given for Z sections, since they are not normally used to support axial
load.
The load values in the table are the values of working load which, when
multiplied by a factor of 1.6, are equal to the compressive resistance of the
column. The column resistance is derived in accordance with BS 5950-5, as
discussed in Section 3.4. The factor of 1.6 is conservative in all cases, and
becomes increasingly so as the ratio of dead to live load increases.
In deriving the axial resistances, torsional restraints are assumed at the positions
of the major axis restraints and at the column ends. This affects the torsionalflexural buckling mode of failure.
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For the concentrically loaded case, the load eccentricity is assumed to be zero.
For the eccentrically loaded cases, the load is assumed to be applied at the face
of the section. For members in walls, the eccentric load is typically taken to be
applied at the wall face, but concentrically on the other axis. For isolated
columns, load is typically taken to be applied eccentrically to both axes, i.e. at
a corner of the section. Values are given for combinations of four different
effective lengths about the y-y or minor axis and two different effective lengths
about the x-x or major axis. Values are also given for the cases where
continuous restraint is provided about each axis, in combination with the range
of effective lengths about the other axis. (In the plane of walls, minor axis
restraint can be provided by straps.)

6.4

Guidance on selection of cold formed steel


sections

For efficient structural performance, the following general guidelines on member


selection are given:
(1) For compliance with normal deflection limits, the ratios of member span, L
to depth, D should be:
L/D # 20
L/D # 24
L/D # 30
L/D # 35

simply supported floor beams


continuous floor beams
simply supported roof beams
continuous roof beams.

(2) Restrain the compression (upper) flange of beams by attachment of flooring


or roof sheeting or other members.
(3) Limit the effects of local buckling by keeping the flange widths to steel
thickness ratio (b/t) to within the following limits:
b/t # 40
b/t # 12
b/t # 60

lipped sections
plain sections (no lips)
lipped sections with intermediate stiffener

(4) Limit the effects of web buckling or web crushing by keeping the web depth
to thickness ratio, (D/t), within the following limits:
Single span:
D/t # 120 for single sections under uniformly distributed loads
D/t # 80 for single sections under point loads
D/t # 150 for double sections back-to-back
Double span:
D/t # 80 for single sections
D/t # 120 for double sections back-to-back
(5) Avoid heavy point loads applied directly to the top flange of the member.
Allow at least 50 mm end bearing for heavily loaded beams, and 100 mm
bearing for internal supports on double span beams (or, preferably, use a
stiffening cleat).

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(6) Restrain studs in their y-y (minor axis) direction at one or two points along
their length, or use double C sections). The unsupported height H divided by
the member depth should be less than 35.
Designs outside the above suggested limits are permitted, but this can result in
relatively inefficient structural performance. Designing within these limits does
not imply that structural calculations are unnecessary, but rather that the selected
section will be structurally efficient for the loads and span conditions under
consideration.

6.5

Example of use of load-span tables for beams

Consider a floor spanning 4.5 m, with beams at 600 mm spacing:


2

Imposed load
Self weight of floor
Total working load

= 2.5 kN/m
2
= 0.5 kN/m (assumed)
2
= 3.0 kN/m

Load on beam

= 3 0.6 4.5 = 8.1 kN

Choose deep lipped C section with L/D = 20 (approx) - say 200 mm deep
For D/t = 120, t = 1.67 ; say 1.8 mm thick:
From Table 12:
Bending resistance of section:
Max. load for full restraint = 10.2 kN ~ OK
Deflection of single span beam.
For * # L/350: max. load = 7.3 kN, which is not adequate.
Deflection of double span beam.
For * # L/350: max. load = 12.2 kN, which is adequate.
Web crushing: Support width = 50 mm
For unrestrained section, max. load = 8.2 kN ~ OK
Therefore, 200 mm 1.8 mm thick C section is adequate, provided that the
beams are double span.
For single span beams, try 2.0 mm thick section.
From Table 13:
Bending resistance of beam:
Max. load for full restraint = 11.6 kN ~ OK
Deflection of single span beam.
For * # L/350: max. load = 8.3 kN, which is adequate
Web crushing: Support width = 50 mm
For unrestrained section, max. load = 10.1 kN ~ OK
Therefore, 200 mm 2.0 mm thick C section is adequate as a single span beam
P:\CMP\Cmp657\pubs\P276\P276-Final.wpd

58

18 April 2002

7 REFERENCES
1.

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION


BS 5950-5:1998 Structural use of steelwork in building. Code of
practice for design of cold formed thin gauge sections

2.

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION


BS EN 10147: 2000 Continuously hot-dip zinc coated structural strip
and sheet. Technical delivery conditions

3.

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION


BS 2989: 1991 Specification for continuously hot-dip zinc coated
and iron-zinc alloy coated steel of structural qualities: wide strip,
sheet/plate and slit wide strip

4.

Galvatite Technical Manual


British Steel Strip Products, 1993 (now Corus Colors)

5.

ANDREW, T. O.
White rust on galvanized steel
British Steel Product Development Centre, Shotton, 1988

6.

POPO-OLA, S.O., BIDDLE, A.R. and LAWSON, R.M.


Durability of light steel framing in residential building (P262)
The Steel Construction Institute, 2000

7.

HILLIER, M., LAWSON, R. M. and GORGOLEWSKI, M.


Over-roofing of existing buildings using light steel (P246)
The Steel Construction Institute, 1998

8.

LAWSON, R. M., PEDRESCHI, R., POPO-OLA, S., and


FALKENFLETH, I.
Over-cladding of existing buildings using light steel (P247)
The Steel Construction Institute, 1998

9.

LAWSON, R. M., GRUBB, P. J., PREWER, J., and TREBILCOCK, P. J.


Modular construction using light steel framing:
An Architects Guide (P272)
The Steel Construction Institute,, 1999

10.

LAWSON, R. M.
Design of composite slabs and beams with steel decking (P055)
The Steel Construction Institute, 1989

11.

COUCHMAN, G. H., MULLETT, D. L. and RACKHAM, J. W.


Composite slabs and beams using steel decking: Best practice for
design and construction (P300)
The Metal Cladding & Roofing Manufacturers Association and
The Steel Construction Institute, 2000

P:\CMP\Cmp657\pubs\P276\P276-Final.wpd

59

18 April 2002

12.

LAWSON, R. M.
Building design using cold formed steel sections:
Fire protection (P129)
The Steel Construction Institute, 1993

13.

AMERICAN IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE


Specification for the design of cold formed steel structural members
AISI, 1986 (including Commentary)

14.

YU, W. W.
Cold formed steel structures
McGraw Hill, 1973

15.

CANADIAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION


Lightweight steel framing
CISC, Willowdale, Ontario, 1991

16.

DAVIES, J. M.
Light gauge steel folded plate roofs
The Steel Construction Institute/Constrado, 1978

17.

CHUNG, K. F. and LAWSON, R. M.


Structural performance of shear connections among cold-formed
steel members using web cleats of cold-formed steel strips
Engineering Structures, 22 (10), 2000 pp 1350-1366.
Elsevier Science Ltd

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60

18 April 2002

8 BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. EUROPEAN CONVENTION FOR CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELWORK
European recommendations for the design of light gauge steel members
ECCS publication 49, 1987
2. HANCOCK, G. J.
Design of cold formed steel structures, 3rd Edition
Australian Institute of Steel Construction, 1998
3. DAVIES, J. M. and BRYAN, E. R.
Manual of stressed skin diaphragm design
Granada, 1982
4. EUROPEAN CONVENTION FOR CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELWORK
European recommendations for connections in thin walled structural steel
elements
ECCS publication, 1981
5. EUROPEAN CONVENTION FOR CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELWORK
Mechanical fasteners for use in steel sheeting and sections
ECCS publication, 1983
6. CURRIE, D. M.
The use of light gauge cold formed steelwork in construction; developments
in research and design
Building Research Establishment, 1989
7. RHODES, J. (Editor)
Design of cold formed steel members
Elsevier Applied Science, 1991
8. BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION
ENV 1993: Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures
DD ENV 1993-1-3:2001 General rules. Supplementary rules for cold formed
thin gauge members and sheeting (includes UK NAD)
9. BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION
BS 2994: 1976 Specification for cold rolled steel sections
10. BRITISH GYPSUM LIMITED
The White Book, 1996
11. Corus Colors
C Coil and sheet steel production range
C The Colorcoat in Building, 1997

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61

18 April 2002

SCI publications in Light Steel series


GORGOLEWSKI, M. T., GRUBB, P. J., and LAWSON, R. M.
Building design using cold formed steel sections: Light steel framing in residential
construction (P301)
The Steel Construction Institute, 2001
LAWSON R. M., GRUBB, P. J., PREWER, J., and TREBILCOCK, P.
Building Design Using Modular Construction: An Architects Guide (P272)
The Steel Construction Institute, 1999.
POPO-OLA, S.O., BIDDLE, A.R. and LAWSON, R.M.
Durability of light steel framing in residential building (P262)
The Steel Construction Institute, 2000
ROGAN, A. L., and LAWSON, R. M.
Value and Benefit Assessment of Light Steel Framing in Housing (P260)
The Steel Construction Institute, 1998.
LAWSON, R. M., PEDRESCHI, R., POPO-OLA, S., and FALKENFLETH, I.
Over-Cladding of Existing Buildings using Light Steel (P247)
The Steel Construction Institute, 1998.
HILLIER, M. LAWSON R. M., and GORGOLEWSKI, M.
Over-Roofing of Existing Buildings using Light Steel (P246)
The Steel Construction Institute, 1998.
GRUBB, P. J. and LAWSON, R. M.
Building Design using Cold Formed Steel Sections:
Construction Detailing and Practice (P165)
The Steel Construction Institute, 1997.
TREBILCOCK, P. J.
Building Design using Cold Formed Steel Sections:
An Architects Guide (P130)
The Steel Construction Institute, 1994.
LAWSON, R. M.
Building Design using Cold Formed Steel Sections:
Fire Protection (P129)
The Steel Construction Institute, 1993.
CLOUGH, R. H. and OGDEN, R. G.
Building Design using Cold Formed Steel Sections:
Acoustic Insulation (P128)
The Steel Construction Institute, 1993
CHUNG, K. F.
Building Design using Cold Formed Steel Sections:
Worked Examples (P125)
The Steel Construction Institute, 1993.

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62

18 April 2002

APPENDIX A Contact Information


List of cold formed section manufacturers
Albion Sections Ltd
Albion Road
West Bromwich
B70 8BD
Telephone:
0121 553 1877
Fax:
0121 523 5507
Website:
www.albionsections.co.uk
Ayrshire Metal Products (Daventry) Limited
Royal Oak Way
Daventry
NN11 5NR
Telephone:
Fax:
Website:

01327 300990
01327 300885
www.ayrshire.co.uk

Ayrshire Metal Products plc


17 Church Street
Irvine
KA12 8PH
Telephone:
Fax:
Website:

01294 274171
01294 275447
www.ayrshire.co.uk

Hi-Span Limited
Ayton Road
Wymondham
NR18 0RD
Telephone:
Fax:
Website:

01953 603081
01953 607842
www.hi-span.com

Metsec Limited
Birmingham Road
Oldbury
Warley
B69 4HE
Telephone:
Fax:
Website:

0121 601 6000


0121 601 6119
www.metsec.co.uk

Steel Framing Systems


(refer to Metsec Limited)

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18 April 2002

Structural Sections Limited


PO Box 92
Downing Street
Smethwick
Warley
B66 2PA
Telephone:
fax:
Website:

0121 555 1340


0121 555 1341
www.hadleyindustries.plc.uk

Ward Building Components Limited


Sherburn
Malton
YO17 8PQ
Telephone:
Fax:
Website:

01944 712000
01944 710555
www.wards.co.uk

Framing systems for housing


Ayrshire Steel Framing
17 Church Street
Irvine
KA12 8PH
Telephone:
Website:

01294 274171
www.ayrshire.co.uk

Fax: 01294 275447

Corus Framing (incorporating Surebuild)


Corus Building Systems
Whitehead Works
Mendalgief Road
Newport
NP20 2NF
Telephone:
Website:

01633 244000
Fax: 01633 211231
www.corusgroup.com

Metek UK Ltd
Unit 4, Longbrook Trading Estate
Ashton Vale Road
Ashton
Bristol
BS3 2HT
Telephone:
Website:

01179 093893
Fax: 01179 738501
www.metekbuildingsystems.co.uk

First Industries
Corbiere Works
Bourne End Industrial Estate
Hemel Hempstead
HP1 2RN
Telephone:

01422 878797

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64

Fax: 01442 878757


18 April 2002

Forge Llewellyn Ltd


Unit 13.3.1 The Leather Market
Weston Street
London
SE1 3ER
Telephone:
Website:

020 7357 7323


Fax: 020 7357 8157
www.forge-llewellyn.co.uk

Metsec Framing (incorporating Gypframe)


Bradwell Road
Oldbury
Warley
B69 4HE
Telephone:
Website:

0121 552 1541


www.metsec.com

Fax: 0121 544 0699

Other sources of information:


Corus Colors
PO Box 10
Newport
Gwent NP19 0XN
Telephone: 01633 290022
Cold Rolled Sections Association
c/o Robson Rhodes
Centre City Tower
7 Hill Street
Birmingham B5 4UU
Telephone:
Fax:

0121 697 6000


0121 697 6113

There are other manufacturers of cold formed steel sections for specific
applications, and a comprehensive list can be obtained from the Cold Rolled
Sections Association.

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65

18 April 2002

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66

18 April 2002

SECTION PROPERTY TABLES


C Sections
Note: Section property data are given for commonly available C sections,
and for generic C sections, which may be used at the scheme design
stage. These properties are calculated in accordance with BS 5950-5
and may differ slightly from manufacturers' data.

A-1

[BLANK PAGE]

A-2

B
t

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES


AYRSHIRE CW SECTION
Design Yield Strength = 280 N/mm2

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm
100 x 65
120 x 65
127 x 65

140

65

155

65

170

65

185

65

200

65

220

65

240

65

Area

mm
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.0

cm
3.79
4.10
4.21
4.72
5.22
4.41
4.95
4.64
5.21
4.88
5.47
5.11
5.74
5.35
6.00
6.65
5.66
6.35
7.04
7.44

Weight

Ix x

kg/m
2.97
3.22
3.30
3.70
4.10
3.46
3.88
3.65
4.09
3.83
4.30
4.01
4.51
4.20
4.71
5.22
4.44
4.99
5.53
5.84

cm
64.7
97.9
111.4
124.2
136.7
139.2
155.3
175.9
196.4
217.9
243.4
265.4
296.5
318.6
356.1
392.9
398.9
446.1
492.4
605.9

Iy y
4

cm
21.2
22.6
23.1
25.6
28.0
23.8
26.4
24.6
27.3
25.3
28.1
26.0
28.8
26.6
29.5
32.3
27.3
30.3
33.1
33.9

rx x

ry y

Zx x

cm
4.13
4.89
5.14
5.13
5.12
5.62
5.60
6.15
6.14
6.68
6.67
7.20
7.19
7.72
7.70
7.68
8.40
8.38
8.36
9.03

cm
2.37
2.35
2.34
2.33
2.31
2.32
2.31
2.30
2.29
2.28
2.27
2.26
2.24
2.23
2.22
2.20
2.20
2.18
2.17
2.14

cm
12.95
16.32
17.54
19.57
21.54
19.89
22.19
22.71
25.35
25.64
28.64
28.69
32.06
31.86
35.62
39.29
36.27
40.56
44.77
50.50

Zy y

cm
0.0307
0.0332
0.0341
0.0487
0.0669
0.0358
0.0511
0.0377
0.0538
0.0396
0.0565
0.0415
0.0593
0.0434
0.0620
0.0852
0.0459
0.0656
0.0902
0.0952

Cw
4

cm
5.04
5.16
5.20
5.76
6.30
5.27
5.83
5.33
5.90
5.38
5.97
5.43
6.02
5.48
6.07
6.64
5.53
6.12
6.70
6.75

cm
434
638
721
794
862
891
982
1116
1230
1371
1512
1657
1829
1977
2183
2378
2455
2712
2956
3608

B
t

DOUBLE SECTION
D
100
120
127

mm
x 65
x 65
x 65

140

65

155

65

170

65

185

65

200

65

220

65

240

65

t
mm
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.0

Area
2

cm
7.57
8.20
8.42
9.44
10.44
8.82
9.89
9.29
10.42
9.76
10.95
10.23
11.48
10.69
12.01
13.31
11.32
12.71
14.09
14.87

Weight
kg/m
5.95
6.43
6.61
7.41
8.20
6.92
7.77
7.29
8.18
7.66
8.60
8.03
9.01
8.39
9.42
10.44
8.88
9.98
11.06
11.68

Ix x
4

cm
129.5
195.7
222.7
248.4
273.5
278.4
310.6
351.9
392.8
435.8
486.8
530.7
593.0
637.1
712.2
785.7
797.8
892.2
984.7
1211.9

Iy y
4

cm
81.9
81.9
81.9
91.1
100.0
81.9
91.1
81.9
91.1
81.9
91.1
81.9
91.1
81.9
91.1
100.0
81.9
91.1
100.0
100.0

rx x
cm
4.13
4.89
5.14
5.13
5.12
5.62
5.60
6.15
6.14
6.68
6.67
7.20
7.19
7.72
7.70
7.68
8.40
8.38
8.36
9.03

A-3

ry y
cm
3.29
3.16
3.12
3.11
3.09
3.05
3.03
2.97
2.96
2.90
2.88
2.83
2.82
2.77
2.75
2.74
2.69
2.68
2.66
2.59

Zx x

Zy y

cm
25.91
32.63
35.09
39.13
43.08
39.78
44.39
45.41
50.70
51.28
57.28
57.39
64.12
63.73
71.23
78.59
72.54
81.12
89.54
101.01

cm
12.60
12.60
12.60
14.01
15.38
12.60
14.01
12.60
14.01
12.60
14.02
12.60
14.02
12.60
14.02
15.39
12.60
14.02
15.39
15.39

Cw
4

cm
0.0614
0.0665
0.0683
0.0974
0.1337
0.0716
0.1022
0.0754
0.1076
0.0792
0.1131
0.0829
0.1185
0.0867
0.1240
0.1704
0.0918
0.1312
0.1804
0.1905

cm6
2042
2908
3247
3564
3860
3927
4312
4792
5264
5744
6311
6781
7453
7905
8690
9426
9537
10487
11378
13514

es
mm
-30.1
-28.9
-28.5
-28.2
-27.9
-27.8
-27.5
-27.0
-26.7
-26.2
-26.0
-25.6
-25.3
-24.9
-24.6
-24.4
-24.1
-23.8
-23.6
-22.8

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES

AYRSHIRE CW SECTION
Design Yield Strength = 280 N/mm2

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm
100 x 65
120 x 65
127 x 65

140

65

155

65

170

65

185

65

200

65

220

65

240

65

t
mm
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.0

po / py

Zxr

0.99
0.97
0.96
0.99
1.00
0.95
0.97
0.93
0.96
0.91
0.94
0.90
0.93
0.88
0.91
0.94
0.86
0.89
0.92
0.90

cm
12.77
15.84
16.88
19.35
21.52
18.84
21.64
21.10
24.31
23.40
27.01
25.69
29.73
27.99
32.46
36.76
31.03
36.11
41.02
45.30

0.90
0.84
0.82
0.87
0.91
0.79
0.83
0.75
0.79
0.71
0.76
0.68
0.72
0.65
0.69
0.72
0.62
0.65
0.69
0.65

Zy1r

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

cm3
6.87
6.92
6.92
8.02
9.12
6.93
8.03
6.93
8.04
6.94
8.05
6.95
8.06
6.96
8.06
9.21
6.98
8.08
9.22
9.24

cm3
5.04
5.16
5.20
5.76
6.30
5.27
5.83
5.33
5.90
5.38
5.97
5.43
6.02
5.48
6.07
6.64
5.53
6.12
6.70
6.75

cm4
64
96
108
123
137
132
152
164
189
200
230
239
275
281
325
368
342
398
451
544

kN
96
97
97
115
133
97
115
97
116
98
116
98
116
98
116
135
98
117
135
135

kNm
3.58
4.43
4.73
5.42
6.03
5.27
6.06
5.91
6.81
6.55
7.56
7.19
8.32
7.84
9.09
10.29
8.69
10.11
11.48
12.68

kNm
1.92
1.94
1.94
2.25
2.55
1.94
2.25
1.94
2.25
1.94
2.25
1.95
2.26
1.95
2.26
2.58
1.95
2.26
2.58
2.59

kNm
1.41
1.45
1.46
1.61
1.76
1.47
1.63
1.49
1.65
1.51
1.67
1.52
1.69
1.53
1.70
1.86
1.55
1.71
1.88
1.89

B
t

DOUBLE SECTION
D

mm
100 x 65
120 x 65
127 x 65

140

65

155

65

170

65

185

65

200

65

220

65

240

65

t
mm
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.0

po / py

Zxr

0.99
0.97
0.96
0.99
1.00
0.95
0.97
0.93
0.96
0.91
0.94
0.90
0.93
0.88
0.91
0.94
0.86
0.89
0.92
0.90

cm
25.55
31.67
33.77
38.70
43.04
37.67
43.28
42.20
48.62
46.79
54.02
51.39
59.46
55.97
64.93
73.52
62.05
72.23
82.03
90.59

0.90
0.84
0.82
0.87
0.91
0.79
0.83
0.75
0.79
0.71
0.76
0.68
0.72
0.65
0.69
0.72
0.62
0.65
0.69
0.65

Zy1r
3

cm
12.60
12.60
12.60
14.01
15.38
12.60
14.01
12.60
14.01
12.60
14.02
12.60
14.02
12.60
14.02
15.39
12.60
14.02
15.39
15.39

Zy2r
3

cm
12.60
12.60
12.60
14.01
15.38
12.60
14.01
12.60
14.01
12.60
14.02
12.60
14.02
12.60
14.02
15.39
12.60
14.02
15.39
15.39

A-4

Ixr
4

cm
128
191
215
246
273
265
303
329
377
399
460
477
551
562
650
735
684
795
902
1087

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

kN
191.6
193.6
193.9
230.0
265.9
194.3
230.8
194.7
231.3
195.1
231.7
195.5
232.0
195.9
232.4
269.8
196.5
233.0
270.3
270.9

kNm
7.15
8.87
9.45
10.84
12.05
10.55
12.12
11.82
13.61
13.10
15.13
14.39
16.65
15.67
18.18
20.58
17.37
20.22
22.97
25.37

kNm
3.53
3.53
3.53
3.92
4.31
3.53
3.92
3.53
3.92
3.53
3.92
3.53
3.92
3.53
3.92
4.31
3.53
3.93
4.31
4.31

kNm
3.53
3.53
3.53
3.92
4.31
3.53
3.92
3.53
3.92
3.53
3.92
3.53
3.92
3.53
3.92
4.31
3.53
3.93
4.31
4.31

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES

AYRSHIRE CW SECTION
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm2

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm
100 x
65
120 x
65
127 x
65

140

65

155

65

170

65

185

65

200

65

220

65

240

65

t
mm
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.0

Q
0.86
0.80
0.78
0.83
0.87
0.74
0.80
0.71
0.76
0.68
0.72
0.65
0.69
0.62
0.66
0.69
0.59
0.63
0.66
0.62

po / py

Zxr

Zy1r

Zy2r

0.96
0.94
0.93
0.97
0.99
0.91
0.95
0.90
0.93
0.88
0.92
0.86
0.90
0.84
0.88
0.91
0.82
0.86
0.89
0.87

cm
12.49
15.33
16.33
18.92
21.30
18.19
21.12
20.33
23.67
22.51
26.25
24.67
28.84
26.82
31.43
35.80
29.64
34.86
39.84
43.86

cm
6.64
6.67
6.67
7.80
8.91
6.68
7.81
6.69
7.81
6.70
7.82
6.71
7.84
6.73
7.85
8.96
6.76
7.87
8.98
9.00

cm
5.04
5.16
5.20
5.76
6.30
5.27
5.83
5.33
5.90
5.38
5.97
5.43
6.02
5.48
6.07
6.64
5.53
6.12
6.70
6.75

Ixr
4

cm
63.2
93.0
104.8
120.6
135.4
128.6
148.4
159.1
184.1
193.0
223.9
230.0
267.5
270.0
315.0
358.3
327.9
384.2
438.4
526.6

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

kN
113.8
114.5
114.7
137.4
159.7
115.0
137.7
115.2
138.0
115.5
138.2
115.8
138.5
116.0
138.8
161.4
116.4
139.2
161.8
162.2

kNm
4.37
5.37
5.72
6.62
7.46
6.37
7.39
7.12
8.28
7.88
9.19
8.64
10.10
9.39
11.00
12.53
10.38
12.20
13.94
15.35

kNm
2.33
2.33
2.33
2.73
3.12
2.34
2.73
2.34
2.74
2.34
2.74
2.35
2.74
2.36
2.75
3.14
2.36
2.75
3.14
3.15

kNm
1.76
1.81
1.82
2.02
2.20
1.84
2.04
1.87
2.07
1.88
2.09
1.90
2.11
1.92
2.12
2.32
1.93
2.14
2.34
2.36

B
t

DOUBLE SECTION
D

mm
100 x
65
120 x
65
127 x
65

140

65

155

65

170

65

185

65

200

65

220

65

240

65

t
mm
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.0

Q
0.86
0.80
0.78
0.83
0.87
0.74
0.80
0.71
0.76
0.68
0.72
0.65
0.69
0.62
0.66
0.69
0.59
0.63
0.66
0.62

po / py

Zxr

Zy1r

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

0.96
0.94
0.93
0.97
0.99
0.91
0.95
0.90
0.93
0.88
0.92
0.86
0.90
0.84
0.88
0.91
0.82
0.86
0.89
0.87

cm3
24.97
30.66
32.66
37.83
42.61
36.38
42.23
40.66
47.34
45.01
52.51
49.35
57.69
53.64
62.86
71.61
59.29
69.71
79.67
87.72

cm3
12.60
12.60
12.60
14.01
15.38
12.60
14.01
12.60
14.01
12.60
14.02
12.60
14.02
12.60
14.02
15.39
12.60
14.02
15.39
15.39

cm3
12.60
12.60
12.60
14.01
15.38
12.60
14.01
12.60
14.01
12.60
14.02
12.60
14.02
12.60
14.02
15.39
12.60
14.02
15.39
15.39

cm4
126.4
186.0
209.6
241.1
270.8
257.3
296.7
318.2
368.2
385.9
447.7
460.0
535.1
540.1
630.1
716.5
655.9
768.4
876.9
1053.1

kN
227.5
229.1
229.4
274.8
319.4
229.9
275.4
230.4
275.9
231.0
276.5
231.5
277.0
232.1
277.6
322.7
232.9
278.4
323.5
324.4

kNm
8.74
10.73
11.43
13.24
14.91
12.73
14.78
14.23
16.57
15.75
18.38
17.27
20.19
18.78
22.00
25.06
20.75
24.40
27.89
30.70

kNm
4.41
4.41
4.41
4.90
5.38
4.41
4.90
4.41
4.91
4.41
4.91
4.41
4.91
4.41
4.91
5.39
4.41
4.91
5.39
5.39

kNm
4.41
4.41
4.41
4.90
5.38
4.41
4.90
4.41
4.91
4.41
4.91
4.41
4.91
4.41
4.91
5.39
4.41
4.91
5.39
5.39

A-5

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES


AYRSHIRE SWAGEBEAM
Design Yield Strength = 280 N/mm2

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm
220 x
65

250

65

300

65

Area

mm
1.5
1.8
2.0
2.4
1.5
1.8
2.0
2.4
1.8
2.0
2.4
3.0

cm
6.01
7.17
7.94
9.45
6.44
7.70
8.53
10.15
8.58
9.51
11.33
14.00

Weight

Ix x

kg/m
4.71
5.63
6.23
7.42
5.06
6.05
6.70
7.97
6.74
7.47
8.90
10.99

cm
416.9
495.8
547.1
646.8
566.6
674.3
744.4
880.8
1049.9
1159.8
1373.8
1680.7

Iy y

rx x

ry y

Zx x

cm4
33.5
39.4
43.2
50.4
34.9
41.1
45.1
52.5
43.5
47.6
55.5
66.3

cm
8.33
8.31
8.30
8.27
9.38
9.36
9.34
9.31
11.06
11.04
11.01
10.96

cm
2.36
2.34
2.33
2.31
2.33
2.31
2.30
2.27
2.25
2.24
2.21
2.18

cm
37.90
45.08
49.75
58.81
45.33
53.95
59.56
70.47
70.01
77.33
91.60
112.06

Zy y

Cw

es

cm3
7.36
8.65
9.48
11.04
7.46
8.78
9.62
11.20
8.95
9.80
11.42
13.62

cm4
0.0427
0.0741
0.1017
0.1754
0.0458
0.0795
0.1092
0.1885
0.0886
0.1218
0.2104
0.4089

cm6
3595
4211
4597
5315
4676
5481
5986
6927
8047
8793
10187
12044

mm
-26.1
-25.7
-25.5
-25.0
-25.2
-24.9
-24.6
-24.1
-23.6
-23.3
-22.8
-22.1

B
t

DOUBLE SECTION
D

mm
220 x
65

250

65

300

65

Area

mm
1.5
1.8
2.0
2.4
1.5
1.8
2.0
2.4
1.8
2.0
2.4
3.0

cm
12.01
14.35
15.88
18.89
12.89
15.41
17.06
20.31
17.17
19.02
22.67
28.00

Weight

Ix x

kg/m
9.43
11.26
12.47
14.83
10.12
12.09
13.39
15.94
13.48
14.93
17.80
21.98

cm
833.7
991.6
1094.3
1293.6
1133.2
1348.5
1488.8
1761.6
2099.9
2319.6
2747.7
3361.5

Iy y
4

cm
112.4
132.9
146.1
171.4
112.4
132.9
146.1
171.4
133.0
146.2
171.4
206.5

rx x

ry y

Zx x

cm
8.33
8.31
8.30
8.27
9.38
9.36
9.34
9.31
11.06
11.04
11.01
10.96

cm
3.06
3.04
3.03
3.01
2.95
2.94
2.93
2.91
2.78
2.77
2.75
2.72

cm
75.81
90.16
99.50
117.62
90.67
107.90
119.12
140.95
140.01
154.66
183.20
224.13

A-6

Zy y
3

cm
17.30
20.45
22.48
26.36
17.30
20.45
22.48
26.37
20.46
22.49
26.37
31.77

Cw
4

cm
0.0854
0.1482
0.2034
0.3508
0.0916
0.1591
0.2185
0.3770
0.1772
0.2436
0.4209
0.8177

cm
12870
14990
16311
18740
16577
19313
21019
24158
27752
30211
34738
40594

es
mm

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES

AYRSHIRE SWAGEBEAM
Design Yield Strength = 280 N/mm2

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm
220 x
65

250

65

300

65

t
mm
1.5
1.8
2.0
2.4
1.5
1.8
2.0
2.4
1.8
2.0
2.4
3.0

po / py

Zxr

0.88
0.93
0.95
0.98
0.85
0.90
0.93
0.96
0.86
0.89
0.93
0.97

cm
33.20
41.80
47.23
57.67
38.49
48.74
55.26
67.83
60.45
68.94
85.40
108.96

0.95
0.99
1.00
1.00
0.94
0.99
0.99
1.00
0.92
0.94
0.97
0.99

Zy1r

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

cm3
10.30
12.29
13.53
15.87
10.56
12.62
13.90
16.30
12.79
14.13
16.64
20.03

cm3
7.36
8.65
9.48
11.04
7.46
8.78
9.62
11.20
8.95
9.80
11.42
13.62

cm4
367.0
460.1
519.6
634.2
483.1
609.6
690.7
847.7
907.1
1034.2
1280.8
1634.2

kN
159.3
198.2
221.3
264.4
170.0
212.5
237.6
284.2
220.2
250.3
308.2
389.2

kNm
9.30
11.70
13.22
16.15
10.78
13.65
15.47
18.99
16.93
19.30
23.91
30.51

kNm
2.91
3.46
3.81
4.46
2.97
3.54
3.90
4.56
3.58
3.95
4.66
5.61

kNm
2.06
2.42
2.65
3.09
2.09
2.46
2.69
3.14
2.50
2.74
3.20
3.81

B
t

DOUBLE SECTION
D

mm
220 x
65

250

65

300

65

t
mm
1.5
1.8
2.0
2.4
1.5
1.8
2.0
2.4
1.8
2.0
2.4
3.0

po / py

Zxr

0.88
0.93
0.95
0.98
0.85
0.90
0.93
0.96
0.86
0.89
0.93
0.97

cm
66.39
83.59
94.46
115.33
76.97
97.47
110.51
135.65
120.90
137.89
170.79
217.93

0.95
0.99
1.00
1.00
0.94
0.99
0.99
1.00
0.92
0.94
0.97
0.99

Zy1r

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

cm3
17.30
20.45
22.48
26.36
17.30
20.45
22.48
26.37
20.46
22.49
26.37
31.77

cm3
17.30
20.45
22.48
26.36
17.30
20.45
22.48
26.37
20.46
22.49
26.37
31.77

cm4
734.0
920.2
1039.2
1268.4
966.2
1219.2
1381.5
1695.4
1814.2
2068.3
2561.5
3268.5

kN
318.5
396.3
442.6
528.8
340.0
425.1
475.2
568.4
440.3
500.6
616.4
778.3

kNm
18.59
23.41
26.45
32.29
21.55
27.29
30.94
37.98
33.85
38.61
47.82
61.02

kNm
4.84
5.73
6.29
7.38
4.84
5.73
6.30
7.38
5.73
6.30
7.38
8.90

kNm
4.84
5.73
6.29
7.38
4.84
5.73
6.30
7.38
5.73
6.30
7.38
8.90

A-7

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES


AYRSHIRE (ST HELENS) PLAIN SECTION
Design Yield Strength = 280 N/mm2

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm
75 x 50

100 x

50

125 x

50

150 x

50

160 x
175 x

50
50

Area

mm
3.0
4.0
5.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
3.0
5.0
4.0
3.0

cm
4.81
6.27
7.65
5.55
7.26
8.89
6.29
8.25
10.13
7.03
11.37
9.64
7.77

Weight

Ix x

kg/m
3.78
4.92
6.01
4.36
5.70
6.98
4.94
6.48
7.95
5.52
8.93
7.57
6.10

cm
43.8
55.2
64.9
85.4
108.6
129.0
144.3
184.7
220.9
222.9
344.5
335.2
323.5

Iy y
4

cm
12.4
15.8
18.9
13.8
17.7
21.3
14.8
19.1
23.0
15.6
24.4
20.6
16.3

rx x

ry y

Zx x

cm
3.02
2.97
2.91
3.92
3.87
3.81
4.79
4.73
4.67
5.63
5.50
5.90
6.45

cm
1.61
1.59
1.57
1.57
1.56
1.55
1.53
1.52
1.51
1.49
1.47
1.46
1.45

cm
11.70
14.72
17.31
17.09
21.72
25.81
23.10
29.56
35.36
29.73
45.95
41.92
36.98

Zy y
3

cm
3.65
4.75
5.77
3.83
5.00
6.10
3.96
5.17
6.33
4.05
6.50
5.34
4.12

Cw
4

es

cm
0.1405
0.3279
0.6275
0.1621
0.3797
0.7292
0.1838
0.4314
0.8309
0.2054
0.9325
0.5039
0.2270

cm
103
121
132
210
253
283
364
446
507
570
810
828
830

mm
-18.6
-17.9
-17.1
-17.4
-16.8
-16.1
-16.2
-15.7
-15.1
-15.2
-14.1
-14.3
-14.3

B
t

DOUBLE SECTION
D

mm
75 x 50

100 x

50

125 x

50

150 x

50

160 x
175 x

50
50

Area

mm
3.0
4.0
5.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
3.0
5.0
4.0
3.0

cm
9.62
12.55
15.30
11.10
14.53
17.78
12.58
16.51
20.26
14.06
22.74
19.28
15.54

Weight

Ix x

kg/m
7.55
9.85
12.01
8.72
11.40
13.96
9.88
12.96
15.91
11.04
17.85
15.13
12.20

cm
87.7
110.3
129.8
170.8
217.2
258.0
288.7
369.4
441.9
445.8
689.1
670.5
646.9

Iy y

rx x

ry y

Zx x

cm4
49.4
66.2
83.2
49.5
66.3
83.4
49.5
66.5
83.6
49.5
83.8
66.6
49.6

cm
3.02
2.97
2.91
3.92
3.87
3.81
4.79
4.73
4.67
5.63
5.50
5.90
6.45

cm
2.27
2.30
2.33
2.11
2.14
2.17
1.98
2.01
2.03
1.88
1.92
1.86
1.79

cm
23.39
29.44
34.62
34.18
43.45
51.63
46.20
59.11
70.73
59.46
91.90
83.83
73.95

A-8

Zy y

Cw

es

cm3
9.88
13.25
16.64
9.89
13.27
16.68
9.90
13.29
16.72
9.91
16.76
13.32
9.92

cm4
0.2811
0.6558
1.2550
0.3243
0.7593
1.4583
0.3675
0.8628
1.6617
0.4107
1.8651
1.0077
0.4540

cm6
510
599
650
936
1120
1241
1490
1802
2022
2173
2993
3028
2985

mm

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES


AYRSHIRE (ST HELENS) PLAIN SECTION
Design Yield Strength = 280 N/mm2

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm
75 x 50

100 x

50

125 x

50

150 x

50

160 x
175 x

50
50

t
mm
3
4
5
3
4
5
3
4
5
3
5
4
3

po / py

Zxr

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.99
1.00
1.00
0.99

cm
11.66
14.72
17.31
17.03
21.72
25.81
23.00
29.56
35.36
29.58
45.95
41.91
36.76

1.00
1.00
1.00
0.99
1.00
1.00
0.96
1.00
1.00
0.90
1.00
0.98
0.84

Zy1r
3

cm
6.09
7.73
9.13
6.62
8.51
10.21
6.86
8.91
10.79
6.94
11.12
9.15
6.98

Zy2r
3

cm
3.65
4.75
5.77
3.83
5.00
6.10
3.96
5.17
6.33
4.05
6.50
5.34
4.12

Ixr
4

cm
43.8
55.2
64.9
85.2
108.6
129.0
143.9
184.7
220.9
222.2
344.5
335.2
322.2

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

kN
134.1
175.6
214.1
153.9
203.3
249.0
169.8
230.8
283.7
176.9
318.3
265.7
182.2

kNm
3.27
4.12
4.85
4.77
6.08
7.23
6.44
8.28
9.90
8.28
12.87
11.74
10.29

kNm
1.71
2.17
2.56
1.86
2.39
2.87
1.92
2.50
3.03
1.95
3.12
2.57
1.96

kNm
1.02
1.33
1.62
1.07
1.40
1.71
1.11
1.45
1.77
1.13
1.82
1.50
1.15

B
t

DOUBLE SECTION
D

mm
75 x 50

100 x

50

125 x

50

150 x

50

160 x
175 x

50
50

t
mm
3.0
4.0
5.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
3.0
5.0
4.0
3.0

po / py

Zxr

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.99
1.00
1.00
0.99

cm
23.33
29.44
34.62
34.05
43.45
51.63
46.00
59.11
70.73
59.15
91.90
83.83
73.51

1.00
1.00
1.00
0.99
1.00
1.00
0.96
1.00
1.00
0.90
1.00
0.98
0.84

Zy1r

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

cm3
9.88
13.25
16.64
9.89
13.27
16.68
9.90
13.29
16.72
9.91
16.76
13.32
9.92

cm3
9.88
13.25
16.64
9.89
13.27
16.68
9.90
13.29
16.72
9.91
16.76
13.32
9.92

cm4
87.5
110.3
129.8
170.4
217.1
258.0
287.9
369.3
441.9
444.4
689.1
670.5
644.5

kN
268.2
351.3
428.2
307.7
406.7
497.9
339.6
461.7
567.4
353.8
636.6
531.3
364.5

kNm
6.53
8.24
9.69
9.54
12.17
14.46
12.88
16.55
19.80
16.56
25.73
23.47
20.58

kNm
2.77
3.71
4.66
2.77
3.72
4.67
2.77
3.72
4.68
2.77
4.69
3.73
2.78

kNm
2.77
3.71
4.66
2.77
3.72
4.67
2.77
3.72
4.68
2.77
4.69
3.73
2.78

A-9

B
t

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES


HI-SPAN C SECTION
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm2

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm
150

66

170

66

200

66

Area

mm
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.4

cm
4.37
4.66
5.23
5.79
4.67
4.97
5.58
6.18
7.37
5.10
5.44
6.11
6.77
8.07

Weight

Ix x

kg/m
3.43
3.66
4.10
4.55
3.66
3.90
4.38
4.85
5.78
4.01
4.27
4.80
5.31
6.34

cm
157.2
167.2
186.6
205.7
210.0
223.3
249.4
275.0
324.6
306.7
326.3
364.8
402.5
475.8

Iy y
4

cm
25.1
26.6
29.5
32.3
26.1
27.7
30.7
33.6
39.2
27.4
29.1
32.3
35.4
41.1

rx x

ry y

Zx x

cm
6.00
5.99
5.97
5.96
6.71
6.70
6.69
6.67
6.64
7.75
7.74
7.73
7.71
7.68

cm
2.40
2.39
2.38
2.36
2.37
2.36
2.35
2.33
2.31
2.32
2.31
2.30
2.29
2.26

cm
20.97
22.29
24.89
27.43
24.71
26.27
29.35
32.37
38.20
30.68
32.63
36.48
40.26
47.59

Zy y
3

cm
5.47
5.79
6.42
7.03
5.55
5.88
6.52
7.13
8.29
5.64
5.97
6.63
7.25
8.43

Cw
4

cm
1106
1169
1290
1405
1453
1537
1697
1849
2130
2084
2204
2436
2657
3065

es

cm
0.0311
0.0378
0.0540
0.0741
0.0332
0.0403
0.0576
0.0792
0.1367
0.0363
0.0441
0.0631
0.0867
0.1499

mm
-28.7
-28.6
-28.3
-28.1
-27.7
-27.6
-27.3
-27.0
-26.5
-26.3
-26.2
-25.9
-25.7
-25.1

B
t

DOUBLE SECTION
D

mm
150

66

170

66

200

66

Area

mm
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.4

cm
8.75
9.32
10.46
11.58
9.33
9.94
11.16
12.36
14.73
10.21
10.88
12.22
13.54
16.15

Weight

Ix x

kg/m
6.87
7.32
8.21
9.09
7.32
7.81
8.76
9.71
11.56
8.01
8.54
9.59
10.63
12.68

cm
314.5
334.3
373.3
411.4
419.9
446.5
498.8
550.1
649.3
613.4
652.5
729.5
805.0
951.6

Iy y
4

cm
85.4
90.7
100.9
110.9
85.4
90.7
100.9
110.9
129.9
85.4
90.7
100.9
110.9
129.9

rx x

ry y

Zx x

cm
6.00
5.99
5.97
5.96
6.71
6.70
6.69
6.67
6.64
7.75
7.74
7.73
7.71
7.68

cm
3.12
3.12
3.11
3.09
3.03
3.02
3.01
2.99
2.97
2.89
2.89
2.87
2.86
2.84

cm
41.94
44.59
49.78
54.86
49.41
52.54
58.70
64.73
76.40
61.36
65.26
72.97
80.52
95.17

A - 10

Zy y
3

cm
12.94
13.74
15.29
16.80
12.94
13.74
15.29
16.80
19.68
12.94
13.74
15.29
16.80
19.69

Cw
4

cm
0.0622
0.0756
0.1080
0.1483
0.0663
0.0807
0.1152
0.1583
0.2735
0.0725
0.0883
0.1261
0.1734
0.2998

cm
4808
5072
5578
6052
6130
6469
7116
7724
8827
8415
8882
9775
10616
12144

es
mm

B
t

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES


HI-SPAN C SECTION
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm2

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm
150

66

170

66

200

66

t
mm
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.4

po / py

Zxr

0.87
0.90
0.94
0.96
0.85
0.88
0.92
0.94
0.98
0.81
0.84
0.88
0.91
0.95

cm
18.30
20.05
23.36
26.44
20.96
23.00
26.87
30.50
37.31
24.93
27.40
32.16
36.66
45.20

0.69
0.72
0.77
0.81
0.65
0.68
0.72
0.76
0.83
0.60
0.62
0.66
0.70
0.76

Zy1r

Zy2r

cm
5.47
5.79
6.42
7.03
5.55
5.88
6.52
7.13
8.29
5.64
5.97
6.63
7.25
8.43

cm
6.47
7.06
8.27
9.49
6.49
7.08
8.29
9.50
11.85
6.53
7.12
8.32
9.52
11.87

Ixr
4

cm
139.6
152.0
175.9
198.5
180.8
197.4
229.2
259.6
317.1
252.2
276.2
322.5
367.0
451.9

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

kN
106.0
117.8
141.2
164.4
106.3
118.2
141.6
164.8
212.7
106.9
118.7
142.1
165.3
213.4

kNm
6.41
7.02
8.17
9.25
7.34
8.05
9.40
10.68
13.06
8.72
9.59
11.25
12.83
15.82

kNm
2.26
2.47
2.90
3.32
2.27
2.48
2.90
3.32
4.15
2.29
2.49
2.91
3.33
4.15

kNm
1.91
2.03
2.25
2.46
1.94
2.06
2.28
2.50
2.90
1.97
2.09
2.32
2.54
2.95

B
t

DOUBLE SECTION
D

mm
150

66

170

66

200

66

t
mm
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.4

po / py

Zxr

0.87
0.90
0.94
0.96
0.85
0.88
0.92
0.94
0.98
0.81
0.84
0.88
0.91
0.95

cm
36.60
40.10
46.71
52.87
41.92
45.99
53.74
61.01
74.63
49.85
54.81
64.31
73.33
90.40

0.69
0.72
0.77
0.81
0.65
0.68
0.72
0.76
0.83
0.60
0.62
0.66
0.70
0.76

Zy1r

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

cm3
12.94
13.74
15.29
16.80
12.94
13.74
15.29
16.80
19.68
12.94
13.74
15.29
16.80
19.69

cm3
12.94
13.74
15.29
16.80
12.94
13.74
15.29
16.80
19.68
12.94
13.74
15.29
16.80
19.69

cm4
279.14
304.06
351.80
397.04
361.65
394.76
458.44
519.12
634.23
504.42
552.31
644.96
733.90
903.86

kN
211.90
235.65
282.46
328.81
212.62
236.37
283.16
329.55
425.49
213.72
237.49
284.28
330.62
426.72

kNm
12.81
14.04
16.35
18.51
14.67
16.10
18.81
21.35
26.12
17.45
19.18
22.51
25.67
31.64

kNm
4.53
4.81
5.35
5.88
4.53
4.81
5.35
5.88
6.89
4.53
4.81
5.35
5.88
6.89

kNm
4.53
4.81
5.35
5.88
4.53
4.81
5.35
5.88
6.89
4.53
4.81
5.35
5.88
6.89

A - 11

B
t

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES


METSEC C SECTION
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm2

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm
142
x
64

172

69

202

69

232

76

262

80

302

89

342

97

Area

Weight

Ix x

Iy y

rx x

ry y

Zx x

Zy y

Cw

es

mm
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
2.9
2.3
2.5
2.9
2.5
2.9
3.2

cm2
3.87
4.14
4.41
4.95
5.48
4.44
4.75
5.07
5.69
6.30
7.21
7.80
5.19
5.53
6.21
6.89
7.89
8.54
6.28
7.06
7.83
8.97
9.72
7.73
8.57
9.83
10.66
12.30
11.23
12.18
14.07
13.66
15.79
17.36

kg/m
3.04
3.25
3.46
3.88
4.30
3.48
3.73
3.98
4.46
4.95
5.66
6.13
4.08
4.34
4.88
5.41
6.19
6.71
4.93
5.54
6.15
7.04
7.63
6.07
6.73
7.72
8.37
9.65
8.82
9.56
11.04
10.72
12.39
13.63

cm4
125.4
133.9
142.3
158.7
174.8
206.5
220.6
234.6
262.2
289.1
328.6
354.1
320.6
341.0
381.3
420.9
478.8
516.4
507.7
568.3
627.9
715.4
772.5
781.0
863.4
984.7
1064.0
1218.7
1488.9
1610.2
1847.7
2302.7
2646.0
2897.9

cm4
20.4
21.8
23.0
25.5
27.9
26.8
28.6
30.3
33.6
36.8
41.4
44.3
30.0
31.8
35.3
38.6
43.5
46.5
44.1
49.0
53.8
60.6
65.0
57.6
63.3
71.4
76.6
86.5
101.4
108.9
123.4
145.4
165.2
179.3

cm
5.69
5.69
5.68
5.66
5.65
6.82
6.81
6.81
6.79
6.77
6.75
6.74
7.86
7.85
7.83
7.82
7.79
7.77
8.99
8.97
8.96
8.93
8.91
10.05
10.04
10.01
9.99
9.96
11.51
11.50
11.46
12.98
12.95
12.92

cm
2.30
2.29
2.29
2.27
2.26
2.46
2.45
2.44
2.43
2.42
2.40
2.38
2.40
2.40
2.38
2.37
2.35
2.33
2.65
2.63
2.62
2.60
2.59
2.73
2.72
2.70
2.68
2.65
3.00
2.99
2.96
3.26
3.23
3.21

cm3
17.66
18.86
20.04
22.36
24.63
24.01
25.66
27.29
30.49
33.63
38.21
41.19
31.75
33.77
37.76
41.68
47.41
51.14
43.78
49.00
54.14
61.69
66.61
59.63
65.92
75.18
81.23
93.04
98.61
106.65
122.38
134.67
154.76
169.49

cm3
4.57
4.86
5.15
5.70
6.23
5.43
5.78
6.12
6.79
7.44
8.35
8.93
5.88
6.23
6.91
7.57
8.50
9.09
7.80
8.67
9.51
10.72
11.49
9.53
10.46
11.80
12.66
14.28
14.98
16.09
18.22
19.60
22.25
24.14

cm4
0.0238
0.0294
0.0358
0.0511
0.0701
0.0274
0.0338
0.0411
0.0587
0.0807
0.1227
0.1574
0.0369
0.0449
0.0642
0.0882
0.1343
0.1723
0.0510
0.0729
0.1002
0.1527
0.1961
0.0798
0.1098
0.1673
0.2150
0.3353
0.1912
0.2458
0.3836
0.2755
0.4304
0.5779

cm6
790
839
886
976
1060
1504
1598
1690
1866
2034
2270
2417
2289
2422
2677
2921
3263
3477
4457
4939
5402
6059
6473
7362
8060
9055
9685
10864
17159
18392
20724
31640
35769
38686

mm
-27.4
-27.3
-27.2
-26.9
-26.6
-28.7
-28.6
-28.5
-28.2
-28.0
-27.5
-27.3
-27.2
-27.1
-26.8
-26.6
-26.2
-25.9
-29.9
-29.6
-29.3
-29.0
-28.7
-30.2
-29.9
-29.6
-29.3
-28.8
-32.9
-32.6
-32.1
-35.5
-35.0
-34.6

A - 12

B
t

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES


x

METSEC C SECTION
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm2
DOUBLE SECTION
D

mm
142
x
64

172

69

202

69

232

76

262

80

302

89

342

97

Area

mm
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
2.9
2.3
2.5
2.9
2.5
2.9
3.2

cm
7.74
8.28
8.82
9.89
10.95
8.88
9.51
10.13
11.37
12.60
14.42
15.61
10.38
11.07
12.43
13.78
15.77
17.09
12.57
14.12
15.66
17.94
19.45
15.46
17.15
19.66
21.32
24.59
22.46
24.37
28.14
27.32
31.57
34.73

Weight

Ix x

kg/m
6.07
6.50
6.92
7.77
8.60
6.97
7.46
7.95
8.93
9.89
11.32
12.25
8.15
8.69
9.76
10.81
12.38
13.41
9.86
11.08
12.29
14.08
15.27
12.13
13.46
15.43
16.73
19.31
17.63
19.13
22.09
21.45
24.78
27.26

cm
250.7
267.7
284.5
317.5
349.7
413.0
441.2
469.2
524.3
578.3
657.1
708.3
641.2
682.1
762.7
841.8
957.5
1032.8
1015.4
1136.6
1255.8
1430.9
1545.0
1562.0
1726.9
1969.4
2127.9
2437.4
2977.7
3220.4
3695.5
4605.3
5292.1
5795.9

Iy y
4

cm
69.4
74.0
78.5
87.3
95.9
87.6
93.5
99.2
110.4
121.4
137.1
147.2
93.5
99.2
110.5
121.4
137.2
147.3
135.9
151.5
166.8
188.9
203.1
174.0
191.6
217.1
233.6
265.3
304.4
327.9
373.4
432.6
493.5
537.6

rx x

ry y

Zx x

cm
5.69
5.69
5.68
5.66
5.65
6.82
6.81
6.81
6.79
6.77
6.75
6.74
7.86
7.85
7.83
7.82
7.79
7.77
8.99
8.97
8.96
8.93
8.91
10.05
10.04
10.01
9.99
9.96
11.51
11.50
11.46
12.98
12.95
12.92

cm
3.00
2.99
2.98
2.97
2.96
3.14
3.14
3.13
3.12
3.10
3.08
3.07
3.00
2.99
2.98
2.97
2.95
2.94
3.29
3.28
3.26
3.24
3.23
3.36
3.34
3.32
3.31
3.28
3.68
3.67
3.64
3.98
3.95
3.93

cm
35.33
37.72
40.08
44.73
49.26
48.03
51.32
54.57
60.98
67.26
76.43
82.38
63.49
67.54
75.53
83.36
94.83
102.28
87.55
98.00
108.28
123.37
133.22
119.25
131.84
150.36
162.46
186.09
197.23
213.30
244.77
269.35
309.51
338.98

A - 13

Zy y
3

cm
10.85
11.57
12.27
13.65
14.98
12.70
13.54
14.38
16.01
17.59
19.87
21.34
13.54
14.38
16.01
17.59
19.88
21.34
17.88
19.94
21.94
24.85
26.72
21.75
23.95
27.14
29.20
33.16
34.20
36.85
41.95
44.59
50.88
55.42

Cw
4

cm
0.0477
0.0588
0.0716
0.1022
0.1403
0.0547
0.0675
0.0822
0.1174
0.1613
0.2454
0.3149
0.0738
0.0898
0.1283
0.1764
0.2685
0.3447
0.1019
0.1458
0.2005
0.3055
0.3923
0.1596
0.2196
0.3347
0.4300
0.6705
0.3824
0.4915
0.7672
0.5511
0.8608
1.1559

es
6

cm
3467
3672
3871
4249
4602
6420
6809
7186
7909
8589
9530
10107
9329
9849
10844
11782
13084
13883
17975
19846
21624
24118
25668
28978
31609
35315
37629
41889
66506
71043
79502
121287
136249
146652

mm
-

B
t

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES


METSEC C SECTION
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm2

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm
142
x
64

172

69

202

69

232

76

262

80

302

89

342

97

t
mm
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
2.9
2.3
2.5
2.9
2.5
2.9
3.2

po / py

Zxr

0.86
0.89
0.91
0.95
0.97
0.80
0.83
0.86
0.91
0.94
0.97
0.98
0.80
0.83
0.88
0.91
0.94
0.96
0.78
0.83
0.87
0.91
0.93
0.79
0.83
0.88
0.90
0.94
0.84
0.86
0.90
0.83
0.87
0.90

cm
15.17
16.78
18.33
21.26
23.98
19.20
21.40
23.56
27.69
31.54
36.96
40.41
25.41
28.02
33.05
37.79
44.54
48.86
33.96
40.66
47.05
56.10
61.86
47.09
54.96
66.16
73.29
87.02
82.57
92.24
110.74
111.31
135.25
152.46

Zy1r
3

0.68
0.71
0.74
0.79
0.83
0.60
0.64
0.67
0.72
0.76
0.81
0.84
0.59
0.61
0.66
0.69
0.74
0.77
0.56
0.61
0.65
0.69
0.72
0.57
0.61
0.65
0.67
0.72
0.61
0.63
0.67
0.59
0.64
0.66

Zy2r

cm
5.37
5.91
6.47
7.58
8.64
6.10
6.71
7.33
8.64
9.88
11.75
13.03
6.75
7.37
8.68
9.90
11.77
13.05
8.75
10.28
11.88
14.14
15.66
11.10
12.83
15.31
16.96
20.36
18.61
20.62
24.73
24.19
29.03
32.73

cm
4.57
4.86
5.15
5.70
6.23
5.43
5.78
6.12
6.79
7.44
8.35
8.93
5.88
6.23
6.91
7.57
8.50
9.09
7.80
8.67
9.51
10.72
11.49
9.53
10.46
11.80
12.66
14.28
14.98
16.09
18.22
19.60
22.25
24.14

A - 14

Ixr
4

cm
110.0
120.8
131.3
151.4
170.4
169.8
187.8
205.4
239.5
271.8
317.9
347.5
260.8
286.2
335.3
382.3
449.9
493.4
401.0
475.8
547.9
651.3
717.8
623.6
723.8
867.9
960.6
1139.8
1251.5
1395.2
1672.6
1910.0
2314.4
2607.3

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

kN
91.7
103.1
114.5
136.8
159.1
93.9
106.1
118.4
142.8
166.9
203.3
228.5
106.7
119.0
143.4
167.4
203.9
229.2
123.7
150.9
177.8
217.6
244.6
153.3
181.8
223.6
251.5
309.5
238.0
269.0
331.4
283.3
350.9
402.4

kNm
5.31
5.87
6.42
7.44
8.39
6.72
7.49
8.25
9.69
11.04
12.94
14.14
8.89
9.81
11.57
13.23
15.59
17.10
11.89
14.23
16.47
19.64
21.65
16.48
19.24
23.16
25.65
30.46
28.90
32.29
38.76
38.96
47.34
53.36

kNm
1.88
2.07
2.26
2.65
3.02
2.14
2.35
2.57
3.02
3.46
4.11
4.56
2.36
2.58
3.04
3.47
4.12
4.57
3.06
3.60
4.16
4.95
5.48
3.89
4.49
5.36
5.94
7.13
6.51
7.22
8.65
8.47
10.16
11.46

kNm
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.99
2.18
1.90
2.02
2.14
2.38
2.60
2.92
3.13
2.06
2.18
2.42
2.65
2.98
3.18
2.73
3.04
3.33
3.75
4.02
3.34
3.66
4.13
4.43
5.00
5.24
5.63
6.38
6.86
7.79
8.45

B
t

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES


x

METSEC C SECTION
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm2
DOUBLE SECTION
D

mm
142
x
64

172

69

202

69

232

76

262

80

302

89

342

97

t
mm
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
2.9
2.3
2.5
2.9
2.5
2.9
3.2

po / py

Zxr

0.86
0.89
0.91
0.95
0.97
0.80
0.83
0.86
0.91
0.94
0.97
0.98
0.80
0.83
0.88
0.91
0.94
0.96
0.78
0.83
0.87
0.91
0.93
0.79
0.83
0.88
0.90
0.94
0.84
0.86
0.90
0.83
0.87
0.90

cm
30.34
33.56
36.67
42.51
47.96
38.40
42.80
47.12
55.37
63.09
73.93
80.83
50.82
56.04
66.09
75.59
89.07
97.71
67.93
81.31
94.10
112.20
123.73
94.18
109.92
132.32
146.59
174.04
165.15
184.49
221.49
222.62
270.50
304.91

Zy1r
3

0.68
0.71
0.74
0.79
0.83
0.60
0.64
0.67
0.72
0.76
0.81
0.84
0.59
0.61
0.66
0.69
0.74
0.77
0.56
0.61
0.65
0.69
0.72
0.57
0.61
0.65
0.67
0.72
0.61
0.63
0.67
0.59
0.64
0.66

Zy2r

cm
10.85
11.57
12.27
13.65
14.98
12.70
13.54
14.38
16.01
17.59
19.87
21.34
13.54
14.38
16.01
17.59
19.88
21.34
17.88
19.94
21.94
24.85
26.72
21.75
23.95
27.14
29.20
33.16
34.20
36.85
41.95
44.59
50.88
55.42

cm
10.85
11.57
12.27
13.65
14.98
12.70
13.54
14.38
16.01
17.59
19.87
21.34
13.54
14.38
16.01
17.59
19.88
21.34
17.88
19.94
21.94
24.85
26.72
21.75
23.95
27.14
29.20
33.16
34.20
36.85
41.95
44.59
50.88
55.42

A - 15

Ixr
4

cm
220.1
241.7
262.7
302.8
340.8
339.6
375.6
410.9
479.0
543.7
635.9
695.0
521.6
572.3
670.6
764.6
899.7
986.8
802.0
951.6
1095.9
1302.6
1435.5
1247.3
1447.6
1735.8
1921.2
2279.7
2503.0
2790.5
3345.1
3820.0
4628.9
5214.7

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

kN
183.3
206.2
228.9
273.6
318.2
187.8
212.2
236.9
285.7
333.7
406.7
457.0
213.3
238.0
286.8
334.8
407.8
458.5
247.4
301.9
355.7
435.3
489.1
306.6
363.6
447.3
503.0
618.9
476.1
538.1
662.8
566.5
701.8
804.7

kNm
10.62
11.75
12.83
14.88
16.78
13.44
14.98
16.49
19.38
22.08
25.87
28.29
17.79
19.62
23.13
26.46
31.18
34.20
23.77
28.46
32.94
39.27
43.31
32.96
38.47
46.31
51.31
60.91
57.80
64.57
77.52
77.92
94.67
106.72

kNm
3.80
4.05
4.29
4.78
5.24
4.44
4.74
5.03
5.60
6.16
6.96
7.47
4.74
5.03
5.60
6.16
6.96
7.47
6.26
6.98
7.68
8.70
9.35
7.61
8.38
9.50
10.22
11.60
11.97
12.90
14.68
15.61
17.81
19.40

kNm
3.80
4.05
4.29
4.78
5.24
4.44
4.74
5.03
5.60
6.16
6.96
7.47
4.74
5.03
5.60
6.16
6.96
7.47
6.26
6.98
7.68
8.70
9.35
7.61
8.38
9.50
10.22
11.60
11.97
12.90
14.68
15.61
17.81
19.40

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES


METSEC PLAIN SECTION
Design Yield Strength = 280 N/mm2

SINGLE SECTION
D

52
63
75
74
80

mm
x
x
x
x
x

B
50
25
38
44
48

100

50

152

50

Area

Weight

Ix x

Iy y

rx x

ry y

Zx x

Zy y

Cw

es

mm
1.2
1.5
1.5
2.4
1.6
2.4
3.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
3.0

cm2
1.71
1.56
2.11
3.59
2.64
3.92
4.84
2.83
3.76
5.55
7.09

kg/m
1.34
1.22
1.66
2.82
2.07
3.08
3.80
2.22
2.95
4.36
5.57

cm4
8.5
9.1
18.9
31.5
28.1
40.6
49.1
45.3
59.4
85.4
230.1

cm4
4.6
0.9
3.1
7.1
6.4
9.3
11.3
7.2
9.5
13.8
15.7

cm
2.23
2.41
2.99
2.96
3.26
3.22
3.19
4.00
3.98
3.92
5.70

cm
1.65
0.77
1.21
1.41
1.55
1.54
1.53
1.59
1.59
1.57
1.49

cm3
3.26
2.88
5.03
8.52
7.02
10.14
12.28
9.07
11.89
17.09
30.29

cm3
1.41
0.49
1.12
2.31
1.87
2.77
3.41
1.96
2.60
3.83
4.05

cm4

cm6
21
6
28
59
66
92
107
119
152
210
589

mm
-20.9
-8.1
-13.7
-16.1
-18.1
-17.7
-17.4
-18.1
-17.9
-17.4
-15.1

0.0076
0.0111
0.0150
0.0666
0.0214
0.0728
0.1414
0.0201
0.0481
0.1621
0.2071

B
t

DOUBLE SECTION
D

Area

Weight

Ix x

Iy y

rx x

mm
cm2
kg/m
cm4
cm4
cm
52
50
1.2
3.41
2.68
16.9
19.3
2.23
63
25
1.5
3.12
2.45
18.1
3.0
2.41
75
38
1.5
4.23
3.32
37.7
10.7
2.99
74
44
2.4
7.18
5.63
63.0
26.8
2.96
80
48
1.6
5.28
4.15
56.1
23.0
3.26
2.4
7.84
6.15
81.1
34.8
3.22
3.0
9.68
7.60
98.2
43.7
3.19
100
x
50
1.5
5.66
4.44
90.7
24.3
4.00
2.0
7.51
5.90 118.8 32.7
3.98
3.0 11.10 8.72 170.8 49.5
3.92
152
x
50
3.0 14.18 11.13 460.2 49.5
5.70
Note: This table lists only a selection of the plain sections available.
mm
x
x
x
x
x

A - 16

ry y

Zx x

Zy y

Cw

es

cm
2.38
0.99
1.59
1.93
2.09
2.11
2.13
2.07
2.09
2.11
1.87

cm3
6.52
5.76
10.07
17.03
14.03
20.29
24.57
18.15
23.78
34.18
60.57

cm3
3.86
1.22
2.81
6.10
4.79
7.26
9.11
4.87
6.54
9.89
9.91

cm4

cm6
115
23
126
282
316
438
512
535
686
936
2234

mm
-

0.0153
0.0222
0.0300
0.1332
0.0429
0.1455
0.2828
0.0402
0.0962
0.3243
0.4142

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES


METSEC PLAIN SECTION
Design Yield Strength = 280 N/mm2

SINGLE SECTION
D

52
63
75
74
80

mm
x
x
x
x
x

50
25
38
44
48

100

50

152

50

t
mm
1.2
1.5
1.5
2.4
1.6
2.4
3.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
3.0

po / py

Zxr
3

0.69
0.96
0.82
0.98
0.78
0.97
1.00
0.64
0.83
0.99
0.89

0.68
1.00
0.90
0.99
0.83
0.98
1.00
0.79
0.91
1.00
0.99

cm
2.22
2.87
4.54
8.44
5.84
9.93
12.26
7.20
10.82
17.03
30.13

Zy1r

Zy2r

cm
2.26
0.85
1.95
3.97
3.22
4.76
5.80
3.29
4.53
6.64
6.96

cm
1.41
0.49
1.12
2.31
1.87
2.77
3.41
1.96
2.60
3.83
4.05

Ixr
4

cm
6.7
9.0
17.7
31.3
25.0
40.0
49.1
39.2
56.0
85.2
229.4

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

kN
33.0
41.8
48.8
98.9
57.6
106.2
135.1
50.7
87.5
153.9
177.1

kNm
0.62
0.80
1.27
2.36
1.63
2.78
3.43
2.02
3.03
4.77
8.44

kNm
0.63
0.24
0.54
1.11
0.90
1.33
1.62
0.92
1.27
1.86
1.95

kNm
0.39
0.14
0.31
0.65
0.52
0.77
0.96
0.55
0.73
1.07
1.14

B
t

DOUBLE SECTION
D

po / py

Zxr

Zy1r

Zy2r

mm
cm3
cm3
cm3
52
50
1.2
0.69
0.68
4.45
3.86
3.86
63
25
1.5
0.96
1.00
5.73
1.22
1.22
75
38
1.5
0.82
0.90
9.09
2.81
2.81
74
44
2.4
0.98
0.99 16.87 6.10
6.10
80
48
1.6
0.78
0.83 11.67 4.79
4.79
2.4
0.97
0.98 19.86 7.26
7.26
3.0
1.00
1.00 24.53 9.11
9.11
100
x
50
1.5
0.64
0.79 14.40 4.87
4.87
2.0
0.83
0.91 21.63 6.54
6.54
3.0
0.99
1.00 34.05 9.89
9.89
152
x
50
3.0
0.89
0.99 60.26 9.91
9.91
Note: This table lists only a selection of the plain sections available.
mm
x
x
x
x
x

A - 17

Ixr
cm4
13.4
18.1
35.4
62.6
50.1
80.1
98.1
78.3
112.1
170.4
458.7

Pc

Mcx

kN
kNm
66.0
1.25
83.7
1.61
97.6
2.54
197.8 4.72
115.3 3.27
212.5 5.56
270.1 6.87
101.4 4.03
175.0 6.06
307.7 9.54
354.1 16.87

Mcy1

Mcy2x

kNm
1.08
0.34
0.79
1.71
1.34
2.03
2.55
1.36
1.83
2.77
2.77

kNm
1.08
0.34
0.79
1.71
1.34
2.03
2.55
1.36
1.83
2.77
2.77

B
t

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES


ALBION C SECTION
2
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm

SINGLE SECTION
D

127
127
145

mm
x
x
x

B
50
62.5
50

165

62.5

203

62.5

230

70

276

62.5

300

70

Area

Weight

Ix x

Iy y

rx x

ry y

Zx x

Zy y

mm
1.6
1.6
1.6
2.0
1.6
2.0
1.6
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
2.0
2.5
3.0
2.0
2.5
3.0

cm2
3.80
4.19
4.08
5.06
4.79
5.95
5.53
6.89
8.54
7.71
9.58
11.40
8.32
10.34
12.32
9.08
11.30
13.47

kg/m
2.98
3.29
3.21
3.98
3.76
4.67
4.34
5.41
6.71
6.05
7.52
8.95
6.53
8.12
9.67
7.13
8.87
10.58

cm4
94.5
109.8
128.9
158.1
201.0
247.5
337.8
416.9
511.4
599.5
737.2
868.9
870.5
1071.4
1263.8
1131.5
1395.0
1648.4

cm4
12.8
22.0
13.4
16.1
24.0
29.1
28.7
34.9
42.1
47.7
57.8
66.9
38.1
45.9
53.0
51.3
62.1
72.0

cm
4.99
5.12
5.62
5.59
6.48
6.45
7.81
7.78
7.74
8.82
8.77
8.73
10.23
10.18
10.13
11.16
11.11
11.06

cm
1.84
2.29
1.81
1.78
2.24
2.21
2.28
2.25
2.22
2.49
2.46
2.42
2.14
2.11
2.07
2.38
2.34
2.31

cm3
14.89
17.30
17.79
21.82
24.37
30.00
33.29
41.08
50.39
52.14
64.12
75.57
63.09
77.65
91.59
75.44
93.01
109.91

cm3
3.70
5.22
3.76
4.52
5.38
6.52
6.35
7.72
9.30
9.29
11.23
12.99
7.92
9.55
11.02
9.50
11.49
13.30

Cw

es

cm4
cm6
0.0308 423
0.0340 719
0.0331 561
0.0649 669
0.0388 1263
0.0762 1517
0.0449 2380
0.0882 2875
0.1723 3431
0.0987 4931
0.1932 5911
0.3329 6783
0.1065 5657
0.2086 6772
0.3597 7758
0.1163 8909
0.2279 10707
0.3934 12320

mm
-22.0
-28.2
-21.1
-20.6
-26.1
-25.6
-26.4
-25.9
-25.2
-28.2
-27.6
-26.9
-23.0
-22.3
-21.7
-25.5
-24.9
-24.2

B
t

DOUBLE SECTION
D

127
127
145

mm
x
x
x

50
62.5
50

165

62.5

203

62.5

230

70

276

62.5

300

70

Area

Weight

Ix x

Iy y

rx x

ry y

Zx x

Zy y

Cw

es

mm
1.6
1.6
1.6
2.0
1.6
2.0
1.6
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
2.0
2.5
3.0
2.0
2.5
3.0

cm2
7.60
8.38
8.17
10.13
9.57
11.89
11.07
13.78
17.09
15.42
19.15
22.80
16.64
20.68
24.63
18.17
22.60
26.94

kg/m
5.97
6.58
6.41
7.95
7.51
9.34
8.69
10.81
13.41
12.11
15.03
17.90
13.06
16.23
19.34
14.26
17.74
21.15

cm4
189.0
219.6
257.9
316.2
402.1
494.9
675.6
833.7
1022.8
1198.9
1474.4
1737.8
1741.1
2142.9
2527.6
2263.0
2790.1
3296.8

cm4
43.6
78.4
43.6
53.0
78.4
95.8
90.3
110.6
134.5
148.6
181.1
211.5
110.7
134.6
156.8
148.6
181.2
211.6

cm
4.99
5.12
5.62
5.59
6.48
6.45
7.81
7.78
7.74
8.82
8.77
8.73
10.23
10.18
10.13
11.16
11.11
11.06

cm
2.39
3.06
2.31
2.29
2.86
2.84
2.86
2.83
2.81
3.10
3.08
3.05
2.58
2.55
2.52
2.86
2.83
2.80

cm3
29.77
34.60
35.58
43.63
48.75
60.01
66.57
82.16
100.79
104.27
128.23
151.14
126.18
155.30
183.19
150.89
186.03
219.82

cm3
8.71
12.55
8.71
10.59
12.55
15.33
14.45
17.70
21.52
21.23
25.87
30.21
17.71
21.53
25.09
21.24
25.88
30.23

cm4
0.0617
0.0680
0.0662
0.1297
0.0776
0.1523
0.0898
0.1764
0.3447
0.1975
0.3863
0.6659
0.2130
0.4171
0.7195
0.2326
0.4558
0.7869

cm6
1763
3180
2272
2679
5275
6284
9458
11329
13370
19416
23044
26175
20511
24250
27434
32543
38678
44001

mm
-

A - 18

B
t

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES


ALBION C SECTION
2
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm

SINGLE SECTION
D

127
127
145

mm
x
x
x

B
50
62.5
50

165

62.5

203

62.5

230

70

276

62.5

300

70

t
mm
1.6
1.6
1.6
2.0
1.6
2.0
1.6
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
2.0
2.5
3.0
2.0
2.5
3.0

Q
0.79
0.79
0.74
0.81
0.69
0.77
0.63
0.70
0.77
0.66
0.72
0.78
0.58
0.64
0.69
0.56
0.62
0.67

po / py

Zxr

Zy1r

0.96
0.94
0.93
0.97
0.89
0.95
0.84
0.91
0.95
0.88
0.93
0.96
0.83
0.89
0.93
0.80
0.87
0.91

cm3
14.22
16.23
16.56
21.22
21.69
28.49
28.07
37.34
48.11
45.72
59.70
72.92
52.39
69.24
85.36
60.57
81.00
100.53

cm3
4.75
6.53
4.76
6.25
6.55
8.76
7.13
9.57
12.56
11.26
14.91
18.32
9.66
12.61
15.28
11.37
14.98
18.35

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

cm3
cm4
kN
3.70
90.3
105.2
5.22
103.8 115.5
3.76
120.1 105.4
4.52
153.8 144.0
5.38
180.1 116.1
6.52
235.1 160.5
6.35
286.1 122.3
7.72
379.0 168.0
9.30
488.2 228.9
9.29
526.5 177.3
11.23 686.5 241.7
12.99 838.4 312.3
7.92
723.0 169.6
9.55
955.4 230.3
11.02 1177.8 298.3
9.50
909.2 179.0
11.49 1214.9 243.4
13.30 1507.8 313.8

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

kNm
4.98
5.68
5.80
7.43
7.59
9.97
9.82
13.07
16.84
16.00
20.90
25.52
18.34
24.23
29.88
21.20
28.35
35.19

kNm
1.66
2.28
1.67
2.19
2.29
3.07
2.49
3.35
4.40
3.94
5.22
6.41
3.38
4.41
5.35
3.98
5.24
6.42

kNm
1.30
1.83
1.31
1.58
1.88
2.28
2.22
2.70
3.25
3.25
3.93
4.55
2.77
3.34
3.86
3.32
4.02
4.66

B
t

DOUBLE SECTION
D

127
127
145

mm
x
x
x

50
62.5
50

165

62.5

203

62.5

230

70

276

62.5

300

70

t
mm
1.6
1.6
1.6
2.0
1.6
2.0
1.6
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
2.0
2.5
3.0
2.0
2.5
3.0

Q
0.79
0.79
0.74
0.81
0.69
0.77
0.63
0.70
0.77
0.66
0.72
0.78
0.58
0.64
0.69
0.56
0.62
0.67

po / py

Zxr

Zy1r

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

0.96
0.94
0.93
0.97
0.89
0.95
0.84
0.91
0.95
0.88
0.93
0.96
0.83
0.89
0.93
0.80
0.87
0.91

cm3
28.44
32.46
33.13
42.45
43.39
56.97
56.14
74.67
96.22
91.43
119.41
145.84
104.78
138.48
170.72
121.14
162.00
201.07

cm3
8.71
12.55
8.71
10.59
12.55
15.33
14.45
17.70
21.52
21.23
25.87
30.21
17.71
21.53
25.09
21.24
25.88
30.23

cm3
8.71
12.55
8.71
10.59
12.55
15.33
14.45
17.70
21.52
21.23
25.87
30.21
17.71
21.53
25.09
21.24
25.88
30.23

cm4
180.7
207.7
240.3
307.6
360.2
470.2
572.3
758.1
976.5
1053.0
1373.1
1676.9
1446.0
1910.7
2355.5
1818.5
2429.8
3015.6

kN
210.4
231.0
210.8
288.0
232.3
320.9
244.6
335.9
457.8
354.7
483.4
624.7
339.1
460.7
596.7
358.0
486.7
627.6

kNm
9.95
11.36
11.59
14.86
15.19
19.94
19.65
26.13
33.68
32.00
41.79
51.04
36.67
48.47
59.75
42.40
56.70
70.37

kNm
3.05
4.39
3.05
3.71
4.39
5.37
5.06
6.20
7.53
7.43
9.06
10.57
6.20
7.54
8.78
7.43
9.06
10.58

kNm
3.05
4.39
3.05
3.71
4.39
5.37
5.06
6.20
7.53
7.43
9.06
10.57
6.20
7.54
8.78
7.43
9.06
10.58

A - 19

B
t

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES


METSEC FRAMING SFS SECTION
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm2

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm
70
x
100 x

35
54

150

54

200

54

250

54

300

54

Area

Weight

Ix x

Iy y

rx x

ry y

Zx x

Zy y

Cw

es

mm
1.5
1.2
1.5
2.0
1.2
1.5
2.0
1.2
1.5
2.0
1.5
2.0
2.0

cm2
2.24
2.60
3.23
4.26
3.18
4.26
5.63
3.76
4.99
6.61
5.42
7.20
8.18

kg/m
1.76
2.04
2.54
3.35
2.50
3.34
4.42
2.95
3.91
5.19
4.26
5.65
6.42

cm4
17.1
43.1
53.2
68.9
109.7
151.9
198.5
216.1
296.6
389.0
458.7
602.0
943.4

cm4
3.9
10.4
12.7
16.2
11.9
22.1
28.4
12.9
24.2
31.0
16.7
21.4
22.3

cm
2.76
4.07
4.05
4.02
5.88
5.97
5.94
7.58
7.71
7.67
9.20
9.14
10.74

cm
1.32
2.00
1.98
1.95
1.94
2.28
2.25
1.86
2.20
2.17
1.76
1.72
1.65

cm3
4.90
8.63
10.64
13.79
14.63
20.25
26.47
21.61
29.67
38.91
36.70
48.17
62.90

cm3
1.76
2.92
3.56
4.53
3.06
4.89
6.27
3.15
5.04
6.47
3.91
4.99
5.05

cm4
0.0159
0.0117
0.0230
0.0546
0.0143
0.0302
0.0721
0.0169
0.0354
0.0847
0.0385
0.0922
0.1048

cm6
46
218
263
328
518
946
1197
984
1801
2289
1985
2514
3818

mm
-17.1
-25.2
-24.8
-24.1
-22.5
-26.9
-26.2
-20.4
-24.6
-23.9
-18.2
-17.6
-16.2

B
t

DOUBLE SECTION
D

70
100

mm
x
x

35
54

150

54

200

54

250

54

300

54

t
mm
1.5
1.2
1.5
2.0
1.2
1.5
2.0
1.2
1.5
2.0
1.5
2.0
2.0

Area
2

cm
4.48
5.20
6.47
8.52
6.36
8.51
11.27
7.52
9.97
13.23
10.85
14.40
16.36

Weight

Ix x
4

kg/m
cm
3.52
34.3
4.08
86.3
5.08 106.4
6.69 137.9
4.99 219.5
6.68 303.7
8.84 396.9
5.90 432.1
7.83 593.3
10.38 778.0
8.52 917.4
11.31 1203.9
12.84 1886.7

Iy y
4

cm
15.1
38.2
46.9
60.5
38.2
74.0
95.9
38.2
74.0
95.9
47.0
60.6
60.6

rx x
cm
2.76
4.07
4.05
4.02
5.88
5.97
5.94
7.58
7.71
7.67
9.20
9.14
10.74

A - 20

ry y
cm
1.83
2.71
2.69
2.66
2.45
2.95
2.92
2.25
2.72
2.69
2.08
2.05
1.92

Zx x

Zy y

cm
9.79
17.26
21.28
27.58
29.27
40.50
52.94
43.22
59.34
77.82
73.40
96.33
125.80

cm
4.31
7.07
8.69
11.20
7.08
11.57
14.98
7.08
11.57
14.98
8.70
11.21
11.22

Cw
4

cm
0.0319
0.0233
0.0460
0.1091
0.0285
0.0605
0.1443
0.0337
0.0709
0.1694
0.0771
0.1844
0.2095

cm
193
983
1179
1458
2146
4087
5124
3761
7184
9028
7025
8761
12564

es
mm
-

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES

METSEC FRAMING SFS SECTION


2
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm
70
x
100 x

35
54

150
150

x
x

54
64

200
200

x
x

54
64

250

54

300

54

t
mm
1.5
1.2
1.5
2.0
1.2
1.5
2.0
1.2
1.5
2.0
1.5
2.0
2.0

Q
0.97
0.75
0.85
0.95
0.62
0.69
0.81
0.53
0.60
0.69
0.52
0.59
0.52

po / py

Zxr

Zy1r

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

1.00
0.90
0.97
1.00
0.82
0.88
0.96
0.74
0.82
0.91
0.76
0.86
0.80

cm3
4.90
7.73
10.37
13.79
12.00
17.81
25.54
16.07
24.26
35.47
28.04
41.37
50.62

cm3
2.41
3.44
4.67
6.58
3.47
5.99
8.73
3.52
6.04
8.76
4.78
6.77
6.80

cm3
1.76
2.92
3.56
4.53
3.06
4.89
6.27
3.15
5.04
6.47
3.91
4.99
5.05

cm4
17.1
39.5
52.0
68.9
91.4
135.4
191.7
162.2
244.9
354.9
350.8
517.1
759.3

kN
76.1
67.8
96.7
142.3
68.6
103.2
159.3
69.3
104.1
160.2
99.3
148.4
149.5

kNm
1.71
2.71
3.63
4.83
4.20
6.23
8.94
5.62
8.49
12.41
9.81
14.48
17.72

kNm
0.84
1.20
1.63
2.30
1.22
2.10
3.05
1.23
2.12
3.06
1.67
2.37
2.38

kNm
0.62
1.02
1.25
1.59
1.07
1.71
2.19
1.10
1.77
2.26
1.37
1.75
1.77

B
t

DOUBLE SECTION
D

mm
70
x
100 x

35
54

150
150

x
x

54
64

200
200

x
x

54
64

250

54

300

54

t
mm
1.5
1.2
1.5
2.0
1.2
1.5
2.0
1.2
1.5
2.0
1.5
2.0
2.0

Q
0.97
0.75
0.85
0.95
0.62
0.69
0.81
0.53
0.60
0.69
0.52
0.59
0.52

po / py

Zxr

Zy1r

1.00
0.90
0.97
1.00
0.82
0.88
0.96
0.74
0.82
0.91
0.76
0.86
0.80

cm3
9.79
15.46
20.74
27.58
24.00
35.61
51.08
32.13
48.53
70.94
56.08
82.75
101.25

cm3
4.31
7.07
8.69
11.20
7.08
11.57
14.98
7.08
11.57
14.98
8.70
11.21
11.22

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

cm3
cm4
kN
4.31
34.3 152.3
7.07
79.0 135.6
8.69 104.1 193.4
11.20 137.8 284.6
7.08 182.8 137.1
11.57 270.8 206.5
14.98 383.4 318.6
7.08 324.4 138.6
11.57 489.8 208.3
14.98 709.7 320.3
8.70 701.6 198.6
11.21 1034.2 296.7
11.22 1518.5 299.0

A - 21

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

kNm
3.43
5.41
7.26
9.65
8.40
12.46
17.88
11.25
16.98
24.83
19.63
28.96
35.44

kNm
1.51
2.48
3.04
3.92
2.48
4.05
5.24
2.48
4.05
5.24
3.04
3.93
3.93

kNm
1.51
2.48
3.04
3.92
2.48
4.05
5.24
2.48
4.05
5.24
3.04
3.93
3.93

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES

STRUCTURAL SECTIONS ULTRABEAM


Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm2

SINGLE SECTION
D

145

mm
x

B
50

170

50

200

63

225

63

255

75

285

75

Area

mm
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.6
2.0
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.5
1.6
1.8
2.5
1.8
2.0
2.5

cm
3.16
3.43
3.69
4.21
5.23
3.45
3.74
4.03
4.60
5.16
5.72
4.17
4.52
4.87
5.57
6.26
6.94
5.25
6.00
6.74
7.48
9.30
6.93
7.80
10.78
8.33
9.24
11.52

Weight

Ix x

kg/m
2.48
2.69
2.90
3.30
4.11
2.71
2.94
3.16
3.61
4.05
4.49
3.27
3.55
3.82
4.37
4.91
5.45
4.12
4.71
5.29
5.87
7.30
5.44
6.12
8.46
6.54
7.26
9.04

cm
99.9
108.1
116.2
132.1
163.2
145.6
157.6
169.4
192.8
215.7
238.3
248.0
268.5
288.9
329.3
369.2
408.5
382.8
436.4
489.4
541.6
669.4
661.2
742.0
1017.9
967.2
1071.7
1327.9

Iy y

rx x

ry y

Zx x

cm4
9.4
10.1
10.8
12.3
15.0
9.9
10.6
11.4
12.9
14.3
15.7
18.8
20.3
21.8
24.7
27.5
30.3
22.8
25.9
28.9
31.8
38.8
44.6
49.9
67.4
51.5
56.8
69.6

cm
5.62
5.62
5.61
5.60
5.59
6.49
6.49
6.48
6.47
6.46
6.45
7.71
7.71
7.70
7.69
7.68
7.67
8.54
8.53
8.52
8.51
8.48
9.77
9.75
9.72
10.78
10.77
10.74

cm
1.72
1.72
1.71
1.71
1.69
1.69
1.69
1.68
1.67
1.67
1.66
2.12
2.12
2.11
2.11
2.10
2.09
2.09
2.08
2.07
2.06
2.04
2.54
2.53
2.50
2.49
2.48
2.46

cm
13.79
14.91
16.03
18.23
22.52
17.14
18.54
19.93
22.68
25.39
28.04
24.80
26.86
28.90
32.94
36.92
40.86
34.03
38.80
43.51
48.15
59.51
51.87
58.21
79.84
67.89
75.21
93.20

A - 22

Zy y

Cw

es

cm3
2.61
2.81
3.01
3.41
4.16
2.66
2.86
3.07
3.47
3.86
4.24
4.08
4.41
4.73
5.37
5.99
6.59
4.83
5.47
6.11
6.73
8.21
7.97
8.91
12.05
9.01
9.94
12.19

cm4
0.0142
0.0181
0.0227
0.0341
0.0670
0.0155
0.0198
0.0248
0.0373
0.0533
0.0733
0.0187
0.0239
0.0300
0.0452
0.0646
0.0889
0.0324
0.0487
0.0696
0.0958
0.1876
0.0562
0.0805
0.2174
0.0860
0.1184
0.2323

cm6
377
405
434
488
592
533
574
614
692
768
840
1393
1502
1611
1822
2027
2227
2137
2418
2692
2957
3585
5399
6023
8084
7719
8500
10374

mm
-18.1
-18.1
-18.0
-17.8
-17.5
-17.5
-17.4
-17.4
-17.2
-17.0
-16.9
-21.3
-21.3
-21.2
-21.0
-20.9
-20.7
-21.0
-20.8
-20.6
-20.5
-20.1
-26.5
-26.3
-25.7
-25.5
-25.4
-24.9

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES

STRUCTURAL SECTIONS ULTRABEAM


Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm2

DOUBLE SECTION
D

145

mm
x

50

170

50

200

63

225

63

255

75

285

75

Area

mm
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.6
2.0
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.5
1.6
1.8
2.5
1.8
2.0
2.5

cm
6.33
6.85
7.38
8.42
10.46
6.91
7.48
8.06
9.20
10.33
11.44
8.34
9.04
9.74
11.13
12.51
13.88
10.50
12.00
13.48
14.96
18.60
13.87
15.60
21.55
16.65
18.49
23.03

Weight

Ix x

kg/m
4.97
5.38
5.79
6.61
8.21
5.42
5.87
6.33
7.22
8.11
8.98
6.55
7.10
7.65
8.74
9.82
10.90
8.24
9.42
10.58
11.74
14.60
10.89
12.24
16.92
13.07
14.51
18.08

cm
199.9
216.2
232.4
264.3
326.4
291.3
315.1
338.8
385.5
431.5
476.7
496.0
537.0
577.8
658.6
738.3
817.0
765.6
872.8
978.7
1083.3
1338.8
1322.4
1484.1
2035.7
1934.5
2143.3
2655.7

Iy y

rx x

ry y

Zx x

cm4
31.1
33.6
36.1
40.9
50.4
31.1
33.6
36.1
41.0
45.7
50.4
61.5
66.6
71.5
81.4
91.0
100.5
71.5
81.3
90.9
100.4
123.4
139.2
155.9
212.6
155.9
172.4
212.6

cm
5.62
5.62
5.61
5.60
5.59
6.49
6.49
6.48
6.47
6.46
6.45
7.71
7.71
7.70
7.69
7.68
7.67
8.54
8.53
8.52
8.51
8.48
9.77
9.75
9.72
10.78
10.77
10.74

cm
2.22
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.19
2.12
2.12
2.12
2.11
2.10
2.10
2.72
2.71
2.71
2.70
2.70
2.69
2.61
2.60
2.60
2.59
2.58
3.17
3.16
3.14
3.06
3.05
3.04

cm
27.58
29.83
32.06
36.46
45.04
34.28
37.09
39.87
45.37
50.77
56.09
49.61
53.72
57.80
65.88
73.85
81.72
68.06
77.60
87.01
96.31
119.03
103.74
116.41
159.69
135.77
150.43
186.39

A - 23

Zy y

Cw

es

cm3
6.22
6.72
7.21
8.19
10.07
6.22
6.72
7.22
8.19
9.14
10.08
9.77
10.57
11.36
12.92
14.45
15.95
11.34
12.90
14.43
15.94
19.58
18.56
20.79
28.35
20.79
22.99
28.35

cm4
0.0284
0.0363
0.0455
0.0683
0.1340
0.0310
0.0396
0.0497
0.0746
0.1066
0.1466
0.0374
0.0479
0.0601
0.0903
0.1292
0.1778
0.0647
0.0973
0.1392
0.1916
0.3753
0.1125
0.1610
0.4348
0.1719
0.2367
0.4646

cm6
1411
1516
1619
1817
2186
1960
2107
2250
2525
2788
3037
5044
5434
5817
6563
7281
7974
7636
8612
9552
10456
12566
20084
22335
29667
28065
30804
37274

mm
-

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES

t
x

STRUCTURAL SECTIONS ULTRABEAM


Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm2

SINGLE SECTION
D

145

mm
x

B
50

170

50

200

63

225

63

255

75

285

75

t
mm
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.6
2.0
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.5
1.6
1.8
2.5
1.8
2.0
2.5

po / py

Zxr

0.87
0.90
0.93
0.96
1.00
0.83
0.87
0.89
0.93
0.95
0.97
0.76
0.79
0.83
0.88
0.92
0.95
0.80
0.86
0.90
0.92
0.97
0.79
0.84
0.94
0.81
0.85
0.92

cm
12.02
13.46
14.86
17.52
22.51
14.31
16.06
17.77
21.06
24.21
27.27
18.74
21.35
23.97
29.15
34.11
38.85
27.22
33.21
38.99
44.54
57.72
40.78
48.83
75.15
54.90
63.94
85.35

0.86
0.88
0.90
0.93
0.97
0.79
0.81
0.82
0.85
0.88
0.90
0.79
0.81
0.83
0.87
0.89
0.92
0.78
0.81
0.84
0.86
0.90
0.75
0.78
0.85
0.73
0.75
0.79

Zy1r
3

cm
3.54
3.85
4.16
4.78
6.00
3.59
3.90
4.21
4.84
5.46
6.07
5.45
5.93
6.40
7.35
8.30
9.25
6.58
7.55
8.52
9.48
11.85
10.71
12.11
16.98
12.20
13.60
17.08

Zy2r
3

cm
2.61
2.81
3.01
3.41
4.16
2.66
2.86
3.07
3.47
3.86
4.24
4.08
4.41
4.73
5.37
5.99
6.59
4.83
5.47
6.11
6.73
8.21
7.97
8.91
12.05
9.01
9.94
12.19

A - 24

Ixr
4

cm
88.5
98.6
108.4
127.3
163.2
123.2
137.6
151.8
179.3
205.9
231.8
194.5
219.7
244.9
294.7
342.9
389.3
311.8
377.0
440.4
501.9
649.3
531.9
631.0
959.2
791.1
916.5
1217.4

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

kN
95.7
106.0
116.3
136.9
177.7
95.8
106.1
116.3
137.0
158.3
180.2
114.7
128.5
142.2
169.3
195.9
222.7
143.7
170.8
197.5
224.4
294.4
182.0
213.1
320.1
213.5
243.9
320.1

kNm
4.21
4.71
5.20
6.13
7.88
5.01
5.62
6.22
7.37
8.47
9.55
6.56
7.47
8.39
10.20
11.94
13.60
9.53
11.62
13.65
15.59
20.20
14.27
17.09
26.30
19.22
22.38
29.87

kNm
1.24
1.35
1.46
1.67
2.10
1.26
1.37
1.48
1.69
1.91
2.12
1.91
2.07
2.24
2.57
2.91
3.24
2.30
2.64
2.98
3.32
4.15
3.75
4.24
5.94
4.27
4.76
5.98

kNm
0.91
0.98
1.05
1.19
1.46
0.93
1.00
1.07
1.22
1.35
1.48
1.43
1.54
1.66
1.88
2.10
2.31
1.69
1.92
2.14
2.35
2.87
2.79
3.12
4.22
3.15
3.48
4.27

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES

STRUCTURAL SECTIONS ULTRABEAM


Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm2

DOUBLE SECTION
D

145

mm
x

50

170

50

200

63

225

63

255

75

285

75

t
mm
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.6
2.0
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.5
1.6
1.8
2.5
1.8
2.0
2.5

po / py

Zxr

0.87
0.90
0.93
0.96
1.00
0.83
0.87
0.89
0.93
0.95
0.97
0.76
0.79
0.83
0.88
0.92
0.95
0.80
0.86
0.90
0.92
0.97
0.79
0.84
0.94
0.81
0.85
0.92

cm
24.04
26.92
29.72
35.04
45.01
28.62
32.13
35.54
42.12
48.42
54.55
37.49
42.70
47.94
58.30
68.23
77.71
54.44
66.42
77.98
89.07
115.44
81.56
97.66
150.29
109.80
127.87
170.71

0.86
0.88
0.90
0.93
0.97
0.79
0.81
0.82
0.85
0.88
0.90
0.79
0.81
0.83
0.87
0.89
0.92
0.78
0.81
0.84
0.86
0.90
0.75
0.78
0.85
0.73
0.75
0.79

Zy1r
3

cm
6.22
6.72
7.21
8.19
10.07
6.22
6.72
7.22
8.19
9.14
10.08
9.77
10.57
11.36
12.92
14.45
15.95
11.34
12.90
14.43
15.94
19.58
18.56
20.79
28.35
20.79
22.99
28.35

Zy2r
3

cm
6.22
6.72
7.21
8.19
10.07
6.22
6.72
7.22
8.19
9.14
10.08
9.77
10.57
11.36
12.92
14.45
15.95
11.34
12.90
14.43
15.94
19.58
18.56
20.79
28.35
20.79
22.99
28.35

A - 25

Ixr
4

cm
177.1
197.2
216.7
254.5
326.3
246.3
275.2
303.5
358.5
411.7
463.6
388.9
439.4
489.9
589.4
685.7
778.6
623.5
754.1
880.9
1003.7
1298.6
1063.8
1262.0
1918.3
1582.2
1833.1
2434.8

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

kN
191.3
212.1
232.7
273.8
355.3
191.6
212.2
232.7
274.1
316.6
360.4
229.3
256.9
284.5
338.5
391.9
445.4
287.5
341.6
395.0
448.9
588.7
364.1
426.2
640.3
427.1
487.7
640.2

kNm
8.42
9.42
10.40
12.27
15.75
10.02
11.24
12.44
14.74
16.95
19.09
13.12
14.94
16.78
20.40
23.88
27.20
19.05
23.25
27.29
31.18
40.40
28.55
34.18
52.60
38.43
44.76
59.75

kNm
2.18
2.35
2.53
2.87
3.53
2.18
2.35
2.53
2.87
3.20
3.53
3.42
3.70
3.97
4.52
5.06
5.58
3.97
4.52
5.05
5.58
6.85
6.49
7.28
9.92
7.28
8.05
9.92

kNm
2.18
2.35
2.53
2.87
3.53
2.18
2.35
2.53
2.87
3.20
3.53
3.42
3.70
3.97
4.52
5.06
5.58
3.97
4.52
5.05
5.58
6.85
6.49
7.28
9.92
7.28
8.05
9.92

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES


WARD MULTIBEAM
Design Yield Strength = 390 N/mm2

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm
145
x

60

175

60

205

60

235

60

265

60

300

60

350

60

Area

Weight

Ix x

Iy y

rx x

ry y

Zx x

Zy y

Cw

es

mm
1.30
1.45
1.55
1.70
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
2.00
1.45
1.55
1.65
1.80
1.90
2.00
1.70
1.90
2.00
2.30
1.80
2.00
2.25
2.55
3.00
1.80
2.00
2.25
2.55
3.00
1.80
2.00
2.25
2.55
3.00

cm2
3.89
4.33
4.62
5.06
4.59
4.92
5.24
5.56
6.50
5.18
5.53
5.88
6.40
6.75
7.09
6.55
7.31
7.68
8.79
7.46
8.27
9.27
10.45
12.20
8.08
8.95
10.04
11.33
13.23
8.95
9.93
11.15
12.59
14.71

kg/m
3.05
3.40
3.63
3.97
3.61
3.86
4.11
4.36
5.11
4.06
4.34
4.62
5.03
5.30
5.57
5.14
5.74
6.03
6.90
5.86
6.49
7.28
8.21
9.57
6.34
7.03
7.88
8.89
10.39
7.03
7.80
8.75
9.88
11.55

cm4
128.9
143.1
152.4
166.3
214.7
229.4
243.9
258.3
300.5
322.4
343.7
364.8
396.0
416.6
436.9
519.5
577.0
605.3
688.8
731.9
808.3
901.8
1011.3
1169.6
988.6
1092.3
1219.3
1368.2
1584.1
1442.1
1594.1
1780.8
1999.9
2318.4

cm4
17.87
19.69
20.88
22.60
19.54
20.76
21.96
23.12
26.45
20.54
21.77
22.97
24.71
25.84
26.93
23.92
26.23
27.34
30.50
25.42
27.70
30.37
33.34
37.31
25.75
28.05
30.75
33.75
37.75
26.14
28.47
31.20
34.23
38.27

cm
5.76
5.75
5.74
5.73
6.84
6.83
6.82
6.82
6.80
7.89
7.88
7.88
7.86
7.86
7.85
8.90
8.89
8.88
8.85
9.91
9.89
9.86
9.84
9.79
11.06
11.04
11.02
10.99
10.94
12.69
12.67
12.64
12.61
12.55

cm
2.14
2.13
2.12
2.11
2.06
2.05
2.05
2.04
2.02
1.99
1.98
1.98
1.96
1.96
1.95
1.91
1.89
1.89
1.86
1.85
1.83
1.81
1.79
1.75
1.79
1.77
1.75
1.73
1.69
1.71
1.69
1.67
1.65
1.61

cm3
17.78
19.74
21.03
22.94
24.54
26.22
27.88
29.52
34.35
31.46
33.54
35.59
38.64
40.65
42.64
44.22
49.11
51.53
58.63
55.24
61.01
68.07
76.33
88.29
65.92
72.83
81.30
91.23
105.62
82.41
91.10
101.77
114.29
132.50

cm3
4.68
5.15
5.46
5.90
4.99
5.29
5.59
5.89
6.72
5.13
5.44
5.73
6.16
6.44
6.71
5.87
6.43
6.70
7.46
6.15
6.69
7.33
8.04
8.98
6.14
6.69
7.32
8.03
8.97
6.13
6.68
7.32
8.02
8.96

cm4
0.0206
0.0287
0.0351
0.0465
0.0283
0.0349
0.0425
0.0510
0.0833
0.0343
0.0420
0.0508
0.0661
0.0778
0.0908
0.0602
0.0843
0.0983
0.1496
0.0770
0.1059
0.1509
0.2195
0.3562
0.0834
0.1147
0.1635
0.2380
0.3864
0.0925
0.1272
0.1815
0.2643
0.4296

cm6
948
1039
1098
1182
1496
1586
1673
1757
1995
2150
2274
2395
2570
2683
2791
3274
3581
3727
4141
4417
4803
5253
5749
6402
5731
6233
6821
7469
8324
7911
8608
9423
10321
11511

mm
-20.6
-20.3
-20.1
-19.8
-16.5
-16.3
-16.1
-16.0
-15.4
-13.6
-13.4
-13.2
-12.9
-12.7
-12.5
-10.9
-10.5
-10.3
-9.8
-8.9
-8.6
-8.1
-7.6
-6.8
-7.3
-6.9
-6.5
-5.9
-5.1
-5.4
-5.0
-4.6
-4.1
-3.3

A - 26

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES


WARD MULTIBEAM
Design Yield Strength = 390 N/mm2

DOUBLE SECTION
D

mm
145
x

60

175

60

205

60

235

60

265

60

300

60

350

60

Area

Weight

Ix x

Iy y

rx x

ry y

Zx x

Zy y

Cw

es

mm
1.30
1.45
1.55
1.70
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
2.00
1.45
1.55
1.65
1.80
1.90
2.00
1.70
1.90
2.00
2.30
1.80
2.00
2.25
2.55
3.00
1.80
2.00
2.25
2.55
3.00
1.80
2.00
2.25
2.55
3.00

cm2
7.78
8.66
9.25
10.12
9.19
9.83
10.48
11.12
13.01
10.36
11.06
11.76
12.81
13.50
14.18
13.11
14.61
15.36
17.58
14.92
16.54
18.54
20.90
24.39
16.15
17.91
20.08
22.66
26.46
17.91
19.87
22.29
25.17
29.42

kg/m
6.11
6.80
7.26
7.94
7.21
7.72
8.22
8.73
10.21
8.13
8.68
9.23
10.05
10.60
11.13
10.29
11.47
12.06
13.80
11.71
12.98
14.55
16.41
19.15
12.68
14.06
15.77
17.79
20.77
14.06
15.60
17.50
19.76
23.10

cm4
257.7
286.2
304.9
332.6
429.4
458.7
487.8
516.5
600.9
644.8
687.4
729.5
792.0
833.2
873.9
1038.9
1153.9
1210.7
1377.5
1463.8
1616.5
1803.6
2022.5
2339.2
1977.2
2184.5
2438.7
2736.4
3168.2
2884.1
3188.2
3561.6
3999.8
4636.8

cm4
72.7
80.3
85.3
92.6
78.7
83.8
88.9
93.8
108.0
82.3
87.4
92.5
99.9
104.8
109.5
96.2
106.1
111.0
125.0
102.5
112.4
124.4
138.0
157.2
104.0
114.1
126.4
140.4
160.0
106.1
116.6
129.2
143.7
164.1

cm
5.76
5.75
5.74
5.73
6.84
6.83
6.82
6.82
6.80
7.89
7.88
7.88
7.86
7.86
7.85
8.90
8.89
8.88
8.85
9.91
9.89
9.86
9.84
9.79
11.06
11.04
11.02
10.99
10.94
12.69
12.67
12.64
12.61
12.55

cm
3.06
3.04
3.04
3.03
2.93
2.92
2.91
2.90
2.88
2.82
2.81
2.80
2.79
2.79
2.78
2.71
2.69
2.69
2.67
2.62
2.61
2.59
2.57
2.54
2.54
2.52
2.51
2.49
2.46
2.43
2.42
2.41
2.39
2.36

cm3
35.56
39.48
42.06
45.88
49.08
52.44
55.76
59.04
68.70
62.92
67.07
71.19
77.28
81.30
85.27
88.43
98.22
103.05
117.26
110.49
122.02
136.14
152.66
176.57
131.83
145.65
162.60
182.45
211.24
164.83
182.21
203.54
228.59
264.99

cm3
12.11
13.39
14.22
15.43
13.12
13.97
14.81
15.63
18.01
13.72
14.57
15.42
16.65
17.46
18.25
16.03
17.69
18.49
20.83
17.08
18.74
20.73
23.01
26.20
17.33
19.02
21.06
23.39
26.67
17.69
19.43
21.53
23.94
27.35

cm4
0.0412
0.0574
0.0703
0.0929
0.0566
0.0699
0.0850
0.1021
0.1666
0.0686
0.0841
0.1016
0.1322
0.1556
0.1816
0.1204
0.1685
0.1967
0.2993
0.1540
0.2117
0.3018
0.4390
0.7123
0.1668
0.2293
0.3270
0.4759
0.7728
0.1849
0.2544
0.3629
0.5286
0.8593

cm6
2988
3257
3428
3670
4166
4397
4619
4831
5414
5490
5784
6065
6466
6719
6962
7786
8445
8755
9608
10009
10801
11704
12666
13879
12509
13515
14668
15907
17487
16656
18023
19602
21312
23531

mm

A - 27

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES


WARD MULTIBEAM
Design Yield Strength = 390 N/mm2

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm
145
x

60

175

60

205

60

235

60

265

60

300

60

350

60

t
mm
1.30
1.45
1.55
1.70
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
2.00
1.45
1.55
1.65
1.80
1.90
2.00
1.70
1.90
2.00
2.30
1.80
2.00
2.25
2.55
3.00
1.80
2.00
2.25
2.55
3.00
1.80
2.00
2.25
2.55
3.00

Q
0.92
0.95
0.97
0.98
0.89
0.92
0.94
0.96
0.99
0.83
0.86
0.87
0.90
0.91
0.92
0.82
0.84
0.85
0.88
0.77
0.79
0.81
0.84
0.87
0.71
0.73
0.75
0.77
0.81
0.65
0.66
0.68
0.70
0.73

po / py

Zxr

Zy1r

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

0.83
0.88
0.91
0.94
0.84
0.87
0.90
0.92
0.96
0.83
0.86
0.88
0.91
0.92
0.94
0.86
0.90
0.91
0.94
0.85
0.88
0.91
0.94
0.97
0.81
0.85
0.88
0.91
0.94
0.75
0.79
0.83
0.87
0.91

cm3
14.83
17.47
19.19
21.67
20.68
22.88
25.02
27.10
32.98
26.12
28.77
31.35
35.10
37.51
39.87
38.16
44.04
46.89
55.17
47.17
53.98
62.21
71.76
85.55
53.65
61.77
71.63
83.12
99.75
61.96
72.12
84.52
99.03
120.11

cm3
5.54
6.21
6.65
7.32
6.08
6.51
6.94
7.37
8.62
6.36
6.79
7.20
7.82
8.23
8.63
7.44
8.25
8.64
9.79
7.86
8.65
9.60
10.68
12.21
7.87
8.65
9.59
10.66
12.16
7.88
8.65
9.58
10.64
12.12

cm3
4.68
5.15
5.46
5.90
4.99
5.29
5.59
5.89
6.72
5.13
5.44
5.73
6.16
6.44
6.71
5.87
6.43
6.70
7.46
6.15
6.69
7.33
8.04
8.98
6.14
6.69
7.32
8.03
8.97
6.13
6.68
7.32
8.02
8.96

cm4
111.2
129.3
141.1
158.3
184.7
203.1
221.1
238.6
288.9
271.6
297.8
323.4
360.9
385.2
409.1
450.2
518.3
551.4
648.3
626.4
715.8
824.3
950.7
1133.4
806.0
927.0
1074.5
1246.6
1496.0
1085.4
1262.4
1479.0
1732.8
2101.7

kN
139.6
160.6
174.2
193.7
160.3
176.3
192.1
207.3
249.9
168.5
184.6
200.7
224.3
239.8
255.2
208.6
239.8
255.3
302.0
224.5
255.4
294.1
341.6
416.0
225.0
255.8
294.3
341.7
415.9
225.8
256.7
295.2
342.4
416.2

kNm
5.78
6.81
7.48
8.45
8.07
8.92
9.76
10.57
12.86
10.19
11.22
12.23
13.69
14.63
15.55
14.88
17.18
18.29
21.52
18.40
21.05
24.26
27.99
33.36
20.92
24.09
27.94
32.41
38.90
24.17
28.13
32.96
38.62
46.84

kNm
2.16
2.42
2.59
2.85
2.37
2.54
2.71
2.87
3.36
2.48
2.65
2.81
3.05
3.21
3.37
2.90
3.22
3.37
3.82
3.07
3.37
3.74
4.17
4.76
3.07
3.37
3.74
4.16
4.74
3.07
3.37
3.74
4.15
4.73

kNm
1.83
2.01
2.13
2.30
1.94
2.06
2.18
2.30
2.62
2.00
2.12
2.24
2.40
2.51
2.62
2.29
2.51
2.61
2.91
2.40
2.61
2.86
3.13
3.50
2.40
2.61
2.86
3.13
3.50
2.39
2.60
2.85
3.13
3.49

A - 28

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES


WARD MULTIBEAM
2
Design Yield Strength = 390 N/mm

DOUBLE SECTION
D

145

mm
x

60

175

60

205

60

235

60

265

60

300

60

350

60

t
mm
1.30
1.45
1.55
1.70
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
2.00
1.45
1.55
1.65
1.80
1.90
2.00
1.70
1.90
2.00
2.30
1.80
2.00
2.25
2.55
3.00
1.80
2.00
2.25
2.55
3.00
1.80
2.00
2.25
2.55
3.00

po / py

Zxr
3

0.92
0.95
0.97
0.98
0.89
0.92
0.94
0.96
0.99
0.83
0.86
0.87
0.90
0.91
0.92
0.82
0.84
0.85
0.88
0.77
0.79
0.81
0.84
0.87
0.71
0.73
0.75
0.77
0.81
0.65
0.66
0.68
0.70
0.73

0.83
0.88
0.91
0.94
0.84
0.87
0.90
0.92
0.96
0.83
0.86
0.88
0.91
0.92
0.94
0.86
0.90
0.91
0.94
0.85
0.88
0.91
0.94
0.97
0.81
0.85
0.88
0.91
0.94
0.75
0.79
0.83
0.87
0.91

cm
29.65
34.93
38.38
43.34
41.36
45.75
50.04
54.20
65.95
52.24
57.53
62.70
70.19
75.02
79.74
76.31
88.08
93.78
110.34
94.35
107.97
124.42
143.52
171.10
107.30
123.55
143.26
166.23
199.50
123.92
144.24
169.04
198.05
240.22

Zy1r

Zy2r

cm
12.11
13.39
14.22
15.43
13.12
13.97
14.81
15.63
18.01
13.72
14.57
15.42
16.65
17.46
18.25
16.03
17.69
18.49
20.83
17.08
18.74
20.73
23.01
26.20
17.33
19.02
21.06
23.39
26.67
17.69
19.43
21.53
23.94
27.35

cm
12.11
13.39
14.22
15.43
13.12
13.97
14.81
15.63
18.01
13.72
14.57
15.42
16.65
17.46
18.25
16.03
17.69
18.49
20.83
17.08
18.74
20.73
23.01
26.20
17.33
19.02
21.06
23.39
26.67
17.69
19.43
21.53
23.94
27.35

A - 29

Ixr
4

cm
222.3
258.6
282.3
316.7
369.4
406.2
442.2
477.3
577.9
543.2
595.5
646.8
721.8
770.5
818.3
900.4
1036.5
1102.9
1296.5
1252.7
1431.6
1648.6
1901.4
2266.7
1612.1
1854.1
2148.9
2493.2
2992.1
2170.7
2524.8
2958.1
3465.6
4203.4

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

kN
279.2
321.1
348.3
387.4
320.6
352.7
384.1
414.7
499.8
336.9
369.3
401.3
448.6
479.7
510.5
417.2
479.6
510.6
604.0
448.9
510.7
588.2
683.3
832.0
449.9
511.6
588.7
683.3
831.8
451.6
513.3
590.4
684.7
832.3

kNm
11.56
13.62
14.97
16.90
16.13
17.84
19.52
21.14
25.72
20.37
22.44
24.45
27.37
29.26
31.10
29.76
34.35
36.58
43.03
36.79
42.11
48.52
55.97
66.73
41.85
48.18
55.87
64.83
77.80
48.33
56.25
65.92
77.24
93.69

kNm
4.72
5.22
5.54
6.02
5.12
5.45
5.78
6.10
7.02
5.35
5.68
6.01
6.49
6.81
7.12
6.25
6.90
7.21
8.12
6.66
7.31
8.08
8.97
10.22
6.76
7.42
8.21
9.12
10.40
6.90
7.58
8.40
9.34
10.67

kNm
4.72
5.22
5.54
6.02
5.12
5.45
5.78
6.10
7.02
5.35
5.68
6.01
6.49
6.81
7.12
6.25
6.90
7.21
8.12
6.66
7.31
8.08
8.97
10.22
6.76
7.42
8.21
9.12
10.40
6.90
7.58
8.40
9.34
10.67

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES

WARD MULTICHANNEL
2
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm

SINGLE SECTION
D

70
145

mm
x
x

B
50
65

175

65

205

65

220

70

250

70

270
300
300
350

x
x
x
x

95
70
95
95

Area

Weight

mm
1.3
1.5
2.0
1.6
1.8
2.4
1.6
1.8
2.4
2.0
2.7
1.8
2.4
2.4
2.7
2.7
3.2

cm2
2.33
4.21
5.57
4.96
5.56
7.34
5.42
6.09
8.05
7.24
9.67
7.06
9.35
11.00
11.80
13.13
17.05

kg/m
1.83
3.31
4.38
3.89
4.37
5.76
4.26
4.78
6.32
5.68
7.59
5.54
7.34
8.63
9.26
10.31
13.38

Ix x

Iy y

cm4
cm4
19.5
8.2
142.0
22.8
185.5
29.2
233.1
25.6
260.4
28.4
338.8
36.0
337.6
26.8
377.4
29.7
492.2
37.8
515.7
40.0
678.7
51.2
632.2
37.8
827.3
48.2
1206.5 108.6
1431.2 55.5
1725.1 123.6
2913.4 147.8

rx x

ry y

cm
2.89
5.80
5.77
6.86
6.84
6.79
7.89
7.87
7.82
8.44
8.38
9.46
9.41
10.47
11.01
11.46
13.07

cm
1.87
2.32
2.29
2.27
2.26
2.22
2.22
2.21
2.17
2.35
2.30
2.31
2.27
3.14
2.17
3.07
2.94

Zx x

Zy y

Cw

es

cm3
cm3
cm4
cm6
5.59
2.66 0.0124
97
19.59
4.99 0.0299 912
25.59
6.40 0.0714 1154
26.65
5.40 0.0402 1463
29.77
5.98 0.0574 1614
38.73
7.59 0.1363 2020
32.95
5.49 0.0440 2091
36.83
6.08 0.0629 2309
48.03
7.72 0.1494 2897
46.89
7.57 0.0927 3548
61.71
9.67 0.2281 4473
50.59
7.00 0.0729 4356
66.20
8.92 0.1735 5500
89.38 15.14 0.2042 14139
95.43
9.95 0.2783 9170
115.02 16.90 0.3097 19861
166.50 19.69 0.5674 32471

mm
-25.0
-27.6
-27.0
-26.0
-25.7
-24.9
-24.7
-24.4
-23.6
-25.8
-24.9
-24.9
-24.1
-34.7
-22.0
-33.1
-30.6

B
t

DOUBLE SECTION
D

70
145

mm
x
x

B
50
65

175

65

205

65

220

70

250

70

270
300
300
350

x
x
x
x

95
70
95
95

Area

Weight

Ix x

Iy y

rx x

ry y

Zx x

Zy y

Cw

es

mm
1.3
1.5
2.0
1.6
1.8
2.4
1.6
1.8
2.4
2.0
2.7
1.8
2.4
2.4
2.7
2.7
3.2

cm2
4.67
8.43
11.15
9.91
11.13
14.68
10.85
12.18
16.10
14.48
19.34
14.12
18.70
22.00
23.60
26.26
34.09

kg/m
3.66
6.61
8.75
7.78
8.73
11.53
8.52
9.56
12.64
11.37
15.19
11.08
14.68
17.27
18.53
20.61
26.76

cm4
39.1
283.9
371.0
466.2
520.8
677.6
675.3
754.9
984.4
1031.3
1357.5
1264.5
1654.6
2413.0
2862.4
3450.2
5826.9

cm4
33.6
77.2
100.0
81.9
91.1
117.0
81.9
91.1
117.0
122.5
158.4
111.5
143.5
336.0
158.5
372.6
430.8

cm
2.89
5.80
5.77
6.86
6.84
6.79
7.89
7.87
7.82
8.44
8.38
9.46
9.41
10.47
11.01
11.46
13.07

cm
2.68
3.03
2.99
2.87
2.86
2.82
2.75
2.73
2.70
2.91
2.86
2.81
2.77
3.91
2.59
3.77
3.55

cm3
11.18
39.17
51.19
53.29
59.53
77.46
65.89
73.66
96.05
93.77
123.43
101.17
132.39
178.76
190.85
230.04
333.00

cm3
6.72
11.88
15.38
12.60
14.02
18.00
12.60
14.02
18.00
17.50
22.63
15.93
20.51
35.37
22.65
39.22
45.34

cm4
0.0247
0.0599
0.1428
0.0804
0.1149
0.2726
0.0880
0.1258
0.2989
0.1854
0.4562
0.1458
0.3471
0.4084
0.5566
0.6194
1.1348

cm6
437
3989
5005
6080
6681
8258
8299
9123
11293
13986
17369
16574
20642
57371
32202
77504
119341

mm

A - 30

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES

WARD MULTICHANNEL
2
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm

SINGLE SECTION
D

70
145

mm
x
x

B
50
65

175

65

205

65

220

70

250

70

270
300
300
350

x
x
x
x

95
70
95
95

t
mm
1.3
1.5
2.0
1.6
1.8
2.4
1.6
1.8
2.4
2.0
2.7
1.8
2.4
2.4
2.7
2.7
3.2

Q
0.91
0.70
0.82
0.67
0.71
0.81
0.61
0.65
0.74
0.66
0.76
0.58
0.66
0.65
0.62
0.65
0.64

po / py

Zxr

Zy1r

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

0.98
0.88
0.97
0.87
0.91
0.97
0.84
0.88
0.95
0.89
0.95
0.82
0.90
0.87
0.89
0.89
0.89

cm3
5.48
17.28
24.82
23.23
27.12
37.66
27.53
32.29
45.40
41.60
58.89
41.47
59.88
77.95
84.97
101.90
148.90

cm3
3.37
6.04
8.84
6.64
7.77
11.10
6.68
7.80
11.12
9.95
14.23
8.77
12.49
20.07
14.27
23.28
28.82

cm3
2.66
4.99
6.40
5.40
5.98
7.59
5.49
6.08
7.72
7.57
9.67
7.00
8.92
15.14
9.95
16.90
19.69

cm4
19.3
127.2
180.1
205.0
238.0
329.5
284.0
331.7
465.3
458.3
647.7
520.2
748.5
1058.9
1274.4
1531.2
2606.0

kN
74.5
103.5
160.4
115.6
138.3
208.0
116.1
138.9
208.6
167.5
255.9
144.0
217.3
250.7
257.6
299.9
383.0

kNm
1.92
6.05
8.69
8.13
9.49
13.18
9.64
11.30
15.89
14.56
20.61
14.51
20.96
27.28
29.74
35.66
52.12

kNm
1.18
2.11
3.09
2.32
2.72
3.89
2.34
2.73
3.89
3.48
4.98
3.07
4.37
7.02
4.99
8.15
10.09

kNm
0.93
1.75
2.24
1.89
2.09
2.66
1.92
2.13
2.70
2.65
3.38
2.45
3.12
5.30
3.48
5.92
6.89

B
t

DOUBLE SECTION
D

70
145

mm
x
x

B
50
65

175

65

205

65

220

70

250

70

270
300
300
350

x
x
x
x

95
70
95
95

t
mm
1.3
1.5
2.0
1.6
1.8
2.4
1.6
1.8
2.4
2.0
2.7
1.8
2.4
2.4
2.7
2.7
3.2

Q
0.91
0.70
0.82
0.67
0.71
0.81
0.61
0.65
0.74
0.66
0.76
0.58
0.66
0.65
0.62
0.65
0.64

po / py

Zxr

Zy1r

Zy2r

Ixr

0.98
0.88
0.97
0.87
0.91
0.97
0.84
0.88
0.95
0.89
0.95
0.82
0.90
0.87
0.89
0.89
0.89

cm3
10.96
34.56
49.63
46.46
54.23
75.32
55.06
64.58
90.81
83.19
117.78
82.94
119.76
155.89
169.94
203.80
297.81

cm3
6.72
11.88
15.38
12.60
14.02
18.00
12.60
14.02
18.00
17.50
22.63
15.93
20.51
35.37
22.65
39.22
45.34

cm3
6.72
11.88
15.38
12.60
14.02
18.00
12.60
14.02
18.00
17.50
22.63
15.93
20.51
35.37
22.65
39.22
45.34

cm4
38.6
254.5
360.2
409.9
476.0
658.9
568.1
663.4
930.6
916.6
1295.4
1040.5
1497.0
2117.7
2548.7
3062.3
5211.9

A - 31

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

kN
kNm
kNm
149.1
3.83
2.35
207.0 12.10
4.16
320.7 17.37
5.38
231.2 16.26
4.41
276.6 18.98
4.91
416.0 26.36
6.30
232.3 19.27
4.41
277.8 22.60
4.91
417.1 31.78
6.30
335.0 29.12
6.12
511.8 41.22
7.92
287.9 29.03
5.58
434.6 41.92
7.18
501.4 54.56 12.38
515.3 59.48
7.93
599.9 71.33 13.73
766.0 104.23 15.87

Mcy2x
kNm
2.35
4.16
5.38
4.41
4.91
6.30
4.41
4.91
6.30
6.12
7.92
5.58
7.18
12.38
7.93
13.73
15.87

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES


GENERIC C SECTION
2
Design Yield Strength = 280 N/mm

SINGLE SECTION
D

100
125

mm
x
x

B
55
55

150

65

165

65

180

65

200

65

220

65

250
300

x
x

65
65

Area

Weight

Ix x

Iy y

rx x

ry y

Zx x

Zy y

Cw

es

mm
1.2
1.2
1.6
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.0
2.4
2.4
2.4
3.0

cm2
2.67
2.96
3.93
4.63
5.19
4.86
5.46
5.10
5.72
6.34
5.41
6.07
6.73
7.12
8.50
9.21
10.39
12.88

kg/m
2.09
2.32
3.08
3.63
4.08
3.82
4.28
4.00
4.49
4.98
4.25
4.77
5.28
5.59
6.67
7.23
8.15
10.11

cm4
44.3
73.9
97.0
165.4
184.7
206.2
230.4
252.5
282.2
311.2
323.2
361.3
398.7
499.6
590.9
802.8
1249.4
1531.2

cm4
11.5
12.4
16.1
25.6
28.4
26.4
29.3
27.1
30.1
33.0
28.0
31.1
34.0
35.0
40.7
42.1
44.1
52.4

cm
4.07
5.00
4.97
5.98
5.96
6.51
6.50
7.04
7.02
7.01
7.73
7.71
7.70
8.37
8.34
9.34
10.97
10.90

cm
2.07
2.05
2.02
2.35
2.34
2.33
2.32
2.31
2.29
2.28
2.28
2.26
2.25
2.22
2.19
2.14
2.06
2.02

cm3
8.87
11.83
15.52
22.06
24.63
25.00
27.93
28.06
31.36
34.59
32.32
36.14
39.87
45.43
53.73
64.23
83.31
102.09

cm3
3.22
3.31
4.28
5.66
6.27
5.72
6.34
5.77
6.40
7.00
5.83
6.47
7.08
7.14
8.30
8.40
8.53
10.14

cm4
0.0120
0.0133
0.0319
0.0376
0.0536
0.0394
0.0563
0.0413
0.0591
0.0812
0.0439
0.0627
0.0862
0.0912
0.1578
0.1709
0.1928
0.3762

cm6
255
401
513
1127
1244
1387
1532
1681
1856
2023
2125
2348
2560
3174
3664
4903
7444
8780

mm
-26.6
-25.1
-24.6
-28.1
-27.8
-27.3
-27.1
-26.6
-26.4
-26.1
-25.7
-25.5
-25.2
-24.4
-23.8
-22.7
-21.0
-20.2

B
t

DOUBLE SECTION
D

100
125

mm
x
x

55
55

150

65

165

65

180

65

200

65

220

65

250
300

x
x

65
65

Area

Weight

Ix x

Iy y

rx x

ry y

Zx x

Zy y

Cw

es

mm
1.2
1.2
1.6
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.0
2.4
2.4
2.4
3.0

cm2
5.34
5.92
7.85
9.26
10.39
9.73
10.91
10.19
11.44
12.68
10.82
12.15
13.46
14.25
17.00
18.41
20.77
25.76

kg/m
4.19
4.64
6.17
7.27
8.15
7.63
8.57
8.00
8.98
9.95
8.49
9.54
10.57
11.18
13.34
14.45
16.31
20.22

cm4
88.6
147.8
194.0
330.9
369.4
412.5
460.7
505.0
564.3
622.4
646.4
722.6
797.3
999.2
1181.9
1605.5
2498.9
3062.3

cm4
42.8
42.9
55.9
87.0
96.9
87.0
96.9
87.0
96.9
106.4
87.1
96.9
106.4
106.5
124.7
124.7
124.8
150.1

cm
4.07
5.00
4.97
5.98
5.96
6.51
6.50
7.04
7.02
7.01
7.73
7.71
7.70
8.37
8.34
9.34
10.97
10.90

cm
2.83
2.69
2.67
3.07
3.05
2.99
2.98
2.92
2.91
2.90
2.84
2.82
2.81
2.73
2.71
2.60
2.45
2.41

cm3
17.73
23.66
31.05
44.13
49.27
50.01
55.86
56.13
62.72
69.17
64.65
72.27
79.75
90.85
107.46
128.46
166.61
204.18

cm3
7.79
7.79
10.17
13.39
14.90
13.39
14.90
13.39
14.91
16.37
13.39
14.91
16.38
16.38
19.18
19.19
19.19
23.09

cm4
0.0239
0.0265
0.0637
0.0751
0.1072
0.0789
0.1127
0.0827
0.1181
0.1623
0.0878
0.1254
0.1724
0.1824
0.3155
0.3418
0.3857
0.7523

cm6
1135
1733
2198
4869
5353
5859
6443
6940
7634
8285
8524
9379
10183
12277
14042
18067
25902
30070

mm

A - 32

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES


GENERIC C SECTION
Design Yield Strength = 280 N/mm2

SINGLE SECTION
D

100
125

mm
x
x

B
55
55

150

65

165

65

180

65

200

65

220

65

250
300

x
x

65
65

t
mm
1.2
1.2
1.6
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.0
2.4
2.4
2.4
3.0

Q
0.80
0.72
0.83
0.76
0.81
0.73
0.77
0.70
0.74
0.77
0.66
0.70
0.73
0.69
0.75
0.69
0.62
0.69

po / py

Zxr

Zy1r

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

0.93
0.90
0.98
0.94
0.96
0.92
0.95
0.90
0.93
0.95
0.88
0.91
0.94
0.92
0.95
0.93
0.89
0.94

cm3
8.27
10.60
15.14
20.64
23.75
22.96
26.49
25.29
29.25
33.02
28.40
32.94
37.30
41.62
51.20
59.65
74.02
95.70

cm3
3.83
3.84
5.67
7.22
8.43
7.23
8.44
7.24
8.44
9.64
7.26
8.46
9.65
9.66
11.91
11.92
11.95
14.88

cm3
3.22
3.31
4.28
5.66
6.27
5.72
6.34
5.77
6.40
7.00
5.83
6.47
7.08
7.14
8.30
8.40
8.53
10.14

cm4
41.9
67.0
94.7
155.5
178.4
190.2
218.8
228.5
263.5
297.2
284.9
329.7
373.0
457.8
563.1
745.5
1110.1
1435.4

kN
59.5
59.8
91.7
99.1
117.5
99.2
117.7
99.4
117.9
136.8
99.7
118.2
137.1
137.3
177.7
178.1
179.0
247.4

kNm
2.32
2.97
4.24
5.78
6.65
6.43
7.42
7.08
8.19
9.25
7.95
9.22
10.44
11.65
14.34
16.70
20.72
26.80

kNm
1.07
1.08
1.59
2.02
2.36
2.02
2.36
2.03
2.36
2.70
2.03
2.37
2.70
2.70
3.34
3.34
3.35
4.17

kNm
0.90
0.93
1.20
1.58
1.76
1.60
1.78
1.62
1.79
1.96
1.63
1.81
1.98
2.00
2.33
2.35
2.39
2.84

B
t

DOUBLE SECTION
D

100
125

mm
x
x

55
55

150

65

165

65

180

65

200

65

220

65

250
300

x
x

65
65

t
mm
1.2
1.2
1.6
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.0
2.4
2.4
2.4
3.0

Q
0.80
0.72
0.83
0.76
0.81
0.73
0.77
0.70
0.74
0.77
0.66
0.70
0.73
0.69
0.75
0.69
0.62
0.69

po / py

Zxr

Zy1r

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

0.93
0.90
0.98
0.94
0.96
0.92
0.95
0.90
0.93
0.95
0.88
0.91
0.94
0.92
0.95
0.93
0.89
0.94

cm3
16.54
21.19
30.29
41.28
47.51
45.92
52.98
50.59
58.49
66.04
56.79
65.88
74.60
83.24
102.40
119.31
148.03
191.41

cm3
7.79
7.79
10.17
13.39
14.90
13.39
14.90
13.39
14.91
16.37
13.39
14.91
16.38
16.38
19.18
19.19
19.19
23.09

cm3
7.79
7.79
10.17
13.39
14.90
13.39
14.90
13.39
14.91
16.37
13.39
14.91
16.38
16.38
19.18
19.19
19.19
23.09

cm4
83.8
134.1
189.4
311.0
356.8
380.5
437.6
457.0
527.0
594.4
569.7
659.4
746.1
915.6
1126.2
1491.1
2220.2
2870.7

kN
118.9
119.6
183.4
198.1
235.1
198.5
235.5
198.9
235.9
273.7
199.4
236.4
274.2
274.7
355.5
356.3
358.0
494.9

kNm
4.63
5.93
8.48
11.56
13.30
12.86
14.83
14.16
16.38
18.49
15.90
18.45
20.89
23.31
28.67
33.41
41.45
53.59

kNm
2.18
2.18
2.85
3.75
4.17
3.75
4.17
3.75
4.17
4.58
3.75
4.17
4.59
4.59
5.37
5.37
5.37
6.46

kNm
2.18
2.18
2.85
3.75
4.17
3.75
4.17
3.75
4.17
4.58
3.75
4.17
4.59
4.59
5.37
5.37
5.37
6.46

A - 33

B
t

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES


GENERIC C SECTION
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm2

SINGLE SECTION
D

100
125

mm
x
x

B
55
55

150

65

165

65

180

65

200

65

220

65

250
300

x
x

65
65

t
mm
1.2
1.2
1.6
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.0
2.4
2.4
2.4
3.0

po / py

Zxr

0.89
0.85
0.95
0.90
0.94
0.88
0.92
0.87
0.91
0.93
0.84
0.88
0.91
0.89
0.93
0.90
0.86
0.91

cm
7.89
10.08
14.81
19.91
23.15
22.10
25.76
24.31
28.39
32.25
27.22
31.89
36.33
40.42
50.07
58.12
71.64
93.38

0.75
0.68
0.80
0.72
0.77
0.69
0.74
0.66
0.70
0.74
0.62
0.66
0.70
0.66
0.71
0.66
0.59
0.65

Zy1r
3

cm
3.66
3.67
5.44
6.91
8.09
6.93
8.10
6.94
8.11
9.29
6.97
8.13
9.31
9.32
11.60
11.62
11.66
14.68

Zy2r
3

cm
3.22
3.31
4.28
5.66
6.27
5.72
6.34
5.77
6.40
7.00
5.83
6.47
7.08
7.14
8.30
8.40
8.53
10.14

Ixr
4

cm
40.4
64.4
92.7
150.8
174.2
184.0
213.2
220.5
256.3
290.5
274.0
319.7
363.6
444.9
550.7
726.4
1074.4
1400.6

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

kN
69.6
70.0
109.8
117.3
140.3
117.6
140.6
117.9
140.9
163.8
118.2
141.2
164.1
164.5
212.1
212.7
214.0
293.5

kNm
2.76
3.53
5.18
6.97
8.10
7.74
9.02
8.51
9.94
11.29
9.53
11.16
12.72
14.15
17.53
20.34
25.07
32.68

kNm
1.28
1.29
1.91
2.42
2.83
2.42
2.84
2.43
2.84
3.25
2.44
2.85
3.26
3.26
4.06
4.07
4.08
5.14

kNm
1.13
1.16
1.50
1.98
2.19
2.00
2.22
2.02
2.24
2.45
2.04
2.26
2.48
2.50
2.91
2.94
2.98
3.55

B
t

DOUBLE SECTION
D

100
125

mm
x
x

55
55

150

65

165

65

180

65

200

65

220

65

250
300

x
x

65
65

t
mm
1.2
1.2
1.6
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.0
2.4
2.4
2.4
3.0

po / py

Zxr
3

0.75
0.68
0.80
0.72
0.77
0.69
0.74
0.66
0.70
0.74
0.62
0.66
0.70
0.66
0.71
0.66
0.59
0.65

0.89
0.85
0.95
0.90
0.94
0.88
0.92
0.87
0.91
0.93
0.84
0.88
0.91
0.89
0.93
0.90
0.86
0.91

cm
15.79
20.16
29.62
39.81
46.30
44.20
51.53
48.61
56.78
64.50
54.43
63.78
72.67
80.85
100.14
116.25
143.28
186.77

Zy1r

Zy2r

cm
7.79
7.79
10.17
13.39
14.90
13.39
14.90
13.39
14.91
16.37
13.39
14.91
16.38
16.38
19.18
19.19
19.19
23.09

A - 34

cm
7.79
7.79
10.17
13.39
14.90
13.39
14.90
13.39
14.91
16.37
13.39
14.91
16.38
16.38
19.18
19.19
19.19
23.09

Ixr
4

cm
80.8
128.7
185.5
301.5
348.5
368.0
426.5
441.0
512.5
580.9
548.0
639.3
727.1
889.8
1101.4
1452.9
2148.9
2801.1

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

kN
139.2
140.0
219.6
234.6
280.7
235.2
281.2
235.7
281.7
327.5
236.5
282.5
328.2
329.0
424.3
425.5
428.0
587.0

kNm
5.53
7.06
10.37
13.93
16.20
15.47
18.03
17.01
19.87
22.57
19.05
22.32
25.43
28.30
35.05
40.69
50.15
65.37

kNm
2.73
2.73
3.56
4.69
5.22
4.69
5.22
4.69
5.22
5.73
4.69
5.22
5.73
5.73
6.71
6.72
6.72
8.08

kNm
2.73
2.73
3.56
4.69
5.22
4.69
5.22
4.69
5.22
5.73
4.69
5.22
5.73
5.73
6.71
6.72
6.72
8.08

SECTION PROPERTY TABLES


Z Sections
Note: Section property data are given for commonly available Z sections,
and for generic Z sections, which may be used at the scheme design
stage. These properties are calculated in accordance with BS 5950-5
and may differ slightly from manufacturers' data.

A - 35

B top

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES


AYRSHIRE ZED
Design Yield Strength = 280 N/mm2
B bot

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm top
125 x
55

bot
45

140

58

49

155

58

49

170

58

49

185

58

49

200

58

49

240

76

68

300

94

86

Area

Weight

Ix x

Iy y

rx x

ry y

Zx x

Zy y

Ix y

Cw

mm
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7
2.0
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7
2.0
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7
2.0
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7
2.0
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7
2.0
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
3.2
2.5
3.0

cm2
3.15
3.39
3.63
4.12
4.84
3.42
3.69
3.95
4.48
5.27
3.61
3.89
4.17
4.73
5.56
3.80
4.10
4.39
4.98
5.85
3.99
4.30
4.61
5.23
6.15
4.18
4.50
4.83
5.48
6.44
8.04
7.97
9.93
12.61
12.29
14.69

kg/m
2.47
2.66
2.85
3.23
3.80
2.69
2.90
3.10
3.52
4.13
2.83
3.06
3.28
3.71
4.37
2.98
3.22
3.45
3.91
4.60
3.13
3.38
3.62
4.10
4.83
3.28
3.54
3.79
4.30
5.06
6.31
6.26
7.79
9.90
9.65
11.53

cm4
77.1
82.9
88.6
99.9
116.4
104.7
112.6
120.4
135.8
158.5
132.7
142.7
152.7
172.3
201.3
164.8
177.3
189.7
214.2
250.3
201.1
216.4
231.6
261.6
305.9
242.0
260.4
278.7
314.9
368.4
455.3
675.7
834.6
1048.1
1619.3
1923.2

cm4
20.3
21.8
23.2
26.2
30.4
23.9
25.7
27.5
30.9
36.0
23.9
25.7
27.5
30.9
36.0
23.9
25.7
27.5
30.9
36.0
23.9
25.7
27.5
31.0
36.0
24.0
25.7
27.5
31.0
36.0
44.1
75.0
91.1
111.5
166.9
195.2

cm
4.95
4.95
4.94
4.93
4.91
5.53
5.52
5.52
5.51
5.49
6.06
6.06
6.05
6.04
6.02
6.59
6.58
6.57
6.56
6.54
7.10
7.09
7.09
7.07
7.05
7.61
7.60
7.60
7.58
7.56
7.53
9.20
9.17
9.12
11.48
11.44

cm
2.54
2.53
2.53
2.52
2.51
2.64
2.64
2.64
2.63
2.61
2.57
2.57
2.57
2.56
2.54
2.51
2.51
2.50
2.49
2.48
2.45
2.45
2.44
2.43
2.42
2.39
2.39
2.39
2.38
2.36
2.34
3.07
3.03
2.97
3.69
3.65

cm3
11.87
12.76
13.64
15.37
17.92
14.49
15.58
16.66
18.79
21.93
16.61
17.87
19.11
21.57
25.19
18.83
20.26
21.68
24.48
28.60
21.15
22.76
24.35
27.51
32.16
23.57
25.36
27.14
30.67
35.88
44.33
55.69
68.79
86.38
107.02
127.10

cm3
3.44
3.70
3.95
4.46
5.21
3.84
4.13
4.42
4.99
5.83
3.84
4.13
4.41
4.98
5.82
3.83
4.12
4.41
4.98
5.81
3.83
4.12
4.40
4.97
5.81
3.82
4.11
4.40
4.97
5.80
7.15
10.14
12.35
15.19
18.18
21.33

cm4
29.2
31.4
33.6
37.8
44.0
36.9
39.6
42.4
47.8
55.7
41.1
44.1
47.2
53.2
62.0
45.2
48.6
52.0
58.6
68.4
49.4
53.1
56.8
64.1
74.7
53.6
57.6
61.6
69.5
81.1
99.8
161.5
197.6
244.9
370.9
436.9

(deg)
22.90
22.89
22.88
22.86
22.83
21.20
21.19
21.18
21.16
21.13
18.52
18.51
18.50
18.48
18.45
16.36
16.34
16.33
16.31
16.27
14.57
14.56
14.55
14.53
14.49
13.09
13.08
13.06
13.04
13.01
12.95
14.14
14.00
13.80
13.53
13.41

cm4
0.0166
0.0209
0.0258
0.0378
0.0619
0.0181
0.0227
0.0281
0.0412
0.0674
0.0191
0.0240
0.0296
0.0434
0.0712
0.0201
0.0253
0.0312
0.0457
0.0750
0.0211
0.0265
0.0328
0.0480
0.0787
0.0221
0.0278
0.0343
0.0503
0.0825
0.1621
0.1021
0.2003
0.4196
0.2479
0.4290

cm6
514
552
588
661
766
774
831
887
997
1157
969
1040
1110
1248
1449
1187
1274
1360
1530
1776
1430
1535
1639
1843
2140
1697
1822
1945
2188
2541
3102
7634
9235
11254
26439
30844

A - 36

es
mm
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.2
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.3
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.0
2.0
2.1
2.1
2.2
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.1
2.1
2.3
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.6
1.7

B top

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES

PRINCIPAL
AXIS
PROPERTIES

AYRSHIRE ZED
Design Yield Strength = 280 N/mm2
B bot

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm top
125 x
55

bot
45

140

58

49

155

58

49

170

58

49

185

58

49

200

58

49

240

76

68

300

94

86

mm
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7
2.0
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7
2.0
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7
2.0
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7
2.0
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7
2.0
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
3.2
2.5
3.0

Q
0.71
0.73
0.75
0.79
0.85
0.67
0.69
0.72
0.75
0.80
0.64
0.66
0.68
0.71
0.76
0.60
0.63
0.65
0.68
0.72
0.58
0.60
0.62
0.65
0.69
0.55
0.57
0.59
0.62
0.66
0.72
0.62
0.68
0.75
0.61
0.66

po / py

Zxr

Zy1r

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

Iu u

Iv v

0.94
0.95
0.97
0.99
1.00
0.91
0.93
0.95
0.97
0.99
0.89
0.91
0.93
0.95
0.98
0.87
0.89
0.91
0.94
0.97
0.85
0.87
0.89
0.92
0.95
0.83
0.85
0.87
0.90
0.94
0.98
0.90
0.94
0.99
0.90
0.94

cm3
11.15
12.17
13.18
15.17
17.92
13.25
14.52
15.76
18.21
21.80
14.83
16.28
17.72
20.54
24.68
16.39
18.04
19.67
22.89
27.61
17.94
19.80
21.63
25.25
30.58
19.46
21.53
23.58
27.63
33.59
43.25
49.92
64.98
85.15
96.02
119.13

cm3
3.65
3.94
4.22
4.78
5.60
4.04
4.36
4.67
5.28
6.20
4.04
4.36
4.67
5.28
6.20
4.04
4.36
4.67
5.28
6.20
4.05
4.36
4.67
5.28
6.20
4.05
4.36
4.67
5.29
6.20
7.68
10.76
13.14
16.23
19.09
22.43

cm3
3.44
3.70
3.95
4.46
5.21
3.84
4.13
4.42
4.99
5.83
3.84
4.13
4.41
4.98
5.82
3.83
4.12
4.41
4.98
5.81
3.83
4.12
4.40
4.97
5.81
3.82
4.11
4.40
4.97
5.80
7.15
10.14
12.35
15.19
18.18
21.33

cm4
72.0
78.9
85.5
98.5
116.4
95.0
104.5
113.7
131.6
157.6
117.6
129.6
141.3
164.0
197.2
142.6
157.3
171.8
200.2
241.6
169.7
187.7
205.4
240.1
290.8
198.9
220.5
241.8
283.6
344.9
444.2
604.5
788.2
1033.1
1450.4
1802.2

kN
62.4
69.5
76.7
91.3
114.6
64.1
71.7
79.2
94.4
118.5
64.2
71.8
79.3
94.5
118.4
64.3
71.9
79.4
94.6
118.4
64.5
72.0
79.5
94.7
118.5
64.6
72.1
79.7
94.8
118.6
162.5
138.5
188.0
264.9
211.6
271.7

kNm
3.12
3.41
3.69
4.25
5.02
3.71
4.06
4.41
5.10
6.10
4.15
4.56
4.96
5.75
6.91
4.59
5.05
5.51
6.41
7.73
5.02
5.54
6.06
7.07
8.56
5.45
6.03
6.60
7.74
9.40
12.11
13.98
18.19
23.84
26.89
33.36

kNm
1.02
1.10
1.18
1.34
1.57
1.13
1.22
1.31
1.48
1.73
1.13
1.22
1.31
1.48
1.73
1.13
1.22
1.31
1.48
1.74
1.13
1.22
1.31
1.48
1.74
1.13
1.22
1.31
1.48
1.74
2.15
3.01
3.68
4.54
5.34
6.28

kNm
0.96
1.04
1.11
1.25
1.46
1.08
1.16
1.24
1.40
1.63
1.07
1.16
1.24
1.40
1.63
1.07
1.15
1.23
1.39
1.63
1.07
1.15
1.23
1.39
1.63
1.07
1.15
1.23
1.39
1.62
2.00
2.84
3.46
4.25
5.09
5.97

cm4
89.5
96.2
102.8
115.8
134.9
119.0
127.9
136.8
154.3
180.0
146.5
157.5
168.5
190.1
222.0
178.1
191.5
204.9
231.3
270.3
214.0
230.2
246.3
278.2
325.2
254.4
273.8
293.0
331.0
387.2
478.2
716.3
883.9
1108.3
1708.5
2027.3

cm4
7.9
8.5
9.1
10.2
11.9
9.6
10.3
11.0
12.4
14.5
10.2
10.9
11.7
13.2
15.3
10.7
11.5
12.2
13.8
16.0
11.1
11.9
12.7
14.4
16.7
11.5
12.4
13.2
14.9
17.3
21.2
34.3
41.8
51.4
77.7
91.1

A - 37

B top

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES

AYRSHIRE ZETA
Design Yield Strength = 280 N/mm2
B bot

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm top
125 x
60

bot
50

150

72

65

175

72

65

200

72

65

Area

Weight

Ix x

Iy y

rx x

ry y

Zx x

Zy y

Ix y

Cw

mm
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7
2.0
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7
2.0
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7
2.0
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.5

cm2
3.52
3.79
4.06
4.60
5.40
4.18
4.50
4.82
5.46
6.42
4.49
4.84
5.19
5.88
6.91
4.81
5.18
5.55
5.92
6.66
7.40
9.22

kg/m
2.76
2.98
3.19
3.61
4.24
3.28
3.53
3.79
4.29
5.04
3.53
3.80
4.07
4.61
5.42
3.77
4.07
4.36
4.65
5.23
5.81
7.24

cm4
84.5
90.8
97.0
109.4
127.5
149.0
160.2
171.4
193.5
226.1
213.3
229.5
245.5
277.4
324.4
291.7
313.9
335.9
357.8
401.3
444.3
549.7

cm4
12.2
13.1
14.0
15.8
18.5
22.4
24.1
25.8
29.2
34.1
22.5
24.2
25.8
29.2
34.1
22.5
24.2
25.9
27.5
30.8
34.1
42.2

cm
4.90
4.89
4.89
4.88
4.86
5.97
5.97
5.96
5.95
5.94
6.89
6.89
6.88
6.87
6.85
7.79
7.78
7.78
7.77
7.76
7.75
7.72

cm
1.86
1.86
1.86
1.85
1.85
2.32
2.32
2.31
2.31
2.30
2.24
2.23
2.23
2.23
2.22
2.16
2.16
2.16
2.16
2.15
2.15
2.14

cm3
12.73
13.68
14.63
16.49
19.22
19.04
20.48
21.90
24.73
28.90
23.43
25.20
26.97
30.46
35.62
28.10
30.23
32.36
34.47
38.65
42.79
52.93

cm3
2.57
2.77
2.96
3.34
3.91
3.76
4.05
4.33
4.89
5.73
3.75
4.04
4.32
4.88
5.71
3.75
4.03
4.31
4.60
5.15
5.70
7.06

cm4
7.3
7.9
8.4
9.4
10.9
22.4
24.1
25.8
29.1
33.9
26.1
28.1
30.0
33.9
39.5
29.8
32.1
34.3
36.5
40.8
45.1
55.5

(deg)
5.74
5.73
5.71
5.68
5.64
9.77
9.76
9.75
9.74
9.72
7.66
7.65
7.64
7.63
7.61
6.25
6.24
6.23
6.23
6.21
6.20
6.17

cm4
0.0186
0.0234
0.0289
0.0423
0.0691
0.0221
0.0277
0.0343
0.0502
0.0822
0.0238
0.0298
0.0369
0.0540
0.0885
0.0254
0.0319
0.0394
0.0480
0.0688
0.0947
0.1860

cm6
564
606
647
728
847
1428
1534
1639
1847
2153
1900
2041
2182
2459
2866
2435
2617
2797
2975
3327
3675
4522

es
mm
-4.81
-4.95
-4.88
-4.97
-4.82
-1.95
-2.09
-2.01
-2.09
-1.89
-1.62
-1.75
-1.68
-1.75
-1.56
-1.37
-1.49
-1.42
-1.35
-1.41
-1.30
-1.43

B top

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES

AYRSHIRE ZETA
Design Yield Strength = 280 N/mm2

PRINCIPAL
AXIS
PROPERTIES

B bot

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm top
125 x
60

bot
50

150

72

65

175

72

65

200

72

65

mm
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7
2.0
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7
2.0
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7
2.0
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.5

Q
0.99
0.99
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.93
0.94
0.95
0.97
0.99
0.86
0.88
0.89
0.91
0.95
0.81
0.82
0.83
0.84
0.87
0.89
0.94

po / py

Zxr

Zy1r

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

Iu u

Iv v

0.97
0.99
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.95
0.96
0.97
0.99
1.00
0.92
0.93
0.95
0.97
0.99
0.88
0.90
0.92
0.93
0.95
0.97
1.00

cm3
12.41
13.50
14.57
16.49
19.22
18.00
19.65
21.28
24.50
28.90
21.49
23.52
25.54
29.53
35.41
24.79
27.24
29.67
32.08
36.85
41.57
52.93

cm3
3.72
4.00
4.28
4.83
5.64
4.70
5.09
5.47
6.22
7.29
4.55
4.94
5.33
6.11
7.23
4.45
4.83
5.21
5.59
6.35
7.11
8.93

cm3
2.57
2.77
2.96
3.34
3.91
3.76
4.05
4.33
4.89
5.73
3.75
4.04
4.32
4.88
5.71
3.75
4.03
4.31
4.60
5.15
5.70
7.06

cm4
82.3
89.5
96.6
109.4
127.5
140.4
153.5
166.4
191.7
226.1
195.2
213.9
232.4
268.8
322.4
257.0
282.6
307.9
333.0
382.6
431.6
549.7

kN
97.7
105.6
113.4
128.7
151.1
108.4
118.7
128.9
149.1
178.0
108.4
118.8
129.3
150.6
183.2
108.4
118.8
129.3
139.8
161.5
183.8
242.1

kNm
3.48
3.78
4.08
4.62
5.38
5.04
5.50
5.96
6.86
8.09
6.02
6.59
7.15
8.27
9.91
6.94
7.63
8.31
8.98
10.32
11.64
14.82

kNm
1.04
1.12
1.20
1.35
1.58
1.31
1.42
1.53
1.74
2.04
1.28
1.38
1.49
1.71
2.03
1.25
1.35
1.46
1.57
1.78
1.99
2.50

kNm
0.72
0.77
0.83
0.94
1.09
1.05
1.13
1.21
1.37
1.60
1.05
1.13
1.21
1.37
1.60
1.05
1.13
1.21
1.29
1.44
1.60
1.98

cm4
85.2
91.6
97.9
110.3
128.6
152.8
164.4
175.8
198.5
231.9
216.8
233.3
249.6
281.9
329.7
294.9
317.4
339.7
361.8
405.7
449.2
555.7

cm4
11.4
12.3
13.2
14.9
17.4
18.6
20.0
21.4
24.2
28.3
18.9
20.4
21.8
24.6
28.8
19.2
20.7
22.1
23.5
26.4
29.2
36.2

A - 38

B top

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES


AYRSHIRE ZETA II
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm2
B bot

SINGLE SECTION
D
225

x
mm top
x
78

bot
68

245

78

68

265

78

68

285

78

68

Area

Weight

Ix x

Iy y

rx x

ry y

Zx x

Zy y

Ix y

Cw

mm
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.5
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.5
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.5
3.0
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.5
3.0

cm2
5.51
5.90
6.29
7.07
7.84
9.75
5.78
6.19
6.61
7.42
8.24
10.24
6.49
6.92
7.78
8.63
10.73
12.79
6.78
7.23
8.13
9.02
11.22
13.39

kg/m
4.32
4.63
4.94
5.55
6.16
7.65
4.54
4.86
5.19
5.83
6.47
8.04
5.09
5.43
6.10
6.77
8.42
10.04
5.32
5.68
6.38
7.08
8.81
10.51

cm4
419.4
448.6
477.4
534.5
590.6
726.8
512.7
548.3
583.7
653.7
722.5
889.9
660.5
703.2
787.7
871.0
1073.5
1268.2
785.6
836.6
937.3
1036.7
1278.6
1511.4

cm4
60.4
64.3
68.1
75.7
83.0
100.0
60.4
64.3
68.2
75.7
83.0
100.0
64.3
68.2
75.7
83.0
100.1
115.6
64.3
68.2
75.7
83.0
100.1
115.6

cm
8.73
8.72
8.71
8.69
8.68
8.64
9.42
9.41
9.40
9.38
9.37
9.32
10.09
10.08
10.06
10.05
10.00
9.96
10.77
10.76
10.74
10.72
10.67
10.63

cm
3.31
3.30
3.29
3.27
3.25
3.20
3.23
3.22
3.21
3.19
3.17
3.13
3.15
3.14
3.12
3.10
3.05
3.01
3.08
3.07
3.05
3.03
2.99
2.94

cm3
36.56
39.09
41.61
46.58
51.46
63.32
41.07
43.93
46.76
52.37
57.88
71.28
48.96
52.13
58.39
64.56
79.56
93.97
54.20
57.71
64.66
71.50
88.18
104.22

cm3
7.44
7.94
8.43
9.39
10.33
12.56
7.44
7.93
8.42
9.39
10.32
12.55
7.93
8.42
9.38
10.31
12.54
14.61
7.92
8.41
9.37
10.31
12.53
14.60

cm4
117.7
125.6
133.5
148.9
163.9
199.8
128.6
137.3
145.9
162.7
179.1
218.5
149.0
158.3
176.6
194.4
237.1
277.2
160.6
170.7
190.4
209.7
255.8
299.0

(deg)
16.62
16.59
16.55
16.49
16.42
16.26
14.81
14.78
14.75
14.69
14.63
14.47
13.28
13.25
13.19
13.13
12.99
12.84
12.00
11.98
11.92
11.87
11.73
11.60

cm4
0.0340
0.0419
0.0511
0.0730
0.1005
0.1966
0.0356
0.0440
0.0536
0.0767
0.1055
0.2065
0.0461
0.0561
0.0803
0.1105
0.2165
0.3736
0.0482
0.0586
0.0839
0.1155
0.2264
0.3909

cm6
4923
5237
5545
6142
6714
8039
5957
6338
6712
7436
8131
9742
7557
8003
8869
9700
11627
13346
8893
9419
10440
11420
13696
15729

es
mm
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6

B top

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES

PRINCIPAL
AXIS
PROPERTIES

AYRSHIRE ZETA II
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm2
B bot

SINGLE SECTION
D
225

mm top
x
78

t
bot
68

245

78

68

265

78

68

285

78

68

mm
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.5
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.5
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.5
3.0
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.5
3.0

Q
0.70
0.73
0.75
0.79
0.82
0.88
0.67
0.70
0.72
0.76
0.78
0.83
0.67
0.69
0.72
0.75
0.80
0.84
0.64
0.66
0.69
0.72
0.76
0.80

po / py

Zxr

Zy1r

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

Iu u

Iv v

0.79
0.83
0.86
0.89
0.92
0.96
0.77
0.81
0.83
0.87
0.90
0.95
0.78
0.80
0.84
0.88
0.93
0.96
0.75
0.78
0.82
0.85
0.91
0.95

cm3
28.99
32.45
35.64
41.52
47.24
60.95
31.56
35.38
38.84
45.45
51.89
67.38
38.18
41.93
49.30
56.49
73.83
90.43
40.76
44.90
53.05
61.04
80.31
98.79

cm3
7.96
8.50
9.02
10.06
11.07
13.47
7.97
8.50
9.03
10.07
11.08
13.49
8.51
9.04
10.08
11.09
13.50
15.75
8.51
9.04
10.08
11.09
13.51
15.76

cm3
7.44
7.94
8.43
9.39
10.33
12.56
7.44
7.93
8.42
9.39
10.32
12.55
7.93
8.42
9.38
10.31
12.54
14.61
7.92
8.41
9.37
10.31
12.53
14.60

cm4
329.7
366.1
402.3
472.8
540.4
699.4
389.7
433.9
477.8
563.5
646.0
841.1
506.0
558.5
661.1
760.3
996.1
1220.3
581.7
643.7
765.2
883.0
1164.3
1432.7

kN
135.7
150.7
165.9
196.1
225.8
298.8
135.9
150.9
166.0
196.2
225.8
298.8
151.1
166.3
196.4
226.0
298.7
374.4
151.4
166.5
196.7
226.2
298.8
374.4

kNm
10.15
11.36
12.48
14.53
16.54
21.33
11.05
12.38
13.59
15.91
18.16
23.58
13.36
14.67
17.25
19.77
25.84
31.65
14.26
15.71
18.57
21.36
28.11
34.58

kNm
2.79
2.97
3.16
3.52
3.87
4.72
2.79
2.98
3.16
3.52
3.88
4.72
2.98
3.16
3.53
3.88
4.72
5.51
2.98
3.17
3.53
3.88
4.73
5.52

kNm
2.60
2.78
2.95
3.29
3.62
4.40
2.60
2.78
2.95
3.29
3.61
4.39
2.77
2.95
3.28
3.61
4.39
5.11
2.77
2.94
3.28
3.61
4.39
5.11

cm4
454.6
486.0
517.1
578.5
638.9
785.1
546.7
584.6
622.1
696.3
769.3
946.3
695.6
740.5
829.1
916.3
1128.2
1331.4
819.8
872.8
977.5
1080.7
1331.7
1572.8

cm4
25.2
26.9
28.5
31.6
34.7
41.8
26.4
28.1
29.8
33.0
36.2
43.6
29.2
30.9
34.3
37.6
45.4
52.4
30.2
32.0
35.5
38.9
46.9
54.2

A - 39

B top

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES


AYRSHIRE ZETA III
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm2
B bot

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm
140
x

top
55

bot
45

155

55

45

170

55

45

185

55

45

200

55

45

Area

Weight

Ix x

Iy y

rx x

ry y

Zx x

Zy y

Ix y

Cw

mm
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.70
2.00
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.70
2.00
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.70
2.00
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.70
2.00
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.70
2.00
2.50

cm2
3.37
3.63
3.88
4.39
5.13
3.56
3.83
4.10
4.63
5.42
3.75
4.03
4.32
4.88
5.72
3.94
4.24
4.54
5.13
6.01
4.13
4.44
4.76
5.38
6.31
7.82

kg/m
2.64
2.85
3.05
3.44
4.03
2.79
3.01
3.22
3.64
4.26
2.94
3.17
3.39
3.83
4.49
3.09
3.33
3.56
4.03
4.72
3.24
3.49
3.73
4.22
4.95
6.14

cm4
98.6
105.7
112.8
126.8
147.0
125.4
134.6
143.6
161.5
187.4
156.2
167.7
179.1
201.4
233.9
191.3
205.4
219.3
246.8
286.8
230.7
247.8
264.7
298.0
346.5
423.9

cm4
18.7
20.0
21.2
23.6
26.9
18.7
20.0
21.2
23.6
26.9
18.8
20.0
21.2
23.6
26.9
18.8
20.0
21.3
23.6
27.0
18.8
20.0
21.3
23.6
27.0
31.9

cm
5.41
5.40
5.39
5.38
5.35
5.94
5.93
5.92
5.90
5.88
6.46
6.45
6.44
6.42
6.40
6.97
6.96
6.95
6.93
6.91
7.48
7.47
7.46
7.44
7.41
7.36

cm
2.36
2.35
2.34
2.32
2.29
2.30
2.29
2.28
2.26
2.23
2.24
2.23
2.22
2.20
2.17
2.18
2.17
2.16
2.15
2.12
2.13
2.12
2.11
2.10
2.07
2.02

cm3
13.63
14.62
15.60
17.53
20.32
15.69
16.84
17.97
20.20
23.44
17.85
19.16
20.46
23.00
26.71
20.11
21.59
23.06
25.94
30.14
22.47
24.13
25.77
29.01
33.73
41.25

cm3
3.33
3.56
3.79
4.23
4.86
3.32
3.55
3.78
4.22
4.85
3.32
3.55
3.78
4.22
4.85
3.31
3.54
3.77
4.21
4.84
3.31
3.54
3.77
4.21
4.83
5.80

cm4
31.7
34.0
36.2
40.4
46.5
35.4
37.9
40.4
45.1
52.0
39.1
41.8
44.5
49.8
57.4
42.8
45.8
48.7
54.5
62.8
46.4
49.7
52.9
59.2
68.2
82.1

(deg)
19.25
19.20
19.15
19.04
18.89
16.79
16.75
16.70
16.61
16.46
14.81
14.77
14.72
14.64
14.50
13.18
13.14
13.10
13.02
12.90
11.83
11.79
11.75
11.67
11.56
11.37

cm4
0.0178
0.0224
0.0276
0.0403
0.0657
0.0188
0.0236
0.0291
0.0426
0.0695
0.0198
0.0249
0.0307
0.0449
0.0732
0.0208
0.0261
0.0322
0.0471
0.0770
0.0218
0.0274
0.0338
0.0494
0.0808
0.1577

cm6
596
635
673
745
843
742
791
838
927
1051
906
965
1023
1133
1285
1089
1160
1229
1362
1545
1290
1375
1457
1614
1832
2148

2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.7
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5

PRINCIPAL
AXIS
PROPERTIES

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES

AYRSHIRE ZETA III


Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm2

es
mm

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm
140
x

top
55

bot
45

155

55

45

170

55

45

185

55

45

200

55

45

mm
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.70
2.00
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.70
2.00
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.70
2.00
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.70
2.00
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.70
2.00
2.50

Q
0.98
0.99
0.99
1.00
1.00
0.98
0.99
0.99
1.00
1.00
0.95
0.96
0.98
0.99
1.00
0.91
0.92
0.94
0.96
0.98
0.86
0.88
0.90
0.92
0.95
0.984

po / py

Zxr

Zy1r

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

Iu u

Iv v

0.93
0.95
0.96
0.98
1.00
0.91
0.93
0.94
0.97
0.99
0.89
0.91
0.93
0.95
0.98
0.87
0.89
0.91
0.94
0.97
0.85
0.88
0.89
0.92
0.95
0.99

cm3
12.67
13.83
14.97
17.18
20.32
14.29
15.63
16.94
19.51
23.23
15.92
17.45
18.95
21.89
26.15
17.56
19.29
20.99
24.31
29.15
19.20
21.14
23.04
26.77
32.20
40.85

cm3
3.65
3.91
4.16
4.65
5.35
3.66
3.91
4.17
4.66
5.36
3.66
3.92
4.17
4.66
5.37
3.67
3.92
4.18
4.67
5.38
3.67
3.93
4.18
4.67
5.38
6.47

cm3
3.33
3.56
3.79
4.23
4.86
3.32
3.55
3.78
4.22
4.85
3.32
3.55
3.78
4.22
4.85
3.31
3.54
3.77
4.21
4.84
3.31
3.54
3.77
4.21
4.83
5.80

cm4
91.0
99.7
108.0
124.2
147.0
113.5
124.5
135.2
155.9
185.7
138.7
152.4
165.7
191.6
229.0
166.3
183.1
199.4
231.3
277.3
196.5
216.7
236.4
275.0
330.8
419.8

kN
115.6
125.5
135.0
153.3
179.6
121.7
132.3
142.5
161.9
189.8
124.4
136.2
147.6
169.2
199.7
124.7
137.0
149.1
172.8
206.9
124.7
137.0
149.2
173.6
210.1
269.2

kNm
4.43
4.84
5.24
6.01
7.11
5.00
5.47
5.93
6.83
8.13
5.57
6.11
6.63
7.66
9.15
6.15
6.75
7.35
8.51
10.20
6.72
7.40
8.06
9.37
11.27
14.30

kNm
1.28
1.37
1.46
1.63
1.87
1.28
1.37
1.46
1.63
1.88
1.28
1.37
1.46
1.63
1.88
1.28
1.37
1.46
1.63
1.88
1.28
1.37
1.46
1.64
1.88
2.26

kNm
1.16
1.25
1.33
1.48
1.70
1.16
1.24
1.32
1.48
1.70
1.16
1.24
1.32
1.48
1.70
1.16
1.24
1.32
1.47
1.69
1.16
1.24
1.32
1.47
1.69
2.03

cm4
109.6
117.6
125.4
140.7
162.9
136.1
146.0
155.8
174.9
202.7
166.5
178.7
190.8
214.4
248.7
201.3
216.1
230.7
259.4
301.2
240.5
258.2
275.7
310.2
360.5
440.5

cm4
7.7
8.2
8.7
9.6
11.0
8.1
8.6
9.1
10.2
11.6
8.4
9.0
9.5
10.6
12.1
8.7
9.3
9.9
11.0
12.6
9.0
9.7
10.3
11.4
13.0
15.4

A - 40

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES


x

HI-SPAN ZED
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm2

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm top
150 x
66

bot
60

170

66

60

205

66

60

230

83

75

255

83

75

Area

Weight

Ix x

Iy y

rx x

ry y

Zx x

Zy y

Ix y

Cw

mm
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.4
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.4
3.2
1.8
2.0
2.4
3.0
3.2

cm2
4.12
4.41
4.70
5.28
5.86
4.39
4.70
5.02
5.63
6.25
7.46
4.87
5.21
5.56
6.25
6.94
8.29
6.45
7.25
8.05
9.63
12.73
7.69
8.54
10.22
12.71
13.52

kg/m
3.23
3.46
3.69
4.15
4.60
3.45
3.69
3.94
4.42
4.91
5.86
3.82
4.09
4.37
4.91
5.44
6.51
5.06
5.69
6.32
7.56
10.00
6.04
6.71
8.03
9.97
10.62

cm4
147.3
157.5
167.6
187.4
207.0
196.9
210.5
224.0
250.8
277.0
328.3
305.0
326.3
347.4
389.1
430.2
510.5
521.2
584.4
646.7
769.1
1004.1
744.2
823.9
980.4
1207.7
1281.6

cm4
38.2
40.7
43.1
48.0
52.6
38.2
40.7
43.1
48.0
52.6
61.5
38.2
40.7
43.1
48.0
52.6
61.5
78.6
87.6
96.3
113.2
144.1
87.6
96.4
113.2
136.7
144.1

cm
5.98
5.97
5.97
5.96
5.94
6.70
6.69
6.68
6.67
6.66
6.63
7.92
7.91
7.90
7.89
7.88
7.85
8.99
8.98
8.96
8.93
8.88
9.84
9.82
9.79
9.75
9.73

cm
3.04
3.04
3.03
3.01
3.00
2.95
2.94
2.93
2.92
2.90
2.87
2.80
2.79
2.79
2.77
2.76
2.72
3.49
3.47
3.46
3.43
3.36
3.37
3.36
3.33
3.28
3.26

cm3
19.36
20.70
22.02
24.64
27.21
22.86
24.44
26.01
29.11
32.16
38.11
29.41
31.46
33.49
37.52
41.48
49.21
44.65
50.06
55.41
65.88
86.00
57.56
63.72
75.82
93.39
99.10

cm3
5.95
6.34
6.73
7.50
8.24
5.94
6.34
6.73
7.49
8.23
9.65
5.93
6.33
6.72
7.48
8.22
9.64
9.73
10.86
11.96
14.08
18.02
10.85
11.95
14.07
17.06
18.00

cm4
56.2
60.0
63.8
71.1
78.3
64.1
68.5
72.7
81.1
89.3
105.1
78.0
83.3
88.5
98.7
108.7
127.9
147.7
165.1
182.2
215.2
277.3
183.7
202.6
239.4
291.9
308.6

(deg)
22.93
22.89
22.85
22.78
22.70
19.47
19.44
19.40
19.33
19.26
19.12
15.15
15.12
15.09
15.03
14.96
14.84
16.86
16.81
16.75
16.64
16.41
14.61
14.56
14.45
14.30
14.24

cm4
0.0254
0.0313
0.0382
0.0545
0.0750
0.0271
0.0334
0.0407
0.0582
0.0800
0.1385
0.0300
0.0370
0.0451
0.0645
0.0888
0.1539
0.0523
0.0749
0.1031
0.1789
0.4238
0.0794
0.1094
0.1898
0.3711
0.4501

cm6
1429
1521
1611
1787
1956
1882
2004
2123
2356
2580
3002
2843
3028
3210
3563
3904
4548
7106
7909
8687
10173
12869
9954
10936
12813
15413
16224

es
mm
1.62
1.62
1.62
1.61
1.61
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.56
1.55
1.48
1.48
1.48
1.47
1.47
1.46
2.08
2.08
2.07
2.06
2.04
1.99
1.99
1.98
1.96
1.96

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES


PRINCIPAL

HI-SPAN ZED
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm2

AXIS
PROPERTIES

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm
150 x

66

60

170

66

60

205

66

60

230

83

75

255

83

75

t
mm
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.4
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.4
3.2
1.8
2.0
2.4
3.0
3.2

Q
0.62
0.65
0.68
0.72
0.76
0.59
0.61
0.64
0.68
0.71
0.76
0.53
0.56
0.58
0.61
0.64
0.69
0.52
0.57
0.61
0.66
0.74
0.54
0.57
0.63
0.68
0.70

po / py

Zxr

Zy1r

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

Iu u

Iv v

0.86
0.90
0.92
0.95
0.97
0.84
0.87
0.89
0.92
0.94
0.98
0.79
0.83
0.85
0.88
0.91
0.95
0.78
0.84
0.88
0.92
0.98
0.81
0.85
0.90
0.95
0.96

cm3
16.71
18.54
20.25
23.31
26.29
19.15
21.28
23.22
26.85
30.39
37.23
23.30
25.96
28.35
33.04
37.62
46.53
34.71
41.96
48.50
60.72
83.88
46.74
54.10
68.18
88.43
94.99

cm3
6.22
6.64
7.05
7.86
8.65
6.22
6.64
7.05
7.86
8.65
10.16
6.22
6.64
7.05
7.86
8.65
10.16
10.21
11.40
12.57
14.83
19.04
11.40
12.57
14.83
18.03
19.04

cm3
5.95
6.34
6.73
7.50
8.24
5.94
6.34
6.73
7.49
8.23
9.65
5.93
6.33
6.72
7.48
8.22
9.64
9.73
10.86
11.96
14.08
18.02
10.85
11.95
14.07
17.06
18.00

cm4
126.7
139.5
152.1
176.4
199.6
164.2
181.2
197.9
230.3
261.3
320.6
240.0
266.0
291.7
341.5
389.7
482.5
405.1
483.8
560.7
707.2
979.3
596.5
693.7
880.0
1143.5
1228.4

kN
90.0
101.0
112.0
133.7
155.1
90.2
101.2
112.2
133.8
155.2
199.0
90.6
101.7
112.6
134.3
155.6
199.1
117.3
144.0
170.9
223.6
331.6
144.3
171.3
224.0
303.7
331.7

kNm
5.85
6.49
7.09
8.16
9.20
6.70
7.45
8.13
9.40
10.64
13.03
8.16
9.09
9.92
11.56
13.17
16.28
12.15
14.69
16.97
21.25
29.36
16.36
18.93
23.86
30.95
33.25

kNm
2.18
2.32
2.47
2.75
3.03
2.18
2.32
2.47
2.75
3.03
3.56
2.18
2.32
2.47
2.75
3.03
3.56
3.57
3.99
4.40
5.19
6.66
3.99
4.40
5.19
6.31
6.66

kNm
2.08
2.22
2.36
2.62
2.88
2.08
2.22
2.35
2.62
2.88
3.38
2.08
2.22
2.35
2.62
2.88
3.37
3.41
3.80
4.19
4.93
6.31
3.80
4.18
4.92
5.97
6.30

cm4
171.1
182.8
194.4
217.3
239.7
219.5
234.7
249.7
279.2
308.3
364.7
326.2
348.8
371.2
415.6
459.2
544.4
566.0
634.2
701.6
833.4
1085.7
792.1
876.6
1042.1
1282.1
1359.9

cm4
14.4
15.3
16.3
18.1
19.9
15.5
16.5
17.5
19.5
21.4
25.1
17.0
18.2
19.3
21.5
23.6
27.6
33.8
37.7
41.5
48.9
62.4
39.7
43.7
51.5
62.3
65.8

A - 41

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES


METSEC ZED
2
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm
142
x 57.5

172

62.5

202

62.5

232

72.5

262

76.0

302

86.0

342

96.0

Area

Weight

Ix x

Iy y

rx x

ry y

Zx x

Zy y

Ix y

Cw

mm
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
2.9
2.3
2.5
2.9
2.5
2.9
3.2

cm2
3.91
4.19
4.47
5.02
5.56
4.46
4.78
5.09
5.72
6.35
7.27
7.89
5.21
5.56
6.25
6.94
7.95
8.62
6.34
7.13
7.92
9.08
9.85
7.78
8.64
9.92
10.76
12.44
11.32
12.29
14.21
13.77
15.93
17.54

kg/m
3.07
3.29
3.51
3.94
4.37
3.50
3.75
4.00
4.49
4.98
5.71
6.19
4.09
4.37
4.91
5.44
6.24
6.77
4.98
5.60
6.21
7.13
7.74
6.11
6.78
7.79
8.45
9.76
8.89
9.65
11.16
10.81
12.50
13.77

cm4
123.9
132.4
140.9
157.5
173.9
203.8
217.9
231.9
259.6
286.9
326.9
353.0
317.7
338.2
378.8
418.8
477.7
516.2
510.8
572.7
633.7
723.8
782.8
784.2
868.2
992.3
1073.8
1233.6
1501.9
1626.3
1871.1
2330.1
2683.8
2944.4

cm4
31.8
33.9
35.9
39.9
43.7
39.4
42.0
44.5
49.5
54.4
61.4
65.8
42.0
44.5
49.5
54.4
61.4
65.8
65.7
73.1
80.4
90.9
97.7
82.9
91.2
103.2
110.9
125.7
146.8
158.0
179.6
212.4
241.9
263.1

cm
5.63
5.62
5.61
5.60
5.59
6.76
6.75
6.75
6.74
6.72
6.70
6.69
7.81
7.80
7.78
7.77
7.75
7.74
8.98
8.96
8.95
8.93
8.91
10.04
10.02
10.00
9.99
9.96
11.52
11.50
11.47
13.01
12.98
12.96

cm
2.85
2.84
2.83
2.82
2.80
2.97
2.96
2.96
2.94
2.93
2.90
2.89
2.84
2.83
2.82
2.80
2.78
2.76
3.22
3.20
3.19
3.16
3.15
3.26
3.25
3.23
3.21
3.18
3.60
3.59
3.55
3.93
3.90
3.87

cm3
17.25
18.43
19.61
21.92
24.20
23.45
25.08
26.69
29.88
33.02
37.62
40.63
31.16
33.18
37.16
41.09
46.86
50.63
43.48
48.74
53.93
61.59
66.62
59.04
65.36
74.70
80.83
92.85
98.25
106.39
122.40
134.79
155.24
170.32

cm3
5.44
5.80
6.16
6.86
7.53
6.21
6.62
7.03
7.83
8.61
9.74
10.46
6.62
7.02
7.82
8.60
9.73
10.45
8.87
9.90
10.90
12.35
13.29
10.66
11.74
13.31
14.33
16.29
16.77
18.07
20.58
21.79
24.86
27.09

cm4
47.0
50.1
53.2
59.3
65.3
66.3
70.8
75.2
83.9
92.4
104.7
112.7
83.8
89.0
99.4
109.4
124.1
133.6
132.5
148.1
163.3
185.5
200.0
182.3
201.1
228.6
246.5
281.1
333.9
360.4
412.0
497.7
569.8
622.2

(deg)
22.78
22.74
22.70
22.63
22.55
19.44
19.41
19.37
19.30
19.24
19.13
19.06
15.65
15.62
15.56
15.49
15.40
15.34
15.39
15.33
15.28
15.19
15.14
13.73
13.68
13.61
13.56
13.46
13.12
13.07
12.99
12.59
12.51
12.45

cm4
0.0241
0.0298
0.0363
0.0518
0.0712
0.0275
0.0339
0.0413
0.0591
0.0813
0.1238
0.1591
0.0370
0.0451
0.0645
0.0888
0.1354
0.1740
0.0514
0.0736
0.1014
0.1546
0.1988
0.0804
0.1106
0.1689
0.2171
0.3392
0.1927
0.2479
0.3875
0.2777
0.4343
0.5837

cm6
1098
1168
1237
1371
1500
2021
2152
2281
2532
2774
3120
3339
3061
3245
3603
3949
4445
4760
6227
6928
7606
8584
9210
10128
11128
12572
13498
15263
23886
25685
29135
44418
50497
54856

A - 42

es
mm
1.21
1.24
1.26
1.31
1.36
1.19
1.21
1.24
1.28
1.33
1.40
1.45
1.19
1.22
1.27
1.31
1.39
1.43
1.59
1.64
1.68
1.76
1.80
1.79
1.83
1.91
1.95
2.05
1.87
1.92
2.01
1.87
1.96
2.03

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES


METSEC ZED
2
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm

PRINCIPAL
AXIS
PROPERTIES

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm
142
x 57.5

172

62.5

202

62.5

232

72.5

262

76.0

302

86.0

342

96.0

t
mm
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
2.9
2.3
2.5
2.9
2.5
2.9
3.2

Q
0.66
0.69
0.71
0.74
0.78
0.59
0.62
0.64
0.68
0.71
0.75
0.77
0.57
0.59
0.62
0.65
0.68
0.71
0.53
0.58
0.61
0.65
0.67
0.54
0.57
0.61
0.63
0.66
0.57
0.59
0.62
0.55
0.59
0.61

po / p y

Zxr

Zy1r

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

Iu u

Iv v

0.89
0.92
0.93
0.96
0.98
0.83
0.87
0.89
0.92
0.94
0.97
0.98
0.83
0.85
0.88
0.91
0.94
0.96
0.80
0.84
0.88
0.91
0.93
0.81
0.84
0.88
0.90
0.94
0.84
0.87
0.91
0.83
0.87
0.90

cm3
15.43
16.92
18.30
20.99
23.61
19.54
21.70
23.77
27.50
31.13
36.42
39.87
25.76
28.22
32.87
37.40
44.05
48.38
34.62
41.17
47.24
56.12
61.91
47.68
55.08
65.93
73.01
86.85
82.86
92.32
110.82
112.06
135.83
153.24

cm3
5.65
6.03
6.40
7.13
7.84
6.42
6.86
7.28
8.12
8.94
10.12
10.89
6.86
7.28
8.12
8.94
10.12
10.89
9.23
10.31
11.36
12.90
13.89
11.14
12.28
13.95
15.03
17.12
17.46
18.83
21.49
22.59
25.82
28.16

cm3
5.44
5.80
6.16
6.86
7.53
6.21
6.62
7.03
7.83
8.61
9.74
10.46
6.62
7.02
7.82
8.60
9.73
10.45
8.87
9.90
10.90
12.35
13.29
10.66
11.74
13.31
14.33
16.29
16.77
18.07
20.58
21.79
24.86
27.09

cm4
109.9
120.4
130.7
150.5
169.5
169.7
187.3
204.6
238.0
270.0
316.4
346.4
260.6
285.5
334.0
380.8
448.9
493.2
403.6
479.2
552.6
658.6
727.1
626.4
727.7
874.3
969.2
1153.7
1260.6
1407.8
1693.1
1926.4
2344.3
2647.6

kN
90.4
100.6
110.8
130.8
151.0
92.1
103.2
114.2
135.9
157.4
190.2
213.0
103.5
114.6
136.3
157.7
190.4
213.0
118.5
143.8
168.7
205.4
230.0
145.8
172.0
210.5
236.0
288.3
224.1
252.9
310.1
265.0
328.6
376.0

kNm
5.40
5.92
6.41
7.35
8.26
6.84
7.59
8.32
9.62
10.89
12.75
13.96
9.02
9.88
11.50
13.09
15.42
16.93
12.12
14.41
16.54
19.64
21.67
16.69
19.28
23.08
25.55
30.40
29.00
32.31
38.79
39.22
47.54
53.63

kNm
1.98
2.11
2.24
2.50
2.74
2.25
2.40
2.55
2.84
3.13
3.54
3.81
2.40
2.55
2.84
3.13
3.54
3.81
3.23
3.61
3.98
4.52
4.86
3.90
4.30
4.88
5.26
5.99
6.11
6.59
7.52
7.91
9.04
9.86

kNm
1.91
2.03
2.16
2.40
2.64
2.17
2.32
2.46
2.74
3.01
3.41
3.66
2.32
2.46
2.74
3.01
3.41
3.66
3.11
3.46
3.81
4.32
4.65
3.73
4.11
4.66
5.01
5.70
5.87
6.32
7.20
7.63
8.70
9.48

cm4
143.6
153.4
163.1
182.3
201.0
227.2
242.8
258.4
289.0
319.1
363.2
392.0
341.1
363.1
406.5
449.2
511.9
552.8
547.3
613.3
678.3
774.1
836.9
828.7
917.2
1047.7
1133.2
1300.9
1579.7
1710.0
1966.1
2441.2
2810.2
3081.8

cm4
12.1
12.8
13.6
15.2
16.6
16.0
17.1
18.1
20.2
22.1
25.0
26.9
18.5
19.7
21.9
24.0
27.2
29.2
29.2
32.5
35.8
40.6
43.6
38.3
42.2
47.8
51.5
58.5
68.9
74.3
84.6
101.2
115.5
125.8

A - 43

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES


ALBION ZED
2
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm
120 x

50

145

50

145

62.5

175

50

175

62.5

200

62.5

200

75

225

62.5

225

75

240

75

300

75

Area

Weight

Ix x

Iy y

rx x

ry y

Zx x

Zy y

Ix y

Cw

mm
1.5
1.6
1.5
1.6
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.5
1.6
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.5
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
2.8
2.3
2.5
2.8

cm2
3.51
3.74
3.87
4.13
4.09
4.38
4.67
5.25
5.82
4.31
4.59
4.50
4.82
5.14
5.78
6.41
7.34
7.96
5.18
5.53
6.22
6.90
8.57
6.66
7.39
8.47
9.19
5.92
6.66
7.39
8.47
9.19
7.10
7.88
9.04
9.80
7.36
8.17
9.38
10.17
11.36
10.73
11.65
13.02

kg/m
2.75
2.93
3.04
3.24
3.21
3.44
3.67
4.12
4.57
3.38
3.61
3.53
3.78
4.03
4.53
5.03
5.76
6.25
4.07
4.34
4.88
5.41
6.73
5.22
5.80
6.65
7.21
4.65
5.22
5.80
6.65
7.21
5.57
6.18
7.09
7.70
5.78
6.41
7.36
7.99
8.92
8.42
9.14
10.22

cm4
79.3
84.3
123.4
131.2
137.1
146.6
156.0
174.5
192.7
192.3
204.6
212.2
226.9
241.5
270.4
298.8
340.5
367.8
310.4
330.4
370.1
409.2
504.2
413.3
457.2
521.9
564.2
436.6
489.2
541.1
617.5
667.5
544.0
602.0
687.5
743.6
633.0
700.6
800.4
865.8
962.4
1361.1
1473.3
1639.2

cm4
20.2
21.4
20.2
21.4
39.4
42.0
44.5
49.5
54.3
20.2
21.4
39.4
42.0
44.5
49.5
54.3
61.3
65.8
42.0
44.5
49.5
54.3
65.8
79.9
87.8
99.4
106.8
44.5
49.5
54.4
61.3
65.8
79.9
87.8
99.4
106.8
79.9
87.8
99.4
106.8
117.6
99.4
106.8
117.6

cm
4.76
4.75
5.65
5.64
5.79
5.78
5.78
5.77
5.75
6.68
6.67
6.87
6.86
6.86
6.84
6.83
6.81
6.80
7.74
7.73
7.72
7.70
7.67
7.88
7.87
7.85
7.84
8.59
8.57
8.56
8.54
8.52
8.76
8.74
8.72
8.71
9.27
9.26
9.24
9.23
9.20
11.26
11.25
11.22

cm
2.40
2.39
2.29
2.28
3.10
3.09
3.09
3.07
3.06
2.17
2.16
2.96
2.95
2.94
2.93
2.91
2.89
2.87
2.84
2.84
2.82
2.81
2.77
3.46
3.45
3.42
3.41
2.74
2.73
2.71
2.69
2.68
3.35
3.34
3.32
3.30
3.29
3.28
3.26
3.24
3.22
3.04
3.03
3.01

cm3
13.23
14.06
17.02
18.10
18.92
20.23
21.52
24.07
26.58
21.98
23.39
24.26
25.94
27.61
30.91
34.16
38.93
42.04
31.04
33.05
37.02
40.93
50.43
41.34
45.73
52.20
56.43
38.82
43.49
48.11
54.90
59.34
48.37
53.52
61.13
66.11
52.76
58.39
66.71
72.16
80.21
90.75
98.24
109.30

cm3
4.11
4.35
4.11
4.35
6.37
6.80
7.22
8.04
8.84
4.11
4.35
6.37
6.80
7.22
8.04
8.84
10.00
10.74
6.80
7.22
8.04
8.84
10.74
10.78
11.87
13.46
14.49
7.22
8.04
8.84
10.00
10.74
10.78
11.87
13.46
14.49
10.78
11.87
13.46
14.49
15.98
13.46
14.49
15.98

cm4
30.1
31.9
36.7
38.9
55.3
59.0
62.7
70.0
77.0
44.7
47.4
67.5
72.1
76.6
85.5
94.1
106.7
114.8
82.9
88.1
98.3
108.3
132.2
134.6
148.4
168.6
181.8
99.7
111.2
122.5
139.0
149.6
152.1
167.8
190.7
205.6
162.7
179.4
203.9
219.9
243.1
256.9
277.0
306.4

(deg)
22.74
22.69
17.72
17.67
24.26
24.23
24.19
24.12
24.04
13.72
13.68
19.00
18.96
18.93
18.86
18.80
18.69
18.63
15.86
15.83
15.77
15.70
15.55
19.45
19.39
19.30
19.24
13.48
13.42
13.36
13.28
13.22
16.62
16.57
16.48
16.42
15.23
15.18
15.10
15.04
14.96
11.08
11.03
10.97

cm4
0.0249
0.0303
0.0275
0.0335
0.0252
0.0311
0.0379
0.0542
0.0745
0.0306
0.0373
0.0277
0.0342
0.0417
0.0596
0.0820
0.1250
0.1606
0.0368
0.0449
0.0642
0.0883
0.1730
0.0687
0.0946
0.1442
0.1854
0.0480
0.0687
0.0946
0.1442
0.1854
0.0733
0.1009
0.1539
0.1978
0.0760
0.1046
0.1596
0.2052
0.2884
0.1827
0.2350
0.3305

cm6
489
517
742
784
1398
1489
1578
1750
1916
1123
1188
2108
2245
2380
2642
2894
3256
3485
3008
3189
3542
3882
4679
5446
5980
6748
7240
4129
4587
5029
5662
6066
7070
7765
8768
9410
8157
8960
10119
10861
11931
16583
17807
19573

A - 44

es
mm
0.36
0.39
0.36
0.39
0.34
0.37
0.39
0.44
0.49
0.36
0.39
0.34
0.36
0.39
0.44
0.49
0.57
0.61
0.36
0.39
0.44
0.49
0.61
0.44
0.49
0.57
0.61
0.39
0.44
0.49
0.57
0.61
0.44
0.49
0.57
0.61
0.44
0.49
0.57
0.61
0.69
0.56
0.61
0.69

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES


ALBION ZED
2
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm

PRINCIPAL
AXIS
PROPERTIES

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm
120 x

50

145

50

145

62.5

175

50

175

62.5

200

62.5

200

75

225

62.5

225

75

240

75

300

75

t
mm
1.5
1.6
1.5
1.6
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.5
1.6
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.5
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
2.8
2.3
2.5
2.8

Q
0.74
0.76
0.67
0.69
0.64
0.67
0.70
0.74
0.77
0.60
0.62
0.59
0.61
0.64
0.67
0.70
0.74
0.76
0.57
0.59
0.63
0.65
0.71
0.62
0.66
0.70
0.73
0.56
0.59
0.61
0.64
0.66
0.58
0.62
0.66
0.68
0.56
0.60
0.64
0.66
0.69
0.56
0.58
0.60

po / p y

Zxr

Zy1r

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

Iu u

Iv v

0.95
0.96
0.91
0.93
0.85
0.88
0.91
0.94
0.97
0.87
0.89
0.81
0.84
0.87
0.91
0.94
0.96
0.98
0.81
0.84
0.88
0.91
0.96
0.86
0.90
0.94
0.95
0.81
0.85
0.88
0.92
0.94
0.83
0.87
0.91
0.93
0.82
0.86
0.90
0.92
0.94
0.85
0.87
0.90

cm3
12.5
13.5
15.5
16.8
16.1
17.8
19.5
22.7
25.7
19.1
20.8
19.7
21.9
24.0
28.1
32.0
37.6
41.1
25.3
27.8
32.6
37.3
48.3
35.4
41.0
48.9
53.9
31.4
37.1
42.5
50.4
55.5
40.2
46.7
55.9
61.7
43.0
50.0
60.1
66.5
75.8
76.7
85.5
98.2

cm3
4.1
4.3
4.1
4.3
6.3
6.8
7.2
8.0
8.8
4.1
4.3
6.3
6.8
7.2
8.0
8.8
9.9
10.7
6.8
7.2
8.0
8.8
10.7
10.7
11.8
13.4
14.4
7.2
8.0
8.8
9.9
10.7
10.7
11.8
13.4
14.4
10.7
11.8
13.4
14.4
15.9
13.4
14.4
15.9

cm3
4.11
4.35
4.11
4.35
6.37
6.80
7.22
8.04
8.84
4.11
4.35
6.37
6.80
7.22
8.04
8.84
10.00
10.74
6.80
7.22
8.04
8.84
10.74
10.78
11.87
13.46
14.49
7.22
8.04
8.84
10.00
10.74
10.78
11.87
13.46
14.49
10.78
11.87
13.46
14.49
15.98
13.46
14.49
15.98

cm4
75.4
81.3
112.9
122.1
119.2
131.1
142.8
165.4
186.9
167.8
182.1
176.1
194.3
212.2
246.9
280.3
328.7
360.0
255.6
279.9
327.2
373.0
482.7
358.8
412.6
489.8
539.3
355.9
418.2
478.7
567.0
624.5
457.6
528.1
629.5
694.9
522.1
603.8
721.8
798.0
909.5
1152.0
1282.2
1473.6

kN
90.4
98.9
90.6
99.0
91.9
103.0
114.1
135.8
157.4
90.9
99.3
92.2
103.3
114.4
136.1
157.5
190.2
213.0
103.6
114.7
136.4
157.8
213.0
144.7
170.6
208.5
233.8
115.0
136.7
158.1
190.7
213.2
145.1
171.0
208.8
234.0
145.3
171.2
209.0
234.2
272.9
210.1
235.3
273.8

kNm
4.39
4.73
5.44
5.89
5.62
6.23
6.82
7.95
9.01
6.70
7.28
6.91
7.67
8.41
9.84
11.20
13.15
14.40
8.85
9.73
11.42
13.04
16.90
12.38
14.34
17.11
18.86
11.01
12.98
14.88
17.64
19.43
14.07
16.33
19.55
21.61
15.06
17.52
21.02
23.26
26.53
26.85
29.91
34.39

kNm
1.43
1.51
1.43
1.51
2.22
2.36
2.51
2.80
3.07
1.43
1.51
2.22
2.36
2.51
2.80
3.07
3.48
3.74
2.36
2.51
2.80
3.07
3.74
3.75
4.13
4.68
5.04
2.51
2.80
3.07
3.48
3.74
3.75
4.13
4.68
5.04
3.75
4.13
4.68
5.04
5.56
4.68
5.04
5.56

kNm
1.44
1.52
1.44
1.52
2.23
2.38
2.53
2.81
3.09
1.44
1.52
2.23
2.38
2.53
2.81
3.09
3.50
3.76
2.38
2.53
2.81
3.09
3.76
3.77
4.16
4.71
5.07
2.53
2.81
3.09
3.50
3.76
3.77
4.16
4.71
5.07
3.77
4.16
4.71
5.07
5.59
4.71
5.07
5.59

cm4
91.9
97.7
135.1
143.6
162.1
173.2
184.2
205.8
227.0
203.2
216.1
235.5
251.7
267.8
299.6
330.8
376.6
406.5
333.9
355.4
397.9
439.6
541.0
460.8
509.4
580.9
627.6
460.5
515.8
570.2
650.3
702.6
589.4
651.9
744.0
804.2
677.3
749.3
855.4
924.9
1027.3
1411.4
1527.4
1698.6

cm4
7.6
8.1
8.5
9.0
14.4
15.4
16.3
18.2
20.0
9.3
9.9
16.1
17.2
18.2
20.3
22.3
25.2
27.1
18.4
19.5
21.7
23.9
29.0
32.3
35.6
40.3
43.4
20.6
23.0
25.2
28.5
30.6
34.4
37.9
43.0
46.2
35.6
39.2
44.4
47.7
52.6
49.1
52.8
58.2

A - 45

B top

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES

STRUCTURAL SECTIONS ULTRAZED


Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm2

B bot

SINGLE SECTION
D
145

mm top
x
62.5

bot
56.5

170

67.5

61.5

200

76.0

71.0

225

76.0

71.0

255

76.0

71.0

285

76.0

71.0

Area

mm
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.4
1.5
1.6
2.0
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.5
3.0
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
3.0

cm
3.60
3.91
4.22
4.84
5.45
6.07
4.01
4.35
4.70
5.38
6.07
6.76
4.66
5.05
5.45
6.24
7.03
7.82
5.79
6.21
6.63
8.31
7.10
8.00
8.90
11.14
13.36
8.53
9.49
10.92
11.88
14.25

Weight

Ix x

kg/m
2.83
3.07
3.31
3.80
4.28
4.76
3.15
3.42
3.69
4.22
4.76
5.30
3.66
3.97
4.28
4.90
5.52
6.14
4.55
4.88
5.21
6.52
5.57
6.28
6.99
8.74
10.49
6.70
7.45
8.57
9.32
11.19

cm
120.4
130.5
140.5
160.5
180.2
199.9
182.6
197.9
213.2
243.7
273.9
303.9
289.7
314.0
338.2
386.2
433.9
481.2
445.5
477.3
508.9
634.5
683.7
768.6
852.9
1061.2
1266.1
1001.2
1111.4
1275.3
1383.8
1652.1

Iy y
4

cm
29.6
32.1
34.5
39.5
44.3
49.2
36.2
39.2
42.3
48.3
54.3
60.2
56.2
60.9
65.6
74.7
83.8
92.8
65.6
70.2
74.8
92.8
74.8
83.9
92.8
114.8
136.1
83.9
92.8
106.1
114.8
136.1

rx x

ry y

Zx x

cm
5.78
5.78
5.77
5.76
5.75
5.74
6.75
6.74
6.74
6.73
6.72
6.71
7.89
7.88
7.88
7.87
7.85
7.84
8.77
8.76
8.76
8.74
9.81
9.80
9.79
9.76
9.73
10.83
10.82
10.81
10.79
10.77

cm
2.87
2.86
2.86
2.86
2.85
2.85
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.99
2.99
3.48
3.47
3.47
3.46
3.45
3.44
3.36
3.36
3.36
3.34
3.24
3.24
3.23
3.21
3.19
3.14
3.13
3.12
3.11
3.09

cm
16.35
17.72
19.08
21.79
24.48
27.15
21.18
22.97
24.74
28.28
31.79
35.29
28.69
31.09
33.49
38.25
42.97
47.65
39.24
42.04
44.84
55.90
53.18
59.79
66.35
82.57
98.52
69.73
77.41
88.83
96.39
115.10

Zy y
3

cm
4.45
4.83
5.20
5.94
6.67
7.40
5.06
5.49
5.91
6.75
7.59
8.42
6.90
7.47
8.04
9.18
10.29
11.40
8.04
8.60
9.17
11.39
9.16
10.28
11.38
14.09
16.71
10.27
11.37
13.00
14.08
16.70

Ix y
4

cm
45.5
49.3
53.1
60.6
68.1
75.5
61.2
66.3
71.4
81.6
91.7
101.7
97.9
106.1
114.2
130.4
146.3
162.1
129.4
138.6
147.7
183.7
168.6
189.2
209.7
260.0
309.0
212.6
235.6
269.7
292.2
347.4

(deg)
22.53
22.53
22.53
22.53
22.54
22.54
19.94
19.94
19.94
19.93
19.93
19.92
20.00
19.99
19.98
19.97
19.95
19.93
17.14
17.13
17.12
17.08
14.48
14.46
14.44
14.39
14.34
12.44
12.42
12.38
12.36
12.31

cm
0.0162
0.0207
0.0260
0.0392
0.0563
0.0777
0.0180
0.0230
0.0289
0.0437
0.0627
0.0865
0.0209
0.0267
0.0336
0.0506
0.0726
0.1002
0.0357
0.0441
0.0538
0.1064
0.0576
0.0826
0.1140
0.2247
0.3903
0.0881
0.1215
0.1859
0.2395
0.4162

Cw
4

cm
881
954
1027
1171
1314
1455
1539
1668
1795
2048
2299
2547
3174
3434
3691
4201
4700
5192
4823
5158
5490
6790
7306
8180
9042
11138
13150
10553
11667
13306
14379
16986

es
mm
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.2
2.0
2.1
2.0
2.1
1.9
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.9
1.8
1.9
1.7
1.8

B top

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES


x

STRUCTURAL SECTIONS ULTRAZED


Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm2

145

mm top
x
62.5

PRINCIPAL
AXIS
PROPERTIES

B bot

SINGLE SECTION
D

t
bot
56.5

170

67.5

61.5

200

76.0

71.0

225

76.0

71.0

255

76.0

71.0

285

76.0

71.0

mm
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.4
1.5
1.6
2.0
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.5
3.0
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
3.0

Q
0.84
0.86
0.87
0.89
0.91
0.94
0.78
0.79
0.81
0.83
0.85
0.87
0.83
0.84
0.86
0.89
0.91
0.93
0.81
0.82
0.83
0.87
0.78
0.80
0.81
0.85
0.89
0.75
0.76
0.79
0.80
0.84

po / py

Zxr

Zy1r

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

Iu u

Iv v

0.90
0.92
0.94
0.96
0.98
1.00
0.86
0.88
0.90
0.93
0.95
0.97
0.83
0.85
0.88
0.91
0.94
0.96
0.85
0.87
0.88
0.93
0.84
0.88
0.90
0.95
0.98
0.84
0.87
0.90
0.92
0.96

cm3
14.78
16.34
17.89
20.97
24.03
27.06
18.15
20.19
22.22
26.25
30.25
34.21
23.70
26.56
29.32
34.79
40.18
45.52
33.19
36.41
39.60
52.22
44.82
52.36
59.83
78.29
96.44
58.54
67.29
80.30
88.90
110.19

cm3
4.67
5.07
5.46
6.24
7.01
7.77
5.30
5.75
6.19
7.08
7.96
8.83
7.15
7.74
8.33
9.51
10.67
11.81
8.34
8.93
9.52
11.82
9.52
10.69
11.83
14.65
17.39
10.69
11.84
13.55
14.66
17.40

cm3
4.45
4.83
5.20
5.94
6.67
7.40
5.06
5.49
5.91
6.75
7.59
8.42
6.90
7.47
8.04
9.18
10.29
11.40
8.04
8.60
9.17
11.39
9.16
10.28
11.38
14.09
16.71
10.27
11.37
13.00
14.08
16.70

cm4
108.6
120.2
131.7
154.4
176.9
199.2
155.8
173.6
191.3
226.1
260.5
294.7
237.4
266.2
294.6
350.6
405.5
459.5
375.2
412.2
448.8
592.7
575.4
672.8
769.0
1006.3
1239.4
840.3
966.0
1152.8
1276.3
1581.7

kN
106.1
117.0
128.1
150.9
174.6
198.9
109.4
121.0
132.6
156.2
180.7
206.2
134.6
149.5
164.3
193.8
223.4
253.6
164.4
179.1
193.8
253.6
194.0
223.5
253.7
332.9
417.9
223.9
253.9
300.6
332.9
418.0

kNm
5.17
5.72
6.26
7.34
8.41
9.47
6.35
7.07
7.78
9.19
10.59
11.97
8.30
9.30
10.26
12.18
14.06
15.93
11.62
12.74
13.86
18.28
15.69
18.33
20.94
27.40
33.76
20.49
23.55
28.10
31.12
38.57

kNm
1.64
1.77
1.91
2.18
2.45
2.72
1.86
2.01
2.17
2.48
2.78
3.09
2.50
2.71
2.92
3.33
3.73
4.13
2.92
3.13
3.33
4.14
3.33
3.74
4.14
5.13
6.09
3.74
4.15
4.74
5.13
6.09

kNm
1.56
1.69
1.82
2.08
2.34
2.59
1.77
1.92
2.07
2.36
2.66
2.95
2.42
2.62
2.82
3.21
3.60
3.99
2.81
3.01
3.21
3.99
3.21
3.60
3.98
4.93
5.85
3.59
3.98
4.55
4.93
5.85

cm4
139.3
150.9
162.6
185.6
208.5
231.2
204.8
222.0
239.1
273.3
307.1
340.8
325.3
352.6
379.7
433.6
487.0
539.9
485.4
520.0
554.4
690.9
727.2
817.4
906.9
1127.9
1345.0
1048.1
1163.2
1334.5
1447.8
1727.9

cm4
10.7
11.6
12.5
14.3
16.1
17.9
14.0
15.2
16.3
18.7
21.0
23.4
20.6
22.3
24.0
27.4
30.7
34.0
25.6
27.5
29.3
36.4
31.2
35.0
38.8
48.1
57.1
37.0
41.0
46.9
50.8
60.3

GROSS SECTION PROPERTIES


GENERIC Z SECTIONS
Design Yield Strength = 280 N/mm2

SINGLE SECTION
D

mm top
100 x 55
125 x 55

bot
45
45

150

58

49

165

58

49

180

58

49

200

58

49

220

58

49

250
300

x
x

76
94

68
86

Area

mm
1.2
1.2
1.6
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.0
2.4
2.4
2.4
3.0

cm
2.65
2.94
3.91
4.41
4.95
4.64
5.21
4.87
5.48
6.07
5.19
5.83
6.47
6.86
8.19
9.78
11.81
14.69

Weight

Ix x

Iy y

4
cm4
cm
kg/m
2.08
42.8
18.2
2.30
71.7
18.2
3.07
94.5
23.7
3.46
151.1
28.2
3.88
169.0
31.3
3.64
189.1
28.2
4.09
211.5
31.3
3.83
232.3
28.2
4.30
259.9
31.3
4.77
287.1
34.3
4.07
298.5
28.2
4.58
334.1
31.3
5.08
369.1
34.3
5.38
464.1
34.3
6.43
550.5
39.9
7.67
885.0
87.9
9.27 1557.5 161.0
11.53 1923.2 195.2

rx x

ry y

cm
4.02
4.94
4.92
5.86
5.84
6.38
6.37
6.90
6.89
6.88
7.59
7.57
7.56
8.23
8.20
9.51
11.49
11.44

cm
2.62
2.49
2.46
2.53
2.51
2.46
2.45
2.40
2.39
2.37
2.33
2.32
2.30
2.24
2.21
3.00
3.69
3.65

Zx x

Zy y

3
cm3
cm
8.29
3.48
11.17
3.47
14.72
4.52
19.75
5.05
22.08
5.62
22.49
5.05
25.15
5.61
25.35
5.04
28.37
5.61
31.33
6.15
29.35
5.04
32.86
5.60
36.30
6.14
41.54
6.14
49.26
7.17
70.05 11.92
102.94 17.53
127.10 21.33

Ix y

cm4
21.2
27.0
35.3
48.2
53.6
53.3
59.3
58.4
65.0
71.5
65.2
72.6
79.9
88.2
103.6
198.8
357.3
436.9

(deg)
29.96
22.63
22.46
19.03
18.96
16.75
16.68
14.89
14.82
14.75
12.88
12.82
12.75
11.16
11.04
13.26
13.55
13.41

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES

Cw

4
cm6
cm
0.0119 297
0.0132 479
0.0317 619
0.0357 1086
0.0511 1202
0.0376 1338
0.0538 1481
0.0395 1618
0.0565 1792
0.0778 1959
0.0421 2038
0.0602 2258
0.0828 2469
0.0878 3042
0.1521 3530
0.1815 9774
0.2192 25520
0.4290 30844

es
mm
2.65
2.63
2.63
2.18
2.17
2.13
2.13
2.09
2.08
2.07
2.02
2.01
2.00
1.93
1.91
1.55
1.46
1.44

PRINCIPAL
AXIS
PROPERTIES

GENERIC Z SECTIONS
Design Yield Strength = 280 N/mm2
SINGLE SECTION
D

mm top
100 x 55
125 x 55

bot
45
45

150

58

49

165

58

49

180

58

49

200

58

49

220

58

49

250
300

x
x

76
94

68
86

mm
1.2
1.2
1.6
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.0
2.4
2.4
2.4
3.0

p o / py

Q
0.76
0.68
0.78
0.71
0.74
0.68
0.71
0.64
0.67
0.70
0.61
0.63
0.66
0.62
0.67
0.65
0.60
0.66

0.97
0.93
0.98
0.95
0.97
0.93
0.95
0.91
0.94
0.96
0.89
0.91
0.94
0.92
0.95
0.93
0.89
0.94

Zxr

Zy1r

3
cm3
cm
7.97
3.81
10.28
3.81
14.39
4.98
18.69
5.52
21.37
6.14
20.88
5.52
23.94
6.14
23.08
5.52
26.54
6.14
29.93
6.75
26.01
5.52
30.03
6.14
33.98
6.75
38.08
6.75
46.94
7.91
65.05 12.76
91.30 18.54
119.13 22.59

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

cm3
cm4
kN
3.48
40.7
56.2
3.47
65.4
56.3
4.52
92.3
84.9
5.05
142.9
87.7
5.62
163.5 103.1
5.05
175.4
87.8
5.61
201.3 103.1
5.04
211.3
87.9
5.61
243.1 103.2
6.15
274.3 119.1
5.04
264.2
88.1
5.60
305.3 103.3
6.14
345.5 119.2
6.14
425.5 119.4
7.17
524.5 153.4
11.92 821.6 177.9
17.53 1377.9 199.7
21.33 1802.2 271.7

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

Iu u

kNm
2.23
2.88
4.03
5.23
5.98
5.85
6.70
6.46
7.43
8.38
7.28
8.41
9.51
10.66
13.14
18.21
25.56
33.36

kNm
1.07
1.07
1.40
1.54
1.72
1.54
1.72
1.54
1.72
1.89
1.54
1.72
1.89
1.89
2.21
3.57
5.19
6.33

kNm
0.97
0.97
1.27
1.42
1.57
1.41
1.57
1.41
1.57
1.72
1.41
1.57
1.72
1.72
2.01
3.34
4.91
5.97

cm
55.0
83.0
109.1
167.7
187.4
205.1
229.3
247.8
277.1
305.9
313.4
350.6
387.2
481.6
570.7
931.8
1643.6
2027.3

Mcx

Mcy1

Mcy2x

kNm
2.72
3.49
4.94
6.39
7.33
7.11
8.19
7.84
9.06
10.25
8.80
10.21
11.60
12.96
16.07
22.18
30.87
40.67

kNm
1.33
1.33
1.74
1.93
2.15
1.93
2.15
1.93
2.15
2.36
1.93
2.15
2.36
2.36
2.77
4.46
6.49
7.90

kNm
1.22
1.21
1.58
1.77
1.97
1.77
1.96
1.77
1.96
2.15
1.76
1.96
2.15
2.15
2.51
4.17
6.14
7.46

REDUCED SECTION PROPERTIES


GENERIC Z SECTIONS
Design Yield Strength = 350 N/mm2
SINGLE SECTION
D

mm top
100 x 55
125 x 55

bot
45
45

150

58

49

165

58

49

180

58

49

200

58

49

220

58

49

250
300

x
x

76
94

68
86

mm
1.2
1.2
1.6
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.0
2.4
2.4
2.4
3.0

Q
0.72
0.65
0.75
0.68
0.72
0.65
0.68
0.62
0.65
0.67
0.58
0.61
0.63
0.60
0.64
0.62
0.58
0.63

p o / py
0.95
0.90
0.96
0.93
0.95
0.91
0.93
0.89
0.91
0.93
0.86
0.89
0.91
0.89
0.93
0.91
0.86
0.91

Zxr

Zy1r

3
cm3
cm
7.77
3.80
9.97
3.80
14.11
4.98
18.25
5.51
20.94
6.14
20.33
5.51
23.40
6.14
22.40
5.51
25.88
6.14
29.28
6.74
25.14
5.51
29.19
6.14
33.15
6.74
37.03
6.74
45.91
7.90
63.36 12.76
88.19 18.53
116.20 22.58

Zy2r

Ixr

Pc

cm3
cm4
kN
3.48
39.3
66.33
3.47
62.9
66.49
4.52
90.5 101.93
5.05
139.3 105.26
5.62
160.1 123.89
5.05
170.5 105.40
5.61
196.6 124.00
5.04
204.8 105.58
5.61
237.0 124.15
6.15
268.3 143.11
5.04
255.2 105.83
5.60
296.6 124.40
6.14
337.0 143.33
6.14
413.7 143.61
7.17
513.0 183.68
11.92 800.0 213.82
17.53 1327.2 237.76
21.33 1757.1 326.13

A - 48

Iv v
cm4
6.0
7.0
9.1
11.6
12.8
12.1
13.5
12.7
14.1
15.4
13.3
14.8
16.2
16.9
19.7
41.1
74.9
91.1

LOAD CAPACITY TABLES FOR BEAMS


S280
Generic C Sections
Note: These tables are presented for generic C sections, which may be used
for scheme design.

B-1

BENDING

Table 1

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 100 mm Thickness 1.2 mm

Design Strength 280 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

1.0

1.5

5.0

11.6
11.6
11.6

7.7
7.7
7.7

5.8
5.8
5.8

4.2
4.6
4.6

2.6
3.9
3.9

1.7
3.3
3.3

1.1
2.9
2.9

0.8
2.5
2.6

0.6
1.9
2.3

26.4
18.9

11.7
8.4

6.6
4.7

4.2
3.0

2.9
2.1

2.2
1.5

1.6
1.2

1.3
0.9

1.1
0.8

44.0
31.4

19.6
14.0

11.0
7.9

7.0
5.0

4.9
3.5

3.6
2.6

2.7
2.0

2.2
1.6

1.8
1.3

23.2
23.2
23.2

15.4
15.4
15.4

11.6
11.6
11.6

9.3
9.3
9.3

7.7
7.7
7.7

5.8
6.6
6.6

4.0
5.8
5.8

2.9
5.1
5.1

2.2
4.6
4.6

52.8
37.7

23.5
16.8

13.2
9.4

8.4
6.0

5.9
4.2

4.3
3.1

3.3
2.4

2.6
1.9

2.1
1.5

88.0
62.9

39.1
27.9

22.0
15.7

14.1
10.1

9.8
7.0

7.2
5.1

5.5
3.9

4.3
3.1

3.5
2.5

1.0

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

5.0

5.8
5.8
5.8

3.9
3.9
3.9

2.9
2.9
2.9

2.3
2.3
2.3

1.5
1.9
1.9

1.0
1.7
1.7

0.7
1.4
1.4

0.5
1.3
1.3

0.4
1.0
1.2

16.5
11.8

7.3
5.2

4.1
2.9

2.6
1.9

1.8
1.3

1.3
1.0

1.0
0.7

0.8
0.6

0.7
0.5

11.6
11.6
11.6

7.7
7.7
7.7

5.8
5.8
5.8

4.6
4.6
4.6

3.9
3.9
3.9

3.3
3.3
3.3

2.4
2.9
2.9

1.7
2.6
2.6

1.3
2.3
2.3

33.0
23.6

14.7
10.5

8.2
5.9

5.3
3.8

3.7
2.6

2.7
1.9

2.1
1.5

1.6
1.2

1.3
0.9

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
3.9
8.3

4.3
8.9

4.9
9.8

5.6
10.6

6.2
11.2

6.8
11.8

7.8
16.5

8.6
17.8

9.8
19.6

11.1
21.1

12.4
22.4

13.6
23.6

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B-2

BENDING

Table 2

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 125 mm Thickness 1.2 mm

Design Strength 280 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

1.0

1.5

5.0

14.8
14.8
14.8

9.9
9.9
9.9

7.4
7.4
7.4

5.6
5.9
5.9

3.4
4.9
4.9

2.2
4.2
4.2

1.5
3.7
3.7

1.1
3.3
3.3

0.8
2.5
3.0

42.2
30.2

18.8
13.4

10.6
7.5

6.8
4.8

4.7
3.4

3.4
2.5

2.6
1.9

2.1
1.5

1.7
1.2

70.4
50.3

31.3
22.3

17.6
12.6

11.3
8.0

7.8
5.6

5.7
4.1

4.4
3.1

3.5
2.5

2.8
2.0

29.7
29.7
29.7

19.8
19.8
19.8

14.8
14.8
14.8

11.9
11.9
11.9

9.9
9.9
9.9

7.2
8.5
8.5

5.0
7.4
7.4

3.5
6.6
6.6

2.6
5.9
5.9

84.4
60.3

37.5
26.8

21.1
15.1

13.5
9.7

9.4
6.7

6.9
4.9

5.3
3.8

4.2
3.0

3.4
2.4

140.7
100.5

62.6
44.7

35.2
25.1

22.5
16.1

15.6
11.2

11.5
8.2

8.8
6.3

7.0
5.0

5.6
4.0

1.0

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

5.0

7.4
7.4
7.4

4.9
4.9
4.9

3.7
3.7
3.7

3.0
3.0
3.0

2.0
2.5
2.5

1.3
2.1
2.1

0.9
1.9
1.9

0.6
1.6
1.6

0.5
1.3
1.5

26.4
18.8

11.7
8.4

6.6
4.7

4.2
3.0

2.9
2.1

2.2
1.5

1.6
1.2

1.3
0.9

1.1
0.8

14.8
14.8
14.8

9.9
9.9
9.9

7.4
7.4
7.4

5.9
5.9
5.9

4.9
4.9
4.9

4.2
4.2
4.2

3.0
3.7
3.7

2.1
3.3
3.3

1.6
3.0
3.0

52.8
37.7

23.5
16.8

13.2
9.4

8.4
6.0

5.9
4.2

4.3
3.1

3.3
2.4

2.6
1.9

2.1
1.5

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
3.7
8.5

4.1
9.1

4.7
10.0

5.3
10.8

5.9
11.5

6.5
12.1

7.5
16.9

8.2
18.3

9.4
20.1

10.6
21.6

11.8
23.0

13.0
24.2

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B-3

BENDING

Table 3

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 125 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 280 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

1.0

1.5

5.0

21.2
21.2
21.2

14.1
14.1
14.1

10.6
10.6
10.6

7.5
8.5
8.5

4.6
7.1
7.1

3.0
6.1
6.1

2.1
5.3
5.3

1.5
4.4
4.7

1.1
3.4
4.2

59.6
42.6

26.5
18.9

14.9
10.7

9.5
6.8

6.6
4.7

4.9
3.5

3.7
2.7

2.9
2.1

2.4
1.7

99.4
71.0

44.2
31.6

24.9
17.8

15.9
11.4

11.0
7.9

8.1
5.8

6.2
4.4

4.9
3.5

4.0
2.8

42.4
42.4
42.4

28.3
28.3
28.3

21.2
21.2
21.2

17.0
17.0
17.0

13.7
14.1
14.1

9.7
12.1
12.1

6.7
10.6
10.6

4.8
9.4
9.4

3.6
8.5
8.5

119.3
85.2

53.0
37.9

29.8
21.3

19.1
13.6

13.3
9.5

9.7
7.0

7.5
5.3

5.9
4.2

4.8
3.4

198.8
142.0

88.4
63.1

49.7
35.5

31.8
22.7

22.1
15.8

16.2
11.6

12.4
8.9

9.8
7.0

8.0
5.7

1.0

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

5.0

10.6
10.6
10.6

7.1
7.1
7.1

5.3
5.3
5.3

4.1
4.2
4.2

2.7
3.5
3.5

1.8
3.0
3.0

1.2
2.6
2.7

0.9
2.2
2.4

0.7
1.7
2.1

37.3
26.6

16.6
11.8

9.3
6.7

6.0
4.3

4.1
3.0

3.0
2.2

2.3
1.7

1.8
1.3

1.5
1.1

21.2
21.2
21.2

14.1
14.1
14.1

10.6
10.6
10.6

8.5
8.5
8.5

7.0
7.1
7.1

5.6
6.1
6.1

4.0
5.3
5.3

2.9
4.7
4.7

2.2
4.2
4.2

74.6
53.3

33.1
23.7

18.6
13.3

11.9
8.5

8.3
5.9

6.1
4.3

4.7
3.3

3.7
2.6

3.0
2.1

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
6.6
13.8

7.1
14.8

8.0
16.2

8.9
17.3

9.7
18.3

10.6
19.2

13.3
27.6

14.3
29.6

16.0
32.3

17.7
34.6

19.4
36.7

21.1
38.5

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B-4

BENDING

Table 4

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 150 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 280 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

2.0

2.5

7.0

14.4
14.4
14.4

11.6
11.6
11.6

8.3
9.6
9.6

5.4
8.3
8.3

3.7
7.2
7.2

2.6
6.4
6.4

2.0
5.8
5.8

1.2
3.7
4.8

0.8
2.4
4.1

24.5
17.5

15.7
11.2

10.9
7.8

8.0
5.7

6.1
4.4

4.8
3.5

3.9
2.8

2.7
1.7

2.0
1.1

40.8
29.1

26.1
18.7

18.1
13.0

13.3
9.5

10.2
7.3

8.1
5.8

6.5
4.7

4.5
2.8

3.3
1.8

28.9
28.9
28.9

23.1
23.1
23.1

19.3
19.3
19.3

16.5
16.5
16.5

11.9
14.4
14.4

8.6
12.8
12.8

6.4
11.6
11.6

3.8
9.6
9.6

2.5
7.7
8.3

49.0
35.0

31.3
22.4

21.8
15.5

16.0
11.4

12.2
8.7

9.7
6.9

7.8
5.6

5.4
3.4

4.0
2.1

81.6
58.3

52.2
37.3

36.3
25.9

26.7
19.0

20.4
14.6

16.1
11.5

13.1
9.3

9.1
5.7

6.7
3.6

1.5

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

9.6
9.6
9.6

7.2
7.2
7.2

5.8
5.8
5.8

4.7
4.8
4.8

3.2
4.1
4.1

2.2
3.6
3.6

1.2
2.9
2.9

0.7
1.9
2.4

0.5
1.2
2.1

27.2
19.4

15.3
10.9

9.8
7.0

6.8
4.9

5.0
3.6

3.8
2.7

2.4
1.7

1.7
1.1

1.2
0.7

19.3
19.3
19.3

14.4
14.4
14.4

11.6
11.6
11.6

9.6
9.6
9.6

8.3
8.3
8.3

6.9
7.2
7.2

3.8
5.8
5.8

2.3
4.8
4.8

1.5
3.8
4.1

54.4
38.9

30.6
21.9

19.6
14.0

13.6
9.7

10.0
7.1

7.7
5.5

4.9
3.5

3.4
2.1

2.5
1.3

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
6.4
14.1

6.9
15.1

7.7
16.5

8.6
17.6

9.4
18.7

10.2
19.6

12.8
28.1

13.8
30.1

15.5
32.9

17.1
35.3

18.7
37.3

20.4
39.2

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B-5

BENDING

Table 5

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 150 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Design Strength 280 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

2.0

2.5

7.0

16.6
16.6
16.6

13.3
13.3
13.3

9.3
11.1
11.1

6.1
9.5
9.5

4.2
8.3
8.3

3.0
7.4
7.4

2.2
6.5
6.7

1.4
4.2
5.5

0.9
2.7
4.8

28.1
20.1

18.0
12.8

12.5
8.9

9.2
6.6

7.0
5.0

5.5
4.0

4.5
3.2

3.1
2.0

2.3
1.2

46.8
33.4

30.0
21.4

20.8
14.9

15.3
10.9

11.7
8.4

9.2
6.6

7.5
5.3

5.2
3.3

3.8
2.0

33.3
33.3
33.3

26.6
26.6
26.6

22.2
22.2
22.2

18.4
19.0
19.0

13.4
16.6
16.6

9.7
14.8
14.8

7.2
13.3
13.3

4.3
11.1
11.1

2.8
8.6
9.5

56.2
40.1

35.9
25.7

25.0
17.8

18.3
13.1

14.0
10.0

11.1
7.9

9.0
6.4

6.2
3.9

4.6
2.5

93.6
66.9

59.9
42.8

41.6
29.7

30.6
21.8

23.4
16.7

18.5
13.2

15.0
10.7

10.4
6.5

7.6
4.1

1.5

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

11.1
11.1
11.1

8.3
8.3
8.3

6.7
6.7
6.7

5.2
5.5
5.5

3.6
4.8
4.8

2.5
4.2
4.2

1.3
3.3
3.3

0.8
2.1
2.8

0.5
1.3
2.4

31.2
22.3

17.6
12.5

11.2
8.0

7.8
5.6

5.7
4.1

4.4
3.1

2.8
2.0

2.0
1.2

1.4
0.8

22.2
22.2
22.2

16.6
16.6
16.6

13.3
13.3
13.3

11.1
11.1
11.1

9.5
9.5
9.5

7.7
8.3
8.3

4.3
6.7
6.7

2.6
5.5
5.5

1.7
4.3
4.8

62.4
44.6

35.1
25.1

22.5
16.0

15.6
11.1

11.5
8.2

8.8
6.3

5.6
4.0

3.9
2.4

2.9
1.5

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
8.1
17.2

8.7
18.4

9.7
20.0

10.6
21.4

11.5
22.6

12.5
23.7

16.3
34.4

17.4
36.8

19.3
40.1

21.2
42.8

23.1
45.3

25.0
47.5

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B-6

BENDING

Table 6

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 165 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 280 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

2.0

2.5

7.0

16.1
16.1
16.1

12.9
12.9
12.9

9.3
10.7
10.7

6.0
9.2
9.2

4.1
8.0
8.0

2.9
7.1
7.1

2.2
6.4
6.4

1.3
4.2
5.4

0.9
2.7
4.6

29.9
21.4

19.2
13.7

13.3
9.5

9.8
7.0

7.5
5.3

5.9
4.2

4.8
3.4

3.3
2.1

2.4
1.3

49.9
35.7

31.9
22.8

22.2
15.8

16.3
11.6

12.5
8.9

9.9
7.0

8.0
5.7

5.5
3.5

4.1
2.2

32.1
32.1
32.1

25.7
25.7
25.7

21.4
21.4
21.4

18.3
18.4
18.4

13.1
16.1
16.1

9.4
14.3
14.3

6.9
12.9
12.9

4.1
10.7
10.7

2.7
8.5
9.2

59.9
42.8

38.3
27.4

26.6
19.0

19.6
14.0

15.0
10.7

11.8
8.5

9.6
6.8

6.7
4.2

4.9
2.6

99.8
71.3

63.9
45.6

44.4
31.7

32.6
23.3

25.0
17.8

19.7
14.1

16.0
11.4

11.1
6.9

8.1
4.4

1.5

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

10.7
10.7
10.7

8.0
8.0
8.0

6.4
6.4
6.4

5.3
5.4
5.4

3.6
4.6
4.6

2.5
4.0
4.0

1.3
3.2
3.2

0.8
2.1
2.7

0.5
1.3
2.3

33.3
23.8

18.7
13.4

12.0
8.6

8.3
5.9

6.1
4.4

4.7
3.3

3.0
2.1

2.1
1.3

1.5
0.8

21.4
21.4
21.4

16.1
16.1
16.1

12.9
12.9
12.9

10.7
10.7
10.7

9.2
9.2
9.2

7.6
8.0
8.0

4.1
6.4
6.4

2.5
5.4
5.4

1.6
4.2
4.6

66.6
47.5

37.4
26.7

24.0
17.1

16.6
11.9

12.2
8.7

9.4
6.7

6.0
4.3

4.2
2.6

3.1
1.6

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
6.3
14.2

6.8
15.2

7.6
16.6

8.4
17.8

9.2
18.9

10.0
19.8

12.6
28.4

13.5
30.5

15.1
33.3

16.7
35.7

18.4
37.8

20.0
39.6

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B-7

BENDING

Table 7

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 165 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Design Strength 280 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

2.0

2.5

7.0

18.5
18.5
18.5

14.8
14.8
14.8

10.4
12.4
12.4

6.8
10.6
10.6

4.7
9.3
9.3

3.3
8.2
8.2

2.5
7.4
7.4

1.5
4.7
6.2

1.0
3.0
5.3

34.4
24.6

22.0
15.7

15.3
10.9

11.2
8.0

8.6
6.2

6.8
4.9

5.5
3.9

3.8
2.4

2.8
1.5

57.4
41.0

36.7
26.2

25.5
18.2

18.7
13.4

14.4
10.3

11.3
8.1

9.2
6.6

6.4
4.0

4.7
2.5

37.1
37.1
37.1

29.7
29.7
29.7

24.7
24.7
24.7

20.5
21.2
21.2

14.7
18.5
18.5

10.6
16.5
16.5

7.8
14.8
14.8

4.7
12.4
12.4

3.1
9.5
10.6

68.9
49.2

44.1
31.5

30.6
21.9

22.5
16.1

17.2
12.3

13.6
9.7

11.0
7.9

7.7
4.8

5.6
3.0

114.8
82.0

73.5
52.5

51.0
36.4

37.5
26.8

28.7
20.5

22.7
16.2

18.4
13.1

12.8
8.0

9.4
5.0

1.5

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

12.4
12.4
12.4

9.3
9.3
9.3

7.4
7.4
7.4

5.9
6.2
6.2

4.0
5.3
5.3

2.8
4.6
4.6

1.5
3.7
3.7

0.9
2.3
3.1

0.6
1.5
2.6

38.3
27.3

21.5
15.4

13.8
9.8

9.6
6.8

7.0
5.0

5.4
3.8

3.4
2.5

2.4
1.5

1.8
0.9

24.7
24.7
24.7

18.5
18.5
18.5

14.8
14.8
14.8

12.4
12.4
12.4

10.6
10.6
10.6

8.5
9.3
9.3

4.7
7.4
7.4

2.8
6.2
6.2

1.8
4.7
5.3

76.5
54.7

43.1
30.8

27.6
19.7

19.1
13.7

14.1
10.0

10.8
7.7

6.9
4.9

4.8
3.0

3.5
1.9

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
8.0
17.4

8.6
18.6

9.5
20.2

10.4
21.6

11.3
22.9

12.3
24.0

16.0
34.7

17.1
37.2

19.0
40.5

20.8
43.3

22.7
45.7

24.5
48.0

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B-8

BENDING

Table 8

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 180 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 280 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

2.0

2.5

7.0

17.7
17.7
17.7

14.2
14.2
14.2

10.4
11.8
11.8

6.7
10.1
10.1

4.6
8.9
8.9

3.3
7.9
7.9

2.4
7.1
7.1

1.5
4.7
5.9

0.9
3.0
5.1

36.0
25.7

23.0
16.4

16.0
11.4

11.7
8.4

9.0
6.4

7.1
5.1

5.8
4.1

4.0
2.5

2.9
1.6

60.0
42.8

38.4
27.4

26.6
19.0

19.6
14.0

15.0
10.7

11.8
8.5

9.6
6.9

6.7
4.2

4.9
2.6

35.4
35.4
35.4

28.3
28.3
28.3

23.6
23.6
23.6

20.2
20.2
20.2

14.2
17.7
17.7

10.2
15.7
15.7

7.5
14.2
14.2

4.5
11.8
11.8

2.9
9.2
10.1

71.9
51.4

46.0
32.9

32.0
22.8

23.5
16.8

18.0
12.8

14.2
10.2

11.5
8.2

8.0
5.0

5.9
3.1

119.9
85.7

76.7
54.8

53.3
38.1

39.2
28.0

30.0
21.4

23.7
16.9

19.2
13.7

13.3
8.3

9.8
5.2

1.5

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

11.8
11.8
11.8

8.9
8.9
8.9

7.1
7.1
7.1

5.9
5.9
5.9

4.0
5.1
5.1

2.7
4.4
4.4

1.5
3.5
3.5

0.9
2.3
3.0

0.6
1.5
2.5

40.0
28.6

22.5
16.1

14.4
10.3

10.0
7.1

7.3
5.2

5.6
4.0

3.6
2.6

2.5
1.6

1.8
1.0

23.6
23.6
23.6

17.7
17.7
17.7

14.2
14.2
14.2

11.8
11.8
11.8

10.1
10.1
10.1

8.3
8.9
8.9

4.5
7.1
7.1

2.7
5.9
5.9

1.7
4.6
5.1

79.9
57.1

45.0
32.1

28.8
20.6

20.0
14.3

14.7
10.5

11.2
8.0

7.2
5.1

5.0
3.1

3.7
2.0

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
6.1
14.4

6.6
15.4

7.4
16.8

8.2
18.0

9.0
19.1

9.8
20.0

12.3
28.7

13.2
30.8

14.8
33.7

16.4
36.1

18.0
38.2

19.5
40.1

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B-9

BENDING

Table 9

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 180 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Design Strength 280 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

2.0

2.5

7.0

20.5
20.5
20.5

16.4
16.4
16.4

11.6
13.6
13.6

7.5
11.7
11.7

5.2
10.2
10.2

3.7
9.1
9.1

2.7
8.2
8.2

1.7
5.2
6.8

1.1
3.3
5.8

41.5
29.6

26.5
19.0

18.4
13.2

13.5
9.7

10.4
7.4

8.2
5.9

6.6
4.7

4.6
2.9

3.4
1.8

69.1
49.4

44.2
31.6

30.7
21.9

22.6
16.1

17.3
12.3

13.7
9.8

11.1
7.9

7.7
4.8

5.6
3.0

40.9
40.9
40.9

32.8
32.8
32.8

27.3
27.3
27.3

22.6
23.4
23.4

16.0
20.5
20.5

11.5
18.2
18.2

8.5
16.4
16.4

5.1
13.6
13.6

3.3
10.4
11.7

83.0
59.3

53.1
37.9

36.9
26.3

27.1
19.4

20.7
14.8

16.4
11.7

13.3
9.5

9.2
5.8

6.8
3.6

138.3
98.8

88.5
63.2

61.5
43.9

45.2
32.3

34.6
24.7

27.3
19.5

22.1
15.8

15.4
9.6

11.3
6.0

1.5

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

13.6
13.6
13.6

10.2
10.2
10.2

8.2
8.2
8.2

6.6
6.8
6.8

4.5
5.8
5.8

3.1
5.1
5.1

1.7
4.1
4.1

1.0
2.6
3.4

0.7
1.7
2.9

46.1
32.9

25.9
18.5

16.6
11.9

11.5
8.2

8.5
6.0

6.5
4.6

4.1
3.0

2.9
1.8

2.1
1.1

27.3
27.3
27.3

20.5
20.5
20.5

16.4
16.4
16.4

13.6
13.6
13.6

11.7
11.7
11.7

9.3
10.2
10.2

5.1
8.2
8.2

3.0
6.8
6.8

2.0
5.2
5.8

92.2
65.8

51.9
37.0

33.2
23.7

23.0
16.5

16.9
12.1

13.0
9.3

8.3
5.9

5.8
3.6

4.2
2.3

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
7.8
17.5

8.4
18.8

9.3
20.4

10.2
21.8

11.1
23.1

12.0
24.2

15.7
35.1

16.8
37.5

18.6
40.9

20.4
43.7

22.3
46.2

24.1
48.4

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 10

BENDING

Table 10

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 180 mm Thickness 2.0 mm

Design Strength 280 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

2.0

2.5

7.0

23.1
23.1
23.1

18.5
18.5
18.5

12.9
15.4
15.4

8.4
13.2
13.2

5.7
11.6
11.6

4.1
10.3
10.3

3.1
9.1
9.2

1.9
5.8
7.7

1.2
3.7
6.6

46.8
33.4

29.9
21.4

20.8
14.9

15.3
10.9

11.7
8.4

9.2
6.6

7.5
5.3

5.2
3.2

3.8
2.0

78.0
55.7

49.9
35.7

34.7
24.8

25.5
18.2

19.5
13.9

15.4
11.0

12.5
8.9

8.7
5.4

6.4
3.4

46.2
46.2
46.2

37.0
37.0
37.0

30.8
30.8
30.8

25.0
26.4
26.4

17.7
23.1
23.1

12.7
20.5
20.5

9.5
18.5
18.5

5.7
15.4
15.4

3.7
11.5
13.2

93.6
66.8

59.9
42.8

41.6
29.7

30.6
21.8

23.4
16.7

18.5
13.2

15.0
10.7

10.4
6.5

7.6
4.1

156.0
111.4

99.8
71.3

69.3
49.5

50.9
36.4

39.0
27.9

30.8
22.0

25.0
17.8

17.3
10.8

12.7
6.8

1.5

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

15.4
15.4
15.4

11.6
11.6
11.6

9.2
9.2
9.2

7.3
7.7
7.7

5.0
6.6
6.6

3.4
5.8
5.8

1.8
4.6
4.6

1.1
2.9
3.9

0.7
1.9
3.3

52.0
37.1

29.2
20.9

18.7
13.4

13.0
9.3

9.5
6.8

7.3
5.2

4.7
3.3

3.2
2.0

2.4
1.3

30.8
30.8
30.8

23.1
23.1
23.1

18.5
18.5
18.5

15.4
15.4
15.4

13.2
13.2
13.2

10.3
11.6
11.6

5.7
9.2
9.2

3.4
7.7
7.7

2.2
5.7
6.6

104.0
74.3

58.5
41.8

37.4
26.7

26.0
18.6

19.1
13.6

14.6
10.4

9.4
6.7

6.5
4.1

4.8
2.6

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
9.7
21.0

10.4
22.4

11.4
24.4

12.4
26.0

13.5
27.4

14.5
28.7

19.5
42.0

20.7
44.8

22.8
48.7

24.9
52.0

26.9
54.9

29.0
57.5

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 11

BENDING

Table 11

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 200 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 280 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

2.0

2.5

7.0

19.9
19.9
19.9

15.9
15.9
15.9

11.9
13.3
13.3

7.7
11.4
11.4

5.2
9.9
9.9

3.7
8.8
8.8

2.7
8.0
8.0

1.6
5.3
6.6

1.1
3.4
5.7

44.8
32.0

28.7
20.5

19.9
14.2

14.6
10.5

11.2
8.0

8.9
6.3

7.2
5.1

5.0
3.1

3.7
2.0

74.7
53.4

47.8
34.2

33.2
23.7

24.4
17.4

18.7
13.3

14.8
10.5

12.0
8.5

8.3
5.2

6.1
3.3

39.8
39.8
39.8

31.8
31.8
31.8

26.5
26.5
26.5

22.6
22.7
22.7

15.8
19.9
19.9

11.2
17.7
17.7

8.3
15.9
15.9

4.9
13.3
13.3

3.2
10.3
11.4

89.7
64.1

57.4
41.0

39.9
28.5

29.3
20.9

22.4
16.0

17.7
12.7

14.4
10.3

10.0
6.2

7.3
3.9

149.5
106.8

95.7
68.3

66.4
47.5

48.8
34.9

37.4
26.7

29.5
21.1

23.9
17.1

16.6
10.4

12.2
6.5

1.5

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

13.3
13.3
13.3

9.9
9.9
9.9

8.0
8.0
8.0

6.6
6.6
6.6

4.6
5.7
5.7

3.1
5.0
5.0

1.6
4.0
4.0

1.0
2.7
3.3

0.6
1.7
2.8

49.8
35.6

28.0
20.0

17.9
12.8

12.5
8.9

9.2
6.5

7.0
5.0

4.5
3.2

3.1
1.9

2.3
1.2

26.5
26.5
26.5

19.9
19.9
19.9

15.9
15.9
15.9

13.3
13.3
13.3

11.4
11.4
11.4

9.3
9.9
9.9

5.0
8.0
8.0

2.9
6.6
6.6

1.9
5.1
5.7

99.7
71.2

56.1
40.0

35.9
25.6

24.9
17.8

18.3
13.1

14.0
10.0

9.0
6.4

6.2
3.9

4.6
2.5

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
6.0
14.6

6.4
15.6

7.2
17.1

8.0
18.3

8.7
19.4

9.5
20.3

11.9
29.2

12.9
31.3

14.4
34.1

15.9
36.6

17.4
38.7

19.0
40.7

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 12

P276: Building Design Using Cold Formed Steel Sections: Structural Design to BS 5950-5:1998. Section Properties and L

BENDING

Table 12

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 200 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

2.0

2.5

7.0

23.1
23.1
23.1

18.4
18.4
18.4

13.3
15.4
15.4

8.6
13.2
13.2

5.9
11.5
11.5

4.2
10.2
10.2

3.1
9.2
9.2

1.9
5.9
7.7

1.2
3.8
6.6

51.9
37.1

33.2
23.7

23.1
16.5

16.9
12.1

13.0
9.3

10.3
7.3

8.3
5.9

5.8
3.6

4.2
2.3

86.5
61.8

55.4
39.5

38.4
27.5

28.2
20.2

21.6
15.4

17.1
12.2

13.8
9.9

9.6
6.0

7.1
3.8

46.1
46.1
46.1

36.9
36.9
36.9

30.7
30.7
30.7

25.3
26.4
26.4

17.7
23.1
23.1

12.6
20.5
20.5

9.3
18.4
18.4

5.6
15.4
15.4

3.6
11.5
13.2

103.8
74.2

66.4
47.5

46.1
33.0

33.9
24.2

26.0
18.5

20.5
14.6

16.6
11.9

11.5
7.2

8.5
4.5

173.0
123.6

110.7
79.1

76.9
54.9

56.5
40.4

43.3
30.9

34.2
24.4

27.7
19.8

19.2
12.0

14.1
7.6

1.5

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

15.4
15.4
15.4

11.5
11.5
11.5

9.2
9.2
9.2

7.6
7.7
7.7

5.1
6.6
6.6

3.5
5.8
5.8

1.9
4.6
4.6

1.1
3.0
3.8

0.7
1.9
3.3

57.7
41.2

32.4
23.2

20.8
14.8

14.4
10.3

10.6
7.6

8.1
5.8

5.2
3.7

3.6
2.3

2.6
1.4

30.7
30.7
30.7

23.1
23.1
23.1

18.4
18.4
18.4

15.4
15.4
15.4

13.2
13.2
13.2

10.4
11.5
11.5

5.6
9.2
9.2

3.3
7.7
7.7

2.2
5.7
6.6

115.3
82.4

64.9
46.3

41.5
29.7

28.8
20.6

21.2
15.1

16.2
11.6

10.4
7.4

7.2
4.5

5.3
2.8

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
7.6
17.8

8.2
19.0

9.1
20.7

10.0
22.1

10.8
23.4

11.7
24.5

15.3
35.5

16.4
38.0

18.1
41.4

19.9
44.3

21.7
46.8

23.5
49.1

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 13

Created for Dr MAHMOOD MD TAHIR (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia) from www.steelbiz.org on 6/10/2003
This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Steelbiz Licence Agreement

Design Strength 280 N/mm2

BENDING

Table 13

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 200 mm Thickness 2.0 mm

Design Strength 280 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
7.0

3.0

3.5

8.0

14.6
17.4
17.4

9.5
14.9
14.9

6.5
13.1
13.1

4.7
11.6
11.6

3.5
10.4
10.4

2.7
8.3
9.5

2.1
6.5
8.7

1.4
4.2
7.5

1.0
2.9
6.5

26.1
18.6

19.2
13.7

14.7
10.5

11.6
8.3

9.4
6.7

7.8
5.3

6.5
4.1

4.8
2.6

3.7
1.7

43.5
31.1

32.0
22.8

24.5
17.5

19.3
13.8

15.7
11.2

12.9
8.8

10.9
6.8

8.0
4.3

6.1
2.9

34.8
34.8
34.8

28.0
29.8
29.8

19.6
26.1
26.1

14.0
23.2
23.2

10.4
20.9
20.9

7.9
19.0
19.0

6.2
17.4
17.4

4.0
12.7
14.9

2.8
8.7
13.1

52.2
37.3

38.4
27.4

29.4
21.0

23.2
16.6

18.8
13.4

15.5
10.6

13.1
8.2

9.6
5.1

7.3
3.4

87.0
62.1

63.9
45.7

48.9
35.0

38.7
27.6

31.3
22.4

25.9
17.6

21.8
13.6

16.0
8.6

12.2
5.7

2.0

2.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0

8.0

13.1
13.1
13.1

10.4
10.4
10.4

8.4
8.7
8.7

5.7
7.5
7.5

3.9
6.5
6.5

2.1
5.2
5.2

1.3
3.3
4.4

0.8
2.1
3.7

0.6
1.4
3.3

36.7
26.2

23.5
16.8

16.3
11.7

12.0
8.6

9.2
6.6

5.9
4.2

4.1
2.5

3.0
1.6

2.3
1.1

26.1
26.1
26.1

20.9
20.9
20.9

17.4
17.4
17.4

14.9
14.9
14.9

11.5
13.1
13.1

6.2
10.4
10.4

3.7
8.7
8.7

2.4
6.4
7.5

1.7
4.4
6.5

73.4
52.4

47.0
33.6

32.6
23.3

24.0
17.1

18.4
13.1

11.7
8.4

8.2
5.1

6.0
3.2

4.6
2.2

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
9.5
21.3

10.1
22.7

11.1
24.7

12.2
26.3

13.2
27.8

14.2
29.1

19.1
42.5

20.3
45.4

22.3
49.3

24.3
52.6

26.4
55.5

28.4
58.2

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 14

BENDING

Table 14

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 220 mm Thickness 2.0 mm

Design Strength 280 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
7.0

3.0

3.5

8.0

16.5
19.4
19.4

10.7
16.6
16.6

7.3
14.6
14.6

5.2
12.9
12.9

3.9
11.7
11.7

3.0
9.4
10.6

2.3
7.4
9.7

1.5
4.7
8.3

1.1
3.2
7.3

32.0
22.9

23.5
16.8

18.0
12.9

14.2
10.2

11.5
8.2

9.5
6.5

8.0
5.0

5.9
3.2

4.5
2.1

53.4
38.1

39.2
28.0

30.0
21.5

23.7
16.9

19.2
13.7

15.9
10.8

13.3
8.3

9.8
5.3

7.5
3.5

38.8
38.8
38.8

31.0
33.3
33.3

21.5
29.1
29.1

15.3
25.9
25.9

11.4
23.3
23.3

8.6
21.2
21.2

6.8
19.4
19.4

4.4
14.0
16.6

3.0
9.5
14.6

64.1
45.8

47.1
33.6

36.0
25.7

28.5
20.3

23.1
16.5

19.1
13.0

16.0
10.0

11.8
6.3

9.0
4.2

106.8
76.3

78.5
56.0

60.1
42.9

47.5
33.9

38.4
27.5

31.8
21.7

26.7
16.7

19.6
10.5

15.0
7.0

2.0

2.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0

8.0

14.6
14.6
14.6

11.7
11.7
11.7

9.4
9.7
9.7

6.3
8.3
8.3

4.4
7.3
7.3

2.3
5.8
5.8

1.4
3.7
4.9

0.9
2.4
4.2

0.6
1.6
3.6

45.0
32.2

28.8
20.6

20.0
14.3

14.7
10.5

11.3
8.0

7.2
5.1

5.0
3.1

3.7
2.0

2.8
1.3

29.1
29.1
29.1

23.3
23.3
23.3

19.4
19.4
19.4

16.6
16.6
16.6

12.7
14.6
14.6

6.8
11.7
11.7

4.1
9.7
9.7

2.6
7.0
8.3

1.8
4.8
7.3

90.1
64.4

57.7
41.2

40.0
28.6

29.4
21.0

22.5
16.1

14.4
10.3

10.0
6.3

7.4
3.9

5.6
2.6

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
9.3
21.5

9.9
23.0

10.9
24.9

11.9
26.6

12.9
28.1

13.9
29.4

18.6
43.0

19.8
45.9

21.8
49.9

23.8
53.2

25.8
56.2

27.7
58.8

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 15

BENDING

Table 15

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 220 mm Thickness 2.4 mm

Design Strength 280 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
7.0

3.0

3.5

8.0

19.5
23.9
23.9

12.7
20.5
20.5

8.7
17.9
17.9

6.2
15.9
15.9

4.7
13.9
14.3

3.6
11.1
13.0

2.8
8.7
11.9

1.9
5.6
10.2

1.3
3.8
9.0

39.4
28.1

28.9
20.7

22.2
15.8

17.5
12.5

14.2
10.1

11.7
8.0

9.9
6.2

7.2
3.9

5.5
2.6

65.7
46.9

48.2
34.5

36.9
26.4

29.2
20.8

23.6
16.9

19.5
13.3

16.4
10.3

12.1
6.5

9.2
4.3

47.8
47.8
47.8

36.8
41.0
41.0

25.6
35.8
35.8

18.4
31.9
31.9

13.7
28.7
28.7

10.5
26.1
26.1

8.2
23.8
23.9

5.4
16.6
20.5

3.8
11.4
17.9

78.8
56.3

57.9
41.4

44.3
31.7

35.0
25.0

28.4
20.3

23.4
16.0

19.7
12.3

14.5
7.8

11.1
5.2

131.3
93.8

96.5
68.9

73.9
52.8

58.4
41.7

47.3
33.8

39.1
26.6

32.8
20.5

24.1
12.9

18.5
8.7

2.0

2.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0

8.0

17.9
17.9
17.9

14.3
14.3
14.3

11.2
11.9
11.9

7.5
10.2
10.2

5.2
9.0
9.0

2.8
7.0
7.2

1.7
4.4
6.0

1.1
2.8
5.1

0.8
1.9
4.5

55.4
39.6

35.5
25.3

24.6
17.6

18.1
12.9

13.9
9.9

8.9
6.3

6.2
3.8

4.5
2.4

3.5
1.6

35.8
35.8
35.8

28.7
28.7
28.7

23.9
23.9
23.9

20.1
20.5
20.5

15.1
17.9
17.9

8.2
14.3
14.3

4.9
11.9
11.9

3.2
8.3
10.2

2.3
5.7
9.0

110.8
79.2

70.9
50.7

49.3
35.2

36.2
25.8

27.7
19.8

17.7
12.7

12.3
7.7

9.0
4.8

6.9
3.2

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
13.6
29.4

14.4
31.3

15.6
33.8

16.9
36.0

18.1
37.9

19.3
39.6

27.3
58.8

28.7
62.5

31.2
67.6

33.7
71.9

36.2
75.7

38.7
79.2

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 16

BENDING

Table 16

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 250 mm Thickness 2.4 mm

Design Strength 280 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.5
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

3.5

4.0

10.0

14.7
23.9
23.9

10.1
20.9
20.9

7.2
18.6
18.6

5.4
16.5
16.7

3.2
10.1
13.9

2.1
6.5
11.9

1.5
4.5
10.4

1.1
3.2
9.3

0.9
2.4
8.4

38.3
27.4

29.3
21.0

23.2
16.6

18.8
13.4

13.0
8.2

9.6
5.1

7.3
3.4

5.8
2.4

4.7
1.8

63.9
45.6

48.9
34.9

38.6
27.6

31.3
22.4

21.7
13.6

16.0
8.6

12.2
5.7

9.7
4.0

7.8
2.9

41.9
47.7
47.7

28.9
41.8
41.8

20.7
37.1
37.1

15.3
33.4
33.4

9.2
27.8
27.8

6.0
18.8
23.9

4.2
12.8
20.9

3.0
9.2
18.6

2.3
6.8
16.7

76.7
54.8

58.7
41.9

46.4
33.1

37.6
26.8

26.1
16.3

19.2
10.3

14.7
6.9

11.6
4.8

9.4
3.5

127.8
91.3

97.8
69.9

77.3
55.2

62.6
44.7

43.5
27.2

31.9
17.1

24.5
11.5

19.3
8.1

15.7
5.9

2.0

3.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

10.0

20.9
20.9
20.9

13.1
13.9
13.9

6.0
10.4
10.4

3.2
8.2
8.4

2.0
5.1
7.0

1.3
3.3
6.0

0.9
2.2
5.2

0.7
1.6
4.6

0.5
1.2
4.2

73.4
52.4

32.6
23.3

18.3
13.1

11.7
8.4

8.2
5.1

6.0
3.2

4.6
2.1

3.6
1.5

2.9
1.1

41.8
41.8
41.8

27.8
27.8
27.8

17.1
20.9
20.9

9.2
16.7
16.7

5.5
13.9
13.9

3.6
9.4
11.9

2.5
6.4
10.4

1.8
4.6
9.3

1.4
3.4
8.4

146.7
104.8

65.2
46.6

36.7
26.2

23.5
16.8

16.3
10.2

12.0
6.4

9.2
4.3

7.2
3.0

5.9
2.2

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
13.3
29.8

14.0
31.7

15.2
34.3

16.4
36.5

17.6
38.4

18.8
40.2

26.5
59.7

28.0
63.5

30.4
68.6

32.8
73.0

35.2
76.9

37.6
80.3

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 17

BENDING

Table 17

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 300 mm Thickness 2.4 mm

Design Strength 280 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.5
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

3.5

4.0

10.0

18.2
29.6
29.6

12.4
25.9
25.9

8.9
23.0
23.0

6.6
20.7
20.7

3.9
12.6
17.3

2.6
8.1
14.8

1.8
5.5
13.0

1.3
3.9
11.5

1.0
2.9
10.4

57.1
40.8

43.7
31.2

34.5
24.7

28.0
20.0

19.4
12.1

14.3
7.6

10.9
5.1

8.6
3.6

7.0
2.6

95.1
67.9

72.8
52.0

57.5
41.1

46.6
33.3

32.4
20.2

23.8
12.7

18.2
8.5

14.4
6.0

11.7
4.4

50.3
59.2
59.2

34.4
51.8
51.8

24.5
46.1
46.1

18.1
41.4
41.4

10.8
34.3
34.5

7.0
22.5
29.6

4.8
15.3
25.9

3.5
10.9
23.0

2.6
8.0
20.7

114.1
81.5

87.4
62.4

69.0
49.3

55.9
39.9

38.8
24.3

28.5
15.3

21.8
10.2

17.3
7.2

14.0
5.2

190.2
135.9

145.6
104.0

115.1
82.2

93.2
66.6

64.7
40.5

47.6
25.5

36.4
17.1

28.8
12.0

23.3
8.7

2.0

3.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

10.0

25.9
25.9
25.9

16.5
17.3
17.3

7.4
13.0
13.0

3.9
10.4
10.4

2.4
6.3
8.6

1.5
4.0
7.4

1.1
2.7
6.5

0.8
2.0
5.8

0.6
1.5
5.2

109.2
78.0

48.5
34.7

27.3
19.5

17.5
12.5

12.1
7.6

8.9
4.8

6.8
3.2

5.4
2.2

4.4
1.6

51.8
51.8
51.8

34.5
34.5
34.5

20.5
25.9
25.9

10.9
20.7
20.7

6.5
17.1
17.3

4.2
11.2
14.8

2.9
7.6
13.0

2.1
5.4
11.5

1.6
4.0
10.4

218.5
156.0

97.1
69.4

54.6
39.0

35.0
25.0

24.3
15.2

17.8
9.6

13.7
6.4

10.8
4.5

8.7
3.3

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
12.6
30.6

13.3
32.5

14.5
35.2

15.6
37.4

16.8
39.4

17.9
41.2

25.2
61.2

26.6
65.0

28.9
70.3

31.2
74.8

33.5
78.7

35.8
82.3

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 18

BENDING

Table 18

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 300 mm Thickness 3.0 mm

Design Strength 280 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.5
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

3.5

4.0

10.0

22.3
38.3
38.3

15.3
33.5
33.5

11.0
29.8
29.8

8.2
25.2
26.8

5.0
15.3
22.3

3.3
9.9
19.1

2.3
6.8
16.7

1.7
4.9
14.9

1.3
3.6
13.4

73.8
52.7

56.5
40.4

44.6
31.9

36.2
25.8

25.1
15.7

18.4
9.9

14.1
6.6

11.2
4.6

9.0
3.4

123.0
87.8

94.2
67.3

74.4
53.1

60.3
43.0

41.8
26.2

30.7
16.5

23.5
11.0

18.6
7.7

15.1
5.6

61.6
76.6
76.6

42.4
67.0
67.0

30.4
59.5
59.5

22.6
53.6
53.6

13.6
41.8
44.7

8.9
27.5
38.3

6.2
18.8
33.5

4.6
13.4
29.8

3.5
10.0
26.8

147.6
105.4

113.0
80.7

89.3
63.8

72.3
51.7

50.2
31.4

36.9
19.8

28.2
13.2

22.3
9.3

18.1
6.8

246.0
175.7

188.3
134.5

148.8
106.3

120.5
86.1

83.7
52.3

61.5
32.9

47.1
22.1

37.2
15.5

30.1
11.3

2.0

3.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

10.0

33.5
33.5
33.5

20.1
22.3
22.3

9.2
16.7
16.7

4.9
12.6
13.4

3.0
7.7
11.2

2.0
4.9
9.6

1.4
3.4
8.4

1.0
2.4
7.4

0.8
1.8
6.7

141.2
100.9

62.8
44.8

35.3
25.2

22.6
16.1

15.7
9.8

11.5
6.2

8.8
4.1

7.0
2.9

5.6
2.1

67.0
67.0
67.0

44.7
44.7
44.7

25.2
33.5
33.5

13.5
26.8
26.8

8.2
20.9
22.3

5.4
13.7
19.1

3.8
9.4
16.7

2.8
6.7
14.9

2.1
5.0
13.4

282.5
201.8

125.5
89.7

70.6
50.4

45.2
32.3

31.4
19.6

23.1
12.4

17.7
8.3

13.9
5.8

11.3
4.2

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
20.4
44.8

21.3
47.4

22.8
51.1

24.3
54.1

25.8
56.8

27.4
59.2

40.7
89.7

42.6
94.9

45.6
102.1

48.7
108.2

51.7
113.5

54.7
118.4

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 19

[BLANK PAGE]

B - 20

LOAD CAPACITY TABLES FOR BEAMS


S280
Generic Z Sections
Note: These tables are presented for generic Z sections, which may be used
for scheme design.

B - 21

BENDING

Table 19

GENERIC ZED SECTION


Design Strength 280N/mm

Depth 100 mm Thickness 1.2 mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

1.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

5.0

11.2
11.2
11.2

7.4
7.4
7.4

5.6
5.6
5.6

3.4
4.5
4.5

2.0
3.7
3.7

1.3
3.2
3.2

0.9
2.7
2.8

0.6
2.0
2.5

0.5
1.5
2.2

25.6
18.3

11.4
8.1

6.4
4.6

4.1
2.9

2.8
2.0

2.1
1.5

1.6
1.1

1.3
0.9

1.0
0.7

42.7
30.5

19.0
13.6

10.7
7.6

6.8
4.9

4.7
3.4

3.5
2.5

2.7
1.9

2.1
1.5

1.7
1.2

1.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

5.0

5.6
5.6
5.6

3.7
3.7
3.7

2.8
2.8
2.8

2.0
2.2
2.2

1.2
1.9
1.9

0.8
1.6
1.6

0.5
1.4
1.4

0.4
1.0
1.2

0.3
0.8
1.1

16.0
11.4

7.1
5.1

4.0
2.9

2.6
1.8

1.8
1.3

1.3
0.9

1.0
0.7

0.8
0.6

0.6
0.5

26.7
19.1

11.9
8.5

6.7
4.8

4.3
3.1

3.0
2.1

2.2
1.6

1.7
1.2

1.3
0.9

1.1
0.8

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
3.9
8.3

4.3
8.9

4.9
9.8

5.6
10.6

6.2
11.2

6.8
11.8

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 22

BENDING

Table 20

GENERIC ZED SECTION


Design Strength 280N/mm

Depth 125 mm Thickness 1.2 mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

1.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

5.0

14.4
14.4
14.4

9.6
9.6
9.6

7.2
7.2
7.2

4.2
5.8
5.8

2.5
4.8
4.8

1.6
4.1
4.1

1.1
3.5
3.6

0.8
2.5
3.2

0.6
1.9
2.9

41.2
29.4

18.3
13.1

10.3
7.4

6.6
4.7

4.6
3.3

3.4
2.4

2.6
1.8

2.0
1.5

1.6
1.2

68.7
49.0

30.5
21.8

17.2
12.3

11.0
7.8

7.6
5.4

5.6
4.0

4.3
3.1

3.4
2.4

2.7
2.0

1.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

5.0

7.2
7.2
7.2

4.8
4.8
4.8

3.6
3.6
3.6

2.5
2.9
2.9

1.5
2.4
2.4

1.0
2.1
2.1

0.6
1.8
1.8

0.5
1.3
1.6

0.3
0.9
1.4

25.7
18.4

11.4
8.2

6.4
4.6

4.1
2.9

2.9
2.0

2.1
1.5

1.6
1.1

1.3
0.9

1.0
0.7

42.9
30.7

19.1
13.6

10.7
7.7

6.9
4.9

4.8
3.4

3.5
2.5

2.7
1.9

2.1
1.5

1.7
1.2

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
3.7
8.5

4.1
9.1

4.7
10

5.3
10.8

5.9
11.5

6.5
12.1

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 23

BENDING

Table 21

GENERIC ZED SECTION


Design Strength 280N/mm

Depth 125 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

1.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

5.0

20.1
20.1
20.1

13.4
13.4
13.4

9.8
10.1
10.1

5.6
8.1
8.1

3.3
6.7
6.7

2.1
5.8
5.8

1.5
4.6
5.0

1.0
3.4
4.5

0.8
2.5
4.0

58.2
41.5

25.8
18.5

14.5
10.4

9.3
6.6

6.5
4.6

4.7
3.4

3.6
2.6

2.9
2.1

2.3
1.7

96.9
69.2

43.1
30.8

24.2
17.3

15.5
11.1

10.8
7.7

7.9
5.7

6.1
4.3

4.8
3.4

3.9
2.8

1.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

5.0

10.1
10.1
10.1

6.7
6.7
6.7

5.0
5.0
5.0

3.3
4.0
4.0

2.0
3.4
3.4

1.3
2.9
2.9

0.9
2.3
2.5

0.6
1.7
2.2

0.5
1.2
2.0

36.3
26.0

16.2
11.5

9.1
6.5

5.8
4.2

4.0
2.9

3.0
2.1

2.3
1.6

1.8
1.3

1.5
1.0

60.6
43.3

26.9
19.2

15.1
10.8

9.7
6.9

6.7
4.8

4.9
3.5

3.8
2.7

3.0
2.1

2.4
1.7

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
6.6
13.8

7.1
14.8

8.0
16.2

8.9
17.3

9.7
18.3

10.6
19.2

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 24

BENDING

Table 22

GENERIC ZED SECTION


Design Strength 280N/mm

Depth 150 mm Thickness 1.6 m

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

7.0

13.1
13.1
13.1

7.8
10.5
10.5

4.6
8.7
8.7

3.0
7.5
7.5

2.0
6.4
6.5

1.4
4.7
5.8

1.1
3.5
5.2

0.6
2.0
4.4

0.4
1.3
3.7

22.5
16.1

14.4
10.3

10.0
7.1

7.3
5.2

5.6
4.0

4.4
3.2

3.6
2.6

2.5
1.6

1.8
1.0

37.5
26.8

24.0
17.1

16.7
11.9

12.2
8.7

9.4
6.7

7.4
5.3

6.0
4.3

4.2
2.6

3.1
1.6

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

8.7
8.7
8.7

6.5
6.5
6.5

4.6
5.2
5.2

2.8
4.4
4.4

1.8
3.7
3.7

1.2
3.2
3.3

0.6
1.7
2.6

0.4
1.0
2.2

0.3
0.7
1.9

25.0
17.9

14.1
10.0

9.0
6.4

6.2
4.5

4.6
3.3

3.5
2.5

2.2
1.6

1.6
1.0

1.1
0.6

41.7
29.8

23.4
16.7

15.0
10.7

10.4
7.4

7.7
5.5

5.9
4.2

3.7
2.7

2.6
1.6

1.9
1.0

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
6.4
14.1

6.9
15.1

7.7
16.5

8.6
17.6

9.4
18.7

10.2
19.6

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 25

BENDING

Table 23

GENERIC ZED SECTION


Design Strength 280N/mm

Depth 150 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

7.0

14.9
15.0
15.0

8.8
12.0
12.0

5.2
10.0
10.0

3.3
8.5
8.5

2.3
7.2
7.5

1.6
5.3
6.6

1.2
3.9
6.0

0.7
2.3
5.0

0.5
1.5
4.3

25.7
18.4

16.5
11.8

11.4
8.2

8.4
6.0

6.4
4.6

5.1
3.6

4.1
2.9

2.9
1.8

2.1
1.1

42.9
30.6

27.5
19.6

19.1
13.6

14.0
10.0

10.7
7.7

8.5
6.1

6.9
4.9

4.8
3.0

3.5
1.9

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

10.0
10.0
10.0

7.5
7.5
7.5

5.2
6.0
6.0

3.1
5.0
5.0

2.0
4.3
4.3

1.4
3.6
3.7

0.7
1.9
3.0

0.4
1.1
2.5

0.3
0.7
2.1

28.6
20.4

16.1
11.5

10.3
7.4

7.2
5.1

5.3
3.8

4.0
2.9

2.6
1.8

1.8
1.1

1.3
0.7

47.7
34.1

26.8
19.2

17.2
12.3

11.9
8.5

8.8
6.3

6.7
4.8

4.3
3.1

3.0
1.9

2.2
1.2

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
8.1
17.2

8.7
18.4

9.7
20.0

10.6
21.4

11.5
22.6

12.5
23.7

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 26

BENDING

Table 24

GENERIC ZED SECTION


Design Strength 280N/mm

Depth 165 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

7.0

14.6
14.6
14.6

8.6
11.7
11.7

5.1
9.7
9.7

3.2
8.4
8.4

2.2
7.2
7.3

1.6
5.2
6.5

1.2
3.8
5.8

0.7
2.2
4.9

0.5
1.4
4.2

27.6
19.7

17.7
12.6

12.3
8.8

9.0
6.4

6.9
4.9

5.5
3.9

4.4
3.2

3.1
1.9

2.3
1.2

46.0
32.9

29.5
21.0

20.5
14.6

15.0
10.7

11.5
8.2

9.1
6.5

7.4
5.3

5.1
3.2

3.8
2.0

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

9.7
9.7
9.7

7.3
7.3
7.3

5.1
5.8
5.8

3.0
4.9
4.9

1.9
4.2
4.2

1.3
3.6
3.7

0.7
1.9
2.9

0.4
1.1
2.4

0.3
0.7
2.1

30.7
21.9

17.3
12.3

11.0
7.9

7.7
5.5

5.6
4.0

4.3
3.1

2.8
2.0

1.9
1.2

1.4
0.8

51.1
36.5

28.8
20.5

18.4
13.1

12.8
9.1

9.4
6.7

7.2
5.1

4.6
3.3

3.2
2.0

2.3
1.3

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
6.3
14.2

6.8
15.2

7.6
16.6

8.4
17.8

9.2
18.9

10.0
19.8

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 27

BENDING

Table 25

GENERIC ZED SECTION


Design Strength 280N/mm

Depth 165 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

7.0

16.8
16.8
16.8

9.6
13.4
13.4

5.7
11.2
11.2

3.6
9.6
9.6

2.5
8.0
8.4

1.8
5.8
7.4

1.3
4.3
6.7

0.8
2.5
5.6

0.5
1.6
4.8

31.7
22.6

20.3
14.5

14.1
10.1

10.3
7.4

7.9
5.7

6.3
4.5

5.1
3.6

3.5
2.2

2.6
1.4

52.8
37.7

33.8
24.1

23.5
16.8

17.2
12.3

13.2
9.4

10.4
7.5

8.4
6.0

5.9
3.7

4.3
2.3

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

11.2
11.2
11.2

8.4
8.4
8.4

5.7
6.7
6.7

3.4
5.6
5.6

2.2
4.8
4.8

1.5
4.0
4.2

0.8
2.1
3.4

0.5
1.3
2.8

0.3
0.8
2.4

35.2
25.1

19.8
14.1

12.7
9.1

8.8
6.3

6.5
4.6

5.0
3.5

3.2
2.3

2.2
1.4

1.6
0.9

58.7
41.9

33.0
23.6

21.1
15.1

14.7
10.5

10.8
7.7

8.3
5.9

5.3
3.8

3.7
2.3

2.7
1.4

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
8.0
17.4

8.6
18.6

9.5
20.2

10.4
21.6

11.3
22.9

12.3
24.0

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 28

BENDING

Table 26

GENERIC ZED SECTION


Design Strength 280N/mm

Depth 180 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

7.0

16.2
16.2
16.2

9.4
12.9
12.9

5.5
10.8
10.8

3.5
9.2
9.2

2.4
7.9
8.1

1.7
5.7
7.2

1.3
4.2
6.5

0.7
2.4
5.4

0.5
1.6
4.6

33.3
23.8

21.3
15.2

14.8
10.6

10.9
7.8

8.3
5.9

6.6
4.7

5.3
3.8

3.7
2.3

2.7
1.5

55.4
39.6

35.5
25.3

24.6
17.6

18.1
12.9

13.9
9.9

11.0
7.8

8.9
6.3

6.2
3.8

4.5
2.4

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

10.8
10.8
10.8

8.1
8.1
8.1

5.6
6.5
6.5

3.3
5.4
5.4

2.1
4.6
4.6

1.4
3.9
4.0

0.8
2.1
3.2

0.5
1.2
2.7

0.3
0.8
2.3

37.0
26.4

20.8
14.8

13.3
9.5

9.2
6.6

6.8
4.8

5.2
3.7

3.3
2.4

2.3
1.4

1.7
0.9

61.6
44.0

34.6
24.7

22.2
15.8

15.4
11.0

11.3
8.1

8.7
6.2

5.5
4.0

3.8
2.4

2.8
1.5

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
6.1
14.4

6.6
15.4

7.4
16.8

8.2
18

9
19.1

9.8
20.0

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 29

BENDING

Table 27

GENERIC ZED SECTION


Design Strength 280N/mm

Depth 180 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

7.0

18.6
18.6
18.6

10.5
14.9
14.9

6.2
12.4
12.4

3.9
10.6
10.6

2.7
8.8
9.3

1.9
6.3
8.3

1.4
4.6
7.4

0.9
2.7
6.2

0.6
1.7
5.3

38.3
27.3

24.5
17.5

17.0
12.2

12.5
8.9

9.6
6.8

7.6
5.4

6.1
4.4

4.3
2.7

3.1
1.7

63.8
45.6

40.8
29.2

28.4
20.3

20.8
14.9

15.9
11.4

12.6
9.0

10.2
7.3

7.1
4.4

5.2
2.8

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

12.4
12.4
12.4

9.3
9.3
9.3

6.2
7.4
7.4

3.7
6.2
6.2

2.4
5.3
5.3

1.6
4.4
4.6

0.9
2.3
3.7

0.5
1.4
3.1

0.3
0.9
2.7

42.5
30.4

23.9
17.1

15.3
10.9

10.6
7.6

7.8
5.6

6.0
4.3

3.8
2.7

2.7
1.7

2.0
1.0

70.9
50.6

39.9
28.5

25.5
18.2

17.7
12.7

13.0
9.3

10.0
7.1

6.4
4.6

4.4
2.8

3.3
1.7

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
7.8
17.5

8.4
18.8

9.3
20.4

10.2
21.8

11.1
23.1

12.0
24.2

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 30

BENDING

Table 28

GENERIC ZED SECTION


Design Strength 280N/mm

Depth 180 mm Thickness 2.0 mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

7.0

20.7
21.0
21.0

11.5
16.8
16.8

6.8
14.0
14.0

4.4
12.0
12.0

3.0
9.6
10.5

2.1
6.9
9.3

1.6
5.1
8.4

1.0
3.0
7.0

0.6
1.9
6.0

43.2
30.8

27.6
19.7

19.2
13.7

14.1
10.1

10.8
7.7

8.5
6.1

6.9
4.9

4.8
3.0

3.5
1.9

72.0
51.4

46.1
32.9

32.0
22.8

23.5
16.8

18.0
12.9

14.2
10.2

11.5
8.2

8.0
5.0

5.9
3.1

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

14.0
14.0
14.0

10.5
10.5
10.5

6.9
8.4
8.4

4.1
7.0
7.0

2.6
6.0
6.0

1.8
4.8
5.2

1.0
2.6
4.2

0.6
1.5
3.5

0.4
1.0
3.0

48.0
34.3

27.0
19.3

17.3
12.3

12.0
8.6

8.8
6.3

6.7
4.8

4.3
3.1

3.0
1.9

2.2
1.2

80.0
57.1

45.0
32.1

28.8
20.6

20.0
14.3

14.7
10.5

11.2
8.0

7.2
5.1

5.0
3.1

3.7
2.0

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
9.7
21.0

10.4
22.4

11.4
24.4

12.4
26.0

13.5
27.4

14.5
28.7

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 31

BENDING

Table 29

GENERIC ZED SECTION


Design Strength 280N/mm

Depth 200 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

7.0

18.2
18.2
18.2

10.4
14.6
14.6

6.1
12.1
12.1

3.9
10.4
10.4

2.6
8.8
9.1

1.9
6.3
8.1

1.4
4.6
7.3

0.8
2.7
6.1

0.5
1.7
5.2

41.6
29.7

26.6
19.0

18.5
13.2

13.6
9.7

10.4
7.4

8.2
5.9

6.7
4.8

4.6
2.9

3.4
1.8

69.3
49.5

44.4
31.7

30.8
22.0

22.6
16.2

17.3
12.4

13.7
9.8

11.1
7.9

7.7
4.8

5.7
3.0

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

12.1
12.1
12.1

9.1
9.1
9.1

6.2
7.3
7.3

3.7
6.1
6.1

2.3
5.2
5.2

1.6
4.4
4.6

0.8
2.3
3.6

0.5
1.3
3.0

0.3
0.9
2.6

46.2
33.0

26.0
18.6

16.6
11.9

11.6
8.3

8.5
6.1

6.5
4.6

4.2
3.0

2.9
1.8

2.1
1.1

77.0
55.0

43.3
31.0

27.7
19.8

19.3
13.8

14.2
10.1

10.8
7.7

6.9
5.0

4.8
3.0

3.5
1.9

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
6.0
14.6

6.4
15.6

7.2
17.1

8.0
18.3

8.7
19.4

9.5
20.3

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 32

BENDING

Table 30

GENERIC ZED SECTION


Design Strength 280N/mm

Depth 200 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

7.0

21.0
21.0
21.0

11.6
16.8
16.8

6.8
14.0
14.0

4.3
12.0
12.0

3.0
9.8
10.5

2.1
7.0
9.3

1.6
5.1
8.4

0.9
3.0
7.0

0.6
1.9
6.0

48.1
34.3

30.8
22.0

21.4
15.3

15.7
11.2

12.0
8.6

9.5
6.8

7.7
5.5

5.3
3.3

3.9
2.1

80.1
57.2

51.3
36.6

35.6
25.4

26.2
18.7

20.0
14.3

15.8
11.3

12.8
9.2

8.9
5.6

6.5
3.5

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

14.0
14.0
14.0

10.5
10.5
10.5

6.9
8.4
8.4

4.1
7.0
7.0

2.6
6.0
6.0

1.8
4.9
5.3

0.9
2.6
4.2

0.6
1.5
3.5

0.4
1.0
3.0

53.4
38.1

30.0
21.5

19.2
13.7

13.4
9.5

9.8
7.0

7.5
5.4

4.8
3.4

3.3
2.1

2.5
1.3

89.0
63.6

50.1
35.8

32.0
22.9

22.3
15.9

16.3
11.7

12.5
8.9

8.0
5.7

5.6
3.5

4.1
2.2

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
7.6
17.8

8.2
19

9.1
20.7

10
22.1

10.8
23.4

11.7
24.5

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 33

BENDING

Table 31

GENERIC ZED SECTION


Design Strength 280N/mm

Depth 200 mm Thickness 2.0 mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

3.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
7.0

8.0

7.5
15.9
15.9

4.8
13.6
13.6

3.3
10.8
11.9

2.3
7.7
10.6

1.7
5.7
9.5

1.3
4.3
8.6

1.0
3.3
7.9

0.7
2.1
6.8

0.5
1.4
5.9

24.2
17.3

17.8
12.7

13.6
9.7

10.7
7.7

8.7
6.2

7.2
4.9

6.0
3.8

4.4
2.4

3.4
1.6

40.3
28.8

29.6
21.1

22.7
16.2

17.9
12.8

14.5
10.4

12.0
8.2

10.1
6.3

7.4
4.0

5.7
2.7

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0

8.0

11.9
11.9
11.9

7.6
9.5
9.5

4.5
7.9
7.9

2.9
6.8
6.8

2.0
5.4
5.9

1.0
2.8
4.8

0.6
1.7
4.0

0.4
1.1
3.4

0.3
0.7
3.0

34.0
24.3

21.8
15.5

15.1
10.8

11.1
7.9

8.5
6.1

5.4
3.9

3.8
2.4

2.8
1.5

2.1
1.0

56.7
40.5

36.3
25.9

25.2
18.0

18.5
13.2

14.2
10.1

9.1
6.5

6.3
3.9

4.6
2.5

3.5
1.7

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
9.5
21.3

10.1
22.7

11.1
24.7

12.2
26.3

13.2
27.8

14.2
29.1

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 34

BENDING

Table 32

GENERIC ZED SECTION


Design Strength 280N/mm

Depth 220 mm Thickness 2.0 mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

3.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
7.0

8.0

8.2
17.8
17.8

5.3
15.2
15.2

3.6
11.9
13.3

2.6
8.5
11.8

1.9
6.2
10.7

1.4
4.7
9.7

1.1
3.6
8.9

0.7
2.3
7.6

0.5
1.6
6.7

29.8
21.3

21.9
15.6

16.7
12.0

13.2
9.5

10.7
7.7

8.9
6.0

7.4
4.7

5.5
2.9

4.2
2.0

49.6
35.4

36.5
26.0

27.9
19.9

22.1
15.8

17.9
12.8

14.8
10.1

12.4
7.8

9.1
4.9

7.0
3.3

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0

8.0

13.3
13.3
13.3

8.4
10.7
10.7

4.9
8.9
8.9

3.2
7.6
7.6

2.2
5.9
6.7

1.1
3.1
5.3

0.7
1.8
4.4

0.4
1.2
3.8

0.3
0.8
3.3

41.9
29.9

26.8
19.1

18.6
13.3

13.7
9.8

10.5
7.5

6.7
4.8

4.7
2.9

3.4
1.8

2.6
1.2

69.8
49.8

44.7
31.9

31.0
22.2

22.8
16.3

17.4
12.5

11.2
8.0

7.8
4.8

5.7
3.1

4.4
2.0

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
9.3
21.5

9.9
23

10.9
24.9

11.9
26.6

12.9
28.1

13.9
29.4

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 35

BENDING

Table 33

GENERIC ZED SECTION


Design Strength 280N/mm

Depth 220 mm Thickness 2.4 mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

3.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
7.0

8.0

9.7
21.9
21.9

6.3
18.8
18.8

4.3
13.9
16.4

3.1
9.9
14.6

2.3
7.3
13.1

1.8
5.6
11.9

1.4
4.3
11.0

0.9
2.8
9.4

0.7
1.9
8.2

36.7
26.2

27.0
19.3

20.6
14.7

16.3
11.7

13.2
9.4

10.9
7.4

9.2
5.7

6.7
3.6

5.2
2.4

61.2
43.7

44.9
32.1

34.4
24.6

27.2
19.4

22.0
15.7

18.2
12.4

15.3
9.6

11.2
6.0

8.6
4.0

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0

8.0

16.4
16.4
16.4

9.9
13.1
13.1

5.9
11.0
11.0

3.8
9.4
9.4

2.6
7.0
8.2

1.4
3.7
6.6

0.8
2.2
5.5

0.6
1.4
4.7

0.4
0.9
4.1

51.6
36.9

33.0
23.6

22.9
16.4

16.9
12.0

12.9
9.2

8.3
5.9

5.7
3.6

4.2
2.3

3.2
1.5

86.0
61.4

55.1
39.3

38.2
27.3

28.1
20.1

21.5
15.4

13.8
9.8

9.6
6.0

7.0
3.8

5.4
2.5

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
13.6
29.4

14.4
31.3

15.6
33.8

16.9
36

18.1
37.9

19.3
39.6

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 36

BENDING

Table 34

GENERIC ZED SECTION


Design Strength 280N/mm

Depth 250 mm Thickness 2.4 mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

3.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

10.0

15.0
26.0
26.0

10.2
22.8
22.8

7.2
20.2
20.2

5.3
17.5
18.2

3.2
10.4
15.2

2.0
6.7
13.0

1.4
4.5
11.4

1.0
3.2
10.1

0.8
2.4
9.1

42.2
30.2

32.3
23.1

25.6
18.3

20.7
14.8

14.4
9.0

10.6
5.7

8.1
3.8

6.4
2.7

5.2
1.9

70.4
50.3

53.9
38.5

42.6
30.4

34.5
24.6

24.0
15.0

17.6
9.4

13.5
6.3

10.6
4.4

8.6
3.2

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

10.0

22.8
22.8
22.8

13.8
15.2
15.2

6.1
11.4
11.4

3.2
8.7
9.1

1.9
5.2
7.6

1.2
3.3
6.5

0.9
2.3
5.7

0.6
1.6
5.1

0.5
1.2
4.6

80.8
57.7

35.9
25.7

20.2
14.4

12.9
9.2

9.0
5.6

6.6
3.5

5.1
2.4

4.0
1.7

3.2
1.2

134.7
96.2

59.9
42.8

33.7
24.1

21.6
15.4

15.0
9.4

11.0
5.9

8.4
3.9

6.7
2.8

5.4
2.0

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
13.3
29.8

14
31.7

15.2
34.3

16.4
36.5

17.6
38.4

18.8
40.2

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 37

BENDING

Table 35

GENERIC ZED SECTION


Design Strength 280N/mm

Depth 300 mm Thickness 2.4 mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

3.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

10.0

32.1
36.5
36.5

21.8
32.0
32.0

15.4
28.4
28.4

11.3
25.6
25.6

6.6
21.3
21.3

4.2
14.3
18.3

2.9
9.7
16.0

2.1
6.8
14.2

1.5
5.0
12.8

70.8
50.6

54.2
38.7

42.9
30.6

34.7
24.8

24.1
15.1

17.7
9.5

13.6
6.4

10.7
4.5

8.7
3.3

118.1
84.3

90.4
64.6

71.4
51.0

57.9
41.3

40.2
25.1

29.5
15.8

22.6
10.6

17.9
7.4

14.5
5.4

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

10.0

32.0
32.0
32.0

21.3
21.3
21.3

13.0
16.0
16.0

6.8
12.8
12.8

4.0
10.7
10.7

2.6
7.1
9.1

1.7
4.8
8.0

1.2
3.4
7.1

0.9
2.5
6.4

135.6
96.9

60.3
43.0

33.9
24.2

21.7
15.5

15.1
9.4

11.1
5.9

8.5
4.0

6.7
2.8

5.4
2.0

226.0
161.4

100.4
71.7

56.5
40.4

36.2
25.8

25.1
15.7

18.4
9.9

14.1
6.6

11.2
4.6

9.0
3.4

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
12.6
30.6

13.3
32.5

14.5
35.2

15.6
37.4

16.8
39.4

17.9
41.2

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 38

BENDING

Table 36

GENERIC ZED SECTION


Design Strength 280N/mm

Depth 300 mm Thickness 3.0 mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

3.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

10.0

39.3
47.7
47.7

26.7
41.7
41.7

19.0
37.1
37.1

14.0
33.4
33.4

8.2
26.8
27.8

5.3
17.5
23.8

3.6
11.8
20.8

2.6
8.4
18.5

2.0
6.2
16.7

92.6
66.2

70.9
50.7

56.0
40.0

45.4
32.4

31.5
19.7

23.2
12.4

17.7
8.3

14.0
5.8

11.3
4.3

154.4
110.3

118.2
84.4

93.4
66.7

75.7
54.0

52.5
32.8

38.6
20.7

29.6
13.9

23.4
9.7

18.9
7.1

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

10.0

41.7
41.7
41.7

27.8
27.8
27.8

16.0
20.8
20.8

8.4
16.7
16.7

5.0
13.4
13.9

3.2
8.7
11.9

2.2
5.9
10.4

1.6
4.2
9.3

1.2
3.1
8.3

177.3
126.7

78.8
56.3

44.3
31.7

28.4
20.3

19.7
12.3

14.5
7.8

11.1
5.2

8.8
3.6

7.1
2.7

295.6
211.1

131.4
93.8

73.9
52.8

47.3
33.8

32.8
20.5

24.1
12.9

18.5
8.7

14.6
6.1

11.8
4.4

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
20.4
44.8

21.3
47.4

22.8
51.1

24.3
54.1

25.8
56.8

27.4
59.2

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

B - 39

[BLANK PAGE]

B - 40

LOAD CAPACITY TABLES FOR COLUMNS


S280
Generic C Sections
Note: These tables are presented for generic C sections, which may be used for
scheme design.

B-1

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 37

Depth 100 mm Thickness 1.2 mm

Design Strength 280N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4m

3m

2m

1m

Continuous

6.8
6.8
6.8

10.0
10.8
10.8

14.8
18.4
18.8

19.5
26.1
27.3

21.2
28.3
30.1

4.3
4.5
4.5

6.1
6.6
6.7

6.9
7.9
8.2

7.2
8.3
8.6

6.1
6.5
6.5

9.0
10.8
10.9

10.1
13.2
14.2

10.4
13.6
14.8

5.9
6.2
6.2

7.9
8.8
8.8

9.7
11.1
11.3

10.4
11.9
12.2

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

3.1
3.1
3.1

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

4.1
4.1
4.1

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

4.4
4.4
4.4

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4m

3m

2m

1m

Continuous

28.7
28.7
28.7

44.6
44.6
44.6

48.9
62.6
62.6

48.9
69.0
71.8

48.9
69.0
74.3

10.6
10.6
10.6

11.7
12.7
12.8

12.1
13.5
13.8

12.2
13.7
14.1

21.2
22.0
22.0

21.9
28.4
29.6

21.9
29.6
32.0

21.9
29.6
32.5

13.4
13.4
13.4

15.2
16.2
16.2

16.1
17.8
18.0

16.4
18.2
18.6

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

8.2
8.2
8.2

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

14.5
14.5
14.5

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

10.7
10.7
10.7

B - 42

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 38

Depth 125 mm Thickness 1.2 mm

Design Strength 280N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

6.9
6.9
6.9

10.8
10.8
10.8

17.3
17.9
17.9

22.1
25.0
25.2

23.5
26.9
27.8

4.7
4.7
4.7

6.7
6.8
6.8

7.5
8.1
8.2

7.8
8.3
8.5

6.7
6.7
6.7

10.5
11.0
11.0

11.6
13.3
13.8

11.8
13.7
14.3

6.3
6.3
6.3

8.8
8.9
8.9

10.5
11.1
11.1

11.1
11.8
12.0

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

3.3
3.3
3.3

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

4.2
4.2
4.2

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

4.5
4.5
4.5

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

28.5
28.5
28.5

44.2
44.2
44.2

59.9
62.2
62.2

59.9
71.3
71.9

59.9
71.3
74.7

10.6
10.6
10.6

12.5
12.8
12.9

13.0
13.7
13.8

13.1
13.9
14.2

22.1
22.1
22.1

26.0
29.3
30.3

26.0
31.2
32.5

26.0
31.2
33.1

13.4
13.4
13.4

16.0
16.2
16.2

17.1
17.9
18.0

17.5
18.4
18.6

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

8.2
8.2
8.2

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

14.4
14.4
14.4

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

10.6
10.6
10.6

B - 43

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 39

Depth 125 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 280N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

9.6
9.6
9.6

15.4
15.4
15.4

26.4
27.3
27.3

34.8
40.9
41.2

37.3
44.2
45.9

6.3
6.3
6.3

9.1
9.3
9.3

10.6
11.5
11.6

11.0
11.9
12.2

9.2
9.2
9.2

15.3
15.7
15.7

17.1
20.3
21.2

17.4
20.8
22.0

8.5
8.5
8.5

12.1
12.3
12.3

14.8
15.7
15.8

15.7
16.8
17.1

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

4.4
4.4
4.4

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

5.8
5.8
5.8

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

6.0
6.0
6.0

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

38.4
38.4
38.4

61.7
61.7
61.7

89.0
93.0
93.0

89.0
109.3
110.1

89.0
109.3
114.6

14.1
14.1
14.1

17.0
17.3
17.3

17.8
18.8
19.0

18.0
19.1
19.4

29.9
29.9
29.9

37.3
42.3
42.3

37.3
45.7
47.9

37.3
45.7
48.7

17.8
17.8
17.8

21.5
21.7
21.7

23.1
24.3
24.3

23.7
24.9
25.2

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

10.8
10.8
10.8

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

19.4
19.4
19.4

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

14.0
14.0
14.0

B - 44

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 40

Depth 150 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 280N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

13.7
13.7
13.7

21.1
21.1
21.1

32.6
33.1
33.1

39.6
42.9
43.1

41.5
45.4
46.5

8.4
8.4
8.4

11.2
11.3
11.3

12.2
12.8
12.9

12.5
13.1
13.3

13.0
13.0
13.0

18.9
19.5
19.5

20.2
22.4
22.9

20.5
22.9
23.6

11.1
11.1
11.1

14.6
14.7
14.7

16.8
17.4
17.4

17.6
18.2
18.4

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

6.1
6.1
6.1

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

8.4
8.4
8.4

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

8.3
8.3
8.3

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

56.2
56.2
56.2

83.2
83.2
83.2

106.8
107.8
107.8

106.8
120.2
120.4

106.8
120.2
123.8

17.5
17.5
17.5

19.8
20.1
20.1

20.4
21.2
21.3

20.7
21.4
21.6

40.4
40.4
40.4

45.6
49.6
50.7

45.6
51.9
53.5

45.6
51.9
54.2

21.8
21.8
21.8

25.1
25.1
25.1

26.5
27.2
27.2

26.9
27.7
27.9

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

14.2
14.2
14.2

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

28.1
28.1
28.1

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

18.0
18.0
18.0

B - 45

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 41

Depth 150 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Design Strength 280N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

15.8
15.8
15.8

24.6
24.6
24.6

39.2
39.7
39.7

48.1
52.5
52.7

50.5
55.7
57.0

9.5
9.5
9.5

12.8
12.8
12.8

14.0
14.7
14.8

14.4
15.1
15.3

14.8
14.8
14.8

22.2
22.6
22.6

23.8
26.6
27.3

24.1
27.1
28.1

12.6
12.6
12.6

16.7
16.8
16.8

19.3
20.0
20.0

20.2
21.0
21.2

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

6.8
6.8
6.8

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

9.5
9.5
9.5

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

9.3
9.3
9.3

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

63.6
63.6
63.6

96.0
96.0
96.0

126.0
127.1
127.1

126.0
142.5
142.8

126.0
142.5
146.9

19.6
19.6
19.6

22.4
22.6
22.6

23.2
24.0
24.1

23.4
24.3
24.5

45.8
45.8
45.8

52.8
57.6
58.0

52.8
60.5
62.4

52.8
60.5
63.2

24.5
24.5
24.5

28.3
28.3
28.3

29.8
30.7
30.7

30.4
31.3
31.5

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

15.8
15.8
15.8

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

31.7
31.7
31.7

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

20.2
20.2
20.2

B - 46

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 42

Depth 165mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 280N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

13.7
13.7
13.7

20.9
20.9
20.9

32.2
32.2
32.2

39.3
41.6
41.6

41.1
44.1
44.9

8.5
8.5
8.5

11.3
11.3
11.3

12.4
12.8
12.8

12.6
13.1
13.3

13.0
13.0
13.0

19.1
19.4
19.4

20.6
22.3
22.6

20.9
22.8
23.3

11.2
11.2
11.2

14.7
14.7
14.7

16.9
17.3
17.3

17.6
18.1
18.3

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

6.2
6.2
6.2

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

8.5
8.5
8.5

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

8.4
8.4
8.4

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

55.9
55.9
55.9

82.8
82.8
82.8

107.5
107.5
107.5

110.3
120.4
120.4

110.3
121.2
124.0

17.5
17.5
17.5

19.9
20.1
20.2

20.7
21.3
21.3

20.9
21.5
21.7

40.6
40.6
40.6

46.9
50.0
51.1

47.4
52.6
53.8

47.4
52.8
54.5

21.8
21.8
21.8

25.1
25.1
25.1

26.7
27.2
27.2

27.2
27.8
27.9

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

14.2
14.2
14.2

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

28.1
28.1
28.1

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

18.0
18.0
18.0

B - 47

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 43

Depth 165 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Design Strength 280N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

15.8
15.8
15.8

24.3
24.3
24.3

38.4
38.4
38.4

47.7
50.6
50.6

50.0
53.8
54.8

9.6
9.6
9.6

12.9
12.9
12.9

14.2
14.7
14.8

14.6
15.1
15.3

14.9
14.9
14.9

22.4
22.5
22.5

24.3
26.4
26.9

24.6
27.0
27.7

12.7
12.7
12.7

16.8
16.8
16.8

19.4
19.9
19.9

20.3
20.9
21.0

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

6.9
6.9
6.9

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

9.6
9.6
9.6

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

9.4
9.4
9.4

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

63.3
63.3
63.3

95.5
95.5
95.5

126.8
126.8
126.8

130.3
142.8
142.8

130.3
143.7
147.2

19.7
19.7
19.7

22.6
22.8
22.8

23.5
24.1
24.2

23.7
24.4
24.6

46.0
46.0
46.0

54.5
58.3
58.7

55.1
61.3
62.9

55.1
61.5
63.7

24.5
24.5
24.5

28.3
28.3
28.3

30.1
30.7
30.7

30.7
31.3
31.5

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

15.8
15.8
15.8

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

31.6
31.6
31.6

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

20.2
20.2
20.2

B - 48

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 44

Depth 180 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 280N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

13.7
13.7
13.7

20.8
20.8
20.8

31.4
31.4
31.4

38.9
40.3
40.3

40.6
43.0
43.5

8.6
8.6
8.6

11.4
11.4
11.4

12.5
12.8
12.8

12.7
13.1
13.2

13.1
13.1
13.1

19.1
19.3
19.3

20.8
22.1
22.4

21.1
22.6
23.1

11.3
11.3
11.3

14.7
14.7
14.7

16.9
17.2
17.2

17.6
18.0
18.1

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

6.2
6.2
6.2

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

8.6
8.6
8.6

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

8.4
8.4
8.4

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

55.7
55.7
55.7

82.4
82.4
82.4

107.3
107.3
107.3

112.7
120.4
120.4

112.7
122.1
124.3

17.6
17.6
17.6

20.0
20.2
20.2

20.9
21.3
21.4

21.1
21.6
21.8

40.8
40.8
40.8

47.9
50.4
51.3

48.9
53.1
54.1

48.9
53.4
54.9

21.8
21.8
21.8

25.1
25.1
25.1

26.8
27.2
27.2

27.3
27.8
27.9

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

14.2
14.2
14.2

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

28.0
28.0
28.0

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

18.0
18.0
18.0

B - 49

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 45

Depth 180 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Design Strength 280N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

15.7
15.7
15.7

24.0
24.0
24.0

37.4
37.4
37.4

47.0
48.9
48.9

49.2
52.3
52.9

9.7
9.7
9.7

12.9
12.9
12.9

14.3
14.7
14.8

14.7
15.1
15.3

14.9
14.9
14.9

22.4
22.4
22.4

24.6
26.2
26.5

24.9
26.8
27.4

12.8
12.8
12.8

16.8
16.8
16.8

19.4
19.8
19.8

20.3
20.8
20.8

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

7.0
7.0
7.0

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

9.7
9.7
9.7

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

9.5
9.5
9.5

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

63.1
63.1
63.1

95.0
95.0
95.0

126.4
126.4
126.4

133.3
142.8
142.8

133.3
144.7
147.4

19.7
19.7
19.7

22.7
22.8
22.8

23.7
24.2
24.3

24.0
24.5
24.7

46.2
46.2
46.2

55.7
58.8
59.3

56.9
62.0
63.3

56.9
62.4
64.2

24.4
24.4
24.4

28.3
28.3
28.3

30.3
30.7
30.7

30.8
31.4
31.5

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

15.8
15.8
15.8

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

31.6
31.6
31.6

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

20.1
20.1
20.1

B - 50

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 46

Depth 180 mm Thickness 2.0 mm

Design Strength 280N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

17.8
17.8
17.8

27.5
27.5
27.5

43.9
43.9
43.9

56.0
58.4
58.4

58.7
62.6
63.4

10.8
10.8
10.8

14.4
14.4
14.4

16.2
16.6
16.7

16.6
17.1
17.3

16.8
16.8
16.8

25.6
25.6
25.6

28.5
30.4
30.9

28.8
31.2
31.9

14.2
14.2
14.2

18.8
18.8
18.8

22.0
22.3
22.3

22.9
23.5
23.6

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

7.8
7.8
7.8

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

10.9
10.9
10.9

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

10.5
10.5
10.5

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

70.3
70.3
70.3

107.4
107.4
107.4

145.8
145.8
145.8

154.3
165.5
165.5

154.3
167.9
171.0

21.8
21.8
21.8

25.3
25.3
25.3

26.4
26.9
27.0

26.7
27.3
27.5

51.6
51.6
51.6

63.3
66.8
66.8

64.7
70.8
72.3

64.7
71.2
73.3

27.0
27.0
27.0

31.3
31.3
31.3

33.6
34.1
34.1

34.3
34.9
35.0

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

17.5
17.5
17.5

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

35.1
35.1
35.1

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

22.2
22.2
22.2

B - 51

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 47

Depth 200 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 280N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

13.8
13.8
13.8

20.5
20.5
20.5

30.7
30.7
30.7

38.2
39.0
39.0

39.9
41.7
42.1

8.7
8.7
8.7

11.4
11.4
11.4

12.5
12.8
12.8

12.8
13.1
13.2

13.1
13.1
13.1

19.1
19.3
19.3

21.0
21.8
22.1

21.3
22.4
22.8

11.3
11.3
11.3

14.7
14.7
14.7

16.9
17.1
17.1

17.6
17.9
18.0

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

6.3
6.3
6.3

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

8.7
8.7
8.7

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

8.5
8.5
8.5

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

55.4
55.4
55.4

82.0
82.0
82.0

106.9
106.9
106.9

115.2
120.5
120.5

115.2
123.1
124.6

17.6
17.6
17.6

20.1
20.2
20.3

21.1
21.4
21.4

21.3
21.7
21.8

40.9
40.9
40.9

48.8
50.8
51.5

50.4
53.7
54.4

50.4
54.2
55.3

21.8
21.8
21.8

25.1
25.1
25.1

26.9
27.2
27.2

27.4
27.9
27.9

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

14.2
14.2
14.2

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

28.0
28.0
28.0

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

18.0
18.0
18.0

B - 52

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 48

Depth 200 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Design Strength 280N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

15.7
15.7
15.7

23.8
23.8
23.8

36.3
36.3
36.3

46.0
47.1
47.1

48.2
50.5
50.9

9.8
9.8
9.8

13.0
13.0
13.0

14.4
14.7
14.7

14.8
15.1
15.2

15.0
15.0
15.0

22.3
22.3
22.3

24.8
25.9
26.2

25.1
26.6
27.0

12.8
12.8
12.8

16.7
16.7
16.7

19.4
19.6
19.6

20.2
20.6
20.7

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

7.1
7.1
7.1

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

9.8
9.8
9.8

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

9.6
9.6
9.6

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

62.8
62.8
62.8

94.5
94.5
94.5

126.0
126.0
126.0

136.3
142.8
142.8

136.3
145.9
147.7

19.7
19.7
19.7

22.8
22.9
22.9

23.9
24.3
24.3

24.2
24.7
24.8

46.4
46.4
46.4

56.9
59.3
60.2

58.8
62.8
63.8

58.8
63.4
64.8

24.4
24.4
24.4

28.3
28.3
28.3

30.4
30.7
30.7

31.0
31.5
31.5

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

15.8
15.8
15.8

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

31.5
31.5
31.5

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

20.1
20.1
20.1

B - 53

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 49

Depth 200 mm Thickness 2.0 mm

Design Strength 280N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

17.7
17.7
17.7

27.1
27.1
27.1

42.5
42.5
42.5

54.7
55.9
55.9

57.3
60.2
60.8

10.9
10.9
10.9

14.5
14.5
14.5

16.3
16.6
16.7

16.7
17.1
17.2

16.9
16.9
16.9

25.5
25.5
25.5

28.7
30.1
30.4

29.1
30.9
31.5

14.3
14.3
14.3

18.8
18.8
18.8

22.0
22.2
22.2

22.9
23.3
23.4

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

7.9
7.9
7.9

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

11.0
11.0
11.0

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

10.7
10.7
10.7

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

69.9
69.9
69.9

106.7
106.7
106.7

145.2
145.2
145.2

157.9
165.5
165.5

157.9
169.2
171.3

21.8
21.8
21.8

25.4
25.4
25.4

26.7
27.1
27.1

27.0
27.5
27.6

51.8
51.8
51.8

64.8
67.7
67.7

67.1
71.8
73.0

67.1
72.5
74.1

27.0
27.0
27.0

31.3
31.3
31.3

33.8
34.1
34.1

34.4
35.0
35.1

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

17.5
17.5
17.5

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

35.0
35.0
35.0

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

22.2
22.2
22.2

B - 54

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 50

Depth 220 mm Thickness 2.0 mm

Design Strength 280N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

17.7
17.7
17.7

26.8
26.8
26.8

41.3
41.3
41.3

53.4
54.0
54.0

55.9
58.3
58.6

10.9
10.9
10.9

14.6
14.6
14.6

16.4
16.6
16.6

16.8
17.1
17.2

16.9
16.9
16.9

25.4
25.4
25.4

28.8
29.8
30.0

29.3
30.7
31.1

14.3
14.3
14.3

18.7
18.7
18.7

21.9
22.0
22.0

22.8
23.2
23.2

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

8.0
8.0
8.0

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

11.1
11.1
11.1

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

10.8
10.8
10.8

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

69.6
69.6
69.6

106.1
106.1
106.1

144.7
144.7
144.7

160.5
165.4
165.4

160.5
170.3
171.7

21.8
21.8
21.8

25.5
25.6
25.6

26.9
27.2
27.2

27.2
27.6
27.7

52.0
52.0
52.0

66.0
68.3
68.6

68.9
72.6
73.5

68.9
73.5
74.8

26.9
26.9
26.9

31.3
31.3
31.3

33.9
34.1
34.1

34.6
35.0
35.1

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

17.5
17.5
17.5

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

34.9
34.9
34.9

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

22.1
22.1
22.1

B - 55

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 51

Depth 220 mm Thickness 2.4 mm

Design Strength 280N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

21.8
21.8
21.8

33.8
33.8
33.8

54.3
54.3
54.3

72.7
73.5
73.5

76.3
79.8
80.3

13.1
13.1
13.1

17.7
17.7
17.7

20.2
20.4
20.5

20.7
21.1
21.2

20.8
20.8
20.8

31.9
31.9
31.9

37.3
38.7
39.1

37.8
39.9
40.4

17.2
17.2
17.2

22.8
22.8
22.8

27.0
27.1
27.1

28.2
28.7
28.7

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

9.5
9.5
9.5

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

13.4
13.4
13.4

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

12.8
12.8
12.8

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

83.4
83.4
83.4

130.2
130.2
130.2

184.7
184.7
184.7

207.3
213.8
213.8

207.3
220.3
222.2

25.8
25.8
25.8

30.4
30.4
30.4

32.3
32.6
32.7

32.7
33.2
33.3

62.5
62.5
62.5

82.3
84.0
84.0

86.3
91.2
92.4

86.3
92.3
94.0

31.9
31.9
31.9

37.3
37.3
37.3

40.5
40.7
40.7

41.3
41.8
41.9

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

20.6
20.6
20.6

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

41.7
41.7
41.7

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

26.1
26.1
26.1

B - 56

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 52

Depth 250 mm Thickness 2.4 mm

Design Strength 280N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

21.7
21.7
21.7

33.2
33.2
33.2

52.2
52.2
52.2

69.7
69.7
69.7

73.4
76.0
76.2

13.2
13.2
13.2

17.8
17.8
17.8

20.3
20.4
20.4

20.8
21.1
21.2

20.8
20.8
20.8

31.8
31.8
31.8

37.3
38.2
38.4

37.9
39.5
39.8

17.3
17.3
17.3

22.7
22.7
22.7

26.8
26.8
26.8

28.0
28.3
28.4

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

9.6
9.6
9.6

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

13.5
13.5
13.5

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

12.9
12.9
12.9

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

82.9
82.9
82.9

129.1
129.1
129.1

183.6
183.6
183.6

211.1
213.6
213.6

211.1
222.0
222.7

25.9
25.9
25.9

30.6
30.6
30.6

32.6
32.8
32.8

33.1
33.4
33.5

62.8
62.8
62.8

84.3
85.5
85.5

89.4
92.8
93.7

89.4
94.3
95.4

31.8
31.8
31.8

37.3
37.3
37.3

40.6
40.7
40.7

41.5
41.9
41.9

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

20.6
20.6
20.6

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

41.6
41.6
41.6

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

26.0
26.0
26.0

B - 57

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 53

Depth 300 mm Thickness 2.4 mm

Design Strength 280N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

21.6
21.6
21.6

32.4
32.4
32.4

49.7
49.7
49.7

65.3
65.3
65.3

69.8
71.4
71.4

13.4
13.4
13.4

17.8
17.8
17.8

20.3
20.4
20.4

20.8
21.1
21.1

20.9
20.9
20.9

31.5
31.5
31.5

37.0
37.5
37.6

37.9
38.9
39.1

17.4
17.4
17.4

22.6
22.6
22.6

26.5
26.5
26.5

27.7
27.9
27.9

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

9.8
9.8
9.8

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

13.7
13.7
13.7

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

13.1
13.1
13.1

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

82.2
82.2
82.2

127.6
127.6
127.6

182.1
182.1
182.1

213.5
213.5
213.5

215.8
223.7
223.7

25.9
25.9
25.9

30.9
30.9
30.9

32.9
33.0
33.1

33.5
33.7
33.8

63.3
63.3
63.3

86.6
87.8
87.8

92.9
94.8
95.5

93.3
96.8
97.5

31.8
31.8
31.8

37.2
37.2
37.2

40.7
40.7
40.7

41.7
42.0
42.0

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

20.6
20.6
20.6

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

41.4
41.4
41.4

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

26.0
26.0
26.0

B - 58

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 54

Depth 300 mm Thickness 3.0 mm

Design Strength 280N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

27.6
27.6
27.6

42.5
42.5
42.5

68.8
68.8
68.8

95.3
95.3
95.3

102.6
105.3
105.3

16.5
16.5
16.5

22.4
22.4
22.4

26.1
26.2
26.2

26.8
27.2
27.2

26.6
26.6
26.6

41.6
41.6
41.6

51.0
51.8
52.1

52.3
53.9
54.2

21.5
21.5
21.5

28.5
28.5
28.5

33.9
33.9
33.9

35.6
35.9
35.9

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

12.0
12.0
12.0

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

17.1
17.1
17.1

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

16.1
16.1
16.1

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

101.7
101.7
101.7

162.3
162.3
162.3

245.4
245.4
245.4

294.3
294.3
294.3

297.9
309.3
309.3

31.6
31.6
31.6

37.9
37.9
37.9

41.0
41.1
41.1

41.7
42.0
42.0

78.7
78.7
78.7

112.3
112.3
112.3

123.2
126.0
127.0

123.8
128.7
129.7

38.7
38.7
38.7

45.7
45.7
45.7

50.2
50.2
50.2

51.4
51.8
51.8

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

25.0
25.0
25.0

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

51.0
51.0
51.0

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

31.5
31.5
31.5

B - 59

[BLANK PAGE]

B - 60

LOAD CAPACITY TABLES FOR BEAMS


S350
Generic C Sections
Note: These tables are presented for generic Z sections, which may be used
for scheme design.

C-1

BENDING

Table 55

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 100 mm Thickness 1.2 mm

Design Strength 350 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

1.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

5.0

13.8
13.8
13.8

9.2
9.2
9.2

6.9
6.9
6.9

4.4
5.5
5.5

2.6
4.6
4.6

1.7
3.9
3.9

1.2
3.5
3.5

0.8
2.6
3.1

0.6
1.9
2.8

25.5
18.2

11.3
8.1

6.4
4.5

4.1
2.9

2.8
2.0

2.1
1.5

1.6
1.1

1.3
0.9

1.0
0.7

42.4
30.3

18.9
13.5

10.6
7.6

6.8
4.8

4.7
3.4

3.5
2.5

2.7
1.9

2.1
1.5

1.7
1.2

27.6
27.6
27.6

18.4
18.4
18.4

13.8
13.8
13.8

11.1
11.1
11.1

9.1
9.2
9.2

5.9
7.9
7.9

4.1
6.9
6.9

2.9
6.1
6.1

2.2
5.5
5.5

50.9
36.4

22.6
16.2

12.7
9.1

8.1
5.8

5.7
4.0

4.2
3.0

3.2
2.3

2.5
1.8

2.0
1.5

84.9
60.6

37.7
26.9

21.2
15.2

13.6
9.7

9.4
6.7

6.9
4.9

5.3
3.8

4.2
3.0

3.4
2.4

1.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

5.0

6.9
6.9
6.9

4.6
4.6
4.6

3.5
3.5
3.5

2.6
2.8
2.8

1.6
2.3
2.3

1.0
2.0
2.0

0.7
1.7
1.7

0.5
1.3
1.5

0.4
1.0
1.4

15.9
11.4

7.1
5.1

4.0
2.8

2.5
1.8

1.8
1.3

1.3
0.9

1.0
0.7

0.8
0.6

0.6
0.5

13.8
13.8
13.8

9.2
9.2
9.2

6.9
6.9
6.9

5.5
5.5
5.5

4.6
4.6
4.6

3.5
3.9
3.9

2.4
3.5
3.5

1.7
3.1
3.1

1.3
2.8
2.8

31.8
22.7

14.1
10.1

8.0
5.7

5.1
3.6

3.5
2.5

2.6
1.9

2.0
1.4

1.6
1.1

1.3
0.9

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
4.4
10.3

4.8
11.1

5.5
12.2

6.2
13.2

6.9
14.0

7.6
14.8

8.7
20.6

9.6
22.3

11.0
24.5

12.4
26.4

13.8
28.0

15.2
29.5

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C-2

BENDING

Table 56

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 125 mm Thickness 1.2 mm

Design Strength 350 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

1.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

5.0

17.3
17.3
17.3

11.8
11.8
11.8

8.8
8.8
8.8

5.8
7.1
7.1

3.4
5.9
5.9

2.2
5.0
5.0

1.5
4.4
4.4

1.1
3.5
3.9

0.8
2.6
3.5

40.5
29.0

18.0
12.9

10.1
7.2

6.5
4.6

4.5
3.2

3.3
2.4

2.5
1.8

2.0
1.4

1.6
1.2

67.6
48.3

30.0
21.4

16.9
12.1

10.8
7.7

7.5
5.4

5.5
3.9

4.2
3.0

3.3
2.4

2.7
1.9

34.6
34.6
34.6

23.5
23.5
23.5

17.6
17.6
17.6

14.1
14.1
14.1

11.3
11.8
11.8

7.3
10.1
10.1

5.0
8.8
8.8

3.6
7.8
7.8

2.6
7.1
7.1

81.1
57.9

36.0
25.7

20.3
14.5

13.0
9.3

9.0
6.4

6.6
4.7

5.1
3.6

4.0
2.9

3.2
2.3

135.1
96.5

60.0
42.9

33.8
24.1

21.6
15.4

15.0
10.7

11.0
7.9

8.4
6.0

6.7
4.8

5.4
3.9

1.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

5.0

8.8
8.8
8.8

5.9
5.9
5.9

4.4
4.4
4.4

3.4
3.5
3.5

2.0
2.9
2.9

1.3
2.5
2.5

0.9
2.2
2.2

0.6
1.7
2.0

0.5
1.3
1.8

25.3
18.1

11.3
8.0

6.3
4.5

4.1
2.9

2.8
2.0

2.1
1.5

1.6
1.1

1.3
0.9

1.0
0.7

17.6
17.6
17.6

11.8
11.8
11.8

8.8
8.8
8.8

7.1
7.1
7.1

5.9
5.9
5.9

4.4
5.0
5.0

3.0
4.4
4.4

2.1
3.9
3.9

1.6
3.5
3.5

50.7
36.2

22.5
16.1

12.7
9.0

8.1
5.8

5.6
4.0

4.1
3.0

3.2
2.3

2.5
1.8

2.0
1.4

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
4.2
10.6

4.6
11.4

5.2
12.6

5.9
13.5

6.6
14.4

7.2
15.1

8.3
21.2

9.1
22.8

10.5
25.1

11.8
27.0

13.1
28.7

14.5
30.3

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C-3

BENDING

Table 57

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 125 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 350 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

1.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

5.0

25.9
25.9
25.9

17.3
17.3
17.3

13.0
13.0
13.0

7.7
10.4
10.4

4.6
8.6
8.6

3.0
7.4
7.4

2.1
6.2
6.5

1.5
4.6
5.8

1.1
3.4
5.2

58.4
41.7

26.0
18.5

14.6
10.4

9.3
6.7

6.5
4.6

4.8
3.4

3.7
2.6

2.9
2.1

2.3
1.7

97.3
69.5

43.3
30.9

24.3
17.4

15.6
11.1

10.8
7.7

7.9
5.7

6.1
4.3

4.8
3.4

3.9
2.8

51.8
51.8
51.8

34.6
34.6
34.6

25.9
25.9
25.9

20.7
20.7
20.7

15.1
17.3
17.3

9.8
14.8
14.8

6.7
13.0
13.0

4.8
11.5
11.5

3.6
10.4
10.4

116.8
83.4

51.9
37.1

29.2
20.9

18.7
13.4

13.0
9.3

9.5
6.8

7.3
5.2

5.8
4.1

4.7
3.3

194.7
139.1

86.5
61.8

48.7
34.8

31.2
22.3

21.6
15.5

15.9
11.4

12.2
8.7

9.6
6.9

7.8
5.6

1.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

5.0

13.0
13.0
13.0

8.6
8.6
8.6

6.5
6.5
6.5

4.5
5.2
5.2

2.7
4.3
4.3

1.8
3.7
3.7

1.2
3.1
3.2

0.9
2.3
2.9

0.7
1.7
2.6

36.5
26.1

16.2
11.6

9.1
6.5

5.8
4.2

4.1
2.9

3.0
2.1

2.3
1.6

1.8
1.3

1.5
1.0

25.9
25.9
25.9

17.3
17.3
17.3

13.0
13.0
13.0

10.4
10.4
10.4

8.4
8.6
8.6

5.8
7.4
7.4

4.0
6.5
6.5

2.9
5.8
5.8

2.2
5.2
5.2

73.0
52.1

32.4
23.2

18.3
13.0

11.7
8.3

8.1
5.8

6.0
4.3

4.6
3.3

3.6
2.6

2.9
2.1

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
7.4
17.2

8.0
18.5

8.9
20.2

9.9
21.6

10.8
22.9

11.7
24.1

14.8
34.5

15.9
37.0

17.8
40.4

19.7
43.3

21.6
45.8

23.5
48.1

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C-4

BENDING

Table 58

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 150 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 350 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

7.0

17.4
17.4
17.4

13.8
13.9
13.9

8.4
11.6
11.6

5.4
10.0
10.0

3.7
8.7
8.7

2.6
7.7
7.7

2.0
6.3
7.0

1.2
3.7
5.8

0.8
2.4
5.0

23.7
17.0

15.2
10.8

10.5
7.5

7.7
5.5

5.9
4.2

4.7
3.3

3.8
2.7

2.6
1.6

1.9
1.0

39.6
28.3

25.3
18.1

17.6
12.6

12.9
9.2

9.9
7.1

7.8
5.6

6.3
4.5

4.4
2.7

3.2
1.7

34.8
34.8
34.8

27.9
27.9
27.9

23.2
23.2
23.2

17.6
19.9
19.9

12.1
17.4
17.4

8.6
15.5
15.5

6.4
13.9
13.9

3.8
11.6
11.6

2.5
7.9
10.0

47.5
33.9

30.4
21.7

21.1
15.1

15.5
11.1

11.9
8.5

9.4
6.7

7.6
5.4

5.3
3.3

3.9
2.1

79.1
56.5

50.6
36.2

35.2
25.1

25.8
18.5

19.8
14.1

15.6
11.2

12.7
9.0

8.8
5.5

6.5
3.5

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

11.6
11.6
11.6

8.7
8.7
8.7

7.0
7.0
7.0

5.0
5.8
5.8

3.2
5.0
5.0

2.2
4.4
4.4

1.2
3.1
3.5

0.7
1.9
2.9

0.5
1.2
2.5

26.4
18.8

14.8
10.6

9.5
6.8

6.6
4.7

4.8
3.5

3.7
2.6

2.4
1.7

1.6
1.0

1.2
0.6

23.2
23.2
23.2

17.4
17.4
17.4

13.9
13.9
13.9

11.6
11.6
11.6

10.0
10.0
10.0

7.2
8.7
8.7

3.8
7.0
7.0

2.3
5.8
5.8

1.5
3.9
5.0

52.7
37.7

29.7
21.2

19.0
13.6

13.2
9.4

9.7
6.9

7.4
5.3

4.7
3.4

3.3
2.1

2.4
1.3

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
7.1
17.6

7.7
18.8

8.6
20.6

9.5
22.0

10.4
23.3

11.3
24.5

14.3
35.1

15.4
37.7

17.2
41.2

19.0
44.1

20.9
46.7

22.7
49.0

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C-5

BENDING

Table 59

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 150 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Design Strength 350 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

7.0

20.3
20.3
20.3

15.4
16.2
16.2

9.4
13.5
13.5

6.1
11.6
11.6

4.2
10.1
10.1

3.0
9.0
9.0

2.2
7.0
8.1

1.4
4.2
6.8

0.9
2.7
5.8

27.4
19.6

17.6
12.5

12.2
8.7

9.0
6.4

6.9
4.9

5.4
3.9

4.4
3.1

3.0
1.9

2.2
1.2

45.7
32.7

29.3
20.9

20.3
14.5

14.9
10.7

11.4
8.2

9.0
6.5

7.3
5.2

5.1
3.2

3.7
2.0

40.5
40.5
40.5

32.4
32.4
32.4

27.0
27.0
27.0

19.8
23.1
23.1

13.6
20.3
20.3

9.7
18.0
18.0

7.2
16.2
16.2

4.3
13.3
13.5

2.8
8.8
11.6

54.9
39.2

35.1
25.1

24.4
17.4

17.9
12.8

13.7
9.8

10.8
7.7

8.8
6.3

6.1
3.8

4.5
2.4

91.4
65.3

58.5
41.8

40.6
29.0

29.9
21.3

22.9
16.3

18.1
12.9

14.6
10.5

10.2
6.3

7.5
4.0

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

13.5
13.5
13.5

10.1
10.1
10.1

8.1
8.1
8.1

5.6
6.8
6.8

3.6
5.8
5.8

2.5
5.1
5.1

1.3
3.5
4.1

0.8
2.1
3.4

0.5
1.3
2.9

30.5
21.8

17.1
12.2

11.0
7.8

7.6
5.4

5.6
4.0

4.3
3.1

2.7
2.0

1.9
1.2

1.4
0.7

27.0
27.0
27.0

20.3
20.3
20.3

16.2
16.2
16.2

13.5
13.5
13.5

11.2
11.6
11.6

8.1
10.1
10.1

4.3
8.1
8.1

2.6
6.6
6.8

1.7
4.4
5.8

61.0
43.5

34.3
24.5

21.9
15.7

15.2
10.9

11.2
8.0

8.6
6.1

5.5
3.9

3.8
2.4

2.8
1.5

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
9.1
21.5

9.7
23.0

10.7
25.0

11.8
26.8

12.9
28.3

13.9
29.7

18.1
43.0

19.4
46.0

21.5
50.1

23.6
53.5

25.7
56.6

27.8
59.4

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C-6

BENDING

Table 60

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 165 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 350 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

7.0

19.3
19.3
19.3

15.5
15.5
15.5

9.5
12.9
12.9

6.1
11.1
11.1

4.1
9.7
9.7

3.0
8.6
8.6

2.2
7.1
7.7

1.3
4.2
6.4

0.9
2.7
5.5

29.0
20.7

18.5
13.2

12.9
9.2

9.5
6.8

7.2
5.2

5.7
4.1

4.6
3.3

3.2
2.0

2.4
1.3

48.3
34.5

30.9
22.1

21.5
15.3

15.8
11.3

12.1
8.6

9.5
6.8

7.7
5.5

5.4
3.4

3.9
2.1

38.7
38.7
38.7

30.9
30.9
30.9

25.8
25.8
25.8

19.3
22.1
22.1

13.2
19.3
19.3

9.4
17.2
17.2

7.0
15.5
15.5

4.1
12.9
12.9

2.7
8.6
11.1

57.9
41.4

37.1
26.5

25.7
18.4

18.9
13.5

14.5
10.3

11.4
8.2

9.3
6.6

6.4
4.0

4.7
2.5

96.6
69.0

61.8
44.1

42.9
30.7

31.5
22.5

24.1
17.2

19.1
13.6

15.4
11.0

10.7
6.7

7.9
4.2

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

12.9
12.9
12.9

9.7
9.7
9.7

7.7
7.7
7.7

5.6
6.4
6.4

3.6
5.5
5.5

2.5
4.8
4.8

1.3
3.5
3.9

0.8
2.1
3.2

0.5
1.3
2.8

32.2
23.0

18.1
12.9

11.6
8.3

8.0
5.7

5.9
4.2

4.5
3.2

2.9
2.1

2.0
1.3

1.5
0.8

25.8
25.8
25.8

19.3
19.3
19.3

15.5
15.5
15.5

12.9
12.9
12.9

11.1
11.1
11.1

7.9
9.7
9.7

4.2
7.7
7.7

2.5
6.4
6.4

1.6
4.3
5.5

64.4
46.0

36.2
25.9

23.2
16.6

16.1
11.5

11.8
8.4

9.1
6.5

5.8
4.1

4.0
2.5

3.0
1.6

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
7.0
17.8

7.5
19.0

8.4
20.8

9.3
22.3

10.2
23.6

11.1
24.8

14.0
35.5

15.1
38.1

16.8
41.6

18.6
44.6

20.4
47.2

22.2
49.6

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C-7

BENDING

Table 61

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 165 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Design Strength 350 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

7.0

22.5
22.5
22.5

17.4
18.0
18.0

10.6
15.0
15.0

6.8
12.9
12.9

4.7
11.3
11.3

3.3
10.0
10.0

2.5
7.9
9.0

1.5
4.7
7.5

1.0
3.0
6.4

33.6
24.0

21.5
15.3

14.9
10.7

11.0
7.8

8.4
6.0

6.6
4.7

5.4
3.8

3.7
2.3

2.7
1.5

56.0
40.0

35.8
25.6

24.9
17.8

18.3
13.1

14.0
10.0

11.1
7.9

9.0
6.4

6.2
3.9

4.6
2.4

45.1
45.1
45.1

36.1
36.1
36.1

30.1
30.1
30.1

21.7
25.8
25.8

14.9
22.5
22.5

10.6
20.0
20.0

7.9
18.0
18.0

4.7
14.7
15.0

3.1
9.7
12.9

67.1
48.0

43.0
30.7

29.8
21.3

21.9
15.7

16.8
12.0

13.3
9.5

10.7
7.7

7.5
4.7

5.5
2.9

111.9
79.9

71.6
51.2

49.7
35.5

36.5
26.1

28.0
20.0

22.1
15.8

17.9
12.8

12.4
7.8

9.1
4.9

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

15.0
15.0
15.0

11.3
11.3
11.3

9.0
9.0
9.0

6.3
7.5
7.5

4.1
6.4
6.4

2.8
5.6
5.6

1.5
4.0
4.5

0.9
2.4
3.8

0.6
1.5
3.2

37.3
26.6

21.0
15.0

13.4
9.6

9.3
6.7

6.9
4.9

5.2
3.7

3.4
2.4

2.3
1.5

1.7
0.9

30.1
30.1
30.1

22.5
22.5
22.5

18.0
18.0
18.0

15.0
15.0
15.0

12.5
12.9
12.9

8.9
11.3
11.3

4.7
9.0
9.0

2.8
7.4
7.5

1.8
4.8
6.4

74.6
53.3

42.0
30.0

26.9
19.2

18.7
13.3

13.7
9.8

10.5
7.5

6.7
4.8

4.7
2.9

3.4
1.8

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
8.9
21.7

9.5
23.2

10.6
25.3

11.6
27.0

12.6
28.6

13.7
30.0

17.8
43.4

19.0
46.4

21.1
50.6

23.2
54.1

25.2
57.2

27.3
59.9

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C-8

BENDING

Table 62

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 180 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 350 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

7.0

21.3
21.3
21.3

17.0
17.0
17.0

10.6
14.2
14.2

6.8
12.2
12.2

4.6
10.6
10.6

3.3
9.5
9.5

2.4
7.9
8.5

1.5
4.7
7.1

0.9
3.0
6.1

34.7
24.8

22.2
15.9

15.4
11.0

11.3
8.1

8.7
6.2

6.9
4.9

5.6
4.0

3.9
2.4

2.8
1.5

57.9
41.3

37.0
26.4

25.7
18.4

18.9
13.5

14.5
10.3

11.4
8.2

9.3
6.6

6.4
4.0

4.7
2.5

42.5
42.5
42.5

34.0
34.0
34.0

28.4
28.4
28.4

21.1
24.3
24.3

14.4
21.3
21.3

10.2
18.9
18.9

7.5
17.0
17.0

4.5
14.2
14.2

2.9
9.4
12.2

69.4
49.6

44.4
31.7

30.9
22.0

22.7
16.2

17.4
12.4

13.7
9.8

11.1
7.9

7.7
4.8

5.7
3.0

115.7
82.7

74.1
52.9

51.4
36.7

37.8
27.0

28.9
20.7

22.9
16.3

18.5
13.2

12.9
8.0

9.4
5.1

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

14.2
14.2
14.2

10.6
10.6
10.6

8.5
8.5
8.5

6.3
7.1
7.1

4.1
6.1
6.1

2.8
5.3
5.3

1.5
4.0
4.3

0.9
2.3
3.5

0.6
1.5
3.0

38.6
27.6

21.7
15.5

13.9
9.9

9.6
6.9

7.1
5.1

5.4
3.9

3.5
2.5

2.4
1.5

1.8
0.9

28.4
28.4
28.4

21.3
21.3
21.3

17.0
17.0
17.0

14.2
14.2
14.2

12.2
12.2
12.2

8.6
10.6
10.6

4.5
8.5
8.5

2.7
7.1
7.1

1.7
4.7
6.1

77.1
55.1

43.4
31.0

27.8
19.8

19.3
13.8

14.2
10.1

10.8
7.7

6.9
5.0

4.8
3.0

3.5
1.9

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
6.8
18.0

7.4
19.3

8.2
21.0

9.1
22.5

10.0
23.9

10.9
25.1

13.7
35.9

14.7
38.5

16.5
42.1

18.2
45.1

20.0
47.7

21.7
50.1

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C-9

BENDING

Table 63

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 180 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Design Strength 350 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

7.0

24.8
24.8
24.8

19.5
19.9
19.9

11.8
16.6
16.6

7.6
14.2
14.2

5.2
12.4
12.4

3.7
11.0
11.0

2.8
8.8
9.9

1.7
5.2
8.3

1.1
3.4
7.1

40.3
28.8

25.8
18.4

17.9
12.8

13.2
9.4

10.1
7.2

8.0
5.7

6.5
4.6

4.5
2.8

3.3
1.8

67.2
48.0

43.0
30.7

29.9
21.3

22.0
15.7

16.8
12.0

13.3
9.5

10.8
7.7

7.5
4.7

5.5
2.9

49.7
49.7
49.7

39.7
39.7
39.7

33.1
33.1
33.1

23.6
28.4
28.4

16.1
24.8
24.8

11.5
22.1
22.1

8.5
19.9
19.9

5.1
16.1
16.6

3.3
10.5
14.2

80.7
57.6

51.6
36.9

35.9
25.6

26.3
18.8

20.2
14.4

15.9
11.4

12.9
9.2

9.0
5.6

6.6
3.5

134.5
96.1

86.1
61.5

59.8
42.7

43.9
31.4

33.6
24.0

26.6
19.0

21.5
15.4

14.9
9.3

11.0
5.9

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

16.6
16.6
16.6

12.4
12.4
12.4

9.9
9.9
9.9

7.0
8.3
8.3

4.5
7.1
7.1

3.1
6.2
6.2

1.7
4.4
5.0

1.0
2.6
4.1

0.7
1.7
3.5

44.8
32.0

25.2
18.0

16.1
11.5

11.2
8.0

8.2
5.9

6.3
4.5

4.0
2.9

2.8
1.8

2.1
1.1

33.1
33.1
33.1

24.8
24.8
24.8

19.9
19.9
19.9

16.6
16.6
16.6

13.7
14.2
14.2

9.6
12.4
12.4

5.1
9.9
9.9

3.0
8.1
8.3

2.0
5.3
7.1

89.7
64.0

50.4
36.0

32.3
23.1

22.4
16.0

16.5
11.8

12.6
9.0

8.1
5.8

5.6
3.5

4.1
2.2

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
8.7
21.9

9.3
23.5

10.4
25.5

11.4
27.3

12.4
28.9

13.4
30.3

17.5
43.9

18.7
46.9

20.7
51.1

22.7
54.6

24.8
57.7

26.8
60.5

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 10

BENDING

Table 64

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 180 mm Thickness 2.0 mm

Design Strength 350 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

7.0

28.2
28.2
28.2

21.5
22.6
22.6

13.1
18.8
18.8

8.4
16.1
16.1

5.8
14.1
14.1

4.1
12.5
12.5

3.1
9.7
11.3

1.9
5.8
9.4

1.2
3.7
8.1

45.7
32.7

29.3
20.9

20.3
14.5

14.9
10.7

11.4
8.2

9.0
6.5

7.3
5.2

5.1
3.2

3.7
2.0

76.2
54.4

48.8
34.8

33.9
24.2

24.9
17.8

19.1
13.6

15.1
10.8

12.2
8.7

8.5
5.3

6.2
3.3

56.4
56.4
56.4

45.1
45.1
45.1

37.6
37.6
37.6

26.1
32.2
32.2

17.9
28.2
28.2

12.8
25.1
25.1

9.5
22.6
22.6

5.7
17.8
18.8

3.7
11.7
16.1

91.5
65.3

58.5
41.8

40.7
29.0

29.9
21.3

22.9
16.3

18.1
12.9

14.6
10.5

10.2
6.4

7.5
4.0

152.4
108.9

97.6
69.7

67.8
48.4

49.8
35.6

38.1
27.2

30.1
21.5

24.4
17.4

16.9
10.6

12.4
6.7

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

18.8
18.8
18.8

14.1
14.1
14.1

11.3
11.3
11.3

7.7
9.4
9.4

5.0
8.1
8.1

3.5
7.1
7.1

1.9
4.9
5.6

1.1
2.9
4.7

0.7
1.9
4.0

50.8
36.3

28.6
20.4

18.3
13.1

12.7
9.1

9.3
6.7

7.1
5.1

4.6
3.3

3.2
2.0

2.3
1.2

37.6
37.6
37.6

28.2
28.2
28.2

22.6
22.6
22.6

18.8
18.8
18.8

15.2
16.1
16.1

10.7
14.1
14.1

5.7
11.3
11.3

3.4
8.9
9.4

2.2
5.8
8.1

101.6
72.6

57.2
40.8

36.6
26.1

25.4
18.1

18.7
13.3

14.3
10.2

9.1
6.5

6.4
4.0

4.7
2.5

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
10.8
26.3

11.5
28.0

12.7
30.5

13.8
32.5

15.0
34.3

16.2
35.9

21.7
52.5

23.1
56.1

25.4
60.9

27.7
65.0

30.0
68.6

32.3
71.8

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 11

BENDING

Table 65

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 200 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 350 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

7.0

23.8
23.8
23.8

19.1
19.1
19.1

12.0
15.9
15.9

7.7
13.6
13.6

5.2
11.9
11.9

3.7
10.6
10.6

2.7
9.0
9.5

1.6
5.3
7.9

1.1
3.4
6.8

43.1
30.8

27.6
19.7

19.2
13.7

14.1
10.1

10.8
7.7

8.5
6.1

6.9
4.9

4.8
3.0

3.5
1.9

71.9
51.4

46.0
32.9

32.0
22.8

23.5
16.8

18.0
12.8

14.2
10.1

11.5
8.2

8.0
5.0

5.9
3.1

47.6
47.6
47.6

38.1
38.1
38.1

31.8
31.8
31.8

23.4
27.2
27.2

15.9
23.8
23.8

11.3
21.2
21.2

8.3
19.1
19.1

4.9
15.9
15.9

3.2
10.4
13.6

86.3
61.6

55.2
39.4

38.3
27.4

28.2
20.1

21.6
15.4

17.0
12.2

13.8
9.9

9.6
6.0

7.0
3.8

143.8
102.7

92.0
65.7

63.9
45.6

47.0
33.5

35.9
25.7

28.4
20.3

23.0
16.4

16.0
10.0

11.7
6.3

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

15.9
15.9
15.9

11.9
11.9
11.9

9.5
9.5
9.5

7.2
7.9
7.9

4.6
6.8
6.8

3.1
6.0
6.0

1.7
4.5
4.8

1.0
2.7
4.0

0.6
1.7
3.4

47.9
34.2

27.0
19.3

17.3
12.3

12.0
8.6

8.8
6.3

6.7
4.8

4.3
3.1

3.0
1.9

2.2
1.2

31.8
31.8
31.8

23.8
23.8
23.8

19.1
19.1
19.1

15.9
15.9
15.9

13.6
13.6
13.6

9.5
11.9
11.9

5.0
9.5
9.5

3.0
7.9
7.9

1.9
5.2
6.8

95.9
68.5

53.9
38.5

34.5
24.7

24.0
17.1

17.6
12.6

13.5
9.6

8.6
6.2

6.0
3.7

4.4
2.4

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
6.6
18.2

7.2
19.5

8.0
21.3

8.9
22.9

9.7
24.2

10.6
25.4

13.3
36.4

14.3
39.1

16.0
42.7

17.7
45.7

19.4
48.4

21.1
50.8

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 12

BENDING

Table 66

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 200 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Design Strength 350 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

7.0

27.9
27.9
27.9

22.3
22.3
22.3

13.5
18.6
18.6

8.6
15.9
15.9

5.9
14.0
14.0

4.2
12.4
12.4

3.1
10.1
11.2

1.9
6.0
9.3

1.2
3.8
8.0

50.3
35.9

32.2
23.0

22.4
16.0

16.4
11.7

12.6
9.0

9.9
7.1

8.1
5.8

5.6
3.5

4.1
2.2

83.9
59.9

53.7
38.3

37.3
26.6

27.4
19.6

21.0
15.0

16.6
11.8

13.4
9.6

9.3
5.8

6.8
3.7

55.8
55.8
55.8

44.6
44.6
44.6

37.2
37.2
37.2

26.2
31.9
31.9

17.8
27.9
27.9

12.7
24.8
24.8

9.4
22.3
22.3

5.6
18.0
18.6

3.6
11.6
15.9

100.7
71.9

64.4
46.0

44.7
32.0

32.9
23.5

25.2
18.0

19.9
14.2

16.1
11.5

11.2
7.0

8.2
4.4

167.8
119.8

107.4
76.7

74.6
53.3

54.8
39.1

41.9
30.0

33.1
23.7

26.8
19.2

18.6
11.7

13.7
7.3

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

18.6
18.6
18.6

14.0
14.0
14.0

11.2
11.2
11.2

8.0
9.3
9.3

5.2
8.0
8.0

3.5
7.0
7.0

1.9
5.0
5.6

1.1
3.0
4.7

0.7
1.9
4.0

55.9
39.9

31.5
22.5

20.1
14.4

14.0
10.0

10.3
7.3

7.9
5.6

5.0
3.6

3.5
2.2

2.6
1.4

37.2
37.2
37.2

27.9
27.9
27.9

22.3
22.3
22.3

18.6
18.6
18.6

15.3
15.9
15.9

10.7
14.0
14.0

5.6
11.2
11.2

3.3
9.0
9.3

2.2
5.8
8.0

111.8
79.9

62.9
44.9

40.3
28.8

28.0
20.0

20.5
14.7

15.7
11.2

10.1
7.2

7.0
4.4

5.1
2.8

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
8.5
22.2

9.1
23.8

10.1
25.9

11.1
27.7

12.1
29.2

13.1
30.7

17.0
44.4

18.2
47.5

20.2
51.8

22.2
55.3

24.2
58.5

26.1
61.3

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 13

BENDING

Table 67

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 200 mm Thickness 2.0 mm

Design Strength 350 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

3.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
7.0

8.0

14.9
21.2
21.2

9.5
18.2
18.2

6.5
15.9
15.9

4.7
14.1
14.1

3.5
11.1
12.7

2.7
8.5
11.6

2.1
6.6
10.6

1.4
4.2
9.1

1.0
2.9
7.9

25.4
18.2

18.7
13.4

14.3
10.2

11.3
8.1

9.2
6.5

7.6
5.2

6.4
4.0

4.7
2.5

3.6
1.7

42.4
30.3

31.2
22.3

23.8
17.0

18.8
13.5

15.3
10.9

12.6
8.6

10.6
6.6

7.8
4.2

6.0
2.8

42.4
42.4
42.4

29.0
36.3
36.3

19.8
31.8
31.8

14.1
28.3
28.3

10.4
25.4
25.4

8.0
23.1
23.1

6.2
19.9
21.2

4.1
12.9
18.2

2.8
8.8
15.9

50.9
36.3

37.4
26.7

28.6
20.4

22.6
16.2

18.3
13.1

15.1
10.3

12.7
7.9

9.3
5.0

7.2
3.4

84.8
60.6

62.3
44.5

47.7
34.1

37.7
26.9

30.5
21.8

25.2
17.2

21.2
13.2

15.6
8.3

11.9
5.6

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0

8.0

15.9
15.9
15.9

12.7
12.7
12.7

8.8
10.6
10.6

5.7
9.1
9.1

3.9
7.9
7.9

2.1
5.6
6.4

1.3
3.3
5.3

0.8
2.1
4.5

0.6
1.4
4.0

35.8
25.6

22.9
16.4

15.9
11.4

11.7
8.3

8.9
6.4

5.7
4.1

4.0
2.5

2.9
1.6

2.2
1.0

31.8
31.8
31.8

25.4
25.4
25.4

21.2
21.2
21.2

16.9
18.2
18.2

11.8
15.9
15.9

6.3
12.7
12.7

3.7
9.9
10.6

2.4
6.4
9.1

1.7
4.4
7.9

71.5
51.1

45.8
32.7

31.8
22.7

23.4
16.7

17.9
12.8

11.4
8.2

7.9
5.0

5.8
3.1

4.5
2.1

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
10.6
26.6

11.3
28.4

12.4
30.8

13.5
32.9

14.7
34.7

15.8
36.3

21.2
53.2

22.6
56.7

24.8
61.6

27.1
65.8

29.3
69.4

31.6
72.7

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 14

BENDING

Table 68

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 220 mm Thickness 2.0 mm

Design Strength 350 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

3.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
7.0

8.0

16.7
23.6
23.6

10.7
20.2
20.2

7.3
17.7
17.7

5.2
15.7
15.7

3.9
12.5
14.1

3.0
9.5
12.9

2.3
7.4
11.8

1.5
4.7
10.1

1.1
3.2
8.8

31.1
22.2

22.9
16.3

17.5
12.5

13.8
9.9

11.2
8.0

9.3
6.3

7.8
4.9

5.7
3.1

4.4
2.1

51.9
37.1

38.1
27.2

29.2
20.8

23.1
16.5

18.7
13.3

15.4
10.5

13.0
8.1

9.5
5.1

7.3
3.4

47.2
47.2
47.2

31.8
40.4
40.4

21.6
35.4
35.4

15.4
31.4
31.4

11.4
28.3
28.3

8.7
25.7
25.7

6.8
21.9
23.6

4.4
14.1
20.2

3.0
9.6
17.7

62.3
44.5

45.7
32.7

35.0
25.0

27.7
19.8

22.4
16.0

18.5
12.6

15.6
9.7

11.4
6.1

8.8
4.1

103.8
74.1

76.2
54.5

58.4
41.7

46.1
32.9

37.4
26.7

30.9
21.0

25.9
16.2

19.1
10.2

14.6
6.8

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0

8.0

17.7
17.7
17.7

14.1
14.1
14.1

9.9
11.8
11.8

6.4
10.1
10.1

4.4
8.8
8.8

2.3
6.3
7.1

1.4
3.7
5.9

0.9
2.4
5.1

0.6
1.6
4.4

43.8
31.3

28.0
20.0

19.5
13.9

14.3
10.2

10.9
7.8

7.0
5.0

4.9
3.0

3.6
1.9

2.7
1.3

35.4
35.4
35.4

28.3
28.3
28.3

23.6
23.6
23.6

18.7
20.2
20.2

12.9
17.7
17.7

6.8
14.1
14.1

4.1
10.9
11.8

2.6
7.1
10.1

1.8
4.8
8.8

87.6
62.5

56.0
40.0

38.9
27.8

28.6
20.4

21.9
15.6

14.0
10.0

9.7
6.1

7.1
3.8

5.5
2.6

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
10.4
26.9

11.0
28.7

12.1
31.2

13.2
33.3

14.3
35.1

15.4
36.8

20.7
53.8

22.1
57.4

24.3
62.4

26.5
66.5

28.7
70.2

30.9
73.5

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 15

BENDING

Table 69

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 220 mm Thickness 2.4 mm

Design Strength 350 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

3.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
7.0

8.0

19.8
29.2
29.2

12.7
25.0
25.0

8.7
21.9
21.9

6.3
19.3
19.5

4.7
14.7
17.5

3.6
11.2
15.9

2.8
8.8
14.6

1.9
5.6
12.5

1.3
3.9
11.0

38.5
27.5

28.3
20.2

21.7
15.5

17.1
12.2

13.9
9.9

11.5
7.8

9.6
6.0

7.1
3.8

5.4
2.5

64.2
45.9

47.2
33.7

36.1
25.8

28.5
20.4

23.1
16.5

19.1
13.0

16.1
10.0

11.8
6.3

9.0
4.2

56.7
58.4
58.4

37.7
50.1
50.1

25.8
43.8
43.8

18.5
38.9
38.9

13.7
35.1
35.1

10.5
31.9
31.9

8.2
25.9
29.2

5.4
16.8
25.0

3.8
11.4
21.9

77.1
55.0

56.6
40.4

43.4
31.0

34.3
24.5

27.7
19.8

22.9
15.6

19.3
12.0

14.2
7.6

10.8
5.1

128.4
91.7

94.4
67.4

72.3
51.6

57.1
40.8

46.2
33.0

38.2
26.1

32.1
20.1

23.6
12.6

18.1
8.5

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0

8.0

21.9
21.9
21.9

17.5
17.5
17.5

11.7
14.6
14.6

7.6
12.5
12.5

5.2
11.0
11.0

2.8
7.4
8.8

1.7
4.4
7.3

1.1
2.8
6.3

0.8
1.9
5.5

54.2
38.7

34.7
24.8

24.1
17.2

17.7
12.6

13.5
9.7

8.7
6.2

6.0
3.8

4.4
2.4

3.4
1.6

43.8
43.8
43.8

35.1
35.1
35.1

29.2
29.2
29.2

22.2
25.0
25.0

15.4
21.9
21.9

8.2
17.5
17.5

4.9
13.0
14.6

3.2
8.4
12.5

2.3
5.7
11.0

108.4
77.4

69.4
49.5

48.2
34.4

35.4
25.3

27.1
19.4

17.3
12.4

12.0
7.5

8.8
4.7

6.8
3.2

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
15.2
36.8

16.0
39.1

17.4
42.3

18.8
45.0

20.1
47.3

21.5
49.5

30.3
73.5

32.0
78.2

34.8
84.6

37.5
89.9

40.3
94.7

43.0
99.0

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 16

BENDING

Table 70

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 250 mm Thickness 2.4 mm

Design Strength 350 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

3.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

10.0

14.8
29.1
29.1

10.1
25.4
25.4

7.2
22.6
22.6

5.4
17.2
20.3

3.2
10.2
17.0

2.1
6.5
14.5

1.5
4.5
12.7

1.1
3.2
11.3

0.9
2.4
10.2

37.3
26.7

28.6
20.4

22.6
16.1

18.3
13.1

12.7
7.9

9.3
5.0

7.1
3.4

5.6
2.4

4.6
1.7

62.2
44.5

47.7
34.0

37.7
26.9

30.5
21.8

21.2
13.2

15.6
8.3

11.9
5.6

9.4
3.9

7.6
2.9

42.7
58.1
58.1

29.1
50.9
50.9

20.8
45.2
45.2

15.4
40.7
40.7

9.2
29.5
33.9

6.0
19.0
29.1

4.2
12.9
25.4

3.0
9.2
22.6

2.3
6.8
20.3

74.7
53.4

57.2
40.8

45.2
32.3

36.6
26.1

25.4
15.9

18.7
10.0

14.3
6.7

11.3
4.7

9.1
3.4

124.5
88.9

95.3
68.1

75.3
53.8

61.0
43.6

42.4
26.5

31.1
16.7

23.8
11.2

18.8
7.8

15.2
5.7

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

10.0

25.4
25.4
25.4

13.7
17.0
17.0

6.1
12.7
12.7

3.2
8.6
10.2

2.0
5.1
8.5

1.3
3.3
7.3

0.9
2.2
6.4

0.7
1.6
5.7

0.5
1.2
5.1

71.5
51.1

31.8
22.7

17.9
12.8

11.4
8.2

7.9
5.0

5.8
3.1

4.5
2.1

3.5
1.5

2.9
1.1

50.9
50.9
50.9

33.9
33.9
33.9

17.4
25.4
25.4

9.2
20.3
20.3

5.5
14.7
17.0

3.6
9.5
14.5

2.5
6.4
12.7

1.8
4.6
11.3

1.4
3.4
10.2

143.0
102.1

63.5
45.4

35.7
25.5

22.9
16.3

15.9
9.9

11.7
6.3

8.9
4.2

7.1
2.9

5.7
2.1

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
14.8
37.3

15.6
39.7

16.9
42.9

18.2
45.6

19.6
48.0

20.9
50.2

29.5
74.6

31.1
79.3

33.8
85.8

36.5
91.3

39.2
96.1

41.8
100.4

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 17

BENDING

Table 71

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 300 mm Thickness 2.4 mm

Design Strength 350 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

3.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

10.0

18.3
35.8
35.8

12.5
31.3
31.3

8.9
27.9
27.9

6.6
21.5
25.1

3.9
12.7
20.9

2.6
8.1
17.9

1.8
5.5
15.7

1.3
3.9
13.9

1.0
2.9
12.5

55.2
39.5

42.3
30.2

33.4
23.9

27.1
19.3

18.8
11.7

13.8
7.4

10.6
5.0

8.4
3.5

6.8
2.5

92.1
65.8

70.5
50.3

55.7
39.8

45.1
32.2

31.3
19.6

23.0
12.3

17.6
8.3

13.9
5.8

11.3
4.2

50.9
71.6
71.6

34.6
62.7
62.7

24.6
55.7
55.7

18.2
50.1
50.1

10.8
35.3
41.8

7.0
22.6
35.8

4.8
15.3
31.3

3.5
10.9
27.9

2.6
8.0
25.1

110.5
78.9

84.6
60.4

66.8
47.7

54.1
38.7

37.6
23.5

27.6
14.8

21.1
9.9

16.7
7.0

13.5
5.1

184.1
131.5

141.0
100.7

111.4
79.6

90.2
64.4

62.7
39.2

46.0
24.7

35.2
16.5

27.8
11.6

22.6
8.5

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

10.0

31.3
31.3
31.3

17.1
20.9
20.9

7.5
15.7
15.7

4.0
10.8
12.5

2.4
6.3
10.4

1.6
4.1
9.0

1.1
2.8
7.8

0.8
2.0
7.0

0.6
1.5
6.3

105.7
75.5

47.0
33.6

26.4
18.9

16.9
12.1

11.7
7.3

8.6
4.6

6.6
3.1

5.2
2.2

4.2
1.6

62.7
62.7
62.7

41.8
41.8
41.8

20.7
31.3
31.3

10.9
25.1
25.1

6.5
17.7
20.9

4.2
11.3
17.9

2.9
7.7
15.7

2.1
5.4
13.9

1.6
4.0
12.5

211.5
151.0

94.0
67.1

52.9
37.8

33.8
24.2

23.5
14.7

17.3
9.2

13.2
6.2

10.4
4.4

8.5
3.2

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
14.0
38.2

14.8
40.6

16.1
44.0

17.4
46.7

18.6
49.2

19.9
51.4

28.1
76.4

29.6
81.3

32.2
87.9

34.7
93.5

37.3
98.4

39.8
102.9

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 18

BENDING

Table 72

GENERIC C SECTION

Depth 300 mm Thickness 3.0 mm

Design Strength 350 N/mm2


Uniformly Distributed Load
Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

3.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

10.0

22.4
46.7
46.7

15.3
40.9
40.9

11.0
34.6
36.3

8.2
26.0
32.7

5.0
15.4
27.2

3.3
9.9
23.3

2.3
6.8
20.4

1.7
4.9
18.2

1.3
3.6
16.3

72.0
51.4

55.1
39.4

43.6
31.1

35.3
25.2

24.5
15.3

18.0
9.6

13.8
6.5

10.9
4.5

8.8
3.3

120.0
85.7

91.9
65.6

72.6
51.9

58.8
42.0

40.8
25.5

30.0
16.1

23.0
10.8

18.1
7.6

14.7
5.5

62.4
93.4
93.4

42.6
81.7
81.7

30.4
72.6
72.6

22.6
65.4
65.4

13.6
43.1
54.5

8.9
27.7
46.7

6.2
18.9
40.9

4.6
13.5
36.3

3.5
10.0
32.7

144.0
102.9

110.3
78.8

87.1
62.2

70.6
50.4

49.0
30.6

36.0
19.3

27.6
12.9

21.8
9.1

17.6
6.6

240.0
171.4

183.8
131.3

145.2
103.7

117.6
84.0

81.7
51.0

60.0
32.1

45.9
21.5

36.3
15.1

29.4
11.0

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

10.0

40.9
40.9
40.9

20.7
27.2
27.2

9.2
20.4
20.4

4.9
13.0
16.3

3.0
7.7
13.6

2.0
4.9
11.7

1.4
3.4
10.2

1.0
2.4
9.1

0.8
1.8
8.2

137.8
98.4

61.3
43.8

34.5
24.6

22.1
15.8

15.3
9.6

11.3
6.0

8.6
4.0

6.8
2.8

5.5
2.1

81.7
81.7
81.7

54.4
54.5
54.5

25.5
40.9
40.9

13.6
32.7
32.7

8.2
21.5
27.2

5.4
13.8
23.3

3.8
9.4
20.4

2.8
6.7
18.2

2.1
5.0
16.3

275.6
196.9

122.5
87.5

68.9
49.2

44.1
31.5

30.6
19.1

22.5
12.1

17.2
8.1

13.6
5.7

11.0
4.1

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
DOUBLE C SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Note:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained
DOUBLE SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
22.7
56.0

23.7
59.3

25.4
63.8

27.1
67.6

28.8
71.0

30.5
74.0

45.4
112.1

47.4
118.6

50.8
127.6

54.2
135.2

57.5
141.9

60.9
148.0

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 19

[BLANK PAGE]

C - 20

LOAD CAPACITY TABLES FOR BEAMS


S350
Generic Z Sections
Note: These tables are presented for generic Z sections, which may be used
for scheme design.

C - 21

BENDING

Table 73

GENERIC ZED SECTION

Depth 100 mm Thickness 1.2 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

1.0

1.5

5.0

13.6
13.6
13.6

9.1
9.1
9.1

6.4
6.8
6.8

3.4
5.4
5.4

2.0
4.5
4.5

1.3
3.9
3.9

0.9
2.9
3.4

0.6
2.1
3.0

0.5
1.5
2.7

24.8
17.7

11.0
7.9

6.2
4.4

4.0
2.8

2.8
2.0

2.0
1.4

1.5
1.1

1.2
0.9

1.0
0.7

41.3
29.5

18.4
13.1

10.3
7.4

6.6
4.7

4.6
3.3

3.4
2.4

2.6
1.8

2.0
1.5

1.7
1.2

1.0

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

5.0

6.8
6.8
6.8

4.5
4.5
4.5

3.4
3.4
3.4

2.0
2.7
2.7

1.2
2.3
2.3

0.8
1.9
1.9

0.5
1.4
1.7

0.4
1.0
1.5

0.3
0.8
1.4

15.5
11.1

6.9
4.9

3.9
2.8

2.5
1.8

1.7
1.2

1.3
0.9

1.0
0.7

0.8
0.5

0.6
0.4

25.8
18.4

11.5
8.2

6.5
4.6

4.1
2.9

2.9
2.0

2.1
1.5

1.6
1.2

1.3
0.9

1.0
0.7

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Notes:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
4.4
10.3

4.8
11.1

5.5
12.2

6.2
13.2

6.9
14.0

7.6
14.8

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 22

BENDING

Table 74

GENERIC ZED SECTION

Depth 125 mm Thickness 1.2 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

1.0

1.5

5.0

17.3
17.3
17.3

11.6
11.6
11.6

8.1
8.7
8.7

4.2
7.0
7.0

2.5
5.8
5.8

1.6
5.0
5.0

1.1
3.6
4.4

0.8
2.6
3.9

0.6
1.9
3.5

39.6
28.3

17.6
12.6

9.9
7.1

6.3
4.5

4.4
3.1

3.2
2.3

2.5
1.8

2.0
1.4

1.6
1.1

66.1
47.2

29.4
21.0

16.5
11.8

10.6
7.5

7.3
5.2

5.4
3.9

4.1
2.9

3.3
2.3

2.6
1.9

1.0

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

5.0

8.7
8.7
8.7

5.8
5.8
5.8

4.4
4.4
4.4

2.5
3.5
3.5

1.5
2.9
2.9

1.0
2.5
2.5

0.6
1.8
2.2

0.5
1.3
1.9

0.3
0.9
1.7

24.8
17.7

11.0
7.9

6.2
4.4

4.0
2.8

2.8
2.0

2.0
1.4

1.5
1.1

1.2
0.9

1.0
0.7

41.3
29.5

18.3
13.1

10.3
7.4

6.6
4.7

4.6
3.3

3.4
2.4

2.6
1.8

2.0
1.5

1.7
1.2

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Notes:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
4.2
10.6

4.6
11.4

5.2
12.6

5.9
13.5

6.6
14.4

7.2
15.1

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 23

BENDING

Table 75

GENERIC ZED SECTION

Depth 125 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

1.0

1.5

5.0

24.7
24.7
24.7

16.5
16.5
16.5

10.6
12.3
12.3

5.6
9.9
9.9

3.3
8.2
8.2

2.1
6.8
7.1

1.5
4.7
6.2

1.0
3.4
5.5

0.8
2.5
4.9

57.0
40.7

25.3
18.1

14.2
10.2

9.1
6.5

6.3
4.5

4.7
3.3

3.6
2.5

2.8
2.0

2.3
1.6

95.0
67.8

42.2
30.2

23.7
17.0

15.2
10.9

10.6
7.5

7.8
5.5

5.9
4.2

4.7
3.4

3.8
2.7

1.0

1.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

5.0

12.3
12.3
12.3

8.2
8.2
8.2

6.0
6.2
6.2

3.4
4.9
4.9

2.0
4.1
4.1

1.3
3.4
3.5

0.9
2.4
3.1

0.6
1.7
2.7

0.5
1.2
2.5

35.6
25.4

15.8
11.3

8.9
6.4

5.7
4.1

4.0
2.8

2.9
2.1

2.2
1.6

1.8
1.3

1.4
1.0

59.4
42.4

26.4
18.8

14.8
10.6

9.5
6.8

6.6
4.7

4.8
3.5

3.7
2.6

2.9
2.1

2.4
1.7

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Notes:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
7.4
17.2

8.0
18.5

8.9
20.2

9.9
21.6

10.8
22.9

11.7
24.1

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 24

BENDING

Table 76

GENERIC ZED SECTION

Depth 150 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

2.0

2.5

7.0

14.9
16.0
16.0

7.9
12.8
12.8

4.6
10.6
10.6

3.0
9.1
9.1

2.0
6.7
8.0

1.4
4.8
7.1

1.1
3.5
6.4

0.6
2.1
5.3

0.4
1.3
4.6

21.9
15.7

14.0
10.0

9.7
7.0

7.2
5.1

5.5
3.9

4.3
3.1

3.5
2.5

2.4
1.5

1.8
1.0

36.5
26.1

23.4
16.7

16.2
11.6

11.9
8.5

9.1
6.5

7.2
5.2

5.8
4.2

4.1
2.5

3.0
1.6

1.5

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

10.6
10.6
10.6

8.0
8.0
8.0

4.7
6.4
6.4

2.8
5.3
5.3

1.8
4.6
4.6

1.2
3.4
4.0

0.6
1.7
3.2

0.4
1.0
2.7

0.3
0.7
2.3

24.4
17.4

13.7
9.8

8.8
6.3

6.1
4.3

4.5
3.2

3.4
2.4

2.2
1.6

1.5
1.0

1.1
0.6

40.6
29.0

22.8
16.3

14.6
10.4

10.1
7.2

7.5
5.3

5.7
4.1

3.7
2.6

2.5
1.6

1.9
1.0

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Notes:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
7.1
17.6

7.7
18.8

8.6
20.6

9.5
22

10.4
23.3

11.3
24.5

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 25

BENDING

Table 77

GENERIC ZED SECTION

Depth 150 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

2.0

2.5

7.0

16.7
18.3
18.3

8.8
14.7
14.7

5.2
12.2
12.2

3.3
10.5
10.5

2.3
7.5
9.2

1.6
5.3
8.1

1.2
3.9
7.3

0.7
2.3
6.1

0.5
1.5
5.2

25.2
18.0

16.1
11.5

11.2
8.0

8.2
5.9

6.3
4.5

5.0
3.6

4.0
2.9

2.8
1.8

2.1
1.1

42.0
30.0

26.9
19.2

18.7
13.3

13.7
9.8

10.5
7.5

8.3
5.9

6.7
4.8

4.7
2.9

3.4
1.8

1.5

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

12.2
12.2
12.2

9.2
9.2
9.2

5.3
7.3
7.3

3.1
6.1
6.1

2.0
5.2
5.2

1.4
3.7
4.6

0.7
2.0
3.7

0.4
1.1
3.1

0.3
0.7
2.6

28.0
20.0

15.8
11.3

10.1
7.2

7.0
5.0

5.1
3.7

3.9
2.8

2.5
1.8

1.8
1.1

1.3
0.7

46.7
33.3

26.3
18.8

16.8
12.0

11.7
8.3

8.6
6.1

6.6
4.7

4.2
3.0

2.9
1.8

2.1
1.1

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Notes:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
9.1
21.5

9.7
23

10.7
25

11.8
26.8

12.9
28.3

13.9
29.7

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 26

BENDING

Table 78

GENERIC ZED SECTION

Depth 165 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

2.0

2.5

7.0

16.5
17.8
17.8

8.7
14.2
14.2

5.1
11.9
11.9

3.2
10.2
10.2

2.2
7.4
8.9

1.6
5.2
7.9

1.2
3.8
7.1

0.7
2.2
5.9

0.5
1.4
5.1

26.8
19.2

17.2
12.3

11.9
8.5

8.8
6.3

6.7
4.8

5.3
3.8

4.3
3.1

3.0
1.9

2.2
1.2

44.7
32.0

28.6
20.5

19.9
14.2

14.6
10.4

11.2
8.0

8.8
6.3

7.2
5.1

5.0
3.1

3.7
2.0

1.5

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

11.9
11.9
11.9

8.9
8.9
8.9

5.2
7.1
7.1

3.1
5.9
5.9

1.9
5.1
5.1

1.3
3.7
4.4

0.7
1.9
3.6

0.4
1.1
3.0

0.3
0.7
2.5

29.8
21.3

16.8
12.0

10.7
7.7

7.5
5.3

5.5
3.9

4.2
3.0

2.7
1.9

1.9
1.2

1.4
0.7

49.7
35.5

28.0
20.0

17.9
12.8

12.4
8.9

9.1
6.5

7.0
5.0

4.5
3.2

3.1
1.9

2.3
1.2

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Notes:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
7.0
17.8

7.5
19

8.4
20.8

9.3
22.3

10.2
23.6

11.1
24.8

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 27

BENDING

Table 79

GENERIC ZED SECTION

Depth 165 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

2.0

2.5

7.0

18.4
20.5
20.5

9.7
16.4
16.4

5.7
13.7
13.7

3.6
11.7
11.7

2.5
8.2
10.2

1.8
5.8
9.1

1.3
4.3
8.2

0.8
2.5
6.8

0.5
1.6
5.9

31.0
22.1

19.8
14.2

13.8
9.8

10.1
7.2

7.7
5.5

6.1
4.4

5.0
3.5

3.4
2.1

2.5
1.4

51.6
36.9

33.0
23.6

22.9
16.4

16.8
12.0

12.9
9.2

10.2
7.3

8.3
5.9

5.7
3.6

4.2
2.3

1.5

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

13.7
13.7
13.7

10.2
10.2
10.2

5.8
8.2
8.2

3.4
6.8
6.8

2.2
5.9
5.9

1.5
4.1
5.1

0.8
2.1
4.1

0.5
1.3
3.4

0.3
0.8
2.9

34.4
24.6

19.3
13.8

12.4
8.8

8.6
6.1

6.3
4.5

4.8
3.5

3.1
2.2

2.1
1.3

1.6
0.8

57.3
41.0

32.2
23.0

20.6
14.7

14.3
10.2

10.5
7.5

8.1
5.8

5.2
3.7

3.6
2.2

2.6
1.4

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Notes:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
8.9
21.7

9.5
23.2

10.6
25.3

11.6
27

12.6
28.6

13.7
30

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 28

BENDING

Table 80

GENERIC ZED SECTION

Depth 180 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

2.0

2.5

7.0

18.0
19.6
19.6

9.4
15.7
15.7

5.5
13.1
13.1

3.5
11.2
11.2

2.4
8.0
9.8

1.7
5.7
8.7

1.3
4.2
7.8

0.7
2.4
6.5

0.5
1.6
5.6

32.2
23.0

20.6
14.7

14.3
10.2

10.5
7.5

8.1
5.8

6.4
4.5

5.2
3.7

3.6
2.2

2.6
1.4

53.7
38.4

34.4
24.6

23.9
17.1

17.5
12.5

13.4
9.6

10.6
7.6

8.6
6.1

6.0
3.7

4.4
2.4

1.5

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

13.1
13.1
13.1

9.8
9.8
9.8

5.7
7.8
7.8

3.3
6.5
6.5

2.1
5.6
5.6

1.4
4.0
4.9

0.8
2.1
3.9

0.5
1.2
3.3

0.3
0.8
2.8

35.8
25.6

20.2
14.4

12.9
9.2

9.0
6.4

6.6
4.7

5.0
3.6

3.2
2.3

2.2
1.4

1.6
0.9

59.7
42.7

33.6
24.0

21.5
15.4

14.9
10.7

11.0
7.8

8.4
6.0

5.4
3.8

3.7
2.3

2.7
1.5

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Notes:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
6.8
18.0

7.4
19.3

8.2
21.0

9.1
22.5

10.0
23.9

10.9
25.1

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 29

BENDING

Table 81

GENERIC ZED SECTION

Depth 180 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

2.0

2.5

7.0

20.1
22.6
22.6

10.5
18.1
18.1

6.2
15.1
15.1

3.9
12.9
12.9

2.7
9.0
11.3

1.9
6.3
10.1

1.4
4.7
9.1

0.9
2.7
7.5

0.6
1.7
6.5

37.3
26.7

23.9
17.1

16.6
11.8

12.2
8.7

9.3
6.7

7.4
5.3

6.0
4.3

4.1
2.6

3.0
1.6

62.2
44.4

39.8
28.4

27.6
19.7

20.3
14.5

15.5
11.1

12.3
8.8

9.9
7.1

6.9
4.3

5.1
2.7

1.5

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

15.1
15.1
15.1

11.3
11.3
11.3

6.3
9.1
9.1

3.7
7.5
7.5

2.4
6.5
6.5

1.6
4.5
5.7

0.9
2.3
4.5

0.5
1.4
3.8

0.3
0.9
3.2

41.5
29.6

23.3
16.7

14.9
10.7

10.4
7.4

7.6
5.4

5.8
4.2

3.7
2.7

2.6
1.6

1.9
1.0

69.1
49.4

38.9
27.8

24.9
17.8

17.3
12.3

12.7
9.1

9.7
6.9

6.2
4.4

4.3
2.7

3.2
1.7

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Notes:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
8.7
21.9

9.3
23.5

10.4
25.5

11.4
27.3

12.4
28.9

13.4
30.3

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 30

BENDING

Table 82

GENERIC ZED SECTION

Depth 180 mm Thickness 2.0 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

2.0

2.5

7.0

22.1
25.6
25.6

11.6
20.5
20.5

6.8
17.1
17.1

4.4
14.2
14.6

3.0
9.8
12.8

2.1
7.0
11.4

1.6
5.1
10.2

1.0
3.0
8.5

0.6
1.9
7.3

42.2
30.2

27.0
19.3

18.8
13.4

13.8
9.9

10.6
7.5

8.3
6.0

6.8
4.8

4.7
2.9

3.4
1.8

70.4
50.3

45.1
32.2

31.3
22.4

23.0
16.4

17.6
12.6

13.9
9.9

11.3
8.0

7.8
4.9

5.7
3.1

1.5

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

17.1
17.1
17.1

12.7
12.8
12.8

7.0
10.2
10.2

4.1
8.5
8.5

2.6
7.1
7.3

1.8
4.9
6.4

1.0
2.6
5.1

0.6
1.5
4.3

0.4
1.0
3.7

46.9
33.5

26.4
18.9

16.9
12.1

11.7
8.4

8.6
6.2

6.6
4.7

4.2
3.0

2.9
1.8

2.2
1.2

78.2
55.9

44.0
31.4

28.2
20.1

19.6
14.0

14.4
10.3

11.0
7.9

7.0
5.0

4.9
3.1

3.6
1.9

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Notes:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
10.8
26.3

11.5
28.0

12.7
30.5

13.8
32.5

15.0
34.3

16.2
35.9

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 31

BENDING

Table 83

GENERIC ZED SECTION

Depth 200 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

2.0

2.5

7.0

20.1
22.0
22.0

10.5
17.6
17.6

6.1
14.7
14.7

3.9
12.6
12.6

2.6
8.9
11.0

1.9
6.3
9.8

1.4
4.6
8.8

0.8
2.7
7.3

0.5
1.7
6.3

40.2
28.7

25.7
18.4

17.9
12.8

13.1
9.4

10.0
7.2

7.9
5.7

6.4
4.6

4.5
2.8

3.3
1.8

67.0
47.8

42.9
30.6

29.8
21.3

21.9
15.6

16.7
12.0

13.2
9.4

10.7
7.7

7.4
4.7

5.5
2.9

1.5

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

14.7
14.7
14.7

11.0
11.0
11.0

6.3
8.8
8.8

3.7
7.3
7.3

2.3
6.3
6.3

1.6
4.5
5.5

0.8
2.3
4.4

0.5
1.4
3.7

0.3
0.9
3.1

44.6
31.9

25.1
17.9

16.1
11.5

11.2
8.0

8.2
5.9

6.3
4.5

4.0
2.9

2.8
1.7

2.0
1.1

74.4
53.1

41.9
29.9

26.8
19.1

18.6
13.3

13.7
9.8

10.5
7.5

6.7
4.8

4.7
2.9

3.4
1.8

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Notes:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
6.6
18.2

7.2
19.5

8
21.3

8.9
22.9

9.7
24.2

10.6
25.4

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 32

BENDING

Table 84

GENERIC ZED SECTION

Depth 200 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0

2.0

2.5

7.0

22.3
25.5
25.5

11.7
20.4
20.4

6.8
17.0
17.0

4.4
14.5
14.6

3.0
9.9
12.8

2.1
7.0
11.3

1.6
5.2
10.2

0.9
3.0
8.5

0.6
1.9
7.3

46.7
33.4

29.9
21.3

20.8
14.8

15.2
10.9

11.7
8.3

9.2
6.6

7.5
5.3

5.2
3.2

3.8
2.0

77.8
55.6

49.8
35.6

34.6
24.7

25.4
18.2

19.5
13.9

15.4
11.0

12.5
8.9

8.6
5.4

6.4
3.4

1.5

2.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0

7.0

17.0
17.0
17.0

12.8
12.8
12.8

7.0
10.2
10.2

4.1
8.5
8.5

2.6
7.3
7.3

1.8
5.0
6.4

0.9
2.6
5.1

0.6
1.5
4.3

0.4
1.0
3.6

51.9
37.1

29.2
20.8

18.7
13.3

13.0
9.3

9.5
6.8

7.3
5.2

4.7
3.3

3.2
2.0

2.4
1.3

86.5
61.8

48.6
34.7

31.1
22.2

21.6
15.4

15.9
11.3

12.2
8.7

7.8
5.6

5.4
3.4

4.0
2.1

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Notes:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
8.5
22.2

9.1
23.8

10.1
25.9

11.1
27.7

12.1
29.2

13.1
30.7

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 33

BENDING

Table 85

GENERIC ZED SECTION

Depth 200 mm Thickness 2.0 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
7.0

3.0

3.5

8.0

7.5
19.3
19.3

4.8
15.9
16.6

3.3
10.9
14.5

2.3
7.7
12.9

1.7
5.7
11.6

1.3
4.3
10.5

1.0
3.3
9.7

0.7
2.1
8.3

0.5
1.4
7.3

23.6
16.8

17.3
12.4

13.3
9.5

10.5
7.5

8.5
6.1

7.0
4.8

5.9
3.7

4.3
2.3

3.3
1.6

39.3
28.1

28.9
20.6

22.1
15.8

17.5
12.5

14.2
10.1

11.7
8.0

9.8
6.1

7.2
3.9

5.5
2.6

2.0

2.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0

8.0

14.3
14.5
14.5

7.7
11.6
11.6

4.5
9.7
9.7

2.9
8.0
8.3

2.0
5.5
7.3

1.0
2.8
5.8

0.6
1.7
4.8

0.4
1.1
4.1

0.3
0.7
3.6

33.2
23.7

21.2
15.2

14.7
10.5

10.8
7.7

8.3
5.9

5.3
3.8

3.7
2.3

2.7
1.5

2.1
1.0

55.3
39.5

35.4
25.3

24.6
17.5

18.0
12.9

13.8
9.9

8.8
6.3

6.1
3.8

4.5
2.4

3.5
1.6

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Notes:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
10.6
26.6

11.3
28.4

12.4
30.8

13.5
32.9

14.7
34.7

15.8
36.3

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 34

BENDING

Table 86

GENERIC ZED SECTION

Depth 220 mm Thickness 2.0 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
7.0

3.0

3.5

8.0

8.3
21.6
21.6

5.3
17.6
18.5

3.6
12.0
16.2

2.6
8.5
14.4

1.9
6.2
13.0

1.4
4.7
11.8

1.1
3.6
10.8

0.7
2.3
9.3

0.5
1.6
8.1

29.0
20.7

21.3
15.2

16.3
11.6

12.9
9.2

10.4
7.4

8.6
5.9

7.2
4.5

5.3
2.8

4.1
1.9

48.3
34.5

35.4
25.3

27.1
19.4

21.4
15.3

17.4
12.4

14.4
9.8

12.1
7.5

8.9
4.7

6.8
3.2

2.0

2.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0

8.0

15.8
16.2
16.2

8.5
13.0
13.0

5.0
10.8
10.8

3.2
8.8
9.3

2.2
6.0
8.1

1.1
3.1
6.5

0.7
1.8
5.4

0.4
1.2
4.6

0.3
0.8
4.1

40.7
29.1

26.1
18.6

18.1
12.9

13.3
9.5

10.2
7.3

6.5
4.7

4.5
2.8

3.3
1.8

2.5
1.2

67.9
48.5

43.4
31.0

30.2
21.5

22.2
15.8

17.0
12.1

10.9
7.8

7.5
4.7

5.5
3.0

4.2
2.0

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Notes:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
10.4
26.9

11.0
28.7

12.1
31.2

13.2
33.3

14.3
35.1

15.4
36.8

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 35

BENDING

Table 87

GENERIC ZED SECTION

Depth 220 mm Thickness 2.4 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
7.0

3.0

3.5

8.0

9.8
26.8
26.8

6.3
20.7
23.0

4.3
14.1
20.1

3.1
10.0
17.9

2.3
7.3
16.1

1.8
5.6
14.6

1.4
4.3
13.4

0.9
2.8
11.5

0.7
1.9
10.0

35.9
25.6

26.4
18.8

20.2
14.4

16.0
11.4

12.9
9.2

10.7
7.3

9.0
5.6

6.6
3.5

5.0
2.4

59.8
42.7

44.0
31.4

33.7
24.0

26.6
19.0

21.5
15.4

17.8
12.1

15.0
9.3

11.0
5.9

8.4
3.9

2.0

2.5

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0

8.0

18.6
20.1
20.1

10.0
16.1
16.1

5.9
13.4
13.4

3.8
10.3
11.5

2.6
7.0
10.0

1.4
3.7
8.0

0.8
2.2
6.7

0.6
1.4
5.7

0.4
0.9
5.0

50.5
36.1

32.3
23.1

22.4
16.0

16.5
11.8

12.6
9.0

8.1
5.8

5.6
3.5

4.1
2.2

3.2
1.5

84.1
60.1

53.8
38.5

37.4
26.7

27.5
19.6

21.0
15.0

13.5
9.6

9.3
5.8

6.9
3.7

5.3
2.5

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Notes:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
15.2
36.8

16.0
39.1

17.4
42.3

18.8
45.0

20.1
47.3

21.5
49.5

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 36

BENDING

Table 88

GENERIC ZED SECTION

Depth 250 mm Thickness 2.4 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.5
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

3.5

4.0

10.0

15.1
31.7
31.7

10.2
27.7
27.7

7.2
24.0
24.6

5.3
17.9
22.2

3.2
10.5
18.5

2.0
6.7
15.8

1.4
4.5
13.9

1.0
3.2
12.3

0.8
2.4
11.1

41.1
29.4

31.5
22.5

24.9
17.8

20.2
14.4

14.0
8.7

10.3
5.5

7.9
3.7

6.2
2.6

5.0
1.9

68.5
49.0

52.5
37.5

41.5
29.6

33.6
24.0

23.3
14.6

17.1
9.2

13.1
6.1

10.4
4.3

8.4
3.1

2.0

3.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

10.0

27.7
27.7
27.7

14.2
18.5
18.5

6.1
13.9
13.9

3.2
8.9
11.1

1.9
5.2
9.2

1.2
3.3
7.9

0.9
2.3
6.9

0.6
1.6
6.2

0.5
1.2
5.5

78.7
56.2

35.0
25.0

19.7
14.1

12.6
9.0

8.7
5.5

6.4
3.4

4.9
2.3

3.9
1.6

3.1
1.2

131.2
93.7

58.3
41.7

32.8
23.4

21.0
15.0

14.6
9.1

10.7
5.7

8.2
3.8

6.5
2.7

5.2
2.0

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Notes:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
14.8
37.3

15.6
39.7

16.9
42.9

18.2
45.6

19.6
48.0

20.9
50.2

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 37

BENDING

Table 89

GENERIC ZED SECTION

Depth 300 mm Thickness 2.4 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.5
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

3.5

4.0

10.0

32.4
44.1
44.1

21.9
38.6
38.6

15.5
34.3
34.3

11.3
30.9
30.9

6.7
22.6
25.7

4.2
14.4
22.0

2.9
9.7
19.3

2.1
6.8
17.1

1.5
5.0
15.4

68.2
48.7

52.2
37.3

41.3
29.5

33.4
23.9

23.2
14.5

17.1
9.1

13.1
6.1

10.3
4.3

8.4
3.1

113.7
81.2

87.1
62.2

68.8
49.1

55.7
39.8

38.7
24.2

28.4
15.2

21.8
10.2

17.2
7.2

13.9
5.2

2.0

3.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

10.0

38.6
38.6
38.6

25.7
25.7
25.7

13.1
19.3
19.3

6.8
15.4
15.4

4.0
11.3
12.9

2.6
7.2
11.0

1.7
4.8
9.6

1.2
3.4
8.6

0.9
2.5
7.7

130.6
93.3

58.0
41.5

32.6
23.3

20.9
14.9

14.5
9.1

10.7
5.7

8.2
3.8

6.4
2.7

5.2
2.0

217.7
155.5

96.7
69.1

54.4
38.9

34.8
24.9

24.2
15.1

17.8
9.5

13.6
6.4

10.7
4.5

8.7
3.3

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Notes:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
14.0
38.2

14.8
40.6

16.1
44.0

17.4
46.7

18.6
49.2

19.9
51.4

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 38

BENDING

Table 90

GENERIC ZED SECTION

Depth 300 mm Thickness 3.0 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm

Uniformly Distributed Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.5
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

3.5

4.0

10.0

39.6
58.1
58.1

26.8
50.8
50.8

19.0
45.2
45.2

14.0
40.7
40.7

8.2
27.6
33.9

5.3
17.6
29.1

3.6
11.9
25.4

2.6
8.4
22.6

2.0
6.2
20.3

90.3
64.5

69.2
49.4

54.6
39.0

44.3
31.6

30.7
19.2

22.6
12.1

17.3
8.1

13.7
5.7

11.1
4.1

150.5
107.5

115.3
82.3

91.1
65.1

73.8
52.7

51.2
32.0

37.6
20.2

28.8
13.5

22.8
9.5

18.4
6.9

2.0

3.0

Maximum working load (kN) on one span, for span (m)


4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

10.0

50.8
50.8
50.8

33.9
33.9
33.9

16.1
25.4
25.4

8.4
20.3
20.3

5.0
13.8
16.9

3.2
8.8
14.5

2.2
5.9
12.7

1.6
4.2
11.3

1.2
3.1
10.2

172.9
123.5

76.8
54.9

43.2
30.9

27.7
19.8

19.2
12.0

14.1
7.6

10.8
5.1

8.5
3.6

6.9
2.6

288.2
205.8

128.1
91.5

72.0
51.5

46.1
32.9

32.0
20.0

23.5
12.6

18.0
8.4

14.2
5.9

11.5
4.3

Central Point Load


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION
Single & double spans:
No lateral restraint
Restraint at mid-span
Full lateral restraint
Single span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Double span:
Deflection < L/250
Deflection < L/350
Notes:

Deflection is calculated for self weight plus imposed load

Web Crushing at Support for Single Span


Design Case
SINGLE Z SECTION:
No restraint
Restrained

Maximum load (kN) at support, for bearing width (mm)


35
50
75
100
125
150
22.7
56.0

23.7
59.3

25.4
63.8

27.1
67.6

28.8
71.0

30.5
74.0

For double span beams, web cleats should be provided to prevent crushing at internal supports

C - 39

[BLANK PAGE]

C - 40

LOAD CAPACITY TABLES FOR COLUMNS


S350
Generic C Sections
Note: These tables are presented for generic Z sections, which may be used for
scheme design.

C - 41

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 91

Depth 100 mm Thickness 1.2 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

6.9
6.9
6.9

10.3
11.2
11.2

15.5
19.6
20.0

20.9
29.5
31.0

22.9
32.5
34.6

4.7
4.9
4.9

6.8
7.6
7.7

7.9
9.5
9.8

8.3
9.9
10.3

6.3
6.8
6.8

9.8
11.9
12.1

11.1
15.3
16.5

11.5
15.8
17.3

6.4
6.8
6.8

8.8
10.0
10.1

11.2
13.2
13.4

12.1
14.3
14.7

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

3.3
3.3
3.3

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

4.2
4.2
4.2

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

4.7
4.7
4.7

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

29.6
29.6
29.6

47.7
47.7
47.7

53.0
71.6
71.6

53.0
80.4
84.0

53.0
80.4
87.0

12.2
12.2
12.2

13.7
15.2
15.4

14.2
16.3
16.8

14.4
16.6
17.2

23.4
24.1
24.1

24.3
32.9
35.2

24.3
34.5
37.9

24.3
34.5
38.5

15.5
15.5
15.5

17.8
19.3
19.3

19.1
21.7
21.9

19.5
22.3
22.8

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

9.1
9.1
9.1

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

15.2
15.2
15.2

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

11.9
11.9
11.9

C - 42

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 92

Depth 125 mm Thickness 1.2 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

7.1
7.1
7.1

11.2
11.2
11.2

18.7
19.4
19.4

24.8
28.7
28.9

26.6
31.2
32.3

5.1
5.1
5.1

7.7
7.8
7.8

8.8
9.6
9.8

9.2
10.0
10.3

7.0
7.0
7.0

11.7
12.3
12.3

13.1
15.5
16.1

13.4
16.0
16.8

7.0
7.0
7.0

10.0
10.2
10.2

12.4
13.3
13.3

13.2
14.3
14.5

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

3.5
3.5
3.5

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

4.3
4.3
4.3

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

4.9
4.9
4.9

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

29.4
29.4
29.4

47.3
47.3
47.3

68.0
71.2
71.2

68.0
83.4
84.1

68.0
83.4
87.5

12.2
12.2
12.2

14.9
15.3
15.5

15.5
16.7
16.8

15.8
16.9
17.3

24.1
24.1
24.1

29.7
34.1
35.4

29.7
36.5
38.3

29.7
36.5
39.1

15.5
15.5
15.5

19.1
19.3
19.3

20.7
21.9
21.9

21.3
22.6
22.9

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

9.1
9.1
9.1

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

15.1
15.1
15.1

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

11.9
11.9
11.9

C - 43

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 93

Depth 125 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

9.7
9.7
9.7

15.7
15.7
15.7

27.6
28.6
28.6

38.3
46.5
46.8

41.6
51.1
53.1

6.9
6.9
6.9

10.5
10.6
10.6

12.5
13.8
14.0

13.0
14.4
14.8

9.6
9.6
9.6

16.8
17.3
17.3

19.4
23.9
25.0

19.9
24.7
26.2

9.3
9.3
9.3

13.7
14.0
14.0

17.3
18.8
18.9

18.7
20.4
20.7

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

4.7
4.7
4.7

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

5.9
5.9
5.9

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

6.5
6.5
6.5

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

39.5
39.5
39.5

65.3
65.3
65.3

101.2
107.3
107.3

101.2
130.5
131.6

101.2
130.5
137.3

16.2
16.2
16.2

20.4
20.8
20.8

21.4
23.1
23.3

21.8
23.6
24.0

32.5
32.5
32.5

42.9
50.3
50.3

42.9
54.8
58.0

42.9
54.8
59.0

20.5
20.5
20.5

25.8
26.1
26.1

28.1
29.8
29.9

28.9
30.8
31.2

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

12.0
12.0
12.0

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

20.3
20.3
20.3

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

15.7
15.7
15.7

C - 44

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 94

Depth 150 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

14.1
14.1
14.1

22.0
22.0
22.0

35.6
36.2
36.2

45.0
49.4
49.5

47.7
52.8
54.0

9.3
9.3
9.3

13.2
13.3
13.3

14.6
15.4
15.5

15.0
15.9
16.1

13.8
13.8
13.8

21.4
22.3
22.3

23.4
26.3
27.0

23.8
26.9
28.0

12.4
12.4
12.4

17.0
17.1
17.1

20.1
20.9
20.9

21.2
22.1
22.3

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

6.5
6.5
6.5

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

8.7
8.7
8.7

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

9.0
9.0
9.0

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

58.7
58.7
58.7

91.1
91.1
91.1

124.4
125.7
125.7

124.4
142.2
142.5

124.4
142.2
146.6

20.5
20.5
20.5

23.9
24.3
24.4

24.8
25.9
26.1

25.1
26.3
26.6

45.5
45.5
45.5

53.1
58.5
60.3

53.1
61.8
64.0

53.1
61.8
64.8

25.6
25.6
25.6

30.3
30.4
30.4

32.3
33.4
33.4

33.1
34.2
34.5

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

16.0
16.0
16.0

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

29.8
29.8
29.8

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

20.5
20.5
20.5

C - 45

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 95

Depth 150 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

16.1
16.1
16.1

25.4
25.4
25.4

42.2
42.8
42.8

54.3
60.2
60.3

57.8
64.5
66.0

10.5
10.5
10.5

14.9
15.0
15.0

16.8
17.8
17.9

17.3
18.3
18.6

15.7
15.7
15.7

25.2
25.8
25.8

27.5
31.3
32.3

28.0
32.1
33.4

14.0
14.0
14.0

19.4
19.5
19.5

23.1
24.1
24.1

24.4
25.5
25.8

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

7.4
7.4
7.4

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

9.8
9.8
9.8

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

10.1
10.1
10.1

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

66.3
66.3
66.3

104.6
104.6
104.6

147.4
149.0
149.0

147.4
170.0
170.4

147.4
170.0
175.4

23.0
23.0
23.0

27.1
27.6
27.6

28.3
29.5
29.7

28.6
29.9
30.3

51.5
51.5
51.5

61.8
68.6
70.0

61.8
72.6
75.3

61.8
72.6
76.3

28.7
28.7
28.7

34.2
34.3
34.3

36.6
37.8
37.8

37.4
38.7
39.0

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

17.9
17.9
17.9

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

33.5
33.5
33.5

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

22.9
22.9
22.9

C - 46

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 96

Depth 165 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

14.2
14.2
14.2

21.9
21.9
21.9

35.4
35.4
35.4

45.1
48.0
48.0

47.6
51.4
52.3

9.5
9.5
9.5

13.3
13.3
13.3

14.8
15.4
15.5

15.2
15.9
16.1

13.9
13.9
13.9

21.8
22.3
22.3

23.9
26.2
26.7

24.3
26.8
27.6

12.5
12.5
12.5

17.2
17.2
17.2

20.3
20.8
20.8

21.3
22.0
22.2

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

6.7
6.7
6.7

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

8.8
8.8
8.8

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

9.1
9.1
9.1

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

58.4
58.4
58.4

90.7
90.7
90.7

125.4
125.4
125.4

129.2
142.6
142.6

129.2
143.5
147.0

20.6
20.6
20.6

24.1
24.4
24.5

25.2
26.0
26.1

25.5
26.4
26.6

45.5
45.5
45.5

54.8
59.1
60.6

55.5
62.6
64.3

55.5
62.8
65.2

25.6
25.6
25.6

30.4
30.4
30.4

32.7
33.4
33.4

33.4
34.3
34.5

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

16.0
16.0
16.0

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

29.7
29.7
29.7

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

20.5
20.5
20.5

C - 47

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 97

Depth 165 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

16.1
16.1
16.1

25.3
25.3
25.3

41.8
41.8
41.8

54.4
58.2
58.2

57.7
62.6
63.7

10.7
10.7
10.7

15.1
15.1
15.1

17.1
17.8
17.9

17.5
18.3
18.6

15.8
15.8
15.8

25.6
25.7
25.7

28.3
31.2
31.8

28.8
31.9
32.9

14.1
14.1
14.1

19.5
19.5
19.5

23.3
23.9
23.9

24.5
25.3
25.5

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

7.5
7.5
7.5

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

10.0
10.0
10.0

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

10.3
10.3
10.3

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

66.0
66.0
66.0

104.2
104.2
104.2

148.6
148.6
148.6

153.7
170.4
170.4

153.7
171.6
175.8

23.0
23.0
23.0

27.3
27.7
27.7

28.7
29.6
29.7

29.1
30.1
30.3

51.6
51.6
51.6

64.0
69.3
70.8

64.9
73.6
75.8

64.9
73.8
76.8

28.7
28.7
28.7

34.3
34.3
34.3

36.9
37.8
37.8

37.8
38.8
39.0

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

17.9
17.9
17.9

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

33.4
33.4
33.4

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

22.9
22.9
22.9

C - 48

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 98

Depth 180 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

14.2
14.2
14.2

21.9
21.9
21.9

34.8
34.8
34.8

44.9
46.7
46.7

47.3
50.3
50.9

9.6
9.6
9.6

13.4
13.4
13.4

14.9
15.4
15.5

15.3
15.9
16.0

14.0
14.0
14.0

21.9
22.2
22.2

24.3
26.0
26.4

24.7
26.7
27.3

12.6
12.6
12.6

17.2
17.2
17.2

20.3
20.7
20.7

21.3
21.9
22.0

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

6.7
6.7
6.7

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

8.9
8.9
8.9

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

9.2
9.2
9.2

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

58.3
58.3
58.3

90.3
90.3
90.3

125.1
125.1
125.1

132.7
142.7
142.7

132.7
144.6
147.3

20.6
20.6
20.6

24.2
24.4
24.5

25.4
26.1
26.2

25.8
26.5
26.7

45.6
45.6
45.6

56.0
59.6
60.8

57.4
63.2
64.6

57.4
63.6
65.6

25.5
25.5
25.5

30.3
30.3
30.3

32.9
33.4
33.4

33.6
34.3
34.5

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

15.9
15.9
15.9

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

29.6
29.6
29.6

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

20.5
20.5
20.5

C - 49

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 99

Depth 180 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

16.2
16.2
16.2

25.1
25.1
25.1

41.0
41.0
41.0

54.0
56.4
56.4

57.1
60.9
61.7

10.8
10.8
10.8

15.2
15.2
15.2

17.3
17.8
17.8

17.7
18.3
18.5

15.9
15.9
15.9

25.7
25.7
25.7

28.8
30.9
31.4

29.3
31.8
32.6

14.2
14.2
14.2

19.5
19.5
19.5

23.4
23.8
23.8

24.5
25.2
25.3

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

7.6
7.6
7.6

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

10.1
10.1
10.1

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

10.4
10.4
10.4

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

65.8
65.8
65.8

103.7
103.7
103.7

148.1
148.1
148.1

158.0
170.4
170.4

158.0
172.8
176.1

23.1
23.1
23.1

27.5
27.8
27.8

29.0
29.7
29.8

29.4
30.2
30.4

51.7
51.7
51.7

65.6
70.0
71.4

67.3
74.4
76.3

67.3
74.9
77.3

28.7
28.7
28.7

34.3
34.3
34.3

37.2
37.8
37.8

38.1
38.9
39.0

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

17.8
17.8
17.8

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

33.3
33.3
33.3

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

22.9
22.9
22.9

C - 50

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 100

Depth 180 mm Thickness 2.0 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

18.2
18.2
18.2

28.5
28.5
28.5

47.5
47.5
47.5

63.9
66.9
66.9

67.8
72.5
73.5

11.9
11.9
11.9

17.0
17.0
17.0

19.5
20.1
20.2

20.0
20.8
21.0

17.8
17.8
17.8

29.2
29.2
29.2

33.3
35.9
36.6

33.8
37.0
37.9

15.8
15.8
15.8

21.9
21.9
21.9

26.4
26.9
26.9

27.8
28.6
28.7

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

8.4
8.4
8.4

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

11.3
11.3
11.3

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

11.5
11.5
11.5

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

73.1
73.1
73.1

116.5
116.5
116.5

170.7
170.7
170.7

183.1
197.9
197.9

183.1
200.8
204.7

25.5
25.5
25.5

30.6
30.8
30.8

32.4
33.2
33.3

32.8
33.8
34.0

57.5
57.5
57.5

74.7
79.9
80.4

76.8
85.3
87.5

76.8
85.8
88.8

31.6
31.6
31.6

38.0
38.0
38.0

41.3
42.0
42.0

42.3
43.2
43.4

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

19.7
19.7
19.7

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

37.0
37.0
37.0

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

25.2
25.2
25.2

C - 51

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 101

Depth 200 mm Thickness 1.6 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

14.3
14.3
14.3

21.8
21.8
21.8

34.2
34.2
34.2

44.3
45.3
45.3

46.7
49.0
49.4

9.7
9.7
9.7

13.5
13.5
13.5

15.1
15.3
15.4

15.4
15.9
16.0

14.1
14.1
14.1

21.9
22.2
22.2

24.6
25.8
26.0

25.0
26.5
27.0

12.8
12.8
12.8

17.2
17.2
17.2

20.4
20.6
20.6

21.3
21.8
21.8

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

6.8
6.8
6.8

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

9.0
9.0
9.0

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

9.3
9.3
9.3

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

58.0
58.0
58.0

89.8
89.8
89.8

124.7
124.7
124.7

136.0
142.8
142.8

136.0
145.9
147.8

20.6
20.6
20.6

24.3
24.4
24.5

25.7
26.1
26.2

26.0
26.6
26.8

45.7
45.7
45.7

57.2
60.0
60.9

59.3
63.8
64.9

59.3
64.4
65.9

25.5
25.5
25.5

30.3
30.3
30.3

33.1
33.4
33.4

33.8
34.4
34.5

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

15.9
15.9
15.9

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

29.6
29.6
29.6

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

20.5
20.5
20.5

C - 52

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 102

Depth 200 mm Thickness 1.8 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

16.3
16.3
16.3

25.0
25.0
25.0

40.1
40.1
40.1

53.3
54.5
54.5

56.3
59.1
59.6

10.9
10.9
10.9

15.3
15.3
15.3

17.4
17.7
17.8

17.8
18.3
18.5

16.0
16.0
16.0

25.6
25.6
25.6

29.1
30.6
31.0

29.6
31.6
32.1

14.3
14.3
14.3

19.5
19.5
19.5

23.4
23.7
23.7

24.5
25.1
25.2

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

7.7
7.7
7.7

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

10.2
10.2
10.2

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

10.5
10.5
10.5

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

65.6
65.6
65.6

103.1
103.1
103.1

147.6
147.6
147.6

162.1
170.4
170.4

162.1
174.3
176.5

23.1
23.1
23.1

27.6
27.8
27.9

29.3
29.8
29.9

29.7
30.3
30.5

51.8
51.8
51.8

67.1
70.6
71.7

69.8
75.3
76.7

69.8
76.0
77.9

28.6
28.6
28.6

34.2
34.2
34.2

37.4
37.8
37.8

38.3
38.9
39.1

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

17.8
17.8
17.8

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

33.3
33.3
33.3

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

22.9
22.9
22.9

C - 53

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 103

Depth 200 mm Thickness 2.0 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

18.2
18.2
18.2

28.3
28.3
28.3

46.3
46.3
46.3

62.8
64.4
64.4

66.5
70.1
70.7

12.1
12.1
12.1

17.1
17.1
17.1

19.7
20.1
20.2

20.2
20.8
20.9

17.9
17.9
17.9

29.1
29.1
29.1

33.8
35.6
36.0

34.3
36.7
37.4

15.9
15.9
15.9

21.9
21.9
21.9

26.4
26.7
26.7

27.8
28.3
28.4

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

8.5
8.5
8.5

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

11.4
11.4
11.4

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

11.6
11.6
11.6

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

72.8
72.8
72.8

115.9
115.9
115.9

170.0
170.0
170.0

188.0
197.9
197.9

188.0
202.5
205.1

25.5
25.5
25.5

30.8
31.0
31.0

32.7
33.3
33.4

33.2
33.9
34.1

57.6
57.6
57.6

76.7
80.8
81.5

79.8
86.4
88.1

79.8
87.3
89.5

31.6
31.6
31.6

38.0
38.0
38.0

41.6
42.0
42.0

42.6
43.3
43.4

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

19.7
19.7
19.7

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

36.9
36.9
36.9

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

25.2
25.2
25.2

C - 54

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 104

Depth 220 mm Thickness 2.0 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

18.3
18.3
18.3

28.1
28.1
28.1

45.4
45.4
45.4

61.7
62.3
62.3

65.3
68.1
68.4

12.2
12.2
12.2

17.2
17.2
17.2

19.8
20.0
20.1

20.3
20.8
20.9

18.0
18.0
18.0

29.0
29.0
29.0

34.0
35.2
35.6

34.5
36.4
37.0

16.0
16.0
16.0

21.8
21.8
21.8

26.4
26.5
26.5

27.7
28.2
28.2

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

8.6
8.6
8.6

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

11.5
11.5
11.5

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

11.8
11.8
11.8

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

72.5
72.5
72.5

115.3
115.3
115.3

169.4
169.4
169.4

191.6
197.9
197.9

191.6
203.9
205.6

25.5
25.5
25.5

30.9
31.1
31.1

33.0
33.4
33.5

33.5
34.1
34.2

57.7
57.7
57.7

78.1
81.4
82.4

82.2
87.3
88.7

82.2
88.5
90.2

31.6
31.6
31.6

37.9
37.9
37.9

41.8
42.0
42.0

42.8
43.4
43.4

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

19.7
19.7
19.7

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

36.8
36.8
36.8

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

25.2
25.2
25.2

C - 55

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 105

Depth 220 mm Thickness 2.4 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

22.3
22.3
22.3

34.8
34.8
34.8

58.4
58.4
58.4

82.7
83.6
83.6

87.8
91.9
92.5

14.5
14.5
14.5

20.7
20.7
20.7

24.4
24.7
24.8

25.1
25.7
25.8

21.9
21.9
21.9

36.2
36.2
36.2

43.8
45.6
46.1

44.5
47.2
47.9

19.2
19.2
19.2

26.5
26.5
26.5

32.5
32.6
32.6

34.2
34.8
34.8

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

10.3
10.3
10.3

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

13.8
13.8
13.8

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

13.9
13.9
13.9

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

86.4
86.4
86.4

139.8
139.8
139.8

214.5
214.5
214.5

246.4
254.9
254.9

246.4
262.9
265.2

30.1
30.1
30.1

37.0
37.0
37.0

39.7
40.2
40.3

40.3
41.0
41.2

69.0
69.0
69.0

97.4
100.6
100.6

103.1
109.9
111.8

103.1
111.3
113.7

37.3
37.3
37.3

45.1
45.1
45.1

49.8
50.2
50.2

51.2
51.8
51.9

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

23.2
23.2
23.2

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

43.8
43.8
43.8

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

29.6
29.6
29.6

C - 56

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 106

Depth 250 mm Thickness 2.4 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

22.3
22.3
22.3

34.5
34.5
34.5

56.7
56.7
56.7

79.8
79.8
79.8

85.0
88.0
88.2

14.7
14.7
14.7

20.8
20.8
20.8

24.5
24.7
24.7

25.2
25.6
25.7

22.0
22.0
22.0

36.0
36.0
36.0

43.9
45.0
45.3

44.8
46.8
47.2

19.3
19.3
19.3

26.4
26.4
26.4

32.3
32.3
32.3

33.9
34.4
34.4

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

10.4
10.4
10.4

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

14.0
14.0
14.0

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

14.1
14.1
14.1

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

86.0
86.0
86.0

138.8
138.8
138.8

213.2
213.2
213.2

251.6
254.7
254.7

251.6
265.1
265.9

30.1
30.1
30.1

37.2
37.2
37.2

40.1
40.3
40.4

40.8
41.3
41.4

69.1
69.1
69.1

99.7
102.2
102.2

107.0
111.7
113.1

107.0
113.6
115.3

37.2
37.2
37.2

45.1
45.1
45.1

50.1
50.2
50.2

51.4
51.9
51.9

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

23.2
23.2
23.2

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

43.6
43.6
43.6

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

29.6
29.6
29.6

C - 57

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 107

Depth 300 mm Thickness 2.4 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

22.3
22.3
22.3

34.1
34.1
34.1

54.6
54.6
54.6

75.4
75.4
75.4

81.3
83.3
83.3

14.9
14.9
14.9

21.0
21.0
21.0

24.5
24.6
24.6

25.3
25.6
25.6

22.2
22.2
22.2

35.8
35.8
35.8

43.6
44.2
44.4

44.8
46.1
46.3

19.5
19.5
19.5

26.3
26.3
26.3

31.9
31.9
31.9

33.6
34.0
34.0

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

10.6
10.6
10.6

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

14.2
14.2
14.2

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

14.4
14.4
14.4

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

85.3
85.3
85.3

137.4
137.4
137.4

211.3
211.3
211.3

254.8
254.8
254.8

257.7
267.5
267.5

30.2
30.2
30.2

37.4
37.5
37.5

40.5
40.6
40.6

41.2
41.6
41.7

69.2
69.2
69.2

102.3
104.3
104.6

111.2
113.9
114.8

111.7
116.3
117.3

37.1
37.1
37.1

45.0
45.0
45.0

50.2
50.2
50.2

51.6
52.0
52.0

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

23.1
23.1
23.1

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

43.4
43.4
43.4

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

29.6
29.6
29.6

C - 58

COMPRESSION
GENERIC C SECTION

Table 108

Depth 300 mm Thickness 3.0 mm

Design Strength 350N/mm2

Single Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

28.2
28.2
28.2

43.9
43.9
43.9

73.7
73.7
73.7

107.8
107.8
107.8

117.5
120.6
120.6

18.3
18.3
18.3

26.1
26.1
26.1

31.4
31.6
31.6

32.6
32.9
33.0

27.9
27.9
27.9

46.7
46.7
46.7

59.8
60.8
61.1

61.5
63.5
63.9

24.0
24.0
24.0

33.0
33.0
33.0

40.8
40.8
40.8

43.2
43.6
43.6

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

13.0
13.0
13.0

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

17.7
17.7
17.7

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

17.6
17.6
17.6

Double Section Columns


Effective
length Lx

Working load (kN) for effective length Ly (m)


4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Continuous

104.8
104.8
104.8

172.0
172.0
172.0

280.5
280.5
280.5

348.6
348.6
348.6

353.1
366.8
366.8

36.7
36.7
36.7

45.9
45.9
45.9

50.4
50.5
50.6

51.4
51.8
51.9

85.4
85.4
85.4

132.8
132.8
132.8

147.5
151.5
152.9

148.3
154.8
156.3

45.1
45.1
45.1

55.2
55.2
55.2

61.8
61.8
61.8

63.7
64.1
64.1

CONCENTRIC LOADING
4m
2m
Continuous

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AND Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

28.0
28.0
28.0

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT X AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

53.3
53.3
53.3

ECCENTRIC LOADING ABOUT Y AXIS


4m
2m
Continuous

35.8
35.8
35.8

C - 59

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C - 60

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