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Improve Performance and save Money,

Space and Power with Dolphin for


MySQL based Web Servers
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Topics

!Dolphin Quick Facts


!Dolphin Express for Database Clusters
– Superior TCO
– Performance
– Fault Tolerance
!Q&A

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Quick Facts about Dolphin

!Global provider of interconnect solutions since 1994


– Main locations Oslo, Norway and Massachusetts, USA

!Leading Products and Technology


– Dolphin Express
! Enterprise Clustering and I/O Expansion
! Embedded OEM

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Dolphin Express for
Database Clusters
TCO, Performance & Fault
Tolerance

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Introducing Dolphin Express

Dolphin Express provides the industry’s best solution for


maximizing the performance of every database
application.
! 4X+ for Oracle
! 4X+ for MySQL
! Dramatically increase concurrent user capacity
! Substantially lower cost than alternatives
! No changes to applications or databases
! Transparent and automatic High Availability

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Dolphin Express™

! Integrated Solution
– Dolphin Express Hardware
– SuperSockets™ Software
! Transparent to Applications
– NO changes to applications necessary
– ALL Applications using Sockets API (TCP-UDP-RDS) will work
– Use of LD_PRELOAD
! Scalable
– Scales to hundreds of nodes with 2-D or 3-D distributed switching
! High Availability - Fault Tolerance
– NO single point of Failure
– Automatic rerouting in case of node failures
– Multi-Channel Support with Automatic Channel Bonding
– Automatic Fail-Over to Ethernet
! Low TCO with Investment Protection
– Software compatibility with future hardware products

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Lowest Cost and Best Performance

With Dolphin Without Dolphin


Qty Desc Price Qty Desc Price
6 Servers $ 45,000 12 Servers $ 90,000
6 RAC licenses $120,000 12 RAC licenses $240,000
6 Dolphin cards $ 6,000 12 Ethernet cards $ 1,800
1 Support (15/20) $ 30,750 1 Support (15/20) $ 61,500
Total: $201,750 Total: $393,300

• Dolphin solution is $191,550 (49%) less than competitor’s


• Dolphin solution is $65,706 less per year in OpEx (source: innovate.intel.com)
• 3 Year TCO savings: $354,000

Conclusion: Dolphin delivers the industry’s fastest solution for applications, while dramatically
reducing the Capital and ongoing Operational Expenses associated with those environments.

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Dolphin Express for
Database Clusters
TCO, Performance & Fault
Tolerance

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Web Server Requirements

!Adequate Capacity
– Scale with Traffic
! Throughput
! Response Time

!Reliable
– No Downtime visible to Clients

!Cost Efficient

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DBT2 Message Size Distribution

Message Size Histogram


%

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
<64 <256 <1024 <4096 <16384 >=16384
Message size (Bytes)
Data from DBT2 Benchmark
by Mikael Ronström

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Oracle RAC Message Sizes

Oracle inter-node Communication

600000
Updater 16k
Reader 16k
500000 Updater 8k
Reader 8k
NO transfers
Number of Messages

400000
larger than
300000 8k/ 16k blocks
(16k = max.
200000
cache block size)
100000

0
0<64 64<256 256<1k 1k<4k 4k<16k 16k<64k 64k<
Transfer Size

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Latency

Transactions consist of Short Messages


Client
Servers

Request

Response

Transaction and other


Database applications:
Latency is Key for Response Time
and Transaction Throughput

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Latency and Bandwidth

Low Latency…

- High Bandwidth

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Latency Fundamentals

Packet sent Packet received


from application by application

Data Packet Data Packet

Transmission time tp Latency tl

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16-bytes Packet Latency

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Interconnect for DB Clusters

!Database communication patterns consist of short


data packets
– Performance is sensitive to latency and overhead
! Response time
! Throughput

!Batching of messages
– Improves throughput to a certain degree, but
– Creates longer response times
– Introduces more overhead

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GigE/10GigE Network Stack

User level Application


!1 CPU Cycle
Operating System Socket Library per bit
TCP/IP Requires 1 proc. @10GHz (!)
for full bandwidth
Device Driver
Network Interface
10GigE Switch 20 - 50µs with 10GigE
Network Interface
Device Driver Network time @256Bytes payload
TCP/IP GigE : 3.12µs
10GigE: 0.31µs
Operating System Socket Library Diff.: 2.81µs
User level Application
35µs - 2.81µs = 32.19µs (8%)

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Dolphin Express Network Stack

User level Application


!1 CPU Cycle
Operating System Sockets Library per 64 bits
SuperSockets
Dolphin Express
Interface
Fault Tolerant <3µ
<3µs is ! 10x faster than Ethernet
Interconnect Fabric
Interface
Dolphin Express
SuperSockets
Sockets Library Operating System

User level Application

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Shared-Nothing Data Transfers (Ether)

This is how other interconnects work:


Application

System
Network Adapter
6
1 2 3 4 5

User System 1 Application process stores data to memory


Data Buffer 2 3 System process copies data to system buffer
Host Memory 4 Protocol Processing
5 6 Data is copied to network adapter
n Bus data transfer (usually by a DMA engine)

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Shared Address Space Data Transfers

This is how Dolphin Express does it:

Application Application
System System
1
Network Network
Adapter Adapter

User System System User


Data Buffer Buffer Data
Host Memory Host Memory

1 Application process stores data directly to remote memory

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Dolphin SuperSockets™ Overview

!Berkeley Sockets API on Dolphin Express


!TCP/UDP/RDS compatible
!Data transfer through remote shared memory
!Flexibility through Configuration Files
– Specifying Cluster Nodes
– Specifying Communication Ports

!IP Address Virtualization

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SuperSockets Protocol Handling

!RMA default limits


– In-line Protocol < 1kBytes
– Short Protocol 1kBytes < 8KBytes
– Long Protocol 8kBytes <

!RDMA
– Selectable
! Per Port
! Lower transfer limit selectable per application

!All tuning parameters selectable per application


– Knowledge based defaults

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Removing Database Cluster Bottlenecks

!Available CPU cycles


– Network Overhead
– TCP processing eats CPU cycles
– Dolphin Express with SuperSockets Removes TCP/IP
overhead - Reducing CPU Load
! Dolphin Hardware provides built-in data integrity

!Network Latency
– Database Traffic consists of short data packets
!Network Efficiency
– SuperSockets utilizes Remote Memory Access (RMA)
! Reduces CPU overhead to transfer data to remote node
! Important for short transfers
! Reduces Latency

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Removing Database Cluster Bottlenecks (2)

!Interrupt Processing
– Dolphin Express has integrated Checksums
! No Interrupt processing for Network Protocol
– Interrupt only required to wake sleeping process waiting
for events on the Dolphin Express socket
– Per Socket Adaptive cross-over between polling and
interrupt

!High Bandwidth with low overhead


– Dolphin Express provides
! Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA)
! Reduces CPU overhead for large transfers

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Oracle RAC Response Time

Oracle Block Service Response Time


16k Block Size

5
4,5
4
3,5
Milliseconds

3
2,5
2
1,5
1
0,5
0
1 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 20 24 28 32
Number of Clients
Dolphin Express Gigabit Ethernet

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Oracle RAC Block Transfer Rate

Oracle Block Service Rate


16k Block Size

30000

25000
Blocks per Second

20000

15000

10000

5000

0
1 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 20 24 28 32
Number of Clients
Dolphin Express Gigabit Ethernet

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TPC-W Benchmark Set-up

Simulated Webserver

Application Server (Apache Tomcat)

MySQL server(s)

NDB Data nodes

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TPC-W Benchmark Cluster Set-up

Application Web Server


Server

MySQL MySQL MySQL MySQL


server server server server

NDB NDB NDB NDB


Data Data Data Data
Node Node Node Node
Machine 1 Machine 2

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MySQL LAMP Stack TPC-W Response Time

Mean Response Time - 6 Nodes/6MySQL Servers

80,00
70,00
60,00
Milliseconds

50,00
40,00
30,00
20,00
10,00
-
4 8 16 32 64 96
Threads

Dolphin Express GigaBit Ethernet

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MySQL LAMP Stack TPC-W Throughput

Throughput - 6 Nodes/6 MySQL Servers

70

60
Webinteractions/s

50

40

30

20

10

0
4 8 16 32 64 96
Threads

Dolphin Express GigaBit Ethernet

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Dolphin Express for
Database Clusters
TCO, Performance & Fault
Tolerance

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Two Interconnect Fabrics - Normal Operation

Dolphin Express

Failover scenarios:
! A node in the cluster fails
! A network card fails

Ethernet

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2-D Dataflow
CPUs
Caches

Bridge Dolphin
2-D Card
Memory
Memory CPUs
Memory
Memory
Caches

CPUs Bridge Dolphin


2-D Card
Caches
Memory
Memory
Memory
Memory
Bridge Dolphin
2-D Card
Memory
Memory
Memory
Memory

Request
Response

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Failing Node

Dolphin Express

Ethernet

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2-D Dataflow w/failing Node

Memory
Memory
Memory
Memory

CPUs
Dolphin
Caches 2-D Memory
Memory
Memory
Memory

Memory CPUs
Memory
Memory Dolphin
Memory Caches 2-D

CPUs
Dolphin
Caches 2-D

Request
Response

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Failing Network Card

Dolphin Express

Dolphin SuperSockets
Automatically
fails-over
to Ethernet

Ethernet

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Questions &
Answers

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Thank you for attending!

!Contact Dolphin:
– Einar Rustad: er@dolphinics.com
– John Longmire: jl@dolphinics.com
– Hugo Kohmann: hugo@dolphinics.com

– US switchboard: 1 508 786 9950


– www.dolphinics.com

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