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An investigation of
efficient control strategies
for a PWM inverter driven
induction motor
This item was submitted to Loughborough Universitys Institutional Repository
by the/an author.
Additional Information:
A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for
the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.

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c R.H. Issa
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Please cite the published version.

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LOUGHBOROUGH
UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
LIBRARY

AUTHOR/FILING TITLE

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AN INVESTIGATION OF
EFFICIENT CONTROL STRATEGIES
FOR A PWM INVERTER DRIVEN
INDUCTION MOTOR.
by
RIHMAN HILLAL ISSA, B.Sc., M.Sc.

A Doctoral Thesis
Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the
Requirements for the Award of the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
of
/
Loughborough University of Technology.
MAR. 1987
Supervisors: Professor I. R. Smith, B.Sc.,PhD.,
D.Sc., C.Eng., F.I.E.E.
S. Williams, B.Sc., PhD., C.Eng., M.I.E.E.

(D

By R.H. ISSA, 1987

I dedicate this thesis to


my Mother

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to take this opportunity to express my special graditude


to Professor I. R. SMITH, the Head of the Department of Electronics
and Electrical Engineering, Mr J. G. KETTLEBOROUGH and Dr S. WILLIAMS
for their invaluable guidance, advice, encouragement and patience
throughout the course of research and the preparation of this thesis.
Thanks are also due to my colleagues in the Power Electronics Research
group for good humour.
The assistance given by the technical staff is greatly appreciated.
Thanks also to Mrs

Brown for typing this thesis.

Finally, my great thanks and appreciation are extended to my parents


and my brother Mr Adnan H. Issa for their endurance and financial
support they have readily given to me during the period of study, their
generosity and long suffering are sincerely acknowledged and will always
be remembered.

ii

SYNOPSIS

Recent developments in power electronics switching devices have led


to significant improvements in AC drives which, coupled with the obvious
advantages of squirrel-cage induction motors, have generated a customerled demand for an increase in AC drive performance.
This thesis describes the design and construction of a 3-phase pulsewidth modulated inverter using gate turn-off (GTO) thyristor switching
devices, which drives a 0.75 kW 3-phase squirrel-cage induction motor.
The inverter control circuit comprises a purpose-built large-scale
integrated circuit, which generates the 3-phase pwm drive signals and
allows the output voltge and frequency to be varied independently.
When operating in open-loop, the drive system is capable of reverse
operation, and the maximum rate of acceleration and deceleration of the
motor may be controlled.

Compensation

for resistive voltage drop is

provided when the motor is running at low speed.


An analogue closed-loop proportional-integral-derivative speed controller
is described, and for efficient operation under both no-load and on-load
conditions torque feedback is also included.

This provision both

reduces the no-load losses in the motor and improves the torque-speed
characteristic under load conditions.

The improved closed-loop

performance also includes power factor correction when the motor is lightly
loaded,.together with an automatic boost to the motor voltage when loads
are applied at low speed.

A comparison is made between the performance

of the analogue system and a digital real-time control implemented using


a microcomputer.

A series of computer programs are presented which

--

-------------------------------------,------

iii

simulate the performance of the drive system and which are suitable
for running on the University mainframe computer.

The programs enable

the effects of the modulation technique and the inverter frequency on


the pwm inverter steady-state output to be studied, and the performance
of the induction motor to be investigated.
Throughout the work, the theoretical predictions are supported by
considerable experimental results.

iv

List of Principal Symbols

Synchronous speed

(r/min)

Motor Speed

(r/min)

Synchronous frequency

(Hz)

Rotor frequency

(Hz)

Carrier frequency

(kHz)

Reference frequency

(Hz)

n
f
f
f
f
s

Slip

V
s

Supply voltage

(V)

V
r

Rotor induced voltage

(V)

VDC

Inverter supply D.C. input voltage

(V)

Reactances per-phase of the stator and

s' Xr

R , R
s
r

rotor circuit, respectively

(Q)

Resistances per-phase of the stator and

(n)

rotor circuits, respectively


L

, L

Leakage inductances per-phase of the

(H)

stator and rotor circuits, respectively

Stator and rotor currents, respectively

(A)

Magnetizing current

(A)

L
sm

Mutual inductance between stator phases

(H)

Mutual inductance between rotor phases

(H)

M
sr

Maximum mutual inductance between stator

s'
m

rrn

p
CO

and rotor circuits

(H)

Stator winding

(W)

losses per-phase

Power input per-phase to the rotor

(W)

Flux/pole

(Wb)

Electromagnetic torque developed

(~'m)

Mechanical torque applied

( Nm)

Moment of inertia

(kg.r.t )

Number of pole pairs

T
T

e
m

Rotor. friction coefficient

(kg.m /s)

Relative position angle of the rotor with


respect to stator

(Elec. Rad.)

Synchronous angular velocity

(Elec. Rad. /s)

Angular velocity of the rotor

(Elec.Rad./s)

Time step

(s)

Time

(s)

Sampling time

(s)

d/dt operator

A,B,C

Suffixes denoting direct phase variables


Suffixes denoting transformed 2-phase
variables

d,q

Suffixes denoting 2-axis variables.

The modulation index


Switching angle
Frequency changing ratio

Error signal

(V)

Reference signal

(V)

Feedback signal

(V)

vi

k.

Proportional coefficient
Integral coefficient
Derivative coefficient

All other symbols are defined as they appear

vii
page nos
ACKNOWLEGEMENTS

SYNOPSIS ,

ii

LIST OF PRINCIPAL SYMBOLS

iv

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1:

CHAPTER 2:

vii
INTRODUCTION
1.1

Technical Background of Squirrel-cage Motor

1.2

Mathematical Analysis of Induction Machines

1.3

Thesis Objective

VARIABLE SPEED INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE USING STATIC


INVERTERS
2.1

Motor Characteristics for Constant Supply


Frequency

10

2.2

Motor Operation at Variable-Frquency

14

2.3

Static Inverters

15

2.4

Effect of Non-sinusoidal Excitation on


Motor Losses

CHAPTER 3:

16

INVERTER A.C.-DRIVE MODULATION TECHNIQUES


3.1

Types of Inverter
3 .1.1

25

Quasi-squarewave voltage source


inverter

3 .1. 2

25

Quasi-squarewave current source


inverter

3 .1. 3
3.2

PWM-v~ltage

26
source inverter

27

PWM-Modulation Techniques

27

3.2.1

Level set-modulation

27

3.2.2

Squarewave-modulation

28

3.2.3

Sinusoidal-modulation

28

viii

Page No.

CHAPTER 4:

3.3

Sinewave Modulated PWM-Inverter

~9

:].4

Sinusoidal Switching Strategies

30

3.4.1

Natural switching

30

3.4.2

Regular switching

32

OPEN-LOOP INVERTER DRIVE


4.1

4.2

CHAPTER 5:

CHAPTER 6:

Power Circuit

45

4 .1.1

Power supplies

45

4 .1. 2

Power switches

46

4 .1. 3

GTO and its snubber circuit

47

4 .1.4

The inverter bridge

50

Control Circuit

51

4.2.1

HEF4752, PWM-IC modulator

51

4.2.2

Speed reference circuit

53

4.3

GTO Gate-Drive Circuit

54

4.4

Current Limit Circuit

55

4.5

Adjustment of Modulation Process

56

IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SPEED CONTROL SYSTEM


5.1

Bi-directional Speed Reference Circuit

76

5.2

IR-Voltage Drop Compensation Circuit

78

5.3

Inverter Output Waveforms

79

MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF INVERTER-INDUCTION MOTOR


DRIVE
6.1

Simulation of the Regular Switching Strategy

103

6.2

Induction Motor Model

105

6.3

Derivation of Stationary 2-axis Model

106

ix
Page No.

CHAPTER 7:

CHAPTER 8:

6.3.1

Direct phase model

106

6.3.2

3-phase/2-phase transformation

110

6.3.3

o,Q

112

transfor~ation

6.4

Computer Program

6.5

Combined Inverter/Induction Motor System Model 116

6.6

Harmonic Analysis

115

118

CLOSED-LOOP SPEED AND TORQUE CONTROLLED DRIVE


7.1

Control Techniques

162

7.2

Implementation of Speed and Torque Scheme

163

7. 3

System Development

165

7.3.1

Speed reference circuit

165

7.3.2

Torque regulating circuit

166

7.4

Experimental Configuration

167

7.5

Experimental Results

167

CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL USING A MICROCOMPUTER


8.1

Introduction

182

8.2

Implementation of the Digital PID Algorithm

183

8.2.1

Analogue PID

183

8.2.2

Digital PID

185

8.3

Proposed Digital Speed Controller

186

8.4

System Hardware Developments

187

8.4.1

The Microcomputer

187

8.4.2

Motor speed monitoring circuit

188

8.4.3

Digital output data

188

8.5

System Software

189

8.6

Experimental Results

191

Page No.

CHAPTER 9:

CONCLUSION
9.1

Conclusion and Remarks

209

9.2

Suggestions for Further Work

211

REFERENCES:

212

APPENDICES:
Appendix A:

Inverter d.c. supply voltage

222

Appendix B:

Motor specification

223

Appendix C:

Appendix D:

Conputer progra.I!\ listing for the


combined system

224

Listing of minicomputer software

235

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Technical Background of Squirrel-cage Motor

1. 2

Mathematical Analysis of Induction !1achines

1.3

Thesis objective

This thesis is concerned with an investigation into the speed control


of a squirrel-cage induction motor using a pwm-GTO inverter.

The

introduction presents the background to the investigation and outlines


the aims and objectives of the work.
1.1

Technical Background of'squirrel-cage Motor

This section of the thesis is concerned with a review of the most


important induction motor speed-control systems.

Each system is

described briefly and many references are provided, so that a detailed


study of any particular system may be undertaken

if required.

Historically, the first electric drive system was patented by Ward-Leonard


in the 1890's(l).

This consisted of a DC motor driving a DC generator,

which in turn supplied conhcolled power to a DC motor.

The development

of electric drives proceeded from this arrangement to include various


2
improvements, aimed at controlling the speed in a more linear fashion( ).
3
Beginning with the development of power semiconductors in the late 1950's( ),
a new era of controllable devices opened up, and the use of the 3-phase
induction motor as a variable-speed drive became a possibility.

Although

many variable-speed drives still use DC machines,due to the ease with


which their speed can be controlled, their limitations, namely the need
for regular maintenance in the form of brush. replacement, the problem
of sparking in hazardous environments and the creation of carbon dust,
may preclude their use.

considering the motor only, the advantages

(4 5 61

' '

of the squirrel-cage machine, such as ruggedness of construction, low


maintenance, high starting torque and low cost are well known.
desl.'gned to operate from a 3-phase fixed
The standard squirrel-cage mo t or l.S
frequency sinusoidal supply voltage and at a speed that it closely determined by:
f

= -P

where f and Pare, respectively,.the supply frequency and the number of


pole pairs of the motor.

The formula suggests immediately two basic

methods for controlling the motor speed.


1.

Changing the pole number:This can be subdivided into:(a)

Direct methods:

The simplest means of changing the pole

number is by reversing the second half of each phase winding.


This produces a 2:1 change in pole number and hence a 2:1
change in the synchronous speed.
(b)

Pole amplitude modulation (parn) (?, 8 ):

PAM alters the number

of poles in an electrical machine, by a technique which implies


a modulation of the amplitude of the rnrnf produced by each phase
of the stator winding.

If an appropriate modulating waveform

is chosen, motor operation is possible with pole numbers which


may be relatively close together, e.g. 18/22, or far apart,
e.g.

4(8 are possible.

Externally, a pam induction motor is

quite standard, and it can readily replace a conventional induction


motor, with little cost and circuit complexity penalities.

2.

Changing the frequency:


A variable-frequency supply to a conventional squirrel-cage motor
provides continuously

variable-speed operation.

There are two types

of frequency converter that can provide efficient and wide-range speed


control for induction motors.
(a)

A rotating frequency converter(S)

In the past, variable-frequency supplies were often obtained

using a combination of rotating machines.

An example of

this is the DC motor/alternator set, in which the speed of


the DC motor is controlled by variation of the motor field
excitation and armature voltage.

The driven alternator

produces an output supply at a controlled frequency,which can


then be used to drive the induction motor.

The advantage

of rotating frequency converters is that they produce sinusoidal


output waveforms, in contrast to the chopped waveforms of an
electronic inverter which is explained next.

Their limitations

lie however in the capital cost of extra machines, the increased


maintenance and the limited range of output frequency.
(b)

Static converters
With the advent of power semiconductor devices, the motoralternator set has largely fallen out of favour, as static
inverters have been developed to provide a variable-frequency
supply which is both accurate and reliable(g,lQ}.

The

advantage of static inverter drives can be summarised as:


(i}

The output frequency is independent of both load


and transient conditions.

(ii}

Continuous variable speed control is possible over a


wide range of frequencies.

(iii}

The motor power factor is almost constant over a wide


operating range.

(iv}

Inverters can easily be included in. a closed-loop control


scheme

(11}

, lead1ng to more accurate control of the

motor speed, torque and power, as well as better control


of the transient performance.

Because of these advantages, static inverters are used in many trial


drives, and thus form the basis of the variable-frequency systems which will
be considered in this thesis.
There are two types of static converters, the first being the cycloconverters(1213), in which mains frequency is converted directly into
A.C. of variable frequency.

An arrangement of switching elements selectively

connects the load to the supply, so that a low-frequency output voltage


waveform is fabricated from segments of the supply voltage waveform.
The disadvantage of this kind of converter is that the highest output
frequency is limited to about one-third of the mains frequency.

The

4 20
second type of converter is the D.C.-link/3-phase bridge inverter(l - ).
In this case, the A.C. supply is first rectified to D.C., before subsequently
being inverted to A.C. of variable frequency.

The

main switching elements

of the inverter are triggered sequentially, such that a rectangular or


stepped voltage waveform is generated at the output.
category are pwrn inverters(

Also in this

21 25
- ), which ai~ to synthesise pseudo (or quasi)

sinusoidal waveforms from the D.C.-link voltage.

In contrast to the

cycloconverter, the output frequency of the D.C.-link inverter can range


from a few hertz up to several kilohertz.

For these reasons, D.C.-link

inverters have found wide application in industrial variable-speed A.C.


drives, and they will continue for many years to play a significant role
in the overall variable speed applications.

1.2

Mathematical Analysis of Induction Machines

The transient and steady-state performance of induction machines has


been the subject of extensive study, using both experimental and mathe.
(26-34)
mat1cal models
. While the experimental models of Waygandt and
Charp( 29 ), Wood, Flynn and Shanmugasundaram( 3 l), and Smith and Sriharan( 33 34 )
have provided valuable insight into the operation of induction motors,
the compelxity of the experimental investigations has made their use
expensive.

In recent years, especially following the advent of fast

digital computers, the-emphasis in induction motor investigations


has shifted towards the direct solution of the machine equations.

While

these equations are complicated, and exhibit certain non-linear characteristics, they can be solved quite rapidly on a digital computer if sensible
simplifications are adopted.

The models developed quickly give quantitative

information which may be of direct use in either design or operation.


Stanley

(26)

has derived general differential equations for several A.C.

2
machines, using the stationary-axis method introduced by Park( ?) for the
analyses of salient-pole synchronous machine.
3-phase machine

Stanley's equations for a

have been solved with the aid of a differential

with special reference to plugging ,by ([tlfillan and Kaplan ( 2S).

analyse~

The para-

meters of an induction motor were assumed, and transient torques were

predicted as functions of time.

However, since no actual motor was con-

sidered, no measure of the accuracy of the theoretical results could be


inferred.

Waygandt and Charp(

29

), solved Stanley's differential equations

for the case of a 2-phase servomotor, again using a differential analyser.


They obtained both current transient and speed response curves, which

were shown to compare well with experimental results obtained from an


.

Mag~nn~ss

actual servomotor.

to that of Gilfilli>n and Kaplan.

and Schultz

( 30}

carr~ed

out similar work

They predicted the motor behaviour

during the transient conditions following plugging, again using a differential analyser, and they assumed a linear change in the acceleration of the
machine when studying the transient performance following either a sudden
change in the voltage or plugging at various speeds and switching instants.
The study was however, entirely mathematical.
sundaram

(31)

Wood, Flynn and Shanmuga-

obtained experimental results for the

starting transients

in a 3-phase squirrel-cage motor on application of the supply voltage


at different switching angles, and also during reconnection to the supply
at different speeds.

Some .time later, as an alternative to the use of

a differential analyser, various analogue computer simulations of the motor


equations in d,q form were undertaken.

In particular,Hughes and Aldred(

considered variable speed effects, and presented theoretical results for


both a 2-phase servomotor and a 3-phase industrial motor under starting
conditions.

Some experimental verification of the work was given in the

case of the starting transients of the 3-phase motor.


Following the development of fast digital computers, considerable
attention was directed to numerical solutions of the machine equations.
Smith and Sriharan(

33 34
' } used a digital computer to solve the machine

equations in d,q form, including the effect of speed variations.

They

also computed the torque transmitted to a coupled load in terms of the


eleGtomagnetic torque developed by the machine and the mechanical
coefficient of the load.

The transient performance of the induction

32

motor following reconnection to the same supply or to a different supply


(i.e. star/delta, plugging and D.C. dynamic braking), at different speeds
for various lengths of supply interruption was also investigated.
Computed results compared well with those obtained from experimental work.
Another digital computer model was used by Slater, Wood and

s~mpson

(35)

to analyse the torque transients following connection of a 3.5 kW squirrelcage motor to the supply at zero speed and at 90% of synchronous speed,
and for different switching angles of the supply.

In a

number of studies,

a common approach has been to assume that the motor voltage has a precisely
defined waveform and analytical solutions have been developed using a
number of advanced mathematical

techn~ques

(36-44)

. Many authors have analysed induction motors driven by a D.C.-link inverter.


The solutions are obtained either with the aid of a digital computer or
from simulations using an analogue computer.

Lipo and Turnball( 45 ) have

used the state-variable formulation of the machine equations to study


two widely used drive systems incorporating square-wave inverters with
180

and 120

.
conduction angles.

st~ady-state characteristics with each

inverter supplying three motors were obtained,with computed results being


compared to experimental results for an actual system.

Other aspects

of the dynamic performance of the inverter-fed induction motor drive have


I

been considered by a number of authors'


relating to start-up conditions.
Al-nimma and Williams(

46-48)

, with most of these studies

However, in parallel with these analyses,

49 50
) developed a digital computer model for studying

a much wider range of operating fault conditions using tensor

techn~ques.

Inverters with 120 and 180 conduction modes were considered, and computed
results were compared to test results from a laboratory-scale system.

As an alternative to much of the above work analogue computation is


{51-5&)
still being developed
Most of the papers mentioned in this section have used the familiar d,q
form of the motor equations.

It is well-established that this model

can provide excellent predictions of both the transient and steady-state


behaviour of a drive system.

For this reason much of the analyses in

this thesis are undertaken using a d,q model.


1.3

Thesis Objective

The speed of an induction motor can be controlled using a variable supply


frequency which could be provided by a fully-controlled rectifierinverter combination.

A well designed system should include the following

basic requirements:-

(i)

Adjustable output frequency to achieve the desired motor speed.'

(ii)

Adjustable output voltage, so as to maintain the induction motor


air-gap flux

(iii)

An

ability to provide full rated current at any frequency within

the desired constant torque output range.


Allowance can also be made to boost the

motor voltage at low speed

or during accelaration, to overcome stator resistance voltage drop.


This thesis presents an analytical and experimental investigation of
several control strategies for a pwm-inverter/induction motor drive.
A 3-phase GTO-thyristor inverter was constructed and

, used to drive

a 0.75 kW, 3-phase squirrel-cage motor, which could be loaded electrially


using a D.C.-generator or mechanically via a disc brake.

Chapter 2 develops the theoretical concepts of variable-speed drives, as


a suitable starting point for the subsequent numerical analysis.
Chapter 3 summarises the pwm-inverter switching strategies, and Chapter 4
describes the construction and testing of the inverter.

Chapter 5

details the improvements made to the speed control system, to include


facilities for speed reversal, together with control over the maximum
rates of accelration, and low speed IR-compensation.
a set of digital computer

Chapter 6 describes

programs, developed for the analysis of the

drive system and its accompanying control scheme.

Theoretical results

relating to various inverter modulating techniques, switching frequency,


waveforms harmonic content etc. are presented.
devoted

Chapters 7 and 8 are

to .the presentation and discussion of experimental results

obtained for the closed-loop drive system.


Throughout the thesis, the analysis and investigations are supported by
considerable experimental work, and the comparisons obtained between
experimental and computed results always demonstrate good agreement.

CHAPTER 2
VARIABLE SPEED INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE USING STATIC INVERTERS

2.1

Motor Characteristics for Constant Supply Frequency

2.2

Motor Operation at Variable-Frequency

2. 3 Static Inverters
2.4

Effect of Non-sinusoidal Excitation on Motor Losses

10

This chapter presents an overview of the speed control of a squirrelcage induction motor using a variable-voltage, variable-frequency static
Expressions for the motor speed and developed torque are

inverter.

shown to be functions of both the input frequency and the supply voltage,
so that,by control of the magnitudes of these quantities, any desired
motor performance can be obtained.

The final section of the chapter

discusses the problems of increased motor losses associated with inverter


drives.
2.1

.Motor Characteristic for Constant Supply Frequency

When a 3-phase supply is applied to the stator windings of an induction


motor, a constant-magnitude sinusoidally-distributed magnetic field is
This field rotates at a synchronous speed, given in terms

produced.

of the supply frequency f


f

ns

and the number of pairs of poles P as

( 2 .1)

The stator field cuts the rotor conductors and induces currents in them,
which in turn interact with the stator field to produce a torque.

By

Lenz's law, this causes the rotor to turn in the direction of the stator
field, and it accelerates until it attains a constant speed n , slightly
r

less than the synchronous speed given by equation (2.1).


An important quantity throughout induction motor theory is the slip._ s
defined as

(2. 2)

from which the rotor speed follows as

nr

(1 - s) n s

(2. 3)

11

The frequency of the rotor voltages and currents is


f

s.f

(2 .4)

Among many important considerations in the steady-state performance


of an induction motor are the variations of current, speed and losses
as the load torque changes, together with the starting and maximum
torque.

All these quantities may be derived from the per-phase equiv-

alent circuit for the motor shown in Figure 2.l(a).

When the rotor

is stationary, the machine acts as a transformer on short circuit and


large stator and rotor currents at low power factor flow.

The voltage

induced in the rotor is


~

V
r

k~

(2. 5)

where k is a constant and

windings.

g is the flux/pole established by the stator

The voltage V is a function of f


r

accelerates from rest, both f

and v

decrease.

and, as the motor


At a slip. s the induced

rotor voltage becomes sv , when the rotor current is


r

s V
r
R + jsX
r
r

or
I

V
r

(2. 6)

R /s + jXr
r

The quantity R /s is an apparent rotor resistance, which may be


r

thought of as the sum of the actual rotor res-istance R and the


r

load resistance R (1-s)/s, as shown in Figure 2.l(b).


r

so-called

As the motor

accelerates
from rest Rr /s increases, leading to a reduction in the
.

12

The power factor at first rises, before reaching

motor line current.

a maximum

and subsequently falling.

As the motor approaches synchronous

speed Rr/s becomes very large, reducing the rotor current almost to zero
and producing negligible output torque.

The torque/slip relationship

may be derived from the per-phase equivalent circuit of Figure 2.l(a),


in which the power input per-phase to the rotor is

I 2

___!:

( 2. 7)

The mechanical power developed per-phase is

= Pr

P
out

- rotor loss

or
R

I 2 _.E

out

(.!.....:..2!
s

(2. 8)

The electromagnetic torque Te corresponding to the output power is


obtained by equating this power to the product of the torque and the
angular velocity.

Thus if ws = 2~ns is the synchronous angular velocity

where

out

(1 - s)

(1 - s) w =
s

ws

T
e

(2.9-)

.r T f!

2~n

is the angular velocity of the rotor.

It follows from equations (2.8) and (2.9) that

T~

2~n

(2.10)r

13

and substituting equations (2.3) and (2.6) into equation (2.10) leads to

sV
2nn (R
s r

2
r

2
+ (sXr) )

(2 .11)

Equation (2.11) shows that the torque is a function of the rotor voltage
Neglecting the effects of stator parameters, which infers

and frequency.
that v

is constant, and differentiating this equation with respect to s,

and equating the result to zero, gives the slip at which maximum torque is
produced as
s

max

R
X

(2 .12)

where the positive sign applies


the negative sign to generating
positive value of s

into

max

toring action (i.e.

l > s > 0), and

Substituting the
tion (2.11) gives the maximum torque

produced by the motor as

max

V 2
r

(2.13)

4nn X
s r

The torque/slip relationship expressed by equation (2.11), is shown


typically in Figure 2.2 with the motoring, generating and braking regions
indicated.

The starting torque is obtained by substituting s = 1 into

equation (2.11), to give

2nn (R
s r

R
r

(2.14)

14

.'

2.2

Motor Operation at variable-Frequency

The squirrel-cage induction motor has historically been regarded as a


constant-speed machine, since its speed is directly related to the supply
frequency which is normally constant.

With the advent of variable-

frequency static inverters, the machine is however becoming increasingly


used in variable-speed drives.
The supply frequency fs influences the magnetic flux per pole

~g

produced

in the air-gap of the motor according to

~g

- I Z
s s
k
f
s

(2 .15)

where
=

\
supply frequency

zs

stator impedance

machine constant.

and

Since the torque produced in the machine is a function of the air-gap flux,
constant torque operation requires the voltage to frequency ratio to be
maintained almost constant, showing that the supply voltage must be
proportional to the supply frequency.

If the operating 'frequency is

low, the voltage drop due to the stator resistance becomes significant,
resulting in a reduced grossmechanical torque.

Under these conditions,

it is therefore necessary to boost the supply voltage at low frequency,


as shown in Figure 2.3, to ensure that the same maximum torque is achieved

15

throughout the speed range.

The effect of providing this boost is shown

by comparing the torque/slip characteristics of Figures 2.4(a) and (b)


control of both the voltage and frequency of the motor supply are then
necessary for efficient drive system operation, and this requires the need
for some form of inverter supply.
2.3

Static Inverters

Most variable speed A.C. drives employ D.C.-link inverters.

Figure 2.5

shows the elements of such a drive, where the A.C. input is first converted
into D.C.,by either a controlled or an uncontrolled rectifier, and then
inverted to provide 3-phase voltages of variable magnitude and frequency
for the induction motor.

The three most common types of inverters .are

(a)

the quasi-square wave voltage source inverter

(b)

the quasi-square wave current source inverter, and

(c)

the pulse-width modulated (pwm) voltage source inverter.

There are many variations of these basic types, but the differences lie
mainly in the method used for commutation.

Both (a) and (b) require

variable D.C.-voltage to provide voltage magnitude control, and they are

usually fed from the output of a phase-controlled rectifier.

In some

cases, a diode rectifier and a chopper arrangement are used to replace


the phase-controlled rectifier.

A pwm inverter combines both frequency

and voltage control in a single converter unit and it is therefore used


typically in combination with a constant D.C.-voltage source, such as a
diode rectifier.

'nle basic power circuits, gate firing sequence and the

output waveforms associated with each basic type of inverter are discussed
in more detail in Chapter 3.

16

Operation of an induction motor connected . to an inverter differs funda(3)

mentally from that when it is connected to a 3-phase supply

, since

the D.C.-link is unable to intert:hange stored magnetic energy with the


The inverter must therefore provide the reactive power

power supply.

required by the induction motor, leading to theneed for a method for


exchanging energy between the phases at the motor termina~

In practice,

this transfer is achieved via the line-to-line short circuit path across
the D.C.-link provided by a voltage source inverter, or by the commutation
of current. from phase to phase in the current source inverter.

2.4

Effect of Non-sinusoidal Excitation on Motor Losses

All the loss componen t s ~n


an ~nduction

motor, except for friction


and windage, are increased as a result of harmonics in the supply
(57:>

voltage.

These losses may conveniently be separated into the various

components
(a)

stator winding loss;

this compromises the usual fundamental

frequency compone.nt together with an additional term to account


for the loss due to harmonic currents.

The total stator winding

loss Pco is
2

2
Pco = mRs II s + I har I
where m is the number of phases, and

.,,

the harmonic current I

har

(2.16)

is

.....
and K is the harmonic order.

(2.17)

17

(b)

stator core loss;

compromising the sum of the hysteresis and

eddy current losses in the stator iron.

This loss depends upon

the magnitude and freguency of the harmonics in the stator flux density,
produced by the non-sinusoidal excitation.

Each harmonic produces its own

iron loss. The increase in loss is generally only a small fraction


of the total core loss and in a total loss evaluation it may often
be neglected in comparison with the losses resulting from the
inverter harmonics.

(c)

Rotor copper loss;

this is affected by harmonic currents in

the same way as is the stator winding loss.

In many cases

the rotor harmonic copper loss is the largest component of the


total loss.
(d)

Although increased by the presence of harmonic current, the


stray load loss is relatively small and it is normally taken as
the same as with sinusoidal excitation.

The harmonic current supplied by a voltage source inverter is limited by


the machine leakage reactance, and machines with a higher leakage
I

reactance will have a lower harmonic current and lower harmonic losses.
In contrast, the current-source inverter provides current harmonics, and a
lower leakage reactance results in reduced harmonic voltages.
inverter is best suited to a machine with a high leakage reactance, for the
same reason as the voltage source inverter, and it is therefore suitable
for driving small high-reactance machines.

Since pwm inverters usually

have large harmonic voltages at frequencies around the carrier frequency,


skin effect in the stator and rotor conductors can be considerable,
especially in large machines, and can lead to excessive harmonic losses.

18

Improved pwrn modulation techniques 158


problem.

59

) can however help to minimize this

The steady-state behaviour of an induction machine supplied by

a static inverter

(60)

may be satisfactorily predicted, using the equivalent

circuit of Figure 2.6 to calculate each excitation harmonic separately.


This method of analysis implies that the correct voltage,frequency and
slip must be included in the equivalent circuit for each harmonic
and the resultant current calculated.

Since the harmonic frequencies

are high in comparison with the fundamental, the speed of rotation of


the harmonic slip approaches unity.

It is adequate for most purposes

to assume that the harmonic slip is in fact one, when the stator and
referred rotor resistances become negligible in comparison with
reactances.

th~

Furthermore, the magnetizing reactance is much large than

the leakage reactances, which allows the stator magnetizing branch to


be neglected in many calculations.

'

'

19

Is

R'i

xr

lr

Xs

Im

Vs

vr

Ym

Gm

(a)

Is

Rs

Xs

lr

Rr

I Ill

Rr

Vs

Gm

ylll

(b)

FIG.2.1

INDUCTION MOTOR-EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT PER PHASE

( 1- s)

Torque

..

"'0

speed
s=l

BRAKING MODE

NORI-1AL OPERATING REGION


1 ~s~O

s>l

Figure 2.2:

GENERATOR MODE

s<O

TORQUE SPEED CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INDUCTION MOTOR

:J

"'.
~ 1.0

------------------------

>
Gl

-0.8

i~ 0.6
0.4

Boosted
Volts

/"'

0.2
/

/ Constant :::L
/-f

I
I

10

20

Supply Frequency

FIG. 2.3

40

30

50

Hz

TYPICAL VOLTAGE/FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTICS FOR


MOTOR DRIVES

22

...

I
\

----

0-~-----~------~----~----~----~~--~
0
Speed

(b)

\
I

0~----~----~----~----~----~---0
Speed
FIGURE 2e4 Steady state torque speed curves
(a) constant supply voltage to frequency ratio
(b) . constant ai rgap f1 ux

3-phase
A.C.
Input

3- PHASE

3 -PHASE

,,,
///

RECTIFIER

DC
Voltage

INVERTER

'

///

1MOTOR)

3-phase
Output
(Variable voltage
& Variable freque ncy).

CONTROL
CIRCUIT

Fig. 2.5.

SCHEMATIC

DIAGRAM OF A O.C.- LINK INVERTER.

24

Rs
+

Xrn

Xsn

.r

T T T

...

Gmn

Rr

Xmn

sn

'

Fig. 2.6.

INDUCTION MOTOR
PHASE FOR

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

nth. ORDER HARMONIC .

PER

----------------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER 3

INVERTER A.C.-DRIVE MODULATION TECHNIQUES

3.1

3.2

Types of Inverter
3.1.1

Quasi-squarewave voltage source inverter

3.1.2

Quasi-squarewave current source inverter

3.1.3

PWM-voltage source inverter

PWM-Modulation Techniques
3.2.1

Level set-modulation

3.2.2

Squarewave-modulation

3.2.3

Sinusoidal-modulation

3.3

Sinewave Modulated PWM-Inverter

3.4

Sinusoidal Switching Strategies


3.4.1

Natural switching

3.4.2

Regular switching

25

3.1

Types of Inverter

The modulation techniques applicable to a voltage source inverter


supplying a 3-phase start-connected squirrel-cage induction motor
are summarised in this chapter.

A review of the basic character-

istics is given, with attention being focussed on the pwm-inverter.


The three basic types of inverter, mentioned briefly in the previous
chapter, are discussed in more detail.
3.1.1

Quasi-squarewave voltage source inverter

Early inverter designs used the quasi-squarewave principle, with a


typical circuit configuration and thyristor triggering pattern being
shown in Figure 3.1 (a) and (b) respectively.

The term quasi-squarewave

is applied to an inverter which has an output line voltage consisting of 66'


dwell, 120 positive voltage, 60 dwell, and 120 negative voltage.
Conduction is always through three switches:

either two switches in the top

row (1,3 and 5) and one in the bottom row (2, 4 and 6), or vice versa.
This process produces square wave inverter phase voltages with an equal
mark-space ratio, as shown in Figure 3.l(c).

The inverter output line

voltage waveform shown in Figure 3.l(d) is obtained by subtraction of the


corresponding phase voltages such that

VAB

VA -VB

VBC

VB

VCA

VC

= vC- v-A

(3 .1)

26

when the inverter supplies a star-connected induction motor, the inverter


line-to-neutral or motor phase voltage is as shown in Figure 3.l{e).
The motor phase voltage obtained is referred to as a six-step waveform.
Figure 3.l(f) shows a typical motor line current waveform.

With this

form of inverter, only the output frequency can be varied.

However, in

order to maintain constant motor flux, the motor phase voltage must be
varied directly with the frequency.

The amplitude of the D.C.-link

voltage feeding the inverter must therefore be varied, which involves


the use of either a phase-controlled rectifier circuit or some form of
chopper arrangement.
3.1-.2

~uasi-squarewave

cUrrent source

inver~er

A quasi-squarewave current' source inverter provides a set of squarewave


currents equal in magnitude to the D.C.-link current.
circuit configuration is shown in Figure 3.2(a).
inductor, which

------ ----- --

----~---

replace~_the

The basic power

The .D.c. -link

capacitor in the voltage source inverter is

------

large, to maintain the supply current constant and thus provide a current
source.

The feedback diodes in the voltage source inverter are omitted

from the current source inverter, and the input-output constraint is


therefore on current rather than on voltage.

The gating sequence of

the thyristors arid the output current waveforms are shown respectively.
in Figures 3.2(b) and (c).
results in 120

It is clear that.the gating sequence

conduction of each device, with 6nly two devices

conducting simultaneously.

Commutation in a current source inverter

is inherently slower than that of a voltage source inverter.

This is

however often an advantage, since conventional thyristors are satisfactory


for current source inverters, whereas inverter grade thyristors are
normally required voltage source inverters.

27

3.1.3

PWM-voltage source inverter

The pwm-inverter is a voltage source inverter which

can~provide

both

frequency and voltage control using the inverter switching devices,


and it is often used with an uncontrolled bridge rectifier supply.
Figure 3.3(a) shows the inverter power circuit supplied by a diode bridge,
with a parallel smoothing capacitor to ensure a constant D.C.-link
voltage.

The thyristor gating sequence is shown in Figure 3.3(b) and the

inverter output waveforms in Figure 3.3(c).

Several switching techniques

are possible and these are described in the following sections.


3.2

PWM-Modulation Techniques

Switching techniques have been the subject of intensive study in recent


years, most notably by Green and Boys( 2J), Pollack( 2S), Bowes(SB),
Grant and Barton(Sg), Maria and Sciavicco(Gl), Bowes and Clement(G 2 )and
Bowes and Mount(G 3 ).

The turn-on and turn-off of the swit9hing devices

(sometimes called the control strategy) may be adjusted so as to eliminate


any significant harmonics in the inverter output, and methods of achieving
this are now described.
3.2.1

Level set-modulation

Figure 3.4(a) illustrates the level set modulation method, in which


a sinewave reference signal is compared with an adjustable voltage
level vset"

Intersections of the sinewave with the levels +Vset' 0 and

-vset all cause switching of the inverter output, such that vset

may

be used to adjust the value of the fundamental voltage, i.e. the pulse
width varies with the level of V t"
se

Figure 3.4(b) shows the inverter

28

output phase voltage and Figure 3.4(c) the line voltage, obtained
graphically by subtracting two inverter phase voltages as given by
equation (3.1).
in Figure 3.4(d).

The motor phase voltage (star-connected) is shown


Additional levels can be provided to improve the

output waveform and to extend the lower end of the speed range.

An

induction motor supplied by this form of supply will develop a


significant sixth-harmonic pulsating torque.
3.2.2

Squarewave-modulation

The squarewave-modulation technique is illustrated in Figure 3.S(a),


where a triangular carrier waveform is compared with a square wave
reference signal.

The carrier frequency is. locked to an integer multiple

of the reference frequency and the amplitude of the squarewave determines


the magnitude of the fundamental output voltage.

The ratio of the

carrier frequency to the reference frequency is used to control the


harmonic content of the motor supply voltage.

Figures 3.S(b), (c), and

(d) present respectively waveforms of the inverter phase and line voltage
and the motor phase voltage.

Again, a significant sixth-harmonic

pulsating torque will be produced, although reduced in amplitude from


that with level-set modulation.

3.2.3

Sinusoidal-modulation

The harmonic content of an inverter output waveform may be decreased


considerably by using sinusoidal modulation 158 641

This involves

a comparison between a sinusoidal reference signal and a triangular


carrer wave, as illustrated in Figure 3.6(a).
are given in Figures 3.6(b), (c) and (d).

The output

~aveforms

Several variants of this

technique are in use, including controllers which generate a variable

29

carrier-frequency over the inverter operating range, for improved performance.

Sinusoidal modulation produces an acceptable harmonic content, with

respect to both motor performance and losses, and it is therefore consdiered


in more detail in the next section.

3.3

Sinewave Modulated PWM-Inverter

The method of achieving sinusoidal modulation is very important, and


various schemes are available to change the outputvoltage harmonic
structure in order to achieve satisfactory performance.

Three methods

of modulation are feasible:


a)

Trailing edge modulation, in which the leading edges occur at


uniformly spaced intervals and the trailing edges are modulated.

b)

Leading edge modulation, in which the trailing edges occur at


uniformly spaced intervals and the leading edges are modulated
and,

c)

Double-edge modulation, in which both edges are modulated.

The type of modulation adopted is determined by the shape of the carrier


waveform.

For example, whereas leading edge modulation requires a

positive-ramp waveform, trailing-edge modulation requires a negative


ramp waveform and double-edge modulation requires a triangular waveform.
The inverter output frequency is determined by the reference waveform,
while the magnitude of the output voltage depends on the ratio of the
amplitudes of the reference and the carrier signals, referred to as
the modulation index.

The ratio between the carrier and the reference

waveform frequencies determines the number of pulses per cycle of output.

30

3.4

Sinusoidal Switching Strategies

.
ida 1 pwm sw1'tc h'1ng s t ra t eg1es
. ( 62 63 ) ,
Th ere are three common s1nuso
The choice of strategy depends

termed NATURAL, REGULAR, and OPTIMIZED.

on the application and, in particular, on the rationalisation between


the inverter losses incurred by high frequency switching and the improved
performance and reduced motor losses.

A regular switching strategy was

adopted for the present work, since it is easy to implement in a digital


control scheme. Regular switching is a development of natural switching,
and this is described in the next section.
3.4.1

Natural switching

The natural switching strategy is widely

~sed,

of implementation using analogue techniques.

because of its ease


It can be defined by

comparing a triangular carrier waveform with a sinusoidal reference


waveform.

The intersections of the two waveforms shown in Figure 3.7(a)

provide a number of pulses between the levels +1 and -1 which determine


the inverter line-to-ground (phase) voltage waveform shown in Figure 3.7(b).
The output voltage and frequency are controlled by adjusting the amplitude
and frequency of the reference signal.

If the amplitude of the reference.

is greater than that of the carrier, the number of pulses per output
cycle is reduced.

This results in over-modulation, which is characterised

by the large pulse-widths in the centre of the cycle.


It is essential, at low output frequencies, to have a large number of switching
pulses/cycle, to minimise the harmonic content.
frequencies,the number of pulses/cycle

At high output

is limited to the switching speed

of the power switching devices and a low number is required.

This is

achieved by adjusting the carrier frequency to reference frequency ratio.

31

Most analogue implemented pwm-controlschemeshave been based on natural


sampling switching strategies.
general

A practical implementation showing the

features of this technique is illsutrated in Figure 3.7(c).

The

Figure shows that the method exhibits two important features


(a)
(b)

The centres of the pulses are not regularly or uniformly spaced and
The pulse-width cannot easily be expressed by simple analytical
expressions.

However the width modulated pulse shown in Figure 3.7(c) may be defined
.

by the transcendental

equat~on

(62)

tp

is the carrier waveform period,

(3.5)

where

tl and t2 are the switching instants,


~

is the angular frequency of the reference signal, and

M is the modulation index


Although natural switching is used mainly in analogue schemes,it may
be implemented using digital techniques, when the generation and comparison
of the waveforms is performed by microprocessor software.

The technique

is unacceptable for fast response drive applications, since any extention


of the maximum operating frequency is limited by the reduction in the
number of samples/cycle, which further increases the quantisation error
associated with each sample value.

These limitations can however be

overcome using a sampling technique which has the potential for real time
pwm generation and is described in the next section.

32

3.4.2

Regular

s~itching

Regular switching( 62 63 ) is widely used in digital systems, and is defined


as the comparison of a triangular carrier waveform with a stepped reference
waveform, obtained by the regular or uniform sampling of a sinewave.
may

Regular switching

be

either asymmetric or symmetric, depending

on the degree of modulation of each pulse edge with respect to a regularly


spaced pulse position.
Figure 3.8,

In asymmetric modulation, illustrated in

the leading and trailing edges of each pulse are generated

using two different samples of the reference, and each edge is modulated
by a different amount.

Each sample is held for half a cycle of the


In symmetrical modulation,

carrier to produce the stepped waveform.

illustrated in Figure 3.9, the same sample is used to generate both edges
of the pulse and, consequently, both edges are modulated equally.
Practical

implementation of the generation of a single pulse using

symmetrical modulation is shown in Figure 3.9(b), the amplitude of the


modulating waveform at the sampling instant t

is stored in a sample-and-

hold circuit, which is synchronized to the carrier wave.


held for the sample period T (i.e. from t
is then taken.

The sample is

to t ) and the next sample


4

This produces a sample and hold version of the reference

waveform, which is compared with the carrier waveform to define the


switching instants t 2 and t of the width modulated pulse.
3

The widths

of the output pulses are proportional tv the value of the reference at


each sampling instant, and hence the centres of the pulses are spaced
uniformly in time.

---

-------------------------------------33

With reference to Figure 3.9(b), Bowes and elements

(62)

.
have der1ved a

simple trigonometric function to calculate the pulse widths of the


pwrn waveform as:

(3. 6)

where
T

is the sampling time

is the Modulation index

wm is the reference angular frequency


The first term of equation (3.6) represents the unmodulated carrier
frequency pulse width, and the second term the sinusoidal modulation
required at time t
1

The equation may be used to calculate the

pulse width directly, and to generate the pwrn output waveforms.


The switching angles required by the output waveform to switch between
.
(62)
the two levels +1 and -1 may be def1ned as
:
transition

to +1

2j-l

and transi.tion

Cl2j

[4j3 -M sin(2j-l)
-

Cl

to -1

1r

[4j - 1 + M sin(2j-l) 2!.1


Rt

2Rt

where Rt is the frequency -changing ratio defined as

f
Rt

c
m

(carrier frequency)
(reference frequency)

and
j

(3.7)

is 1,2,3

.... Rt

(3.8)

34

When M is greater than unity, some of the pulses in the output waveform merge into their neighbours, and overmodulation occurs.

When

the inverter voltage/frequency ratio is to be maintained constant,


the modulation index M and the reference frequency f

are linearly

related by the equation

k f

Hence for a fixed frequency changing ratio

( 3. 9)

Rt' equation (3.6) may be

rewritten as

( 3. 10)

35

Commutatin g un i ~

Rect1f1er

-phas "
nput

-------.,

I
I

;~

-~

~~

1
1

'

I
I

I
I

I
I
I

L...--------...J

Controlled

r ______ _j ____

Voc.l

::=

I I
I [

~ I
I
L------ ____ ...J
I

'V""

I
I

r-- - - - - . ,

"lr ~171
7~

'l ~

' d ~ i~ 5 II
' B
c

I "l ~

'

~4 i~ ; f-6

L ____

L-C
t i l t er

1----

~; b
'----

Inverter
(a)

1
2

POWER CIRCUIT

IZZ1

t%2%221

3 VZZZZJ
4

12%%221

(bl

VA

VZZZZJ

pzzzzJ

F7J

rzzzza

t%22%21

122%1

VZZZZJ

VZZ/1

rzzzza
VZZZZJ

CONDUCTION SEO.UENCE.

-,.__ ____..------..___ __;---

Vs

Vc

___J----~---~r---~L_

(cl OUTPUT WAVEFORMS.


Fig. 3.1

-.,

SQUARE WAVE VOLTAGE SOURCE


INVERTER.

_J

36

', '\

"/

Voc

''
(d)

FUNDAMENTAL
/COMPONENT.

,.._

'

LINE
VOLTAGE

1',
~

LINE VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

(el MOTOR PHASE VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

(f)

MOTOR LINE CURRENT WAVEFORM

F1g. 3.1.

CONTINUED.

37

L
+

Ioc
Voc

'a

'b

( Q)

----L~c.L.~:.::.mc..:.L- _ __J~U~L.../jc.L.ZJ~ 1

WAJ

fZ0z

WA

f723

------~~u~~z~aA_______ 4

u72l:.A.--------L<f2:.....::Z...&..2LJ2L...--___

5
6

( bl

'

FUNDAMENTAL
/COMPONENT

FUNDAMENTAL

~COMPONENT.

~_L1/3j,

G:Ci

PHASE CURRENT. 16-connctd motor.)

(cl

FIG.3.2. CURRENT SOURCE INVERTER.

(a) power circuit

(b) conduction sequence

(c) output waveforms

38

'
3-phase
input

'

Voc

==
-~

';l ~

,
I

1,_4 ~ .,.I

ro

~;

177_61

tv/V/Z/1 E?.Z

inverter

V//////1

P'il

!222222ZJ

VI

.~

' ~, r-5

Uncon.t~olled

; ~3

' ~ ~ F-1 ~

6
(b)

r--

Voc

LINE VOLTAGE

..._

- -

00
(cl

~Voc .Jv"'ID 0

uu

PHASE VOLT AGE

FIG.3o3o PWM-VOLTAGE SOURCE IliV1l:RTER

(a) power circuit


(b) conduction sequence

(c) output waveforms

39

4-

1. 0

0.5

0
-0.5

(a)

-1.0
4-

vov2 r-

....--

r-

(c)

- Voc

r--

L-...

L--

....

r--

1-

....-

r--

1.--

1L...

.__

L...-

L--

'--

FIG.3.4 IJWEL SET PWM VOLTAGE CONTROL.

(a) Timing signals

(b) output phase voltage

(c) output Line-to-Line


voltage
(d) output Line-to-neutral
voltage

40

V.

1 ,...

ft

I
I

.....

(a l

-1

L.

I"'

( b)
.... ,...... ,...... ,...

. "AB
(c)

,......

- Voc

'-

L.L.....

....__ ....__

FIG 3. 5. VOLT AGE WAVEFORMIWITH SQUAREWAVE PWM


(a) timing signals
(b) output phase volta:;e

(o) output Line-to-Line volt~ge


(d) output Line-to-ne11tral voltage

41

1.0

(a)

vrx./2

,_.

( b) - VDC/21

'--

'--

. r- r-

....-

....-

VA-B 0

(c)

- Voc

I..-

'- ' - -

V,

DC

Va

(d)

fi---JLL.....JU-...L..I----L..L.-I~L-r-~.--.-r-1,..--,,...-,.....,,.......

~V,
3

oc

FIGro3 e6 SINE\vAVE PWM VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS


(&) timing signals
(c) output Line-to-Line

voltage

(b) output phase voltage

(d) output Line-to- neutral


voltage

42

(a)

(b)

I
I
I

t,

I
I

,,r,
I

i
j.

(C)

Msin'Vmt

tp '

'

l R~f!rence Waveform
2. Carrier Wave form
3. PWM Output Wave form
4.Fundamental of Output Waveform

FIG 3 7 ;l',A ":mtU. s.u!l'LED Pi/M

(a) Timing signals


(b) Output

(c) Single pulse generation

43

Sample-hold
Signal

Reference
Signal

(a)

Carrier Signal

(b)

(c)

'--

--

PWM

)ntrolSignal

----'

FIG. 3 .8 ASYMMETRICAL SAMl'LING

(a. )Reference and sample modulating signal.


(b) !iming waves.
(c) PWM out:put.

hold

44

Carrier Signal

\-\

I l

-I

r-

(a)

PWM Control
,..../Signal .

r-

....

L...- .

Msinwmt

I
I
I

I
I
(b)

t1

I.

I
t2

1. reference signal

2. sample-hold
modulating signal
3. carrier signal
4. PWM output

L fpl

t3,t
T

t4

-I

FIG 3. 9. (a) SYMMETRICAL REGULAR

SAMPLING PWM

(b) SiNE PULSE GENERATED BY REGULAR SYMMETRIC


SAMPLING

CHAPTER 4

OPEN-LOOP INVERTER DRIVE

4.1

4.2

Power Circuit

4.1.1

Power supplies

4.1.2

Power switches

4.1.3

GTO and its snubber circuit

4.1.4

The inverter bridge

Control Circuit
4.2.1

HEF4752, PWM-IC modulator

4.2.2

Speed reference circuit

4.3

GTO Gate-Drive Circuit

4.4

Current Limit Circuit

4.5

Adjustment of Modulation Process

45

A block diagram for the open-loop inverter drive is shown


in Figure 4.1.

The system comprises two main parts, the power

circuit and the control circuit and these are described respectively in Sections (4.1) and (4.2).

Experimental results,

demonstrating the dynamic performance and the steady-state


waveforms of the experimental drive system were recorded and
are described in Section (4.5).

4.1

Power Circuit

The power circuit consists of the power supplies and the semiconductor
inverter switches,together with their accompanying snubber circuits.
The following subsections describe in some detail the various elements
of the power circuit.
4.1.1

Power supplies

A circuit diagram for the various inverter power supplies is shown in


Figure 4.2.

These comprise a 12 V supply for the control circuit,

the high-frequency isolated supplies for the GTO gate drives and the
580V

D~rlink

supply to the inverter.

The 12 V supply is derived from a 240/15-0-15 V transformer (Tl)/


rectifier unit and the two integrated circuit voltage regulators ICl
and IC2, whose outputs supply the control circuit and the pulse
transformer switching transistors in the GTO gate drives.

The

isolated supplies required by the GTO gate drives are shown in the
block diagram of Figure 4.3.

The drives for the upper three GTOs each

require an isolated supply, whereas those for the lower three GTOs can

46

share a common supply, as shown in Figure 4.4.

Each supply, which

provides + 8 V, 0 and- 12 V rails, is obtained using a NE555 timer IC3


to switch TRl one. and off at 60 kHz.

The isolating transformer T2 has

a turns ratio of 1:3, and steps the voltage up to about 65 V peak-topeak at the secondary.

This is subsequently stepped down to about 22 V

peak-to-peak by further isolating transformers T3 to

T6.

Transformers

T3, T4 and TS are for the three upper GTO gate drives and transformer
T6 is for the lower GTO gate drives.
When TRl is conducting, diodes 05 to 010 conduct, charging the capacitor
connected to the positive supply in the GTO gate drives.

TRl is turned

off, diodes Oll to 016 conduct and the energy stored in the cores of
transformers T2 to T6 charges the capacitors connected to the negative
supply in the gate drives.
outputs to -12 v.

Zener diodes 017 to 020 limit the negative

In this way, an isolated smooth

o.c.

supply is

provided for the GTO gate drives.


The high voltage supply for the D.C. link is obtained from the 3-phase
420 V 50 Hz supply, which is rectified by a full-wave diode bridge and
smoothed.
when the

Resistor Rl of Figure 4.2 limits the peak rectifier current

o.c.

link capacitors Cl and C2 are being charged.

The resistor

is shorted out by contacts of relay B after an appropriate time delay


of about 0. 3 s;

so that it does not dissipate power while the motor

is running normally.
used to discharge the

4 .1. 2

As a safety measure, a second resistor R35 is

o.c.

link capacitors when the supply is removed.

Power switches

The drive efficiency depends partly on the inverter losses, which may
be significant, particularly in low power drives of less than 5 kW.

47

Inverter losses are dependent on t~e choice of power semiconductor


switches, the main requirements of which are:

a)

The minimum forward blocking voltage must exceed the peak lineto-line voltage, to provide an allowance for regeneration.

b)

A fast turn-off is essential for minimum switching losses and


for the short delay times which are necessary for good wave-form
definition.

c)

The device must be capable of operating over a very wide range of


duty cycle.

There are four main types of semiconductor switch which satisfy these
requirements:

l)

Bipolar Transistor

2)

MOSFET

3)

Conventional Thyristor (SRC)

4)

Gate Turn-off Thryistor (GTO)

The properties of each device, summarised in Table 4.1, indicate that


the GTO thyristor is the most appropriate choice for the PWM-inverter
used in the present project.
4.1.3

GTO and its snubber circuit

The GTO thyristor has a 4-layer pnpn structure, which has been developed
in recent years from the basic-structure of the conventional thyristor.
The structure and a transistor equivalent circuit are shown in Figure 4.5.
Like the conventional thyristor, a GTO can block a high forward voltage
while turned off, and it can pass a peak forward current far in excess
of its average current rating while turned on.

Typical operating

Switching
Device

Rating

Bipolar
Transistor

Limited to low and medium power


levels

MOSFET

Generally available for low-voltage


inputs and low powers ( soov, 22 A
Medium power units are becoming
available

Snubber Circuit
Requirement

Switching
Characteristic

Complex
snubber circuit
required

Fast switching

Cost

High voltage
high current
expensive

Snubber circuit
not required

High speed
switching

Very expensive

Conventional
thyristor SCR

High voltage and high current, but


external circuit required for
commutation

Snubber circuit
required

Slow switching
(turn-off)

Inexpensive

Gate-Turn-Off
Thyristor GTO

High voltage and high current.


circuit required for turn off

Snubber circuit
required

Fast switching
(turn-off)

Moderately
expensive

TABLE 4.1

No

INVERTER SWITCH PROPERTIES

"'

00

49

characteristics are given in reference (65).

The properties of the GTO

.
(65 ,66)
f
device are well documented in the l1terature
and only a brie
description will therefore be given here.
Turn-on is achieve~~f>ly~ng__ il. positive pu_ls<:__9_f_c_t]rre!lt_to_0_e
gate, followed by a small gate current of about 1/3 of the pulse magnitude
for the remainder of the on-period in order to minimise the on-state

,_______________

losses.

-~

--~--

----- --

Turn-off is achieved by withdrawing a current of about 1/5

of the anode current from the gate.


~------

----

---

-----------

.--~------

A circuit which achieved both

turn-on and turn-off is described in Section 4.3.

practice, it is

necessary to connect a snubber circuit across the GTO, both to direct

the anode current away from the device during turn-off and to limit the
magnitude of dv/dt during turn off, so as to prevent unwanted turn-on.
The rate of decrease of anode current during turn-off may be sufficiently
high to produce a large voltage spike across the GTO, due to the stray
inductance of the snubber circuit, and this implies that the snubber
must be connected as close as possible to the GTO leads.

This voltage

spike increases the turn-off losses and may possibly result in a breakdown of the GTO, although the turn-off loss can be minimised by using
a fast turn-on diode with a low forward voltage across the GTO.

In a

bridge circuit, the snubber need only be a capacitor connected between the
anode and cathode of each GTO, as shown in Figure 4.6.

Because of its

high surge current and di/dt ratings, the GTO can withstand the anode
current pulse caused by this capacitor during the turn-on period.
size of the snubber capacitor c

The

needed to prevent dv/dt from becoming

excessive may be defined by the peak discharge current, which must not

50

Good

exceed the maximum controllable anode current rating of the GTO.

local decoupling of the o.c. supply is provided by capacitor C which


effectively connects the upper and lower capacitors in parallel at the
instant of switching.

4.1.4

The inverter bridge

i'
I

Figure 4.7 presents a block diagram for the inverter, which consists of
three complementary legs, one for each of three output phases.

The

580 V o.c.-link voltage and the inverter action produces a 3-phase


output waveform of 1160 V peak-to-peak.

A permitted rise of 150 V

was assumed under regenerative braking conditions (580 + 150 = 730 V),
and Mullard type BTV58-l000R GTO, with voltage and current ratings at
1000 V and 10 A were chosen for the drive.
Since the gates of the six GTO's are not all at the same potential,
thecontrol system was isolated from the gate drives by means of pulse
transformers.

The three lower GTO's have common cathode connections

to the negative D.C.-link and share a single isolated supply.


three upper devices, however, have

The

independent cathodes switching

at the high-voltage levels of the output waveform.

This requires gate

drive isolation circuits, which can function correctly at high voltage


levels and the upper devices must therefore have individually isolated
supplies.

The flywheel diodes across each GTO provide a path for

inductive motor current as the inverter switches change their state.


They also provide a regeneration path back to the D.C.-link when the
motor frequency is suddenly. reduced.

51

4.2

Control Circuit

The main function of the control circuit shown in Figure 4.8 is to


respond to the control input setting V f and to provide the pwrn gate
re
pulses in the correct sequence and at the correct frequency.

The

control circuit also contains the logic elements involved in the


current limit circuit, which isolates the motor if a preset current
limit is exceeded.
4.2.1

HEF4752, PWM-IC modulator

The main part of the control circuit is the purpose-designed integrated


circuit !CS of Figure 4.8.

This is Mullard type HEF4752V, shown as

a block diagram in Figure 4.9.

The chip uses the regular switching

pwrn strategy described in Section (3.5).

The main function of the

pwrn-IC, which is controlled by a frequency demand and a voltage controlled oscillator, is to provide three complementary pairs of output
waveforms, which when applied to the inverter switches in an appropriate
sequence produce the symmetrical 3-phase voltage waveforms given in
Figure 4.10.

Information on the internal organisation of the circuit,

its operation and the relationships between the various control signals,
clock inputs and the inverter output waveforms can be found in
reference (67).
in Table 4.2.

The details of the main relationship are summarised

52

Clock
Input

Function

Relationship

FCT

Set motor input frequency

fFCT(kHz) = 3.360 x fQ(Hz)


fo - motor operating
frequency

VCT

Set motor volts/Hz

fVCT (kHz) = 6.720 x fQ (Hz)

RCT

Set the maximum switching


frequency of the 3-phase
inverter

fOCR = fs max(kHz) x 280


f (max) - switching
s
frequency rate

OCT

Set inverter output


switching delay period
(the time delay between the
start of turn-off of one
half of an inverter bridge
and the turn-on of the other
half)

fOCT (kHz) = 16/Td (ms)


where Td is a delay
or dead space.

TABLE 4.2

Relationships between

PWM-IC clock input

frequencies and inverter outputs.

53

The FCT lock input which determines the output frequency of the inverter
is controlled by V f' as shown in Figure 4.8, via the speed reference
re
circuit-described in detail in Section 4.2.2.

The steady-state
The VCT

relationship between V f and FCT is approximately linear.


re

clock input which sets the inverter output V/f ratio is controlled by
the voltage controlled oscillator IC7.

A constant VCT clock input

frequency results in a constant V/f operation.

Fine adjustment of VCT, RCT

and OCT is obtained by means of potentiometer R26 of Figure 4.8.

The

cw

input of pwm-IC8 determines the direction of rotation for the motor by


changing the phase sequence, for example, to change the phase sequence
from ABC to ACB (from forward to reverse) requires the CW input to be
low.

The four clock inputs FCT, VCT, RCT and OCT are routed
to the pwm-IC so that the inverter operating conditions can be

monitored.

4.2.2

Speed reference circuit

The speed circuit of Figure 4.8 was designed for unidirectional operation,
with control over both the maximum rates of motor drive acceleration and
deceleration.

The input to the control board is

provided by a potentiometer Pt1.


giving motor speeds

betwe~~

-~-speed

demand Vref

This voltage can vary from 0 to -10 V,

standstill and to rated speed.

It is

applied to a comparator IC4(a) which forms the input signal to an


integrator circuit ICS (b) giving a ramp output signal

VN.

A step-

wise variation of Vref results in a linear increase or decrease Of VN.


The output voltage appearing across. R27 provides the frequency reference
signal RFCT and is proportional to VN.

Adjuntll)ent of R27 provides

54

frequency control for the pwm-IC clock input FCT via the voltage
controlled oscillator IC6.

This control determines the output frequency of the inverter, which in


turn determines the synchronous speed of the motor.

Clock inputs VCT,

RCT and OCT are obtained from the multi-vibrator circuit IC7.

The clock

frequency of IC7 is set by C7, Rll and R26, with fine adjustment being
provided by R26.

The pulse amplifier IC9

ensures that the amplitude

of the output waveforms from the pwm-IC are sufficiently large to drive
the inverter GTO-gate drives.

Logic signal CW is permanently connected

to a logic high, so that a foward direction of rotation only is obtained.


Forward and reverse operation requires an external circuit for automatic

control of CW, and such a modification is discussed in the next chapter.

4.3

GTO Gate-Drive Circuit

A GTO latches on when a positive voltage pulse (typically 2 to 3 V for


10

~s)

is applied to its gate, and it turns off when a negative gate

voltage (-5 to - 10 V, for 1

Jls)

is applied to withdraw about l/5 of the

anode current from the gate.


Figure 4.11 shows a gate drive circuit designed for use with Mullard GTOs.
Isolation between the control and drive circuits is provided by the pulse
transformer T7, energised by the switching transistor TR2'inthe primary
circuit.

The transformer secondary voltage is a differentiated version

55

of the primary square waveform, and this is restored to the original


shape using the inverter circuit IC16 which acts asa combined Schmitt
trigger and memory circuit.
the Darlington transistor TR4.

The buffered output of this circuit controls


When TR4 is turned off, TR3 is turned on,

and the GTO is turned on by a positive pulse of gate current whose


magnitude depends on the RC network, R33, C20 ar.d R34.

When C20 is

fully charged, a lower steady-state current flows through R33 for the
remainder of the on-period, to minimise the on-state losses of the GTO.
Turn-off results when TR4 is turned on and current is withdrawn from the
gate via diode D47 into the smoothing capacitor C22 connected to the
isolated -12 V supply.

The inductance of the loop formed by the GTO

gate-cathode junction, D47, TR4 and C22 is kept below 1

~H

to ensure rapid

withdrawal of current from .the gate.

4.4

Current Limit Circuit

The current limit circuit shown in Figure 4.12

monitors the D.C.-link

current, and when this exceeds a preset value the outputs of the pwm-IC
are inhibited to disconnect the motor from the supply.
The 0.1 0, 5 W resistor Rl2 in the negative side of the D.C.-link provides
a voltage proportional to the D.C.-link current.

This is applied to the

differential amplifier IC17and, when the output of this stage exceeds


the reference voltage set by Rl8, the output of the detector IClBswitches
to high level, thus turning on the opto-isolator IC19.

Isolation provided

by the opto-isolator is necessary between the current detection amplifier


and the control circuit, since the detection circuit is connected to the

56

negative D.C.-link and therefore floats at several hundred volts.


Once the preset current limit is exceeded and the light emitting diode
conducts, the potential of the photo-transitor collector drops to about
-12 V, causing the output of ICI4(a) to switch to high level.
a low output to IC!.4(b) , which turns off
input L (pin 24) of Figure 4.8.

This gives

the pwm-IC at the start/stop

The flip-flop formed by IQ4(c) and IC14 (a)

is in a stable-state, when the motor is off, since there is no D.C.-link


current flowing and the collector of the photo transistor is at 0 V.
motor is restarted by connecting pin 1 of
the current limit (reset) switch.

ICl~c)

The

to -12 v, by press.

This causes the flip-flop to change

state and the motor to restart.

4.5

Adjustment of Modulation Process

Satisfactory operation of the drive system requires adjustments of both


the modulation process and the inverter output voltage/frequency ratio.
Table 4.2 of

Section (4.2.1) details the various inputs to the pwm-IC,

and the values of these inputs are now determined for the experimental rig
under consideration.
Speed variation is achieved by varying the frequency applied to the FCT
clock.

The frequency required for maximum motor speed is given in

Table 4.2 as
3. 36 f

where f

kHz

is the rated motor frequency in Hz.

57

The rated frequency of the experimental drive is 50 Hz and fFCT(max)


is therefore 168 kHz.

A variation in fFCT from 0 to 168 kHz gives a

motor speed variation between standstill and rated speed.

The frequency

applied to the VCT clock input f C determines the inverter output voltage/
VT
.
frequency ratio.

It has a fixed value calculated at the rated output

frequency for a particular voltage/frequency ratio as:


kHz

A constant value of fVCT produces a constant inverter output voltage/


frequency ratio.

However, at low operating frequencies, the ratio must

be increased to compensate for the motor IR-voltage drop.


The above

calculations for both fFCT and fVCT give a frequency ratio

fFCT/fVCT = 0.5 and are based on 100% modulation.

To ensure normal

modulation, the frequency ratio must be less than 0.5.

If the ratio

exceeds 0.5, the number of switchings per output cycle reduce and overmodulation occurs.

If the ratio is further increased, the output event-

ually becomes a squarewave.

The effect of changing the frequency ratio

is illustrated experimentally in Figure 4.13 (a) to (d) for frequency ratios


of 0.4, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0.

Figure 4.14 shows an experimentally obtained

line-to-line voltage waveform when operating at 50 Hz and a frequency


ratio of 2.0, and this clearly exhibits a quasi-squarewave shape with an
induction

motor having the parameters given in Appendix (B) connected to

the inverter.

--------------

58

The current limit was adjusted by loading the motor until the motor
line current waveform was 10 A peak-to-peak and Rl8 of Figure 4.12 was
adjusted to trip out pwm-IC at this current level.
The inverter voltage waveforms shown in Figure 4.15 are at 50 Hz
operating frequency and a frequency ratio of 0.45.
motor voltage waveforms are shown in Figure 4.16.

The corresponding
The motor phase

voltage and line current waveforms of Figure 4.17 clearly shows that
line current lags the phase voltage.

A
3_$

CURRENT

3-PHASE
GTO-INVERTER

MAINS RECTIFIER TO
SMOOTHING CAPACITOR

sensmg
circuit

cb

~I

**

t
SMPS

FWO

OV

STOP

~
1-ANALOGUE
CONTROL
SECTION

Vref

PULSE AHPLIFIER

VR~FCT

~~VCT

ccw;Gi

vco
VCO

FCT

PWM 1C
HEF 4752 V

VCT

-V

IRCTIIOCTI

FIG.4 .1 GTO-PWM MOTOR DRIVE SYSTEM

A
B

@l
H

'-

(b)E in
(c)tool
(a)Cin }a)Bin

023

BA~2
~15k

To control
circuit.

rl

" tl6 h

26

Lo L

BAWf--

62

R10
100

017'
.K1. . ~
ReA Cl Re"Uz

c9

13l-D

22n

~Ll.

R11
470

Rec 12)

~25

HD:-

22

BZh,-

16V

~87...!1

I Lifi
,.-

R7

'ifs;

____.!!'6] r2 .l1fw
4-.1

-1

.~~~-

~~
,.....--

R3

BAW62

CR37

Vm1 1

06

r-~l.Zrf-- 791
1 c1
I' ,.2

r,t

-12V

To gate
drives

To control
circuit

OV

Reefl

7lf"'

ReM

.,.

'lZ

fR1

"'
0

eB 11

ReB/2

12V

r-T-o-co-nt-ro_l-bo__rd--Fe--.-t--~~~~~~~~~~

35

~~On~~
L.

-ve de

Fig.4.2.

I
I
6x~VW56

~~;_rrz__ ...OL __ j
~
'P3s

CL
n

01
~
02

30;

L--=+::=+=t==:f.--..:1' 6V
-
L-=====t:t=====rll
47

05
~

:
.

C?

%~w

024

'

...!-"'

I U

1>.

'f l'/
2,~~-~j!l. ~ ~~~ --.,

100n

'..i:Jl

[)21

la lAin
Fs 1-3

1>.

'is\iTo ;c;y ['75

T1

150}!
I n2SV

TRI

ReB (3)

15015~

~ill~

-&\

IQ WJ- .'~
21.0V:

N1C~S5 7;~

I "5

R2
27 CR52

lb)rl lblS'f'-~r

SYSTEM

..J

DC. LINK.

POWER SUPPLIES

Fs 4

+ve d.c.

+ve d.C: link

B- UPPER 1-o
GTO
1-o

C- UPPER
GTO

l-<>

MODULE 1--o

MODULE f-.<>

MODULE
ON/0FF
SWITC H

B
(

r-

DIODE
BRIDGE
RECTIFIER
+
LOGIC
POWER
SUPPLIES

1-o
I-<>

A-UPPER 1-o
GTO
~

j(

)~

j~
~

B
(

A- LOWER 1-<>
GTO
r-<>
MODULE 1-<>

- ve
d.c.link

B-LOWER 1--o
GTO
1--o
MODULE 1-o

C- LOWER f.-<>
GTO
f-<>
MODULE f-<>

.~

rL
'"r

RESET
SWITCH

1:

-J

'

CONTROL
(AA[)

C~RR~
S
NS
c et.

FIG.4.3

GENERAL LAYOUT OF THE INVERTER.

62

T~
AT4043/48
4
1

r+l+--o + ev

to upper

4-~-+-r--<>-l 2 V GTOs in
in.Jerter

bridge

R4

+16V

s.an

unregulated

1 1W

QV

AT4043/4BH--:!
--~~1

+12V

T~

T5

regulated

AT4043/48
4

R2

12kn
01
BAW62

8
7

OV
DB

8AV10
rt~-+--o+

22nF

C1
560pF

C2
1 OnF

AS

470n

ovoJ-----4--~---------4--~--

8V

C4
150JJF
25V

to lower

GTOs in
inverter

bridge

FIG. 4.4

MULTIPLE-OUTPUT ISOLATED POWER SUPPLY

63

Anode

Gate
Cathode
Anode

Fig.4.5.GTO STRUCTURE & TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT.

+ ve

Cs/2

Oecoupling
Capacitor

Load ,

Cs /2

-ve

Fig. 4.6 SLOW RISE CIRCUIT

'
I

.
+

ve d.c.

DRIVE
CIRCUIT

ab
..... I '

DRIVE
CIRCUIT

SNUBBER
CIRCUIT

6~

u' ~

DRIVE
CIRCUIT

<::NIIRRI;R

'
'

'
'

u'~)""'

ciRcUIT

gF~~~IT

SNUBBER
CIRCUIT

G~

/"

I~R~m~~

I~I~CVU~T

a' ~

G~
I
I
I

~~~~~w

Q~

dt)

_0 ~

DRIVE ~
CIRCUIT

_d ~

1 E~R~mfR

Q~

- ve d.c.
A

FIG.4.1BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE GTO-It-IVERTER

IC4-S

MC 1458N

IC 6

NE566
HEF4047B

IC 7
ICS
IC 9
FIG. 4.8

THE CONTROL CIRCUIT

HEF4752V

HEF40174B
IC11-14 HEF4093B
IC15
HEF4016 B

66

OCT

CW VAV Kl I
r--------- ----- ;>--- ;>--

I
I

FCT

T
I r--t'
I
I

r~l

counter

VCT

L VCT

counter

I
I
I

f-

f-

E
0
0
E

iI

RCT

counter

f- ~

L __ - - - - - ---~-

CSP

ORM
ORM
0/P I~
-ORC
t
ORC
OYM
OYM
0/P ,..._..r
t:::="t-< OYC
T
OYC
I
OBM
OBM
"""""
0/P b..
OBC
~
Le OBC

f-

...

I
I

RCT l

-----...,

tes.t
c.c.t.

1..-.o

-----------...1

A B C RSYN

FIG. 4. 9. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE HEF 4752V.

1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1

2
1

-----------------------------

67

. a.

r---

b.

V(A-Bl
c.

FIG. 4.10

SYSTEM WAVEFORMS

a.
b.

Carrier Waveform
Inverter Phase
Voltages

c Inverter lineto-line voltage

r-- -- - - - - - - - ------------------------------- --

--- -- ----l

1
I

I
I

r-------

I
I

I
I

R34
10

049

(21
kV

T7

I
I

50}1

(23

(24

2x1n
'iSfW

1000V

19

"'"'
C1? 390' p
I

IC 16
2

: HEF 40104 8

}J

L.----- - - - - -

PWM <?--{=}--t-<rl

16V

CONT~L

SIGNAL

-12Vo----~--'

L -------------- ----------- -------------OV -12V +8V

ISOLATED

Fig,4.11

GTO THYRISTOR

MODULE CIRCUIT.

I
I
I
I
_______ _J

R12
V

o.,nsw

-ve DC.
LINK
-12V

DV

J(f't(d)

+8V

to pin

lJ

24 of
ICB.

ov

R14

2.2k

D13
BAW62

RESE~

R17
1~

SWITCH

R15
D43

R19

zot

62X
79
C3V9

,1\8

R13
151\

C13

16V 1501'

D44
ll)

BAW62

ov

1501'
16V

-12V
R23

101\
R21
101\

lJ

ov

IC18
R20

R16
151\

JCii!bl

-12V

R18
1\

270

C15
lOOn
CNY 62

D45
BZx79
C12

-12V

4..12. CURRENT Llt:JIT CIRCUIT.

<Y>

"'

-70-

FIG. 4.13

INVERTER PHASE VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS RECORDED AT


DIFFERENT FREQUENCY CHANGING RATIOS

-71-

FIG. 4.13

CONTINUED

- ..
~

- .. -.-- -

~~-

-~-

........

. -- _,_:_ ___ L_ . ..::.-~.

-.-.'-~---- -.
---~-----

'

----~-

FIG. 4.14

EXPERIMENTALLY OBTAINED STEADY-STATE INVERTER LINE-TO-LINE


VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

73

:-.:,. -

- ~

.'~ll~ll\lTITt+l1 ~ ~'1~~~~~'1'1~ ~ \ n r ; : I I: ... '"'"'lll i I ! . . I I \ I.~ '""'1~."111'1 i r ii'l \ II


...... --- ----- J .. -- .....
I

'; '1-if'j(;;i,.,"\~p ~i-t


I

I'

'i.

<

t'T

11

~~.;,~~':'...:"1~~. f 1i' I !

'

i :

.;

I ,

-~~"!,~" ~ 1 I

I I I I i ! ,

I~ .......;.':'.'f.;!ln"

~;..;.-..;-.;r~;T0:1_-~~-~ h ~ ,;J--~,.;.J.,.;,;.o.;...;.;;,;.; ~.I; !

..;-o..;..;_..;-J~.;..; ~.

.; ..

.-..;..;..;...;..,;~..c:- ~ J -:I

i I

r "l'f...
(

t:.: ~~~'!".....~ ........ ,

.,

....
,.
< '

! 'I'
0

'I
'

I
i

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ... - : - - ...........
,

'

'
"

.......

.., ... .., ....

~-_-_..

.. '

------

FIG. 4.15

EXPERIMENTALLY RECORDED 3-PHASE INVERTER VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS


AT 50 Hz

...... ......
~

.. "':

'

---~

-~----

''

-------

11.

': ;i
Ll

:.
-

'

"

111

q,_,r

1I i

_ lt-'

,; i-'

'

'----

---

'

'

----.

..

,. '-

-- -'

-_--

------

--

FIG. 4.16

...

--

----- -

--

'

---

---

~-

---

MOTOR PHASE VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS RELATED TO 50 Hz OPERATING FREQUENCY

75

.~

'

.~:~
-- ------------ . -------------------~----. -

..

FIG. 4.17

-----!-~-

. ---

-:------~

EXPERIMENTALLY OBTAINED STEADY-STATE MOTOR PHASE VOLTAGE AND


LINE CURRENT WAVEFORMS

CHAPTER 5

IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SPEED CONTROL SYSTEM

5 1

Bi-directional Speed Reference Circuit

5.2

IR-Voltage Drop Compensation Circuit

5.3

Inverter Output Waveforms

76

This chapter describes improvements made to the open-loop speed


control system described in Chapter 4.
a)

The improvements are

The implementation of bidirectional speed control, together


with control of the maximum rates of increase and decrease
of the motor supply frequency.

b)

Voltage drop compensation for the stator resistance at low


supply frequencies by adjustment of the V/f ratio.

5.1

Bi-directional Speed Reference Circuit

A speed reference circuit was developed to provide bi-directional

operation of the drive, as well as to control the maximum rates of


increase and decrease in the motor supply frequency.

The circuit,

as shown in Figure 5.1, has a single speed reference voltage V f


re
provided by the potentiometer Ptl, the output of which may vary
between -10 and +lOV, to provide speed variation between rated speed
in the reverse and forward directions.

The reference voltage is

applied to the comparator !Cl, whose output is limited to a predetermined


value corresponding to a motor slip below that for maximum torque.
This is achieved by the acceleration/deceleration limiting potentiometers
Pt2 and Pt3, such that the maximum rate of speed change is limited by
control of the maximum positive and negative values of v . .
1 l.m

The

maximum positive value v . (max) is determined by the setting of


1 l.m
potentiometer Pt3 and the inverting operational amplifier IC3, such that

Vlim (max)

= -

VR3 x

where VR3 is the voltage set by Pt3.

R7
R6

Similarly, the maximum negative

value of v ; is controlled by potentiometer Pt2 and the inverting


1 l.m
operational amplifier IC2.

When the motor accelerates v . will be


1 l.m

77

positive and if it exceeds v . (max) diode DJ will conduct, clamping


1 1m
If v . exceeds the preset maximum negative value
1 1m

v . to v . (max).
1l.m
1 J.rn
while

deceleratin~

negative value.
achieved.

diode Dl will conduct, clamping v . to the maximum


1 liD

In this way control of acceleration/deceleration is

The resultant speed signal forms the input to the integrator

IC4, giving a ramp output voltage signal VN.

The value of the

integrator capacitor C determines the rate-of-rise of the ramp voltage.


The output of the integrator circuit is fed to the full-wave precision
rectifier formed by IC5 and IC6, to produce a negative voltage reference
signal VRFCT

(=

-kJvNJ) irrespective of the sign of VN.

The voltage

reference signal VRFCT proportional to VN' controls the inverter output


frequency via the voltage-controlled oscillator of Figure 5.2.

Any

change in the sign of VN causes the reference polarity detector IC7


to switch the output of NAND gate ICS from high to low level or vice
versa, thereby changing the direction of rotation of the motor.
The response of a system in the frequency domain may be expressed by
its frequency-response transfer function relationship between the output
and the input of the system.

Figure

5.3

shows ultra-violet

recordings of the system responses when input sinewave test signals of


specified magnitudesare applied to the speed reference circuit for
frequencies respectively of 0.1, 0.125, 0.142, 0.20,0.25 and 1.0 Hz.
The. Figures show clearly the distorted output sinewave at the frequencies
of operation, the distortion being due to some non-linear characteristic
of the system, the phase shift between the input and the output (motor speed)
signals, and the change in amplitude of output as a consequence of the
changing input frequency.

From these experiments, the corresponding

Bode-diagram o= Figure 5.4 (showing the system gain and phase variation
with input frequency,

is obtained.

7B

Figure 5.5 presents ultra-violet recordings of the speed-and current


waveforms following a step input voltage change from 0 to +10 V.

This

shows clearly that the motor speed is linearly accelerated from standstill to full speed in the forward direction in about 9 s.

Motor

speed, current and voltage waveforms for equal acceleration and


deceleration times are shown in Figure 5.6.

A negative step input

signal to the system results in a build up motor speed in the reverse


direction, as illustrated by Figure 5.7, for a step input from 0
- 10

to

v.

5.2

IR-Voltage Drop Compensation Circuit

Operation of an induction motor at a constant V/f ratio results


in a low applied voltage at low input frequencies.

Since the voltage

drop across the motor stator resistance becomes relatively large at


low frequency, this results in a reduced air-gap flux
starting torque.

and a consequent low

This undesirable feature may be eliminated by

increasing the V/f ratio at low frequencies.

The value of the inverter

output voltage at a given output frequency for the experimental scheme


is determined by the clock input VCT of the PWM-IC.

Reducing the

frequency of this clock increases the inverter output voltage and vice
versa.

signal

The frequency of VCT is determined by its voltage reference


V~CT'so

that stator IR-voltage drop compensation requires

modification to this signal at low input frequencies.

A diagram of

the circuit developed to provide this modification is shown in Figure


5.8(a), with the characteristic of the circuit being shown in Figure
5.8(b).

79

An experimentally obtained torque-speed relationship for a constant


V/f ratio is shown in Figure 5.9(a).

It will be seen that the

experimentally obtained motor rated torque, is not maintained for


operating frequencies below 20 Hz.

However, with implementation

of the IR-voltage drop compensation, motor rated torque is achieved


at all operating frequencies, as shown in Figure 5.9(b).
A step input voltage signal from 0 to + 10

applied to the speed

reference circuit, accelerates the 60% loaded drive (with IR-compensation)


from standstill to rated speed in about 10 s.

Consideration of

Figure 5.10, shows that the amplitude of the motor line current during
starting is increased in comparison with that of the uncompensated system
of Figure 5.5.

The difference is of course available to produce an

increased acceleration in the load.

Results for reversal of the drive

from forward full speed to reverse full speed for an un-loaded drive
system with IR-voltage drop compensation are presented in Figure 5.11.
It is clear from the Figure that after deceleration to standstill in
about 8 s, the motor pauses for about 1 s before restarting and
accelerating to rated speed in the reverse direction, again in about
8 s.

5.3

Inverter Output Waveforms

Experimentally obtained ultra-violet recordings of the steady-state


phase voltage waveforms of the inverter are shown in Figure 5.12.
These waveforms relate to an operating frequency of 50 Hz and a
frequency changing ratio

(~~~ ) of 0.5.

The corresponding three

line-to-neutral (or motor phase) waveforms are shown in Figure 5.13;


these are of course identical in form but with a 120 phase shift.

- 80 -

Figures 5.14 - 5.17 show experimentally obtained ultra-voilet recordings


of the steady-state inverter phase voltage
line voltage

VAB

VA

and the inverter line-to-

waveforms, are respectively related to output frequencies

of 20, 30, 40 and 50 Hz.


The inverter output line current waveform depends on the impedance of
the motor windings, which attenuates considerably the higher frequency
components of the current to result
on the modulation process.

in a waveform which depends mainly

Figures 5.18 (a-d) show experimentally-

obtained, steady-state line current waveforms at different operating


frequencies, which clearly contain a ripple at the switching frequency.
Figure 5.19 shows the input phase voltage and line current waveforms
to the fully-loaded motor at the rated frequency of 50 Hz.

10K

10K

5
R4
10K

VR2 pt2

lOk

ov

ov

ICz

DECELERATE

+1

20K

ACCELERATE

os

Rs

ov

10M

10K

c
10 )J F

pt1
VRJ1.0k

20K

ov

ov
FULL WAVE RECTIFIER

-10V

ov
cw

COMPARATOR

ov

INTEGRATOR

L-10V

Fig.S.1.

BIDIRECTIONAL SPEED REFERENCE CIRCUIT.

POLARITY

DETECTOR

ov
10n :~

~2k

7n
6

pt

.....

5 NE566 3

>~

5K

7
470P

4093
IC

C3V6

...1'

r-

:!:

5.6k

DV

j_ -12V

FIG.5.2.VCO

LL'

FC T TO LSI HEF4752 PIN 12

CD
N

-~DV

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM.

83

..
2o5T/cm

20 cm/min.

FIG. 5.3

OPEN-LOOP SYSTEM SPEED RESPONSE

84

li

/\

I \

\
"'

I I
I \:.

I~ I iV

O.5v/cm-.

I~

hJ~JJ
-

.
-

...

-- . -

--

.
.

. -

"

.....

- ---~------- -=:_---:20:Cm(~!!'!_ --

-.

- --- -----

- 06!5v/Cm.

--

--

fl

~r ...
-

"

----

. .

_-J-:fl .

'

..

fl

'l-1 !\ "'-~~ r\~~l!~lli'\lJ~~I\~ ~~ r'\u ~ lJ i\llt\~


---

- ..
-~

11

...

f--.

. --

-\1.

..

..

----

.. ---------~1!1111.""--- -

FIG. 5.3

CONTINUED

OdB

'

T
.....t:.

.: I>
'i'

-10tB

II

I ..

- 20d B

'

- 30dB

- 40dB

'

'

"'"'
0

50
:0

-100
0

_150
0

200

400

600

BOO

FIG.5.4. BODE di~gram of the open-loop Drive System.

1000

HZ

FIG. 5.5

MOTOR SPEED AND CURRENT FOR ACCELERATION AND DECELERATION TIME - NO-LOAD

'

~.i

I
i

'

I
I
I

speed

400 r/rnin

'

1 ~<>~t~~. 120 V/crn;

.,.

I
I

I I

''

80 crn/rnin

___

FIG. 5.6

.....__

__

MOTOR SPEED CURRENT AND VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS FOR EQUAL ACCELERATION AND DECELERATION TIME
- NO-LOAD

-10
0>
0>

400

1.5 A/cm

FIG. 5.7

MOTOR SPEED AND CURRENT FOR REVERSE ROTATION

Fig.s.a.!al

IR-COMPENSATION CIRCUIT

~----------------:----------------

90

fo

~ drop
m-Jo 1 tage
compsnsation

decreasing
:pt1

increasing
:pt4

- V
fo

---:-

determined by :pt5

VRvcr
-V
rated motor
:phase voltage

Vout

0
FIG. 5.8(b)

boosted terminal
voltage
determined by :pt6

fo

CHARACTERISTICS OF IR-COMPENSATION CIRCUIT

1
I
\
~
\

7.00

C"
~

..,.e- 6.00

-."'

er::

5.00

11

.....;
d

a:

,_
f 1=20Hz

3.00

2.00

1.00

f 2:30Hz

FIG. 5.9(a)

400

tI

f ,=40Hz

01

I
I

f ,=50Hz

d
600
SPEED rpm

oL-----------~-----------L----------L---~---

200

4.00

:::;)

I
I
I

800

1000

TORQUE-SPEED CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MOTOR DRIVE WITH CONSTANT V/F RATIO

...."'

9.0

8.0

7.0

<T

\I

..

,.E 6.0 ~

Q:

5.0

a:

4.

o\

~4

iI

3.0

2.0

. 0

200

FIG. 5.9(b)

f 4 =40Hz

i
I

o\

400

600
-SPEED rpm

\\
\

800

f ,70Hz

0\

!,=60Hz

o\

\1

1I

ol

01

\ f 5 =50Hz

iI

f 3=30Hz

\ f 2=20Hz

....
::>

I
I

\ f 1:10Hz

1000

"'"'

\
cl

1200

'

TORQUE-SPEED CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MOTOR DRIVE WITH THE IMPLEMENTATION


OF IR-VOLTAGE COMPENSATION

J
\

1400

step Input
voltage
5 V/cm

FIG. 5.10

MOTOR SPEED AND CURRENT WAVEFORMS RESPONDING TO STEP INPUT SIGNAL - WITH IR - VOLTAGE
COMPENSATION - 60% LOAD

!:!

1:

''

"
400r/mi~/c.m

,,
I

''
' '
I I

'I

''

::t
.,.,

~2cm/min

I
I

'I
11
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

.,

,, II
I
',,. I
' II
1':

"

I
11'1
I
I

'

'

'i

'

,, ,,

" II

I
''

I i
h
,.,, 'Ill

:j

' I
I, H

FIG. 5.11

'
I

,.,

I
I

"

11

11

"

q.; . ,.j,.

'

'
'

'

"'
i

FULL REVERSAL OF THE DRIVE SPEED

'

'I
I
I

Ill
1:1

'

'

ill'

i '1"1

Ill

,Ill
"!'

'I

j;o!j'il

'il.l

I
'I

: ti 1:

1"1\-j;:;:
"I I !'Ill
I 11' !I
I I '1''1!
11

r.,

I I :1:1
i

I I 11

;j

'

I ill
I ill
1!.:

210 V/cm

<0

c.n

210 V/cm

210 V/cm

FIG. 5.12

RECORDED INVERTER OUTPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS

, 4 ms/cm

270 V/cm

<0
0>

270 V/cm

270 V/cm
,:.

FIG. 5.13

RECORDED MOTOR DRIVE 3-PHASE VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS

. ......

- - - - - - - ------

. ...

. -....,.....- -

~~ .

-+---
.

. +I

.. --'----+ -

- .0:
-~~----~

INV.
PHASE VOLTAGE
290V/cm

I .

INV.
LINE-LINE
VOLTAGE'
290V/cm

. ....... .

FIG. 5.14

''.

---"'"'-~

.:;.._,,,

STEADY-STATE INVERTER VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS liT 20 Hz

., ...

-:

..
.

-,

'.

'-

''

-.---------_ .

. '.

__

------ _ i_c:---,

..

'

'

,.

INV. PHASE
VOLTAGE

~-

,.

-_ --,---

--~--

'

290C/cm

'

--, . le

I 1-

. -_

~}_

... -

.11--.

-_: : ,_ .

- -- I -- ..

Ul
I 11

.
. ,

- ----

-. c

-:i

!:

-- ---

~~M ~~

-- '
''

,. ',,.

.~---.-.......

----

_-_. __--'

..

__

~:.~: :,~;!{:

- .

.-- --!--'-
-_ - - i: c__::_z:'::.:::.::.::'::.' - .
:-

_-.
... , ...-,

,..

',

. . --c--:
. : ,_;,;.
:: _,, .. , ;

,..

:: :. :

.
.L.

,_,'-- '--

1'

'''

..: --- -..:,,,_,:i>>; :,>< ,' ; ____;,..:::- .


'

..

FIG. 5.15 STEADY-STATE INVERTER VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS AT 30 Hz

"

. :- _- :::c::.: __ --- -

,- - -

. -4

__ _ _

.. -

,.
.

----------------

' : :rr!'
IW~Vi ........:. . I-

---

-__

., :

: ;.,;).'

~,.. r-

j,..

:::.-~~--~-----~~--~~-;
r---- -.. - .. :--- -- ----

;;"

, lOO cm/sec

... ..

-~-~---:

iililll

;'

. +--------- -'- -

--

-~.

' ' ..

..

I I I ~ ~r- ,I1, .
t
'
1:- ii

- ...::
.

90V/cm

,:jj,;l
111- ..

'

~--:

:r~~~mr

i -11

-: ... ....

..

. .
-;"y::<
':_.--. ."'"~---.'
...
..

:_:

_.___ -__

,-,,.

-r- -->-:. ., .
-

---

w~ ,..r~
~T
;---

--

'- .

' : ' ,, ~-:C7 . ~-.,

NV. LINE.INE VOLTAGE

"1

1-

j~

.. _: . _ --.-.:.::....

"'"'

---

-------.

INV. PHASE
VOLTAGE
(V)

290 V/cm
---------------

INV. LINELINE
VOLTAGE
(V)

290V/cm

I -~l!!~~~~'WVW'I\J

I --

. _ _

--I'I'~'~~:~A~\~~~M~H,___

.. , .....

- -

!i ~~~~,~Ill!~

r!~~~ilr!i! llillli ~~lk!lll! \I! "'''1\t~ili, l~ill~i~l~~~~!~!\1111 I \110 "'IH"" I' Ill I IMri
I

!:4Wil'

'''''~m~~M,mll'

1111n~m~M''" 11'
lOO cm/sec

FIG. 5 .16

STEADY-STATE INVERTER VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS AT 40 Hz

'

--;-
'

._....,1:-:lritl nhn ~ ~ I ,\ 1' n hhh!"i~~-+-~ . . . ._ ~ . . . ~ ~ l l \ ~ ": ~


~ '""'.JJbuuw,.
-- lii ~ wwUUUJJ,JLJUUw w ~ 1 1
I

..... 1-.

-t~--~

wv.

1 1 ,

'"',.,

PHASE

VOLTAGE

- ~-_-

290V/cm

I
.

-~-- ::-:---

'","" ""1:~ r~ f:
,.. i

~~

! 1\ Mm~ n~hr:1 >I

....

! HI

II

I~ ~ ~ ,,. ,.. ,M~ MI 1'l ~~~ I ~ ~~I :1:\ii!\1,.1~~'~1 ~ ~ ''' ' ~~~ "', ""'~~--~- ~~-,. I I :11 n'~~I ~i~-''"'"'""
---- ;,_ -1~ ~~ ww~~,~~J~ ~~ ~~ 1i I
,, ~~ ~~ "'~"'~~~~ ~u~ 11
r
I

INV.
LINE-LINE
VOLTAGE
290V/cm

-r-------

150 cm/sec

-i-- - .
FIG. 5.17 STEADY-STATE INVERTER VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS AT 50 Hz

'
1.

215

v;cm

...
I

(l)

1\)

1,4A/cm
150 cm/sec

FIG. 5.19

MOTOR PHASE VOLTAGE AND LINE CURRENT WAVEFORMS RECORDED AT FULL LOAD

CHAPTER 6:

MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF INVERTER-INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE

6.1

Simulation of the Regular Switching Strategy

6.2

Induction Motor Model

6.3

Derivation of Stationary 2-axis Model


6.3.1

Direct phase model

6.3.2

3-phase/2-phase transformation

6.3.3

D,Q

transformation

6.4

Computer Program

6.5

Combined Inverter/Induction Motor System Model

6.6

Harmonic Analysis

- 103 -

6.1

Simulation of the R-egular S .vitching Strategy

It is shown in this section how the equations for the regular sampledswitching strategy, derived in Section (3.5.2); may be used in a computer
program to generate the inverter output waveforms.
program is presented in Figure 6.1.

A flowchart for the

As given previously (in equation (3.7)

of Section (3.5)), the angles at which the output voltage is switched


between the positive and negative of the D.C. supply are:

from -v C/2

Transition

to+

C/2

1T

"'2j -1

[4j - 3 - M sin (2j - 1)

and transition

from v C/2
0

(6 .1)

Rt

t.o - v C/2
0

1T

1T

[4j - 1 + Msin(2j-l)

where j = 1, 2 .

1T

(6.2)

Rt

Rt' Rt is the frequency changing ratio and M the

modulation index.

For constant torque applications, the reference frequency f

and the

modulation index M are related linearly by


M

kf

(6.3)

- 104 -

where k is constant, except at low frequencies, when the modulation index


must be increased to compensate for the motor stator resistance voltage
drop.
The computation process begins with the reading in of initial parameters
such as the operating frequency,
and the time step.

carrier frequency, the D.C.-link voltage,

The modulation index and the frequency changing ratio

are then calculated and substituted in equations (6.1) and (6.2), to give
a series of values for the switching angles (a , a an) corresponding
2
1
to the rising and falling edges of the pwm waveform.

By means of a

comparison between a pair of corresponding switching angles, i.e. the


rising and falling edges, the pulse width can be generated.

The program

can also be used to generate the 3-phase inverter output waveforms, by


defining the

2~
:3

rad. phase shift between inverter phases in the sine terms

of equations (6.1) and (6.2).

The inverter line-to-line voltage waveform

may then be obtained by subtracting two of the three inverter phase waveforms,
to

give
VAB

VA - VB

VBC

VB - Vc

VCA

VC - VA

(6.4)

Output waveforms provided by the program for lOO% modulation at the system
rated frequency, i.e. f

50 Hz, M = 0.9 and a carrier frequency of

1050Hz are presented in Figures 6.2(a) and (b), which give respectively
the inverter 3-phase voltage waveforms, and the system 3-phase line-to-line
waveforms.

It is clear from the phase voltage waveforms that a carrier

- 105 -

frequency of 1050 Hz results in 21 switching pulses/cycle


The program output for f

of output.

=30Hz is given in Figures 6.3(a) and (b), which

show that the number of switching pulses/cycle has increased to 30, as a


consequence of the reduced output frequency.

To demonstrate the validity

of the computer simulation, a number of comparisons.between the simulated


and experimental steady-state inverter output phase and line voltage
Figures 6.4-6.7 present respectively these

waveforms were obtained.

waveforms at frequencies of 20, 30, 40 and 50 Hz.

In all cases the two

sets of waveforms are in close agreement and have the same number of
switching pulses/cycle.

6.2

Induction Motor Model

The three most popular methods for the mathematical modelling of an


induction motor are based on the direct 3-phase, the rotating 2-axix (a8)
and the stationary 2-axis (d-q) reference frames.

Each of these is

subject to approximations to differing extents, and the choice of reference


.frame is dependent on the computer power available and the required degree
of accuracy and operating conditions of the system to be studied.
Induction motor models based on the direct 3-phase reference frame

(51)

require the most computing time, due to the time-varying nature of the
various inductance coefficients, but the operating conditions to which it
may be applied are not restricted to the same extent as is the case with
the other two models.

However, the rotating 2-axis a-6 has been found

to be more convenient( 5 0) under certain unbalanced conditions, although

- 106 -

its inductance coefficients are still time-varying.

The d-q model ( 26 ' 27 )

offers considerable computational simplicity when compared with the other


two approaches, due to the absence of time-varying inductance coefficients.
The corresponding differential equations are linear with the constant
coefficients, provided that the rotor speed is constant.

Models based

on the d-q equations have been extensively applied to the study of the
dynamic performance of induction motors supplied from both siruusoidal and
non-siruusoidal voltage sources, and they have been particularly valuable for
predicting the harmonic content of the machine stator current.
reason, the

For this

d,q model was used in this present investigation, in

conjunction with the pwrn-inverter model of section (6.1), to form the


complete drive model, described in section (6.4).
6.3

Derivation of Stationary 2-axis Model

The transformation from the direct phase model of an induction motor to


a stationary 2-axisd-qmodel is developed in the following sections.
6.3.1

Direct phase model

An induction motor may be represented by a number of interacting coils


for which a set of differential equations may be generated.

The following

assumptions( 27 35 ) simplify the analysis:


a)

The rotor is perfectly cylindrical and the air-gap is uniform.

b)

The mutual inductance between any stator and rotor

windin~is

cosine function of the electrical angle between the axes of the two
windings
c)

The effect of saturation, hysteresis, and eddy currents are negligible.

- 107 -

Based on the above assumptions, the matrix differential equation, relating


to the machine is

RA+ pLA

VA

pMAB

pMAC

pMAa

pMAb

pMAc

pMBC

pMBa

pMBb

pMBc

R c""Plc'.

'pMCa

VB

pMBA

RB+pLB

VC

pMCA

pM~B

pMaA

0
0

is

pMCb

pMCc

pM aB

pMac Ra +pL a pM ab

pMac

p~A

p~B

P~c

pMba

~+p~

plbc

'b

pMeA

pMCB

pMcC

pM ea

pMcb

Re+ pie..

'c

'c
'a

(6. 5)

where sufficeG with capital letters and small letters denote respectively
stator and rotor quantities.
L
a

In equation (6.5)

= Lb = Lc = Msr

+ i

L = M + i
c
sr
r

where i

s '

s,

are the leakage inductances of the stator and the

rotor winding, and M is the mutual inductance between them when


sr

their magnetic axes coincide.

Equation (6.5) may be written in

the abbreviated form


[V]

[R] [I]

+ p[L] [I]

( 6. 6)

where
[V]

[I]
[ R]

is the voltage vector [VA, VB, VC, Va' vb, V lt


c
is the current vector (iA, iB, ic, i a' ib, i lt
c
is the machine resistance matrix
diag [RA, RB, RC, R
a'

R 1
c

and [L] is the machine inductance matrix.

- 108-

It is obvious from equation (6.6) that p operates on the time varying


inductance term, as well as the currents so that the equation may be
re-arranged as

[V]

[R + G] [I] + Lp[I]

(6. 7)

dL
=
dt

where G is the rate of change of inductance matrix


[V], [I] and [R] are as defined previously.

de

dL

de

dt

and

The inductance matrix [L],

given in full, in terms of its angle varying coefficients is

~-

ILl

!I

M
s

M
s

M.

M8rcos (8 +

case

cos(8 -

srcos(9 +

J >

M cos8
sr

cos8

sr

1M

,.

sr

~)
3

sr

M8 rcose+

2w

3>

M cos(9- 2 ..-)
sr
3

,.
,.
Jl

H 5 rcos

rcostl "3)

fJ +

,.

3>

sr

cos(& -

,.

sr

H rcoS:9
5
M

sr

">

cos fl--)
3
cosfl +.!.!...)
3

MS'l."cose

(6.8)
L

Mr
M

I
lM

sr

cos(&2..~)
3

M5rcos(9+ Jl

sr

cos

L
where suffices s and r denote respectively stator and rotor.

- 109 -

The rate-of-change of inductance matrix G, given in full is

[G]

d8
sr dt

sin(&

e + 2,
3
2
sin ( e sin(

sin(6 +

sin(&

sin(8

2'
-3)

sine

3)

sir.&

sine

-~
3

2
+ 3)

sin(& +

sin&

sin(9 ; )

sin(& -

sinCe - T)

sin&

z;)

sin&

z;)

1l')

sin(& +

2
sin(8+T)

,.

{6.9)

The equations may be re-arranged and the time variation of current vector (I]
may be obtained using numerical integration.
The developed motor torque is

where P

= pairs
J
p

la

where kf is the

1 p
2

[I]t [dL ]

d8

[I]

(6.10)

of poles,and the mechanical equation is

+
roto~

kf PS + Tm = Te
friction coefficient and

(6.11)

is the inertia.

Since pS = w (the motor angular velocity) then


pw =

(6.12)

- 110 -

6.3.2

3-phase/2-phase transformation

The 3-phase model of an induction motor is shown in Figure 6.B(a), and


that of its equivalent 2-phase model is shown in Figure 6.8(b).

With

the A-phase stator winding of the 3-phase machine coincident with that
of stator phase a of the 2-phase machine, the mmfs developed in two models
may be equated, and assuming that the turns/phase of the two machines are
identical, the relationship between their currents in the abbreviated
form are:
(6.13)

where

[C ]t is the transpose of [C I,

c=

fi ~)
3

lrz

and

,. 1

-2

13

1
{i

r?.

(6.14)

- lll -

For invar1ance

o f power through the transformation,

( 6.15)

substituting

or

=
sinca [IaAO]

hence

or
[V B ]
Cl

( 6. 16)

A similar argument may be presented for the rotor voltage and current
transformations and a complete current transformation may be defined as,

IA
IB
= [Cl]

Ic
I

ar

Ib
I

transpose of [C ], and
1

(6.17)

- 112 -

and a voltage transform as

{6.18)

when equations {6.16) and {6.17) are substituted in equation {6.6), the
impedance of the new system

[Z~al

may be written in terms of [ZABCJ as

{6.19)

which gives

+
0

pL

s
R

+ pL

pMcose

pMsine

-pMsine

pMcose

where M =]_M
2 sr

6.3.3

D,Q transformation

A second transformation is required to eliminate the time dependent


inductance coefficients inherent in both the 3-phase and 2-phase models.
Bearing in mind that the stator coils of the 2-phase and the d,q models,
shown respectively in Figures 6.8{b) and {c), are coincident, and that

- 113 -

the

~-coil

is at an angle

e to the d-axis, the relationship between the

currents in the two machines is

[I

dq

(C21 [I~a 1

(6.21}

where

[C21

case

- sine

sine

case

(6.22}

Assuming power invariance during the transformation, the impedance


matrix [Zdq1 may be obtained from

[Zdq1

[C 1t <z~a1 [C2]
2

(6.23}

which gives
R + pL
s
s
0

[Zdq]

pM

R + pL
s
s

pM

SM

-a 11

pM

0
0

R + pL r
r

-eL r

pM
SL r
R + pL
r
r

which may be re-structured in terms of resistances,


=

and inductances

diag [R , R , R , R 1
s
s
r
r

(6.24}

- 114 -

L
s
[Ldq]

L
s

L
r

L
r

(6.25)

Thus, the matrix differential equation, relating to the 2-axis machine


may be written as

R +pL
s
s

vsd
V

sq

pM

pM

pM

-L

Isd
Isq

Lr 6

R +pL
r
r

Me

-Me

rq

pM

R +pL
s
s

vrd
V

R + pL
r

(6.26)

Ird
r

rq

or in the abbreviated form


=

(6.27)

where
=

[Isd' I sq , I rd' I rq ]t

and
0

-M

-L

(6.28)

Since the above equations are functions only of the motor speed p6, they
can be solved analytically when the speed is considered constsant.
However, for variable-speed application, equation (6.27) may be rearranged in the form

- 115 -

(6.29)

and a step-by-step solution for the current vector [Idql may be obtained
using numerical integration.

The electro-magnetic torque developed

by the motor is
(6.30)

and the mechanical equation for the drive is defined by equation (6.12)

6.4

Computer Program

A computer program (dq-1) was written in Fortran 77, to predict the


induction motor behaviour using a d,q model.

for the program is given in Figure 6.9.

A simplified flow chart

The program starts by reading

the parameter matrices, together with the initial machine conditions.


Equation (6.29) are solved on a step-by-step basis using numerical
integration to give new values for the current vector [Idq].

These

new currents, together with the new voltages obtained from equation (6.18),
form the initial condition for the next step.

At each step,.the

electro-magnetic torque developed by the motor is calculated using


equation (6.30).

After substituting this new torque into equation

(6.12), a solution is obtained for the motor speed.


until steady-state conditions are attained.

The program runs

- 116 -

6.5

Combined Inverter/Induction Motor System Model

The computer program (pwm-1)

for the pwm-inverter of section (6.1)

is combined with that for the d,q-model of the induction motor given
in section (6.4) to form a program called (pwm/dq), for the prediction
of the complete system performance.

The full program listing is

given in Appendix (C).


The program may be run for a number of steps beyond the start-up
transient, in order to achieve a steady-state solution for the system.
Figures 6.10(a) and (b) illustrate the computed steady-state motor
terminal voltages, respectively for operating frequencies of 50 Hz
and 30 Hz.

Apart from the

211
:3

rad. phase shift, the three voltages

at the same frequency are identical and, as before, the number of


switching pulses is seen to be increased as the operating frequency is
decreased.

Figures 6.ll(a) and (b) present the simulated steady-state

d-q voltage waveforms, v


50 Hz and 30 Hz.

and VQ, again for operating frequencies of

It is clear from the Figure that the waveform of v 0

has the same shape as that of the motor phase voltage (Figures 6.ll(a) and
(b)), whereas

t~at

for vQ is a scaled version of the inverter line voltage

waveform (Figure 6.2(b)).


Th~

dynamic performance of the drive system is illustrated in Figure 6.12.

This gives computed waveforms of voltage , current, torque, and speed


as the unloaded motor accelerates from rest to rated speed at rated
voltage and rated operating frequency (50 Hz) following the direct-on-line

- 117 -

switching of the inverter system.

The initial oscillatory nature

of the developed torque (Figure 6.12(h)) causes dips in the speed


(Figure 6.12(g)) and also results in starting currents (Figure 6.12(b))
with rising and falling amplitudes.

Corresponding results obtained

for an operating frequency of 30 Hz are given in Figure 6.13 and these


show clearly that the maximum torque of Figure 6.13(h) is the same as
that for SO Hz operation shown in Figure 6.12(h).
The simulated motor performance at 20 Hz is presented in Figure 6.14.
It is clear from Figure 6.14(d) that the maximum motor torque is less
than that for SO Hz (Figure 6.12(h)), which is. expected due to the
stator voltage drop at lower frequencies.

With 12% IR-voltage drop

compensation, the maximum motor torque is raised to the SO Hz value,


shown in Figure 6.1S(d).

Figure 6.1S shows the 20 Hz performance with

IR-compensation, when the motor is accelerated from.direct-on-line


switching with constant load torque of half the rated value.

The

starting time during acceleration for 20 Hz operation is improved from


0.24s (Figure 6.14(c)) to0-.22 s (Figure

6.1S(c), with IR-voltage compensation:

The motor drive performance following the application of load is shown


in Figure 6.16, for an operating frequency of SO Hz.

After the

unloaded motor has achieved its noload steady-state speed, a sudden


short S.O Nm pulse of load torque is applied to the shaft.

The motor

speed is thereby reduced (Figure 6.16(g)), the developed torque


(Figure 6.16(h)) is increased and the shape of the motor current waveform (figure (6.16 (b-f)), is slightly cnanged.

- 118 -

Figures 6.1?-6.20, compare the simulated and experimentally obtained


steady-state input voltage and current waveforms for one phase of the
motor at frequencies of 20, 30, 40 and

SO

Hz respectively, and

these are seen to generally be in good agreement.

6.6

Harmonic Analyis

When the pwm voltage and current waveforms obtained from the inverter/
induction motor program are supplied to the harmonic analysis program,
listed in Appendix (C), the absolute magnitude of the real-part of
the harmonic coefficients are obtained as a percentage of the fundamental.
The analysis program uses the Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT).
At any given f'req,rency the spectrum is naturally the same for each phase.
Figures 6.21 -6.24. present a comparison between the predicted and
experimental harmonic content of the inverter phase voltage waveforms
for various operating frequencies.

The generally good agreement between

corresponding results gives confidence in the mathematical model, and


in each case, it is seen that the amplitudes of the harmonics fall off
inversely as their order increases.

As the waveform is half-period

symmetric all even harmonics are absent, although the significant 3rdharmonic and its odd multiplies are clearly visible.

The obvious

frequency bands present in these figures, are centred on the carrier


frequency and its odd multiples, and comprise upper and lower side band
components of approximately equal amplitudes and displaced by even
multiples of the reference frequency.

Figures(6.25-6.32)are respectively

spectra of the motor phase voltage and line current for the operating
conditions of Figures(6.21-6.24).

Cancellation of the 3rd harmonic

in the 3-phase floating neutral system is obvious and the lower order
harmonic components are shown greatly reduced or even eliminated, but
high frequency components usually centred at the reference frequency
and its multiples are introduced.

READ
REFERENCE FREQUENCY, fm
CARRIER FREQUENCY, fc
MODULATION INDEX, M

D.L_LINK VOLIAGE, Vdc


TOTAL RESPONS TIME,Tmax
TIME STEP, H

TIME,

T:O

C}-----18 =6 + 2

NO

Rt

>

CALCULATE Rt=fc/fm

YES

COMPUTE SWITCHING ANGLES


a<.r -1,
a2

:r

OUTPUT: -

ET-----1__________8~=~~~------~

-.o
I

1=1

E NO

_,.-------{

YES
>--N"'O'---\ B
WRITE AND PLOT
INVERTER PHASE VOLT AGE
INVERTER LINE VOLT AGE
YES

r--------r,T=~T.~H--------~~--~D

Fig. 6.1 FLOW CHART FOR THE INVERTER ANALYSIS,

Vdc/2

,.

'

x 103
0. 40
0.2 7
0. I 3
.00
I~
-. 2 7
-. 4 0

600

M,O 9.

1m"50

400
M0.9

p(

.oT(secl

fm'50

200
0
-200

.00

0.50

2 oT!secl

-400
-600
x1o3
. 0.40
0.2 7
0. I 3
-. 0 0

VAB

600

- . I ~ .0

I 0

-. 2 7
-. 4 0

400.

200
.oT<sec)

1.00

-200

XI03
0.40
0.2 7
0. I 3
".00

-400
600

.I ~

27
.4 0

.oTisec)

I.

I' oT<secl

(a)-SIMULATED INVERTER PHASE VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS

600
400
200
0
.00

FIG. 6.2

SIMULATED INVERTER OUTPUT VOLTAGE WAYEFORMS RELATED TO 50 Hz

-2oci

1 . 50
x1o2

2'. o Tr sec l

-400
-600.

VCA

(bl-SIMULATEO LINE-LINE INVERTER VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS

::: l( sec)

VB

X103
0 40
0.27,
0. 13
.00

. ll

33{sec}

27
40

v,

"se

x1o3
0 40
0 27
0 13
00
. 13
. 27
40

(.a)

3;(sec)

....

"'....
II

SIMULATED

3~(sec)

INVERTER PHASE VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS

'CA
FIG. 6.3

SIMULATED RESULTS FOR 30 Hz OPERATING FREQUENCY

3l( ser)

1b)

-SIMULATfD LINELINf INVfRTER VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS

- 122-

oDI

~ec

__ ';__

.... -----------

--

--r---~--

-~--

"I

------~--:j

__ --_:t
-- ---

=~';-,..;::

--~

:")

-~----~------

--

:"'~J: -----+'--;'
_____ '

!-Jt-IH1-i-h-H+i-or'r-d---+~-,~~~~-~~~~~~~J0:~-~~~~G~1~})}86~~~~
INV.
PHJ\SE VOLTAGE

290V/cm
. ;::. r .:.

INV.
LINE-LINE

VOLTAGE
290V/cm

FIG.6,4,SIJ.rui.AT!'::D AlJD :<:XFER.IliEUTAL ~SUI.'!'S OF niE


INVSRTER VOL'.I:A.GE '<fAV'::!:FORHS AT 20Hz,

-123-

<103
V

0 40
0 27
0 13
I) I)

33

T (.,

27

e cl

41)_

SIMULATED INVERTER

P~ASE

VOLTAGE

WAVE~ORM

.33

T(secl

SIMULATED LINE-LINE INVER'CR VOLTAGE

WAVE~ORM

"

.._., .
__..,. :;..:._~_ i.:_

- ......

"

.........

..

NV, PHASE
OLTAGE

90C/cm

NV. LINE-

urn VOLTAGE
90V/cm

cm/sec

FIG.6.5.SHrtlJ..A.T:t:D A!D ::<::~:~7.'!':.~ ""..~T~'"'3

INVERTER VOLTAGE '.-IAVEFORJ!S AT 30Hz,

o:.'

- - ..

."1
'
; .,

-----;.

~ ..

'.

-124-

-s

b<

. 51)1 sec l

0_

SIMULATED INVERTER

P~ASE

VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

"''l

400
200
0

00
200

0 50

2. Sl)lsecl

400

600_

SIMULATED LINE-LINE INVERTER VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

..---------..__...... ....

' ~~:--.,~-~~

..

-'--'--'---'-- -------.

INV. PHASE

VOLTAGE
(V)

290 v/cm

;::::::>'~~........,..,.. .,.,,, i

1 .:.;_,~ .

t+rl ~~~)I'"'''""""''"''"''"
.:--:.,- ;.:-~--rL~~-~l_)i.i.:c c;+~--L

~M'~ I i i I I I i ~~~~~~~,.J~~}

INV. LINELINE

VOLTAGE
(V)

2901!/Cm
., !

lOO cm/sec

l'!G,6,6,SI!-!ULATED AllD Ex:PERIMENTAL RESULTS Oli' THE


I:l!VER'!'ER VOLTAGE '.IAV'Eli'ORMS AT 40Hz,

- '25-

,,

SIMuLATED

::l

"

I)()

()

I~. ~~I' i~illil

51)

20'):

WAVE>O~M

I)')
T

e c-

~ I~1Ji~~~

-~1)1)

. 600.

.. ,

VOLTACE

I 'I
I

')

P~ASE

200:

tNV[~T[~

.,

'

~ """1-'.-,.._;r~-,....

~ ......................~~'- .._ ;..;" 1- ~

.....

,_..1,.... ,_

'

'

'

'

I . . j-' ~-- ~ M ..
t : ~: -i i : ! l :

-: I

,.....,..;:4il"""-,.:.;;:.r~:~

,_ ,....

I 11 11 .,.,.. li
Jll

~ ' ' '

. .

INV.

-~'

.. _, - jt~ ~--

LTAGE

90V/cm

150 cm/sec

J::~I~ltTAL
1

~h!

~AV::FO?J:S

P.:SSUI.TS OF
AT 50Hzo

t;--f--

~"'~~~~ ~' 11 ~,: .

LINE-LINE

n~RT!:R VOLTAG~

!.1 I

~,,., ..,.. ,.",''I i l';.:y,~i~~~


11 ,

FIG.t:..7.sn::_'I..AT!::D A'!-l'D

j-~,-

TI{t-~

i~

D~
9~-oc

-o

IX
IX

a. 3-phase motor

b. 2-phase motor

c. stationary 2- axis motor

~--FIX
oc phase
phase

l_o Fe

L_J2
Fe

.2...
2

d. mmf representation

Fe

FIG.6.8.TRANSFORMA TION FROM 3- PHASE TO d,q- AXIS

- 127 -

READ IN SYSTEM PARAMETERS


AND INITIAL CONDITIONS.

CALCULATE THE INVERSE


OF THE INDUCTANCE.

CALCULATE MOTOR PHASE


VOL TAGES.

CALL RUNGE-KUTT A NUMERICAL


ROUTINE AND OBTAIN NEW
VALUES OF CURRENTS AND
SPEED.

CALCULATE NEW DEVELOPED


TORQUE.
NO

YES
PRINT RESULTS.

Fig. 6. 9. FLOW CHART FOR THE MOTOR ANALYSIS USING


STATIONARY 2-AXIS MODEL.

~------------,---------------------

XI03

0.

V:

0.

0.

0.

313( sec I

~-SIMULATED MOTOR PHASE VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

~b- SIMULATED MOTOR PHASE VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

X103

X
0

0. 50
V

0
0

0
0

. Ol)(ms l

3131 ms)

....N
ro

.50
Vb- SIMULATED MOTOR PHASE VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

Vbc-

Xl03

XI03

0
V

SIMULATED MOTOR PHASE VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

0.
V

0.

.Ol)(ms)

3~( ms

(b)

(a)

FIG. 6.10

SIMULATED MOTOR VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS AT


(b) 30 Hz OP!Ji<A'i'ING FREQUENCY

(a)

50 Hz and

4.
I
I

- 129 -

~op
0
5

0
11
0-

5 (}.

~ IT
le

~ IT

~ UIJ\

0 50

. ~0 0
I

~
I

~ rn-

')(/m" '

4 ~:.!)

y 45J

~~?l'')r~~~~~~~~~+LMY~~~~~~~~
~

- I

P 50

5(}.

00

:1 '

-300
450_
(a )

VO -

VOLTAGE

~=50

WAVEFOR~~

V 450
300
150
0
-I 50

.33
T(sec

-300
450_

tm --30

VD - VOLTAGE WAVEFORM
V 450
30 0
!5 o,
0
- I 50
30 0
-45 0
~-

0.

33

0.22

T(sec)

(b)

VQ FIG. 6.11

VOLTAGE WAVEFORM'

SIMULATED D-Q VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS AT FREQUENCIES OF


(a) 50 Hz and (b) 30 Hz

'

..
>

4.";:,1

65

-450

lal-MOTOR PHASE VOLTAGF.


....
w
0

X 101
1 00"3

0.67j

! !
!

'

'

f
I

0.33~

f I

{'

Ar
~~,..."~A""
V M~ 'f ' '1' '" 15. 65

D
""0.33.
-0.67

TIME lsl
(bl-MOTOR PHASE ClJRRJ:NT

-1 . 00
FIG. 6.12

SIMULATED RESULTS FOR START-UP OF THE MOTOR DRIVE AT


50 Hz OPERATING FREQUENCY

0.67
:;;:0.33
~

T ME ( s l
-0.67.

(cl -D-AXIS STATOR CURRENT

-1 . 00

X 1 01
1 00,

,_.
,_.w

! !

! !

dl-0-AXIS
-1 oo,

FIG. 6.12

CONTINUED

STATOR CURRENT

---

X101

1 00~
0. 67 ~
0. 33~
~

.A J.

::;:o.oo

-o

u. ..._ ....

y )\J ~52 .... . . ."'""'' 0 '.ss

~(

-0.33,

I E (sl

-0.67,
I

- 1 . 00

\(el -d-AX!S

ROTOR CU RRENT

....
w
N

X 10 i
1

oo_

0.67
0. 33.
~

<:f

II
I

'

:So.oo
o,.

'

I
I

o.

11

'

II

'

'

'

j I I

,~ I
I
II I

I
~ .~
I
I I I I I I I'
I I I I II I ~ A l'..v~ ..
I I

!
;

0.3\S

-26

I V '0'.-s~"

"

....

..... "lf'(j

,.

.65

I \ v

-0- 33:

I ' \ T~ ME (.I

-0. 67.
-1 - ()()

13

1\

f.

\{

~ ~

~ 'I

(fl-q-AXIS
FIG. 6.12

ROTOR CURRENT
CONTINUED

0.86

n.
'~

0
lJJ

0..

0. 71.
0.57

(Jl

0.43
0.29
0. 14.

o.oo
o.oo
~

0. 1 3

0.26

'
0.39

( g J -MOT OR SPEED

0.65

0-52
TIMEC"l

,_.
w

25
(h) -MOTOR DEvELOPED

URULit-:

20
~

z
l_t_;

:::>

10

0
Cr'

0
f-

")

0.26

0. 1 3

. G'5
TIME CsJ

-5
--1 0

0.39

FIG. 6.12

CONTINUED

450
10

>

55
-225
s)

-450

(al-MOTOR PHASE VOLTAGE.

X 1 01

1 . 00
0.67
0.33

11

-0.67
-1

TI ME (s l

.oo

(bl-MOTOR PHASE CURRENT


FIG. 6.13

SIMULATED RESULTS FOR START-UP OF THE MOTOR DRIVE RELATED


AT 10 H7. OPERATING FREQUENCY.

0.67
0.33

0.44

-0.33

o.ss

TIME<sl
(el

-0.67

d-AXIS

ROTOR CURRENT

-1 . 00

X 1 01
1 . 00

0.67
0.33

o.ss

0 1
~

-0.33

TI ME (s J
-0.67
(f)

-1 . 00

FIG. 6.13

CONTINUED

q-AXIS

ROTOR CURRENT

0.67
~

::;0.33

Cl

--=o.33
TIME ( 5 l

-0.67

(cl

0-AXIS STATOR CURRENT

-1 . 00

X101
1 . 00
0.67
0.33
~

:=:o.oo

--0.33
0

.55

0 11
TIME ( 5 l
(d)

-0.67
-1 .oo

FIG. 6.13

CONTINUED

0-AXIS

STATOR CURRENT

1 . 00
~

0.86

c.

1..
~

Cl
lJ.J
lJ.J

CL

0.71

o.S7

(/)

0.43
0.29
0. 14

o.oo
o.oo
( 9)

0. 11

0.22

MOTOR SPEED

0.33

0.44

o.ss

TIME (sl

25

(hl MOTOR DEVELOPED TORQUE

20
~

1s

lJ.J
::::1
0

10

0::
0
1-

0. 1 1

-s
-10

0.22

TIME (s J
FIG, 6.13

CONTINUED

.ss

~----------------------~----------------------------------------------

45

.,
>

22

35

-225
-4

Cal MOTOR PHASE VOLTAGE.

X 1 01
1 00

....w

"'
0-67
0-33

.,
...,o. 33

.so

-0.67

TI ME

-1 . 00

Cs

Cbl MOTOR PHASE CURRENT


FIG. 6.14

SIMULATED RESULTS FOR START-UP OF THE MOTOR DRIVE AT 20 Hz


OPERATING FREQUENCY

0.86

a.

L
~

Cl
UJ
UJ

a..

0. 71

0.57

(f)

0.43
0.29
0. 14

o.oo
o.oo
(C )

0.70

1 . 40

2.80

2. 1 0

MOTOR SPEED

3.50

TIME <s l

25

<dl MOTOR DEVELOPED TORQUE ..

20
~

UJ

:::>

0:::

0
1-

0.70

-5
-1 Q

FIG. 6.14

CONTINUED

1 . 40

2. 1 0

T !ME (sl

.so

450
>"'

35

-225
-450
<aJ
X'i0

MOTOR PHASE VOLT AGE.

. 1 . 00

0.67
0.33

.so

0.7

"' 33
""0.
-0.67

T I ME ( s J
(bJ

-1 . 00
FIG. 6.15

MOTOR PHASE CURRENT

SIMULATED RESULTS FOR START-UP OF THE MOTOR DRIVE Al20 Hz,


WITH IR-VOLTAGE DROP COMPENSATION.

0.86

a.
'-

0
.W

w
a..

0. 71
0.57

(f)

0.43
0.29
0. 14
o.oo
o.oo

.-.---

0.70

1 . 40

12 10

3.50

2.80

TI ME (s l

<c) MOTOR SPEED

25
~~

20

MOTOR DEVELOPED TORQUE

WITH IR-COMPENSATION.1/2 FULL LOAD

15
w

::>

10

a::
0

f-

0.70
FIG. 6.15

1 40
CONTINUED

2.10

TIME(s)

2.80

X1o-1

3.50

>

450

rn

>

225

.85

-225
.I

-450

Cal MOTOR PHASE VOLTAGE.

x1o1
1. oo_
0.67

0.33

-0.67_
-1 . 00_

II
i

TIME (s l

(b) MOTOR PHASE CURRENl


MOTOR
Df
IVE
PERFORMANCE
ON
SUDDEN
FIG.6ol6
APPLICATION AND REMOVAL OF. THE LOAD

o.67

3o. 33.
: o. ooJ--m-HtttrttttHttttttttttttt<t+H+t+ttt++++++-1+1+-\+H-\~AA J.t~.+Aw~:-A.Aw~.w.u++UW~:.w.AuuAJ
~
d.
1f5~ VV"V"~ V" lie. 1c
V Y'(J. ss
"'

1-\.iA

-0.33,

T I ME Cs l

-0.67

Ccl D-AXIS STATOR CURRENT

-1 . OOc

....
A

x1ol

1 . 00

0-67
0. 33:

TIMECsl
(d)

0-AX IS

-0.67,
FIG. 6.16

-1.00:

CONTINUED

STATOR CURRENT

0.67
0.33

(eJ

ROTOR CURRENT

d- AXIS

-1 . 00;

Xl01
1 . 00
0.67:
0.33

.. A

~0. 00

q.

--0.33;
rr

-0.67
- 1 oo_

.
T!ME(sl
(f)

q-AXIS

FIG. 6.16

CONTINUED

ROTOR CURRENT

0.86

a.
'-

0. 71 .

w
w

0.57"

0..
(f)

0. 4 3.
0. 29.
0. 14

o.oo
o.oo

0. 1 7

0.34

0. 51

TIME ( s l

MOTOR SPEED

(g)

0.68

25
(h)

20.
~

(5

w
=>

10

0:::
0
I-

5
. 0. 1 7

0.34

-5
-10

FIG. 6.16

CONTINUED

MOTOR DEVELOPED TORQUE

0.85

.,

t -146-

X\03
0.40

Va

50

MOTOR PHASE VOLTAGE WAVEFORM


XI 01

-.so

0.25

o.so

T(sec)

SIMULATED MOTOR CURRENT WAVEFORM


FIG. 6.17

... ~

EXPERIMENTAL AND SIMULATED MOTOR INPUT WAVEFORMS AT


OPERATING FREQUENCY OF 20 Hz

v,

TIME

C "

MOTOR PHASE VOLTAGE WAVEFORM AT 30-HZ


X10 1

-.so

-. 25

SIMULATED MOTOR CURRENT

o. 50
FIG. 6.18

-------;.+,"

EXPERIMENTAL AND SIMULATED MOTOR INPUT WAVEFORMS AT


OPERATING FREQUENCY OF 30 Hz

.148-

400
Va

200

Xl0-2
TlME (ace.)

-200

-400_
MOTOR PHASE VOLTAGE WAVEFORM AT 40-HZ
1 X16

-.so

<

. . 25

x1o-2

T (sec)
I O. 5

SIMULATED MOTOR CURRENT WAVEFORM AT 40Hz


EXPERIMENTAL AND SIMULATED MOTOR INPUT WAVEFORMS AT
OPERATING FREQUENCY OF 40 Hz

Va
175.

0-]~~~~~~~~~~~~rrr~~
4

48.27

9 60
f

sec .

- 175.

-350.,
MOTOR PHASE VOLTAGE WAVEFORM AT 50-HZ
XIOI
- 50

E-. 25
0

0.00;
.60

48.27

48.93

x1o-z

49.60

o. zs

T Is ec I

0. 50.
SIMULATED MOTOR CURRENT
FIG. 6.2-~.

AT

M~.9.

EXPERIMENTAL AND SIMULATED MOTOR INPUT WAVEFORMS AT

OPERATING FREQUENCY OF 50 Hz

fm50 Hz

- 150 -

x1ol
10

9
8

7
6

5
4

2
I
11

0
4

I0

13

16

I I

19 22 25

28

31

34

I I

37

40 43

11
46 49

HARMONIC ORDER

50 Hz VA

FIG. 6.21

SIMULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL HARMONIC SPECTRUM OF INVERTER


PHASE VOLTAGE WAVEFORM AT. 50 Hz. OPERATING FREQUENCY' .

- 151 -

x1ol
10

9
8

Cl
::0

....
...J

2
I

II
5

13

17

2.1

11

2.5

2.9

33

37

Ill I

11
41

45

49

53

'' 11

57

HARMONIC ORDER

40 Hz VA

FIG. 6.22

SIMULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL HARMONIC SPECTRUM OF INVERTER


PHASE VOLTAGE WAVEFORM 40 Hz OPERATING FREQUENCY

161

- 152 -

XIOI
10

9
8

w
0
=>
,_

-'

0>4rr~~~mm~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
I

I I

16

21

26

3I

36

41

46

5 I 56 61 66 71
HARMONIC ORDER

76

8I

30 Hz VA

FIG. 6.23

SIMULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL HARMONIC SPECTRUM OF INVERTER


PHASE VOLTAGE WAVEFORM30"Hz OPERATING FREQUENCY

- 153 -

x1ol
I I

8
7

"',_
0

:::J

-...J

0>4n~mm~~~~~~~~~~~~~~rrm~~U4~
I 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 81 86 91
HARMONIC ORDER

20 Hz

FIG. 6.24

VA

SIMULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL HARMONIC SPECTRUM OF INVERTER


PHASE VOLTAGE WAVEFORM AT 20.H~ OPERATING ~REQUENCY

- 154 -

XIOI
10

9
8

UJ

6
5

:::>

I-

-'

3
2
.

0~~~~~~~11~~~~~~~1~~~~11~
4
7
I 0 I 3 I 6 19 22 25 28 3 I 34 3 7 40 43 46 49
HARMONIC

ORDER

50 Hz Va

FIG. 6.25

SIMULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL HARMONIC SPECTRUM OF THE MOTOR


PHASE VOLTAGE AT 50 Hz OPERATING FREQUENCY

- 155 -

XIOI
10

8
7

Cl

6
5

:::>

....

-..J
~

oJji4+~5~~9 MrtTI~3 Mrti'7~2MI~~25~~2~9~3~3~3~7~4~1~~45~~4XT9

11ARMONIC ORDER

50 Hz

FIG. 6.26

Ia

SIMULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL HARMONIC SPECTRUM OF MOTOR LINE


CURRENT WAVEFORM AT so Hz OPERATING FREQUENCY

- 156 -

XI0 1
10

7
6

"'

UJ
Cl

::;)
,__

--'
0..

:1i
3

ol~~~~~~~~IM'~~~~~I~II~,~~~~-1~
5
9
13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 161
HARMONIC ORDER

40 Hz Vo

FIG. 6.27

SIMULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL HARMONIC SPECTRUM OF THE MOTOR


PHASE VOLTAGE AT 40 Hz FREQUENCY

XI0 1
10

9
8

0
::>

6
5

....
...J

13 17 21

25 29 33 37 41

45 49 53 57

HARMONIC ORDER

40 Hz

--~---------

FIG. 6.28

---

- - . - ----

---

Ia

--

SIMULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL HARMONIC SPECTRUM OF MOTOR LINE


CURRENT WAVEFORM AT 40 Hz OPERll.TING FREQUENCY

- 158 -

XI0 1

10
9
8
7

6
5

:::>

....
_J

01~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~'~'1~11~~~~
I

II

16

21

26

31

36

41

46

51 56 61 66 71
HARMONIC ORDER

76

81

30 Hz Va

t1KR: 95. 5 t111

{
I
I

11
~

I
@,Hz

FIG. 6.29

:30 Hz

2.5 KHz ,

B~l:

15.0

H~

SIMULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL HARMONIC SPECTRUM OF THE MOTOR


PHASE VOLTAGE AT 30 Hz FREQUENCY

- 159 -

XI 0 I
I0

7
6

"'

::::>

-'
a..

:0:

<

3
2

0~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
5
9
1 3 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57
HARMONIC ORDER

30 H z I a

FIG. 6.30

SIMULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL HARMONIC SPECTRUM OF MOTOR LINE


CURRENT WAVEFORM 30 Hz OPERATING FREQUENCY

- 160 -

XIOI
I I
9
8
7

.
UJ

:::>

....
-'

4
3

11 I

,,

11 .1

~1~~~6~~1~1~16~2~.1~.~2~6~3~1~3~6~4~1~4~6~5~1~5~6~6~1~66~7~1~7~6~8~1~86~9~1~

HARMONIC OROER

20 Hz Va

FIG, 6.31

SIMULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL HARMONIC SPECTRUM OF THE MOTOR


PHASE VOLTAGE AT 20 Hz FREQUENCY

- 161 -

x1ol
10

9
8

.
"-'
0
::::>

6
5

t-

-'
0..

Ol~~~rrmrrmmmmm~~~rrmrrmrrmrrm~~~mmmn

13 19 25 31 37 43 49 55 61 67 73 79 85 91
HARMONIC ORDER

20 H z I a

L___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -

FIG. 6.32

SIMULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL HARMONIC SPECTRUM OF MOTOR LINE


CURRENT WAVEFORM 20 Hz. OPERATING FREQUENCY

CHAPTER 7

CLOSED-LOOP SPEED AND TORQUE CONTROLLED DRIVE

7.1

Control Techniques

7.2

Implementation of Speed and Torque Controller

7.3

System Development
7.3.1

Speed reference circuit

7.3.2

Torque regulating circuit

7.4

Experimental Configuration

7.5

Experimental Results

- 162 -

This chapter presents an experimental investigation into the


closed-loop operation of the motor drive system described in
chapter 5, in which the motor performance can be substantially
improved under lightly-loaded conditions by controlling the applied
motor voltage simultaneously with the input frequency.
7.1

Closed-loop Techniques

Stable operation of an induction motor is normally limited to the


speed range between maximum torque and synchronous speed.

If the

slip is constrained and controlled to a value below that corresponding


to maximum torque, (Figure 7.1), high efficiency and high power factor
operation can be achieved under all load conditions.
Closed-loop techniques for improving the performance of a motor, whose
speed is controlled by variation of the output frequency of an inverter,
are well established.

The choice of the particular scheme depends on

the controller, the motor and the characteristics of the load.

Typical

control methods such as slip control, flux control and phase-locked loop
.

control are widely reported in the l1terature

(68.69. 70)

A number of

these take advantage of the availability of a slip-speed signal for


further improving the dynamic performance of the drive, i.e. during
changes in speed and torque in, for example, flux control schemes using
(a)

direct flux sensing

(b)

voltage sensing, or

(c)

current-slip control.

The last method is that most commonly used, due to the ease of setting
of both the controlled motor current and the slip.
relationship between the current and slip can be most
by referring to the steady-state characteristic.

The required
easily obtained

- 163 -

7.2

Implementation of Speed and Torque Controller

An induction motor is normally designed to maintain a high efficiency


when used close to its full-load condition.

As the load reduces

the motor efficiency decreases considerably, as the motor losses


(particularly the iron losses) become an increasing proportion of
the input.

A reduction in the motor supply voltage can however lead to

more efficient operation, and this principle forms the basis of many power
factor controllers and energy saver schemes' 7t i
The control scheme presented here is based on maintaining the motor
speed constant at the desired value and regulating the motor torque
according to the load conditions, in order to improve the performance
(a)

of a lightly-loaded motor drive, and

(b)

during starting, when a loaded drive at low speeds requires


constant air-gap flux rather than a constant V/f ratio, because
of the predominating influence of the stator winding resistance.

The relationship between motor input frequency, voltage and air-gap


flux

is given approximately by:Vr

~g
where

k-

Vr = Vs - I s Zs

( 7.1)

s
(7.2)

. - 164 -

Vr is the rotor e.m. f. generated per phase when the slip


is s and the rotor frequency is f

= sf

V is the supply voltage


s
f

is the supply frequency

zs is the stator impedance


k

is a machine constant

In addition, the motor torque is a function of air-gap flux, given by

k 1~g

( 7. 3)

fr

where fr is the rotor frequency, and k


Substituting

T
m

for~

is a constant

from equation (7.1) into equation (7.3), gives

where k

is a constant

(7.4)

A block diagram of the control scheme is shown in Figure 7.2.

The

scheme maintains the motor speed constant at all load conditions, by


monitoring the shaft speed and regulating the available torque.

This

requires the load torque to be sensed and summed with a shaped voltage
reference signal, derived from the speed-error signal
direct V/f control.

w , to produce
er

If for example the load is increased by

~Tm,

the

motor speed will tend to decrease, and the speed-error between the
demanded and the actual speed will be increased to provide an increase
in the motor stator frequency.

However, by the action of the speed

- 165 -

controller, the motor speed is regulated to the demanded value wd.


Due to the increased speed error, a voltage error signal is generated,

leading to a consequent increase in terminal voltage.

The new V/f

ratio leads to an increase in the available torque and to a corresponding


decrease in the slip.

In this way, a lightly-loaded motor operates

under reduced motor terminal voltage conditions.

If an increase in

load torque is demanded, the rms value of the motor terminal voltage
is increased in proportion to the load torque, and hence a family of
new improved motor torque-speed curves at any given drive speed is
achieved as illustrated in Figure 7.3.

It can be seen that the inter-

section of a load-torque curve Tml and the motor torque curve determines
the point for which the required motor supply conditions are obtained.
This leads to an improved motor performance at every load point,
especially for light load conditions.

7.3

System Development

The following subsections present details of the closed-loop speed


and torque controlled drive system.
7.3.1

Speed reference circuit

The speed of the motor drive is determined by an external reference


signal.

By monitoring the speed and comparing this with the reference,

a speed-error signal is formed.

A simplified diagram of a closed-loop

speed control circuit developed for this purpose from Figure 5.3 is
shown in Figure 7.4.

The circuit has two inputs, the reference speed

signal vref and the feedback signal VTACHO"

The speed dependent-

feedback signal is initiated by a D.C. tachogenerator coupled to the

- 166 -

motor shaft.

After filtering,the tachogeneratorvoltage is inverted,

summed with the adjustable reference value, and supplied to the


speed (proportional + integral, PI) controller formed by ICl, so as
to produce a controlled speed-error signal.

This error signal is

added to the speed feedback signal, in order to maintain constant


motor speed when the load conditions are changed.
7.3.2

Torque regulating circuit

A circuit developed for the purpose of torque regulation is shown


in Figure 7.5.

The shaped voltage reference (VREF) derived from

the speed-error signal and obtained using the absolute value circuit
of Figure 7.6(a) provides a positive output voltage, irrespective
of the change in sign of the speed-error signal.

The

cirqu~input/

output characteristic is illustrated in Figure 7.6(b), with the minimum


output voltage V adjusted by the potentiometer CR5, as necessary
X

for no-load operation, and the maximum value limited by the zener
voltage V

The torque dependent feed-back signal V t is obtained


se

from the strain-gauge bridge of Figure 7.7, mounted on a tie-bar


connected to the friction brake calipers.

The output of the bridge

is amplified as shown in Figure 7.7 and the amplifier output is


summed with the shaped reference voltage VREF given in Figure 7.5,
before being fed to the PI-controller.

Any load change generates a

torque error signal from the PI-controller, which is fed to the vco
circuit, whose output is the clock input frequency VCT of the pwrn-IC.
This in turn controls the inverter output voltage and hence the
motor terminal voltage.

- 167 -

7.4

Experimental Configuration

Figures 7.8(a) and (b) show photographs of the experimental drive.


The motor is directly coupled to a disc friction brake as shown in
Figure 7.8(b), to provide mechanical retardation.

The brake structure

is hinged, so that the braking force is transmitted to a tie-bar, on


which a strain-gauge bridge is mounted to produce a torque dependent
feedback signal.

The motor speed feedback signal is obtained from

the D.C.-Tacho;enerator mounted on the motor shaft, shown also in


Figure 7.8(b).

Figure 7.8(c) shows the complete system, taken

when the drive was operating on load;

and the corresponding motor

phase voltage and line current wave-forms are displayed on the


oscilloscope screen.
7.5

Experimental Results

Figure 7.9

s~ows

a number of experimentally obtained torque/speed

relationships for the closed-loop drive, and these demonstrate well


the function of the control circuit in maintaining the motor speed
almost constant when the load conditions are changed.

As explained

in Section (7.3), the motor voltage is controlled as a function of the


load, so that when the motor is lightly loaded it operates at a
reduced voltage.

This decreases the motor losses and leads to the

improved low-load performance at rated speed evident in Figure 7.10.


Figure 7.11 presents experimental speed and current waveforms following
a step variation in the speed reference signal from 0 to +10 v.

The

motor speed changes smoothly from zero to the set value corresponding

- 168 -

to the motor rated speed, in an acceleration time of about 7 s. The motor


current is limited to a peak value of just under 1.5 A during
acceleration.

The drive performance following aryplication and

removal of the load is shown in Figures 7.12 and 7.13 respectively,


for a 50 Hz operating frequency.

After the unloaded motor has

achieved steady-state no-load speed, a sudden full-load torque is


applied to the motor shaft, which results in the fast speed response
shown in Figure 7.12.

Figure 7.13 shows results for load rejection.

In this case the motor speed tries to rise, but the reduction in
the drive frequency and the motor current causes it to be held constant.

- 169

----- -": :. . - : : ._ -.. . . x\-/

... .-~\/

,/

//

\/

Tmax

-7-- _/...'_- /,..Jf- """""- -\.--- -'t- Tload


1../

........... / / /

//

1\
:

'

I\
I

:\ ;\
j\

t\

I \

'

. I

I
I

0+------------------~~--~w~3~,--~\~~t~--~w~'--0

FIG.7.l.C"HA?ACTERISTICS OF CONSTANT SLIP MOTOR DRIVE.

,.. y

_PI -loltage controller


+

Vref

;::.

HEF

PI-SPEED
Wer
COO ROLLER

"'"

f 4752

Wr

""'

GTO
PWMINV

Ws

I...-.+

: ~f.-

'

Wr
/

/
/

TG

Fig. 7. 2 CONTROLLED SPEED 8. TOOOUE DRIVE SYSTEM .

~LOAD~'~:~:_:,
bridge and
amplifier

- 171 -

Torque

Speed

Desired speed

FIG. 7.3

TORQUE-SPEED CURVES BY v/f CONTROL

10k

'

1-lOv
10k
1-0k

VRz

o4

'--'

01

.....

- ;./

ov

-10v

lA

03
V>

02
~

V1

10k

10k
VR3

" ov

20k
~

ov

-- OV

..-lOOk

22k
-'

22k

22k

,___,

22k

'-' t"tov

0
-Y
ov

1k

Yr..J
411(

~0 10k

os

~O}pf
~

ov
10 k

10k
~

ver

,.........,
10k

22k

20k

r-

-'- ov

rv
ov

ov

-VN

10k

7 ~T
ov

1k
~

..1~

ov

J,___/
.IT"\.

071

'

~
VOs,

Ds

VN

22k

22k

IOk

'

CW

lCg

- -- ov
lCs- 741

FIG.7.4. SPEED CONTROLLER

Diodes 1- 7 OA202
-8 BZX81

caV3

3.

1\

----...--01/
10.
nF

22

lOOn
6

OV6

,.--_...-15 NE 566 31---:

P....---oVCT TO IC HEF4752

7
BZX61
C8V3

PIN 17

5.6k

pt4

470
SKn VRVCT p F

ov

VR4

1(9

-12V

1(10

PI-TORQUE CONTROLlER

-4--+-0V

FIG.75.TORQUE

REGULATING

vco

CIRCUIT .

- 174 -

R
R3

R6

R2

T FROM v
SPEED
N
TROLLER.

VREF
R4

Ov

R1
VRS
470n

Ov

R1-R5:10kn
R6=5kn
R7=1kn

(a) Circuit Diagram.

01-5

vz
0
(b)
FIG. 7.6

Characteristics

ABSOLUTE VALUE UNIT

V in

OA202

> 47 (\
+ BRI!XjE

G2

..--

Slffi.Y

Bllffi

1~

.'

+,;!On
100p

+INPUT

R3

: G1
STRAIN
GAillE R4

'VV

1K
INPUTI 'nln* .......

~.

60136

1K
WIRE\o.O.ID

r
,;lf\

24 1-

3 IC 22 1RS 20
6
308. 18
10 815
16
12
13

+vs

f~'

680 (\

J;m
~1RIDGE
SUP LY
10n

m~-rn

fmn ~ Ln

' ~-

BC lOO

~~

IN827

10K

ra.

>sET ZERO

-BRIDGE SUPPLY
~

' 10)1

"
~

FIG. 7.7

TPUT

STRAIN GAUGE BRIDGE AND GAIN AMPLIFIER

ov

IN827
680 J\

-vs

- 176 -

a)

Inverter and
the controller

b)

The Motor

c)

Complete system

Fig. 7.8

Photographs showing the combined inverter/induction motor system


(a) the inverter, (b) the motor, (ci Lhe complet.o system

G>

&

"'
0

+'

't1
G>
+'

&1

I
I

I
t

-ze

f
I

..

f
I
f

::l

I
f

.QI

c:r

......

"tJ

_.0

600

800

0
200

400

Motor speed (r/min)


Fig. 7.9

TORQUE-SPEED CHARACTERISTICS UNDER CLOSED LOOP CONTROL SYSTEM

*
I
I

;k
I
~

I
f
I
I

)'(.

I
I

r
I

1000

,_.

....
....

- 178 -

QJ

:J
C'"

'-

0
......

"C

ro

0
....J

constant
voltage
2

FIG.7.10.INOICATION OF POWER SAVING: USING REDUCED VOLTAGE

- 179 -

1000 r/min

motor speed
400 f:/min/cm

motor currrent
1.0 A/cm

''
~-

__ , ~ '

Time

lOO cm/min.

FIG. 7.11

RECORDED MOTOR SPEED AND CURRENT WAVEFORMS FOLLOWING A 10 V


CHANGE IN THE REFERENCE VOLTAGE

Speed
1000 r/min

Speed
500 r/min/cm

~--

r--- -.

---- ---- . ---:


._

~-

- r -

~-=-~-

_r-...:_,_~.L-~:::.~

.-~..:-:r:_=.f~._-:?~-' :~~
-

,.,.

''

~--- i

.. '"I

-----'

.'
current
1. 5 A/cm

....00
0

t ,,

Time
50 cm/Plin

'

FIG. 7.12

RECORDED MOTOR SPEED AND LINE CURRENT WAVEFORMS FOLLOWING THE SUDDEN APPLICATION OF LOAD

1000 r/min
'

'

' ,'

I '

-->'

'

I .-

~ ,~-

'i'

,,

.,;

--~--

."
''t

Current
1. 5 A/cm

Time

So cm/min

FIG. 7.13

RECORDED MOTOR SPEED AND LINE CURRENT WAVEFORMS FOLT"O\H!IG REMOVAL OF LOAD

CHAPTER 8

CLOSED-LOOP SPEED CONTROL


USING A MICROCOMPUTER

8.1

Introduction

8.2

Implementation of the Digital PID Algorithm


'
8.2.1
Analogue PID
8.2.2

Digital PID

8.3

Proposed Digital Speed Controller

8.4

System Hardware Developments


8.4.1

The Microcomputer

8.4.2

Motor speed monitoring circuit

8.4.3

Digital output data

8.5

System Softwa:::s

8.6

Experimental Results

- 182 -

This chapter presents a description of the digital closed-loop speed


controller, incorporating a PID algorithm and implemented by a microcomputer.
Experimental results which demonstrate the validity of the proposed
control system are given and discussed.

8.1

Introduction

Analogue controllers have a number of important disadvantages, amongst


which are:
(a)

the effect on the system performance of variations

in the

controller properties,

(b)

the properties themselves are hardware based and as such are


inconvenient and difficult to change,

(c)

any change which is required is expensive to implement.

Not surprisingly, these disadvantages have stimulated work on digital


techniques, which has been coupled with a number of advances in semiconductor technology (in particular LSl technology), and the advent
of the microprocessor.

In recent years, one important outlet for this

activity has been the application of microcomputer to the control of A.C.


drives( 72 - 73 ).

In digital controllers, the hardware is part of the computer and is


clearly never changed.

The complexity of the control algorithm is

unimportant, since it is performed using software and can be as complex


as is necessary and implemented at a lower cost than an equivalent analogue
arrangement.

The principal disadvantage of a digital controller

is, however, that the computation is sequential and the control algorithm
processing must be stopped and a hold (latch) circuit must be implemented
which retain the previous information until the updated results are received.
In electromechanical systems, including motors, some of the time constants

- 183 -

are long, possibly several seconds.

Computation times however are of

the order of milliseconds and for this type of application the use of a
microcomputer is justified.

8.2

Implementation of the Digital PID Algorithm

The following subsections will describe implementation of the PID


controller in both analogue and digital schemes.

8.2.1

Analogue PID

The general form of an analogue controller is illustrated in block diagram


form in Figure 8.1.

The input ed(t) represents the demanded

controlled variable p(t).

value of the

The value of p(t) is sensed and the feedback

element produces a voltage signal e (t) proportional to p(t), which,when


a

compared with ed(t),produces an error signal defined as

e (t)

(8 .1)

This signal, after modification in various ways, produces the signal


e (t) used to drive the system so as to reduce the error .. and to optimise
m

the performance.

These modifications may, for example, be employed to

provide the demanded response in minimum time, to minimize the steady


state error, or to achieve any other required performance.
Figure 8.2 is a block diagram of an analogue PID controller acting on
the error signal e (t).
r

The voltage signal e (t) includes a term k e (t)


m
p r

proportional to the error signal, where k

is a proportional gain constant

chosen with regard to the properties of the elements in the control system.

- 184 -

Although the output of the P-controller is at all times proportional to the


input variable, the controller suffers from the disadvantages of a permanent
steady-state error between the demand input and the actual output.
by the inclusion of an integral term ki .) er (t) dt

However,

the error may be eliminated,

since the integral term produces a controlling effect which leads to


changes in the system output in such a way that the error is eventually
reduced to zero.
de (t)
r
The derivative term kd ~ provides an anticipatory action and reduces
any overshoot in the response, thereby reducing the maximum difference
between the transient and steady-state conditions.
The manipulated variable of a PID-controller includes all three terms,
and the equation for a PID analogue controller is thus

k e (t) + k.
P r
~

de

(t)

(8.2)

dt""

The coefficients k , k. and kd are all chosen to obtain the best perforMance
p

from the controlled system and in general kp > kd > ki.

The response

of a typical system when containing P,PI and PID controllers is illustrated


in Figure 8.3.

A proportional only controller leads to the sizeable

steady-state error evident in response (1).

Elimination of this when an

integral terms is included is shown by response (2).

With the further

inclusion of the derivative term the overshoot is substantially reduced


as shown in curve (3).

- 185 -

8.2.2

Digital PID

The principle of an analogue PID controller, expressed by equation (8.2),


may be applied in digital control form and implemented in a number of
As seen in Figure 8.4, the variable to be controlled P(t) is

different ways.

sensed via a transducer, and the feedback signal e (t) is sampled at discrete
a
intervals of time T using an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) .

As a

consequence, the digital system error signal is known only at these


discrete times, and is defined by

where

rn

e (nT)

(8. 3)

e (nT)

ed(nT)

is the reference value (demand) and

e (nT)
a

is the feedback value (actual)

and

ed(nT) - ea(nT)

The error signal is then applied to the PID controller.


On this basis, equation (8.2) may be expressed in digital form as
t.e
p

= k

rn

+ k.

rn

(8.4)

t.T

where t.T is the sampling time interval.

For a discrete system, having a

block diagram as in Figure 8.4, the corresponding digital PID expression is:
n

e (nT)
m

k e (nT)
P r

I
k=l

k.e (kT)
1

+~
t.T

[e (nT) - e ((n-l)T)]
r

where e (nT) is the error at time nT and


r

e ((n-l)T) is the error at the previous sampling time.


r

(8.5)

- 186 -

The controller output is converted to an analogue signal using a digitalto-analogue converter (DAC) and maintained by a zero-order-hold until the
next

sampling instant, to produce a piecewise continuous signal which

is summed with the load state

8.3

for use as the plant control input.

Proposed Digital Speed Controller

A block diagram for the proposed controller is shown in Figure 8.5.


The motor speed is monitored by an analogue D.C.-tachogenerator and
this signal is digitized to produce an 8-bit code w (nT) approximating
r

to the rotor speed at the instant of sampling.

This is compared with

the digital reference speed signal wd(nT), set by the microcomputer


keyboard,

to give the speed error signal

wer (nT)

( 8 6)
0

which may be modified using the digital PID algorithm described in


Section (8.2.2).

The output of the controller is compared with a

preset slip value corresponding to the maximum torque of the motor.


The output error signal w
(nT) is summed with the feedback signal as;
er
n

w (nT)
s

er

(nT)

I
k=l

k.w
J.

er

(kT) + .... [ w (nT)


er
loT

- w ( (n-l)T) 1 + w (nT)
er
r

(8.7)

The digital output code w (nT) of the controller has to be converted to


s
an analogue signal for use as the drive system frequency and voltage control
inputs.

- 187 -

8.4

System Hardware Developments

The following subsection describes the system hardware developed for


the closed-loop speed controller.
8.4.1

The Microcomputer

The computer used in the proposed control scheme is required to do more


than simply compare and implement.the speed control algorithm given by
equation (8.7).

The particular application requires, in addition,

specific operational features, such as enabling and disabling of the ADC


and DAC and initialisation of the ADC start conversion signal.
microcomputer used was a Commodore PET-32K IBM(

74

The

) which consists of three

basic parts:
(a)

the central processing unit (CPU), a 6502-microprocessor which


performs all the necessary arithmetic and logic operations,

(b)

memories - a read-only memory (ROM) and a

read/w~ite

or random access

memory (RAM) ,
(c)

the peripheral interface adapter, (6522-Versatile Interface Adaptor

(VIP)),and the group of devices that serve as inputs and outputs.


These are often referred to as Input/Output (I/0) devices.
to exchange data between the

In order

microcomputer and the drive system, the

bi-directional I/0 signal lines must be interfaced to the controlled


system via eight-bit ADCr and DACs, and these are described in the
following subsections.

Figures 8.6(a) and (b) respectively are block

diagrams of 6502 and 6522.

- 188 -

8.4.2

Motor speed monitoring circuit

The motor speed is sensed by a D.C-tachogenerator, with an output of


As Figure 8.7 shows, the tache-voltage is filtered,

2.5 V/ (r/min).

using an active filter, and buffered (Figure 8.8 (a)),before it is fed to


the eight-bit monolithic ADC shown in Figure 8.8 (b).

The output code

generated by the converter represents the motor speed at the sampling


time instant.

The ADC requires a start-conversion signal (SC) which

initiates the conversion process.

ADC produces an output control.


conversion process.

When the conversion is completed the


signal EOC

indicating the end of the

At this instant, and at every subsequent sampling

instant, the digital output represents the analogue signal present at


that input.

For correct operation of the ADC, the se signal (Figure 8.B(b))

requires synchronization to the digital process in the computer.


Generation of the required signal is performed by the circuit shown in
Figure 8.9, which produces an output pulse coincident with, and of the same
durationas, a negative-going clock pulse.
connected directly to the computer bus.

Generally, the ADC will be


In these circumstances it is

usual to have tri-state output circuits, so that when the ADC is active
there is no loading of the system bus, but when the computer requests data
from the converter the output circuits change to a low impedance state in
order to drive an appropriate digital pattern into the system bus.

The

output enable signal is provided for these purposes.

8.4.3

Digital output data

After the output data from the microcomputer is read from the data-bus at
the I/O user port, it is interfaced to the drive system using a circuit

- 189 -

incorporating an eight-bit DAC.

The latch action is controlled by an

ENABLE input signal, which is provided by one of the microcomputer control


signals.

When the ENABLE signal is held low, the data input drives the

device directly.

Otherwise, the input data is held in the data latch

and the output remains unaffected by the state of the data-bus.


condition, the DAC appears transparent to the microcomputer.

In this
The

circuit arrangement which provides this data interfacing is shown in

Figure

8.1~

where IC2 is included to provide both amplification and a

degree of isolation for the DAC.


amplifier.

The circuit uses a 741 operational

Gain control is provided by VR2.

interfacing units are provided by a


DC-DC converter module, Ic3.

The DC supplies for both

SV regulator IC4, and a l5V encapsulated

This configuration is illustrated in

Figure 8 .10.

8. 5

System Software

The software required for the control system has to perform the following
functions:

(a)

programme the microcomputer Input/Output port to be either an input


or an output

(b)

input the speed demand, sample the motor speed and calculate the
speed error signal.

(c)

perform the digital computation to implement a PID-controller


acting on the speed-error signal that controls the motor speed.

(d)

produce control signals for enabling and disabling both the ADC and
DAC and for controlling the ADC conversion process.

- 190 -

The overall aim of the system software is to bring the motor speed to the
desired value during starting, to maintain it constant against load changes
and to ensure stability of the drive system under all operating conditions.
The source program is written entirely in low level assembly language to
ensure speedy processing.

A simplified software flowchart is shown in

Figure 8.11 , with the program listing being given in Appendix D.

The

software enables the microcomputer to read the speed reference signal


Wd(nT) demanded from the keyboard as a number ranging beteween 0 and 1000
r/min.

Using an eight-bit system, a speed resolution of about 4 r/min is

obtained.

The digitized motor speed-dependent signal w (nT) is read into


r

the microcomputer from the output of the ADC.

This has an integral value

between 0 and 255 representing the motor speed.

The conversion time for

the ADC and the subsequent processing time produces a sampling time T of
approximately 10 ms.

The digital error-signal (w

er

(nT)

= wd(nT)

- w (nT))
r

forms the input to be manipulated using the PID control algorithm given by
equation (8.7).

The microcomputer then performs the PID controller

calculation.
The sampling time is synchronized with the ADC conversion process, which
is about 10 ms in this case.

The digital output of the PID controller is

an eight-bit number, whose magnitude depends on the size of the proportional,


integral and derivative constants.

This number must not exceed a pre-set

value corresponding to the maximum torque of the motor.


The demanded speed signal is presented to the controller at all times.
However the ADC only carries out a conversion of the motor speed feedback
signal wr(nT) once within each cycle, so that the ADC includes output

- 191 -

latches to hold the w (nT) signal until the next sampling time.
r

At an

appropriate time, the numbers wd (:1T) and wr ( nT) are read and the digital
processing may begin.

8.6

Experimental Results

Figure 8.12 shows a photograph of the experimental closed-loop speed control


drive system which was subjected to a series of practical tests.

The

demanded speed and the controller coefficients were entered from the
computer keyboard and the controller coefficients were carefully selected
to meet the required performance.

Figures 8.13(a) and (b) show experimental

recordings of the motor speed control during start-up with proportional


control only.

(P)

These results were obtained for a desired speed of 500 r/min

and proportional gains respectively of 2.0 and 3.0, all values.being set up
via the kayboard.

Figure 8.13{a) shows that a small overshoot of speed

occurred and that a small steady-state error of about 120 r/min is obtained.
Figure 8.13(b) shows the system speed response when the gain is increased
to 3. 0.

The steady-state error has now been reduced as expected and is

about 75 r/min, but the starting time is increased from 2 sin Figure 8.13 (a)
to 2.5 sin Figure 8.13(b).
All controllers with a proportional term only suffer from the defect of
a steady-state error.

With the inclusion of the integral term, this error

is eliminated and no overshoot appears, as recorded in Figure 8.14.


The proportional and integral gains here are respectively 1.0 and 0.6 and
the starting time is about 3 s.

-------------------------------------------------------------- 192 -

The resultsgiven in Figure 8.14 confirm that the system response does not
over-shoot, so that the derivative action can be omitted from the control
algorithm process without affecting the system performance.

In the final

form a controller with only the two terms (P+I) was preferred to the three
term PID controller. Speed and current waveforms illustrating the drive system
response (with PI controller) following the application and rejection of
load were obtained experimentally.

The results presented in Figure 8.15

for a desired speed of 1000 r/min, (with Kp


that the starting time is about 6 s.

= 1.0

and ki

= 0.6),

clearly show

The motor speed during the steady-

state duration is maintained constant, with only a very short transient speed
change following a change in the load conditions.

- 193 -

MANIPULATED
VARIABLE

e r(t)

ed(t I

"'

DEMANDED INPUT

em(t)

MODIFICATION
ELEMENT

MOTOR
SYSTEM

P(t)

CONTROLLED
vARIABLE

ea( t l
FEED BACK
ELEMENT

FIG.8.1. ANALOGUE CONTROLLER

J-e_r(_tl_+---1
+

kc!

de,.(tl
dt

p (t)

MOTOR
n-.--1 SYSTEM ~-+---

e a(t)

H t-------1

FIG. 8.2 THE ANALOGUE PlO CONTROLLER

I. 20
1.10
3

1.00
Q_

0.90

.....
o.

0.80:
1

QJ

(f)

0. 70.
0.60.
0. 50.
0.40:
0. 30
0. 20:
0.10

a", .... :6" ..... \ .. ,.. 'li( .. "2'~

0 00

""3''.o" "'" .3,'P'

-,

'." ".:.,_2.....

I ime

-,,;,.8

. I "

Sec.

FIG.a.:s. TYl'ICAL SYSTEM RESPONSE TO THE 3-T.E:RM

CON'TROI.LER.
{l)P

{2)PI

(3)PID

I ' ..

5.4

I .

GO
.

MICROCOMPUTER
KEYBOARD
ed(nT)
E{j(nT)
+

er(n T)

~z::

PlO
CONTROLLER
ALGORITHM

em(nTl

...

em(t)

DAC

HOLD

p (t)
PLANT

e3 (nT}

ea(t)

ADC

FIG. 8.4 DIGITAL PlO CONTROLLER

TRANSDUCER.

MICROCOMPUTER
LJer(nTl

Wd (nT l

KEYBOARD

...

L:

PlO
Con troll er
Algorithm

...
F

_f
Werm!nT)

... +
F

,
L

'

(nT)

DAC

f-+

>

r--fvco ~

l..Jvco !

buffer

pwm
GTO
v 4752f- INV.
IC

C";.\

\@)

111

";-

I
I

I
I
wr (nTl

ADC

Fig. 8.5

PROPOSED DIGITAL SPEED CONTROLLER.

~
d mptifier

tACH~

- 197 -

lll

rAO

r-

I
I NO( X
REGISTER

,z

..

0
0

IN DU
REGISTfR

~
~

f=

t--

.,

.--

~~

STACK
POINT

REGISTER

L-

,
1-;
ALU

f:::g

..

..
..
z

""'

ACCUMULATOR

0
0

..

AIO

"

..

DECODE

,
"'

t-- t--

....
%

l:=:

PC L

1-

r-

i5

PCH

"--

Al2

INPUT

1"-

DATA

lATCH

DATA

BUS

IUFF111.

L-

--

F
r-

...-%

AIJ

,__

,--

o y

INSTfiiUCTtoN

~
~

r-

'--

t-- h

.,

I -1

...

LOGIC

AS

INTf IIUtU"T

f::

STATUS

TIMING

CONTROL

CLOCI'I.

GENULUOA

REGISTER

L._ Ill

OUT

11 lOUT

,I'
INSTRUCTION

r-

.,

AEGIS TEA

L-

00
01
02
03
D

'

D7

Fig8.6(a) 6502

Block

Diagram

IRQ

INTERRUPT
CONTROL
FLAGS

PATA
DATA

INPUT
LATCH

,...

ENABLE

BUS

BUS

BUFFERS

OUTPUT

PA
DATA

BUFFERS

') PORT A

PIA

PORT

REGIS TEAS
PERIPHERAL

AUXILIARY

c AI

PORT A

........
,.....,

FUNCTION

c A2
PORT B

CONTROL
HANOSHAit.E

CLK
LATCH

HIGH

CSI
COUNTER HIGH

CS 2

CHIP

LOW

.
.

TIMER

ACCESS

CONTROL

c Bl
SHIFT

LOW

'
INPUT
LATCH

2
COUNTER

RS

c B2

CONTROL

RS I

RS

REG

LATCH

LOW

LOW

HIGH:

BUFFERS

OUTPUT

L::::

PB
DATA

DIR

l
TIMER

PORT

REGISTERS

Fig8.6 (b)6 522

Block Diagram

PORT B

00047 ~F
""

00047)JF
..
"11

6.6kn

6.6kn

0.0047
)JF

b
741

6.6kO

6.6kll

-7

1.0 kn
00047
)JF

"

2.2 k!\

741

22kn

10 k!\
-L

Fig S.7. Low Pass Filter

ov

Vo

- 200 -

10K.II.

+15V

10k.n.
-15V

(a

E.O.C.
(PB3) OUTPUT ENABLE
CLOCK

se

13k.n.

sk.n.

1
2
3

18

"'

13
12
11
10

17

1G
4 A/ 0 15
5zN 42714

lo

skn vl-'

LSB

MSB

3~f\

13k.n

~2kD
L.r

I I

~
1-0pF
-SV

ov
+SV
(b)

Fig.s.s. A D C CIRCUIT DIAGRAM SHOWING INPUT


AND OUTPUT SIGNALS.

SV

R
Clock
"--1.:. 5

IC
7490

1;6 7404

1;4 7400

.;. 2 1 - - - - - - - 1
otart

ov
sv

6.2mrz
crystal oscillator

converoion
signal

sv

(I)

0
1-'
I

~1+---f

Cll2 signal
from the Minicomputer
I/O port

ov

sv

ov
Fig.B.9.TIMING CIHCUIT JJ'OR THF. ZH427 ADC.

R=330n
C=220pF

12V INPUT
+5V OUTPUT
470/\

(( 4

12"

7805

t>rr.J:

. +10nF

...I,.

ov

>390/\

: ~ 220)JF
L..

FROM
PET
(/0
PORT

11

PA1

PA2

PA3

I
IC I
D/A

(PB3J

PA6

PA 7

ENABLE

IC2

-15V

15V

~.'--.

VOJT

2 74~

~~v, =;=47
'--NULL

-'-O'J

pF

22kJ>

VR1

22lr.n. OFFSET

'Klk<>-

< VR2

F1g.
8.10.

0v

PAS

ov

15V
!!::100)JF
~
100,uF

2 2)JF

ZN428
PA4

ov

(( 3

DC- OC
CONVERTER
5V
15V
DV
-15V
DV

.sv

PA 4>

~ "=lO
-'-

OMMON

OUTPUT SECTION OF
THE SPEED CONTROLLER.

b
...JL-

tlkn. GAIN

ov

DV

- 203 -

START
0}------~

READ SET VALUE


AND PlO CONTROLLER
CONSTANTS.

c) - - - - - - - . . t
ENABLE A/D.
CONVERTER.

INITIALISE THE
CONVERSION PROCESS
AND INTEGRATING TIME
AND SAMPLE THE MOTOR
SPEED.
8}-------~

PRODUCE THE
ERROR SIGNAL
wer(n Tl= wd (n T)-wfn T)

DO THE CONTROL
CALCULATIONS (PlO)

w (nT) =
er

SLIP LIMIT

Fig. 8.11.

NO

SIMPLIFIED FLOWCHART.

- 204 -

NO
B >---.....;_<

YES
DISABLE THE A/D.
ENABLE THE 0/ A.
OUTPUT THE
PROCESSED OAT A.

NO

(>----<

YES

YES

D>-----<

Fig. 6.11.

CO-NTINUED .

----------------------- 205 -

,.-

--.

. .- .

'

l'

I'

FIG.

8.12.

EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP

l l
- 206 -

500

"":"-----:-: -- ;------- ...


-:-

~------~:_---~055+---------------------------------------------~
t aJ

- --~----:-:~' -:~ r-j~--1~--~--:.


.

. -j

T!ME(s)

'

'

._---- .L~--~-~~I. ~L_fj__J~=:~.

--- - --~ -: 1-_-_r-~-------

-----~---_;

___ .. -----.-;

500

.... --r--

5I
c:
0

...k-~..L-L
]ll i
I

f!

i:
+
.!it SOr/m.
4

(b)

..

,-- -t---;------!--.- r : .

-----~

FtG.8.13. EXPERIHEHTAL HOTOR DRIVE SPEED RESPOHsC:W'SOOii'nin FRCX't M


KEYBOARD . P.COHTROLLER.
;- :-

'

_; : .:.~~-.

--

-- -:--;.-- --!

soor/nin

--------------------.--------------

MOTOR
SPEED

SPEED DEMAND 500 r/ min

kp

= 1.0

ki = 0.6

"'0
...,
66r/min

TIME(s)

Fig 8 .14. SYSTEM

RESPONSE WITH

PI- CONTROLLER.

. I

. ,;

::-

-----~-

_:, ~Y~;----:->--,:_
~:=~~:J:::.tt---:;n
........___ ;
,.....

'' .

._,..
Speed
500 r/min/cm

_J 'fi~~~~:tt__ijl

"'
--+-...!.-:

Speed
1000 r/min

--- .,.

''

~~

11

-i

Current

i'

"'

'I

ro

-:-~;==-:i:h~t~-- u-_

1.5 A/cm

Ti~e

50 c!'l/min
I

FIG. 8.15.

MOTOR SPEED AND CURRENT WAVEFORMS FOR SUDDEN APPLICATION AND REJECTION OF LOAD

- 209 -

CHAPTER 9
CONCLUSIONS

9.1

Conclusions and Remarks

(a)

The experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverter/


induction motor drive developed in the research work, and in
particular the results presented in Chapters 4, 5 and 6, show clearly
the following:
(i)

the regular switching strategy is very effective and offers


the advantage of relatively high-quality inverter output waveforms
and consequently a significant reduction in harmonic content.

(ii)

since the operating frequency and fundamental output voltage are


both obtained by straightforward inverter switching, the system
is inherently extremely flexible.

It is easy to introduce

modifications leading to an improved low-speed performance, rapid


speed reversal and closed-loop operation as demonstrated in
Chapters 5, 6 and 7 respectively.
(b)

The use of GTO thyristors as power switches in the inverter greatly

::::::::::nt::dp::::l::r::i:.mor:tc::::::a::: :::h:::du::: ::::e:hen

1
\

using conventional thyristors.


(c)

The use of the d,q model in conjunction with the regular switching
strategy model, greatly simplifies the analysis of the combined
inverter drive and enables accurate predictions to be made of the
current waveforms and their harmonic contents.

The simulated

- 210 -

dynamic performance of the drive operating at frequencies of 50, 30


and 20 Hz was presented in Chapter 6.
suggest that

a~a

These results immediately

frequency of 20Hz, 12% voltage drop compensation is

needed to achieve the same maximum torque as at 50 Hz.


The simulated results presented in Chapter 6 for inverter output
voltage and current waveforms, and their harmonic contents were

obtained for operating frequencies of 20, 30, 40 and 50 Hz.

These

results were confirmed by experimentally obtained results, and the


good agreement obtained established the validity of the combined
system model developed.
(d)

the design of a closed-loop controller using speed and torque feedback


was presented in Chapter 7.

Experimental results for this drive are

also presented in Chapter 7, and demonstrate well the function of


the control circuit in
(i)

improved motor performance at every load intersection point


with the motor torque curve, especially for light load conditions,
and

(ii)

maintaining the motor speed almost constant when the load


conditions are changed.

(e)

One advantage of a microcomputer, when used as the supervisory element


in a control scheme, is that it enables the efficiency of any proposed
scheme to be rapidly evaluated.
speed control scheme

The design of a digital closed-loop

using a microcomputer is presented in Chapter 8.

- 211 -

In this,the hardwire logic circuitry presented in Chapter 7 is


replaced by a proportional and integral control algorithm implemented
by the microcomputer for the speed control of the drive.

Experimental

results showed well the function of the speed controller in


controlling the motor speed during start-up and in maintaining
constant motor speed following a change in the load condition.

9.2

Suggestions for Further Work

Since digital control can be advantageously used for motor drives, it is


anticipated that microcomputer and microprocessor control systems will be
widely used for more sophisticated control of electrical drives in the near
future.

A microcomputer conrol system suitable for multi motor control

schemes is recommended.

- 212 -

REFERENCES

1.

McFarland, T.C., "Alternating Current Machines"

D. Van Nostrand Co., 1948.


2.

Hindmarch, J.,

"Electrical Machines and their Applications",

U.M.I.S.T., England, 1977.


3.

Murphy, J.M.D., "Thyristor control of a.c. motors", New York,

Pergamon Press, 1973.


4.

Alger, P. L. ,

11

The nature of induction machines",

Gordon and Breach Science


5.

New York,

Publishe~~,l965.

Cotton, H., "Electrical Technology", London, Sir Isaac Pitman

and sons, Ltd., 1939.


6.

Jayawant, B. V., "Induction Machines", t4cGraw-Hill Publishing

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7.

Rawc1iffe, G.H., "Induction Motor Speed-Changing by Pole-Amplitude


~1odulation",

The Institution of Electrical Engineersr Paper No.

2597U, August 1958, pp 411-419.


8.

Rawcliffe, G.H., "Speed Changing Induction Motors", The Institution


of Electrical Engineers, Paper No. 3306U, Dec. 1960, pp. 513-528.

9.

Bedford, B.D. and Heft, R.G., "Principles of Inverter Circuits"

New York, John


10.

213 -

~liley

and Sons, 1964.

Usher, T.E. and Beck, S.D., "Adjustable Speed a.c. drive with SCR
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pp. 58-62.

ll.

Abbondanti, A., Zubek, J. and Norby, C.J., "Pulse width modulated


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12.

Slabl.ak, W. and Lawson, L.J., "Precise control of a three phase


squirrel-cage induction motor using a practical cycloconverteru,

IEEE Trans. on Industry and General Applications, Vol. IGA-2, No. 4,


July/Aug. 1966, pp. 274-280.

l3

Bowler, P., "The application of a cycloconverter to the control


of induction motors", IEEE Power Applications of Controllable
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l4.

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Allin, G., Creighton, G.K. and Hall, J .K., "Operation and analysis
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Nov. 1972, pp. 1587-1594.

15.

Bradley, D.A., Clarke, C.D., Davis, R.M. and Jones, D.A.,


"Adjustable frequency inverters and their application to
variable-speed drives",

Proc. IEE, 1964, Vol. 111, No. 11, pp. 1833-1846.

- 214 -

16.

Green, R.M. and Boys, J.T., "Inverter AC-Drive Efficiency",

IEE Proc., Vol. 129, Pt. B 2 r March 1982, pp 75-81.

17.

Chandler, E. F. and Peters, F.N., "Wide speed range inverter",

IEEE Trans. on Industry and General Applications, Vol. IGA-6,


No. l, Jan/Feb 1970, pp. 19-23.

113.

King, K. G. , "Variable-frequency thyristor inverters for


induction motor speed control", Direct Current, Vol. 10, No. 1,

Feb. 1965, pp. 26-35.

19.

Paul, M., Chiera, J.A. and Turnbull, F.C., "A wide-range static
inverter suitable for a.c. induction motor drives", IEE Trans.

on Industry and General Applications, Vol. IGA-5, No. 4, July/


August, 1969, pp. 438-445.

2.0.

Ward, E.E., "Inverter suitable for operation over a range of

frequency", Proc. IEE, Vol. lll, No. 8, August 1964, pp. 1423-1434.
21. John son, R. W., "11odulating inverter systems for variable speed
induction motor drives", IEEE Trans. Power App. and Systems,

Vol. PAS-88, Feb. 1969, pp. 81-85.

22. Aksel, A., "A delta-sigma modulation speed control system for
induction motors", PhD. Thesis, Loughborough University of
Technology, 1978.

- 215 -

23.

Green, R.M. and Boys, J.T., "Implementation of pulse width


modulation strategies", IEEE Trans. on Ind. Appls .-

Vol. lA-18,

No. 2, March/April 1982, pp. 138-145.

24.

Mokrytzki, B., "Pulse width modulated inverter for AC Motor Drives"


IEEE Trans. on Ind. and Gen. Appls., Vol. IGA-3, No. 6, Nov./Dec.
1967, pp. 493-503.

25.

Pollock, J. J., "Advanced Pulse Width Inverter Techniques",

IEEE Trans. on Ind. Appls., Vol. IA-8, No. 2, March/Apri1 1972,


pp. 145-154.

26.

Stanley, H. C. ,

11

An analysis of the induction machine 11

"Trans. AIEE

Vol. 57, 1938, pp. 751-757.

27.

Park, R.H., "Two reaction theory of synchronous machine

11

Trans.

AIEE, Vol. 48,. 1929, !'P 7l673().

20.

Gilfillan, R.S. and Kaplan, E.L., "Transient torques in squirrel_


'cage induction motor with special reference to plugging",

Trans.

AIEE, Vol. 60, 1941, pp. 1200-1209.

29.

Waygandt, A. M., and Charp, s., "Electromechanical transient


responses of induction motors", 'Ir.ans. AIEE, Vol. 65, 1946, pp 10061009.

30,

Magginniss, D.T., and Schultz, N.R., "Transient performance of


induction motors", Trans. AIEE, Vol. 63, 1944, pp 641-645.

- 216 -

31.

Wood, W.S., Flynn, F. and Shanmugasunderam, A., "Transient torque

in induction motors due to switching of the sur>ply", Proc. IEE,


Vol. 112, 1965, pp. 1348-1354.

32

HUghes, F.~. and Aldred, A.S., "Transient characteristic and


simulation of induction motor", Proc. IEEE, Vol. 111, No. 12,
Dec. 1964, pp. 2041-2051.

33.

Smith, I. and Shirharan, s.,

11

Transient Currents and Torques in

Induction Motors during Switching Operation'',

IEE Conference on

the Applications of Large Industrial Drives, 1965, pp. 36-46.

34.

Smith, I.R. and Sriharan, S., "Transient performance of the Induction


Motor", Proc. lEE, Vol. 113, No. 7, July 1966, pp. 1173-1881.

35.

Slater, R.D., Wood,W.S., and Simpson, R.,


Induction Motor Transients

"Digital computation of

Torque Patternsn, Proc. lEE, 1966,

112, pp. 819-822.

36.

Charlton, W.,

11

Matrix approach to steady-state analysis of

inverter-fed induction motor", Electronics Letters, July 1970,


Vol. 6, No. 14, pp. 451-452.

37.

Charlton, W., "Analytical methods for inverter fed induction


motors", Proc. lEE, Nov. 1975, Vol. 122, No. 11, pp. 1273-1274.

38.

Harashima, F. and Uchida, K., "Analysis of inverter-induction


motor system by state transition method", Electrical Engineering
in Japan, Vol. 89, No. 12, 1969, pp. 27-34.

- 217 -

39.

Ja.:::ovides, L.J., "Analysis of induction motor drives with a

nonsinusoidal supply voltage using Fourier analysis", Conf. P=oc.


5th IAS Meeting, 1970, pp. 467-575.
40.

Klingshirn, E.A. and Jordan, H.E., "Polyphase induction motor


performance and losses on nonsinusoidal voltage sources", IEEE

Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-87, No. 3, March 1968,
pp. 624-631.
41.

Ward, E.E., Kazi, A. and Farkes, R., "Time domain analysis of


the inverter-fed induction motor", Proc. IEE, Vol. 114, No. 3,
~arch,

42.

1967, pp. 361-369.

Novotny, D.1-1. , "Steady-state performance of inverter fed


induction machines by means of time domain complex variables",

IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-95, No. 3,


MayfJune 1976, pp. 927-935.
43.

Krause, P.C., "Method of multiple reference frames applied to


the analysis of symmetrical induction machinery", IEEE Trans.

on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-87, No. l, Jan. 1968,


pp. 218-227.
44.

Krause, P.C. and Hake, J.R., "Method of multiple reference frames


applied to the analysis of a rectifier-inverter induction motor
drive", IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-88,
No. 11, Nov. 1969, pp. 1635-1641.

- 218 -

45.

Lipo, T.A. and Turnball, F.G., "Analysis and Comparison of two


types of square wave inverter drives", IEEE, Trans. on Industry

Applications, Vol. IA-11, No. 2, March/April 1975, pp. 137-147.


46.

Jordan, H.E., "Digital computer analysis of induction machine


in dynamic systems", IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems,

Vol. PAS-86, No. 6, June 1967, pp. 722-727.


47.

Robertson, S.T. and Hebbar, K.M., "A digital model for threephase induction machine", IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and

Systems, Vol. PAS-88, No. 11, Nov. 1969, pp. 1629-1633.


48.

De Sarkar, A.K. and Berg, G.T., "A Digital simulation of threephase induction motors", IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and

Systems, Vol. PAS-89, No. 6, July/August 1970, pp. 1031-1036.


49..

Al-Ninuna,O.A.B., and Williams, S., "Computation of inverter-

induction notor drives using a tensor technique", Proc. of the


International Conference on Electrical Machines, Brussels, Belgium,

Sept. 1978, pp,E2/l-l- E2/l-9.


50.

Al-Nimma, D.A.B. and Williams, S., "Modelling

variable-frequency

induction motor drive", Electric Power Applications, Vol. 4,


August 1979, pp. 132-134.

51

Jordan, H.E., "Analysis,of Induction Machine in Dynamic Systems".

IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-84, No. 11, Nov.
1965, pp. 1080 - 1088.

52

Sabbagh, E. A. and Shewan, A. S. "Transient characteristics and


simulation of induction'motor", Proc. IEE, Vol. 111, No. 12,

Dec. 1964, pp. 2041-2051.

- 219 -

53.

Krause, P.C. and Woloszky, L.T., "Comparison of com!?uter and test


results of a static a.c. drive system", IEEE, Trans. on Industry

and General Applications, Vol. IGA-4, No. 6, Nov./Dec. 1968,


pp. 583-588.

54

Berg, G.T., and De Sarkar, A.K., "Speed change of induction motors


with variable frequency supply", IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus
and Systems, Vol. PAS-89, No. 6, ~arch/April 1971, pp. 500-508.

55.

Krause, P.C. and Lipo, T.A. "Analysis and simplified


representations of a

rectifier~inverter

induction-motor

drive", IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol.

PAS-88. No. 5, May 1969, pp. 588-596.


56.

Lipo, T.A. and Krause-, P.C., "Stability analysis of a rectifierinverter motor drive", IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and

Systems, Vol. PAS-88, No. 1, Jan. 1969, pp. 55-56.

57.

Chalmers, B.J., and Sarkar, B.R., "Induction motor losses owing to

non-sinusoidal waveform", Proc. IEE, Vol. 115, No. 12, Dec. 1968,
pp. 1777-1782

.SP.. Bowes, s.R., ~~~ew sinusoi,dal pulse width modulation inverter",


Proc. IEE, vol. 122, No. 11, Nov. 1975, pp. 1279-1285.

- 220 -

59.

Grant, T.L. and Barton, T.H.,

11

Control Strategies for PV1M Drives"

IEEE Trans. on Ind. Appls., Vol. lA-16, No. 2, March/April 1980,


pp. 211-215.

GO

Klingshirn, E.A. and Jordan, H.E., "Polyphase Induction Motor

Performance and Losses on Nonsinusoidal. Voltage Source", IEEE


Trans. on Power Apparatus & Systems,Vol. PAS-87, No.3, March
~

1968, pp. 624-531.

61.

De Maria, B.G. and Sciavicco, L., "Analysis of Modulation Processes


and Power Converters", Proc. lEE, Vol. 125, No. 5, May 1978,
pp. 411-412.

62.

Bowes, S.R. and Clement, R.R., "Computer-aided design of P~lM


inverter systems", Proc. lEE, Vol. 129, Pt. B, No. 1, Jan. 1982,
pp. 1-17.

61.

Bowes, S.K. and Mount, M.J., "Microprocessor control of PWM


inverter", Proc. IEE, vol. 128, Pt. B, No. 6, Nov. 1981, pp. 293-305.

64.

Kliman, G. B., "Harmonic effects in pulse width modulated


motor drives", Conf. Rec. 1972, Annual meeting LEEE, Ind. Appl.
Soc., pp. 783-788.

65.

Burgum, F.J., "Basic GTO Drive Circuits", Electronic Component


and Applications, Vol. 3, No. 4, August 1981.

- 221 -

66.

Woodworth, A. and Bergum, F, "Simple rules for GTO Circuit Design",


Mullard Technical Publication, M83-0137.

67.

Starr, B. G. and van Loon, J.C.F., "LSI Circuit for AC Motor Speed
Control", Mullard Technical Publication, M82-0015.

68.

Abbondanti, A., "Variable Speed Induction Motor Drives Use Electronic


Slip Calculator Based on Motor Voltages and Currents", IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. IA-11, No.5, 1975. pp 483-488.

69.

Abbondanti, A., "Method of flux control in induction motors driven


by variable frequency variable voltage supplies", Conf. Record, IEEE-IAS
Intnl. Semiconductor Power Converter Conf., March 1977, pp. 177-184.

70.

Sen, P.C. and MacDonald, M.L., "Stability Analysis of Induction Motor


Drives Using Phase-Locked Loop Control System", IEEE Transactions on
Industrial Electronics and Control Instrumentation, Vol. IECI-27, No.3,
1980. pp, 237-243.

71.

Mohan, N., "Improvement in Energy Efficiency of Induction Motors by


means of Voltage Control", IEEE Trans. on Power Applications and Systems,
vo. PAS-99, July-August, 1980, pp. 1466-1471.

72..

Gabriel, R., Leonhard, W. and Nordby,

c.,

"Microprocessor Control of

the Converter for Induction Motor", Process Automation, 1980, No. 1,

pp. 35-41.

73.

Buja, G.S. and Fiorini,P.,

11

Microcomputer Control of PWM Inverters.,

IEEE, Trans. on Ind. Elec;, Vol. IE-29, No.3, August 1982, pp. 212-216.

74.

Downey, J.M. and Rogers, S.M. "PET Interfacing",

Howard

w.

Sarns & Co.,

Inc., 4300 West 62nd Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 46268, USA.

(Book).

- 222 -

APPENDIX A

Inverter d.c. supply voltage


The maximum r.m.s.

voltage that the inverter can provide to the motor is

determined by the mains supply voltage.

In general, a motor may be

used which has a rated voltage equal to or less than the mains supply
voltage.

For an A.C. supply voltage of V


line-to-line, the
ac

average D.C. voltage of the 3-phase uncontrolled rectifier is

3/2
11

ac

where Vdc(nom) is the highest continuous value of D.C. supply voltage.


Assuming a 3-phase mains supply of 420 V ( 10%), than when rectified,
the nominal continuous D.C. supply voltage is 570 V ( 10%).
When the pwm inverter is supplied at vdc(nom), it gives a maximum
output fundamental rms line voltage of

(line)

vdc(nom)

444 V

and a maximum fundamental rms phase to neutral (motor phase) voltage of


V (phase)
0

11

vdc(nom)

= 250

- 223 -

APPENDIX B

Motor specification

1 hp, 6-pole, 50 Hz, 380/420 V

(for star connection).

= 0.045 kg.m2

moment of intertia

R , R

resistance per phase of the stator

5.09 ()

and rotor circuits,respectively.

L , L
s
r

0.499 H

Self inductance per-phase of the


stator and rotor circuits,respectively

sm'

rm

-0.233 H

mutual inductance between stator


phase and rotor phase

0.034 H

respe~tively.

leakage inductance per-phase of the


stator and rotor circuits, respectively

M
sr

= 0.697
= 0.465

H
H

magnetising inductance
maximum mutual inductance between stator
and rotor circuits

All values are referred to the stator.

Ll

APPENDIX C

Computer program listing for the combined


system

----

-----------,

- 224 -

C
C

c
c
c

==================================
PWM/DQ-PROGRAM
COMBINED INVERTER/INDUCTION MOTOR SYSTEM ANALYSIS
===================================
PARAMETER <NI=100J
INTEGER IA,N,NN,IUNIT,!FAIL
INTEGER I 111 , I W2
INTEGER I , J, I K
INTEGER DL
REAL*B VA<NIJ,VB<NIJ,VC<Nil,VP(3J,VT<NI,3J
REAL*B JR,IPP,CFF,PI,W,R120
REAL*B X01AAF
REAL*B RS,RR,LS,LR,LSS,LRR,LM,LSM,LRM,MSR
REAL*B A<4,4J
REAL*B T
REAL*B FM,TMAX
REAL*B H
REAL*B U<6,7J
REAL*B UNIT<4,4J,WKSPCE(7J
REAL*B F<6J,Y<6J
REAL*B RP(4,4J,G<4,4J
REAL TIME<NIJ
REAL YVAL(NI J
REAL*B VMAX,TORQ,TORQM
REAL*B AT(Nll,YRES<NI,6J,TMARR<NIJ
COMMON/BLK1/UNIT,RP,G,VMAX,W,JR,PI
COMMON/BLK2/CFF,IPP,TORQ,TORQM,R120
COMMON/BLK3/VA,VB,VC
COMMON/BLK4/AT,TMARR
COMMON/BLK5/VT
COMMON/BLKB/YRES
EQUIVALEN E <Y< 1 J ,THETAJ, <Y<2 J ,SPEED>, <YL:l J, IP< 1 J J

c
c
c

c' .

SUBROUTINE REFERENCES
D02YAF, FCN, F01AAF
F01AA<A,IA,NN,UNIT,WKSPCE,IFAILJ
.D02YAF<X, H, N, Y, FCN, U, IW1, IW2J
EXTERNAL FCN
CALL GINO
CALL T4010
call piccle
call movto2<0.0,0.0J

10

PI=4.0*ATAN<1 .OJ
R120=2 .O*PI/3 .0
TMAX=.650
DL=100
H=TMAX/DL
.DO 10 1=1,6
Y<I >=0.0
IW1=6
IW2=7
N=6
IA=4
IUNIT=4

- 225 -

c
C
c

IFAIL=O
NN=4
============
INPUT DATA
============
RS=5.09
RR=5.09
LS=0.034
LR=0.034
LSS=0.499
LRR=0.499
LSM=-0.233
LRM=-0.233
LM=0.697
MSR=0.465
VMAX=314.173
FM=20.0
W=2.0*Pl*FM
IPP=3.0
JR=0.045
CFF=0.0015
TORQM=O.O

DO 40 !=1 ,4
DO 40 J = 1 , 4
RP ( I , J l = 0 0
40
RP(l,!l=RS
WRITEI*,700l
700
FORMAT(/'
RPC1 >
RPC2l
WRITE ( *, 701 l ( (RP (I , J J , J =1 , 4 l , I= 1 , 4 l
701
FORMATC3X,4F10.4l

RP (3

49

c
c

C130

C150

20

DO 49 1=1 ,7
WKSPCECIJ=O.O
AC1,1 l=LSS-LSM
Al1,2l=O.O
AC1,3l=1 .5*MSR
A(1,4l=O.O
. 'A<2,1 l=O.O
A12,2l=LSS-LSM
, A!2,3l=O.O
~ 1'2, 4 l =LS*MSR
AI 3 , 1 l =1 5 * MSR
A!3,2l=O.O
Al3,3l=LRR-LRM
Al3,4l=O.O
Al4,1 l=O.O
Al4,2l=1.5*MSR
Al4,3l=O.O
Al4,4l=LRR-LRM
WRITEI*,130l
FORMAT(!'
Al1 l
A12l
Al3l
A(4l'll
WRITE ( *, 150 l ( (A ( I , J J , J =1 , 4 l , I= 1 , 4 J
FORMAT 13X,4F10.4l
CALL F01AAFIA, lA, NN, UNIT, !UNIT, WKSPCE, IFAILl
IF IIFAIL.EQ.Ol GO TO 20
WRITE ( *, 120 l

RP ( 4

l' I l

- 226 -

120
140

C197

C199

c
c

201

C
C
C51

100

FORMAT(/'
UNI Tl 1 l
UNIT< 2 l
WRITE <* , 1 40 l <<UN I T <I , J l , J =1 , 4 l , I =1 , 4 l
FORMAT!3X,4F10.4l
G!1 ,1 l=O.O
G!1,2l=O.O
G! 1 ,3 l=O.O
G!1,4l=O.O
G!2,1 l=O.O
G!2,2l=O.O
G(2,3l=O.O
G<2,4l=O.O
G<3,1 l=O.O
G!3 ,2 l= 1 .5*MSR
G!3,3l=O.O
G<3,4l=<LRR-LRMl
G <4 , 1 l = -1 5 *MS R
G!4,2l=O.O
G(4,3l=-<LRR-LRMl
G<4,4l=O.O
WRITE ( * , 19 7 l
G(1 l
G(2)
FORMAT(/'
WRITE ( * , 199 l <<G <I , J l , J =1 , 4 l , I =1 , 4 l
FORMAT<3X,4F10.4l

UNIT!3 l

G !3

UNIT<4l'/l

T=O.O
IK=O
DO 100 IK=1 ,DL
CALL FCN<T, Y, Fl
DO 201 I=1 ,6
U( I , 1 l =F <Il
CALL D02YAF!T, H, 6, Y, FCN, U, IW1, IW2l
TORQ=1 .5*1 .5*IPP*MSR<Y<4 l*Y(5 l-Y(3 l*Y<6l l
AT<IKl = T
TMARR<IKl = TORQ
YRES (I K, 1 l = Y<1 l
YRES!IK,2l = Y!2l*!10.0/PI l
YRES!IK,3l = Y!3l
YRES!IK,4l = Y!4l
YRESHK,5l = Y!5l
YRES!IK~6l = Y!6l.
CALL. P~M<T, VP l
'VT<IK,.D=VP<1 l
VT!IK,2 l=VP<2 l
VT<IK,3 l=VP!3 l
T=T+H
WRITE (*,51! T, TORQ, Y<1 l , Y( 2 l , Y( 3 l , Y( 4 l , Y( 5 l , Y( 6 l
WRITE<*,51l T,Y<4l
FORMAT<8<3X,E12.5ll
IF!MOD<IK,50l.EQ.OlTHEN
PRINT*,IK,' POINTS HAVE BEEN CALCULATED SO FAR'
IF<MOD<IK,100l.EQ.OlWRITE<*,*l''
END IF
CONTINUE
CALL DBLSNG!TIME,AT,NI l
CALL DBLSNG<YVAL,VT<1,1l,Nil
CALL GRAPHS<TIME,YVAL,NI,1 l
CALL DBI.SNG<YVAL, VT<1 ,2), NIl
CALL GRAPHS!TIME,YVAL,NI,1 l
CALL DBLSNG!YVAL,VT<1 ,3l,Nll

G!4l

'll

- 227 -

c
c
c

220

30

C
C
C

c
c ...
c

CALL GRAPHS <TIME, YVAL, NI , 1 l


CALL DEVEND
STOP
END

SUBROUTINE FCNCT, Y, Fl
INTEGER I,J
REAL*8 JR,IPP,PI,CFF,W,R120
REAL*8 T
REAL*8 RPC4,4 l ,GC4,4 l ,UNITC4,4 l, VPC3 l ,VDQC4 l
REAL*8 FFC4l,FC6l,YC6l
REAL*8 VMAX,TORQ,TORQM
COMMON/BLK1/UNIT,RP,G,VMAX,W,JR,PI
COMMON/BLK2/CFF,IPP,TORQ,TORQM,R120
CALL PWMCT,VPl
VDQC1 l=!2.0VP!1 l-VPC2l-VPC3ll/3.0
VDQC2l=!VPC2l-VPC3ll/SQRTC3.0l
VDQ!3l=.O
VDQC4l=.O
F!1 l=YC2l
FC2l=!TORQ-TORQM-CFF*YC2ll/JR*IPP
DO 220 !=1 ,4
FFCil=VDQ!ll
DO 220 J=1,4
FFC I l=FF!l l-YCJ+2 l*RP! I ,J l-YCJ+2 l*G!I ,J l*YC2 l
DO 30 I=1 ,4
FCI+2l=O.O
DO 30 J=1 ,4
FCI+2l=FCI+2l+UNITCI,Jl*FFCJl
RETURN
END
SUBROUTINE PWM
SUBROUTINE PWMCT,VPl
RT IS THE FREQUENCY RATIO
M THE MODULATION DEPTH
FM MODULATING FREQUENCY

PARAMETER CNI=100l
REAL8 ALFAC3000l
REAL*8 ATCNil,VACNil,VBCNil,VCCNil,VPC3l
REAL*8 VaCNil,Vb!Nil,VcCNil
REAL*8 T,M,K,V,IU,TN,D
COMMON/BLK3/VA,VB,VC
PI=4.0*ATAN!1 .Ol
FM=SO.O
R120=2.0PI/3.0
RT=21
M=FM*0.018
K=PI/RT
V=540.00/2
WM=2.0PIFM
DO 999 Kl=1 ,3
WRITEC*,55l

.....

- 228 -

55

100
200
300

c
c

11
90

10

c
c

30
35
40
C

999

' .

FORMAT(/'
ALFAC2*J-1l
ALFAC2*Jl'/l
DO 10 J=1 ,RT
IF CKI.EQ.1 l GO TO 100
IF CKI.EQ.2l GO TO 200
IF CKI.EQ.3l GO TO 300
ALFAC2*J-1 l= CK/2.0l*C4*J-3-M*SINC C2*J-1 l*Kl l
ALFAC2*Jl=CK/2.0l*C4*J-1+M*SINCC2.0*J-1 l*Kll
GOTO 10
ALFAC2*J-1 l=CK/2.0l*C4*J-3-M*SINCC2.0*J-1 l*K-2.0*PI/3.0ll
ALFAC2*Jl=CK/2.0l*C4*J-1+M*SINCC2.0*J-1 l*K-2.0*PI/3.0ll
GOTO 10
ALFAC2*J-1 l= CK/2.0l*C4*J-3-M*SINC C2.0*J-1 l*K+2.0*PI/3.0l l
ALFAC2*Jl=CK/2.0l*(4*J-1+M*SINCC2.0*J-1 l*K+2.0*PI/3.0ll
IIRITEC*,90J ALFAC2*J-1 l ,ALFAC2*J J
FORMATC2CF10.4,2Xll
CONTI NUl!
IU=-V
DO 30 J=1 ,RT
IFCALFAC2*J-1 J.LE.D.AND.D.LT.ALFAC2*Jll GO TO 35
CONTINUE
GO TO 40
IU=V
CONTINUE
ASSIGN CALCULATED VALUES TO ARRAYS
IF CKI EQ. 1 l VAC I Kl =I U
IF CKI . EQ. 2 l VB (I Kl =I U
IFCKI.EQ.3l VCCIKJ=IU
CONTINUE
RETURN
END

cC***************************************************************
.
c
c
SUBROUTINE GRAPHSCX, Y, NPTS,DEVJ
INTEGER DEV
INTEGER LENT, STLENG
DIMENSION XCNPTSJ, YCNPTSJ
CHARACTER *60 YTITLE, GTITLE

901

DO 901 I = 1 , NPTS
PRINT *, I , XC I J , YCI l
CONTINUE
PRINT *'
PRINT *
PRINT *,'Input the TITLE of the iraph'
READ 1,GTITLE
PRINT *' Input '
PRINT
PRINT

*'.

*'.

- 229 -

PRINT *'Input theY axis title'


READ 1 ,YTITLE
PRINT *,' Input '
FORMAT CA>
IFCDEV .EQ. 2.0R.DEV .EQ. 3l
IFCDEV .EQ. 4l INK = 0
IF<DEV.NE.4l INK = 1
CALL
XS =
YS =
CHSX
CHSY

CALL DEVPAPC297., 210., Ol

PAPENQCXPAP, YPAP, IPAPTYl


XPAP/297.
YPAP/210.
= 3.0*XS
= 3.0*YS

CALL IIINDOIIC2l
CALL PENSELCINK, 0, Ol
CALL CHASIZCCHSX, CHSYl
C Set axix parameters
XLEN = 200.0
YLEN = 100.0

xo

= 65.0

= 50.0

YO

NINTSX = 10
NINTSY = 5

XMIN = X(1 >


XMAX = XCNPTS>
YMAX=O.O
YMIN=O.O
DO 5 1=1, NPTS
IF ( Y( I l . GT . YMAX l YMAX =Y( I l
IFCYCI l .LT. YMINl YMIN=YCI l
CONTINUE
YMAX = 1.05 * YMAX
YMIN = 1.05 * YMIN
., CALL PICCLE
cALL WINDOWC2l
ICURX = 1
ICURY = 2
CALL MOVT02!0.0, O.Ol
CALL LINT02CO.O, 210.YS>
CALL LINT02(297.*XS, 210.YS)
CALL LINT02(297.*XS, 0.0)
CALL LINT02CO.O, 0.0)
CALL
CALL
CALL
CALL
CALL
CALL
CALL

AXIPOS(1, XO XS, YO YS, XLEN * XS, ICURXl


AXISCAC1, NINTSX, XMIN, XMAX, ICURX>
AXIDRACO, 0, ICURX>
AXIPOSC1, XO* XS, YO* YS, YLEN * YS, ICURY>
AXISCA(1, NINTSY, YMIN, YMAX, ICURYl
AXIDRA(O, 0, ICURY>
GRID(-2, 1, 1 >

CALL GRAPOL(X, Y, NPTSl

- 230 -

XX = XO+XLEN-48.0
CALL MOVT02<XX*XS, 40.*YSl
CALL CHAHOL (' *UT*L I ME SEC *.' l
XL = ((XO l - 15.0 l * XS
NN = STLENG<YT!TLEl
X1 = <YLEN/2.0> + YO
X2 = <NN/2.0)*3.0
YL = X1 - X2
CALL MOVT02<XL, YL*YSl
YL = YL*YS
CALL CHAANG<90.0l
CALL MOVT02<XL, YLl
LENT = STLENG<YTITLEl
YTITLE <LENT+1: l = '*.
CALL CHAHOL<YTITLEl
YTITLE<LENT+1 :l = '
CALL CHAANG<O.Ol
CALL PTITLE<GTITLE, XS, YS, XO, YO, XLENl
CALL CHAMOD
CALL MOVT02(0.0, O.Ol
CALL PICCLE
PRINT *, >
READ<*,*)
CALL MOVT02<0., 150.*YSl
CALL CHAMOD
RETURN
END

C***************************************************************

C FUNCTION RETURNS THE LENGTH OF THE STRING

c
c

10
20

INTEGER FUNCTION STLENG<Al


INTRINSIC LEN
CHARACTER * 60 A
INTEGER N,I,LENGTH
N=LEN<Al
DO 10, . I =N, 1 , -1
LENGTH= I
IF (A (I :I l . NE. ' ' l GOTO 20
CONTINUE
STLENG=LENGTH
RETURN
END

C***************************************************************

Subroutine to plot TITLE

SUBROUTINE PTITLE<TITLE, XS, YS, XO, YO,XLENl


CHARACTER *60 TITLE
REAL XS, YS
INTEGER LENT, STLENG
NN = STLENG<TITLEl
X1 = <XLEN/2 .0) + XO

- 231 -

X2 = !NN/2.0l*3.0
XL = X1 - X2
CALL MOVT02!XL*XS, 25.0*YSJ
LENT = STLENGCTITLEJ
TITLE!LENT+1:J = '*'
CALL CHAHOL!TITLEJ
TITLE!LENT+1:J ='
CALL CHAMOD
CALL MOVT02CO.O, O.OJ
RETURN
END
SUBROUTINE DBLSNG!X,Y,NPTSJ
REAL X( NPTS J
REAL *8 YCNPTSJ
DO 5 I : 1 , NPTS
XCIJ = SNGL!Y!IJJ
5

CONTINUE
RETURN
END

- 232 -

C
C

OUTPUT WAVEFORMS
HARMONIC ANALYSIS

INVENT~R

c
c
c

LISTING OF SYSTEM
SUBROUTINE C06EAF TO CALCULATE THE HARMONIC ORDER
CHARACTER INFIL128,0UTF1L128
INTEGER !FAIL,J,N2,N,NJ,M
INTEGER TITEL 1201
REAL 8 AI 1 1 000 l , B I 11 000 l, X( 11 000 l
COMMON/BLK1/Y,H,YA
COMMON/BLK2/A,B,X
DIMENSION Yl10010l,HA11000l,YNI10010l
PRINT
PRINT,'PLEASE ENTER NO. OF POINTS N AND NO.
HARM.
READ <.IN,M
PRINT
PRINT,'ENTER NAME OF INPUT FILE '
READ I,' I AI' IINFIL
OPEN15,FILEINFIL,STATUS ='OLD' l
PRINT,'ENTER THE OUTPUT FILENAME'
READI*,' lA I' llNFIL
OPEN16,FILEINFIL,STATUS='NEW' I
IF IN.LE. i I STOP
READI5,1 IXIJI,J = 1,Nl
CLOSE15l
IFAILO
CALL C06EAF IX,N,IFA!Ll
Alil=XI1l
6(110.0
N2= <N+I l /2
DO 60 J=2,N2
NJ=N-,1+2
ACJlX<Jl
AINJJ=XIJl
l:HJ lXINJ l
BINJl=-XINJl
CONTINUE
NMAX NJ
lP IMODIN,2l.NE.Ol GO TO 80
AIN2+1 lXIN2+1 l
. BIN2+1 1=0.0

C
C

60

'

80

C
C
C
C
70
C
C

NMAX = N2 + 1

CONTINUE
DO 70 L2,NMAX
JL-1
YILl=DSQRTIAILl*2+BILl2l
H=1/DSQRTI1+1FJ/4200.0l*l26ll
YILlHYILl
YINLl=DSQRTIAINL12+BINLl2l
YN1Ll=Y1Ll/YI21*100
YNILl=YINLl/YI2l100
CONTINUE
PRINT,'ENTER NAME OF OUTPUT PILE '
R!OAD<, IAl' JOUTPIL
OPENI6,FILE=OUTPIL,STATUS = 'NEW' I
NORDER = MININMAX,Ml
DO 100 J=2,NORDER
HA I J l = J -1

M'

- 233 -

YRITE!6,999941 HA!JI,Y!JI
CONTINUE
CLOSE!61
c
99994 FORMAT <2X,2F10.51
NPTS = NORDER - 1
CALL PLOT!HA!21,Y!2l,NPTSI
STOP
END
100

SUBROUTINE PLOT!HA,YN,NPTSI
PARAMETER !NWOHDS 40, NFORM 21
REAL HA!NPTSI,YN!NPTSI,X!101 I,YNP(101 I
INTEGER TiTLE!NWORDSI
HARONlC ORDER PL01'

(''

c
c

10

VYMAX = YMAX!YN,NPTSI
DU 1 0 [ " 1 , NPTS
X!ll 0.0
YNP!II YN!II/VYMAX 100.0
CONTlNUE

c
150

55

PRINT 150
I
fORMAT ('1T4010
2C1051N
READ (*,*I
KP
i'RlNT 1
FORMAT ('INPUT FREQUENCY:' I
READ <.~51 TITLE
FORMAT !40A21
IF ( KP. EQ. 1 I CALL '1'40 1 0
!F !KP.EQ.21 CALL C1051N
CALL ERRMAX!1001
CALL DE VPAP !29?. ,300., 1 I
CALL PICCLE
CALL WINDOY (21
CALL MOVT02 !35.0,225.01
CALL CHASIZ !10.0,10.01
CALL CHAHOL ('HARMONIC ANALYSIS.' I
CALL CHASIZ (2.0,2.01
DRAW LINE
CALL MOVT02 (45.0,220.01
CALL LINT02 !270.0,220.01
CALL CHASIZ !2.,2. I
CALL AXIPOS !1 ,45.0,40.0,100.0,21
CALL AXIPOS (1,45.0,40.0,100.0,1 I
CALL AXlSCA !5,NPTS,1 .O,HEAL!NPTSI,1 I
CALL AXISCA ~1 ,10,0.0,YMAX!YNP,NPTSI,21
CALL AXlDRA (1,1,1 I
CALL AXIDRA !-2,-1 ,21
CALL GRABAN!X,YNP,NPTS,O.OI
CALL
CALL
CALL
CALL
CALL
CALL
CALL
CALL

MOVT02
CHAHOL
MOVT02
CHAANG
CHAHOL
CHAANG
CHASIZ
MOVT02

!120.,32.01
!'HARMONIC ORDER.' I
!37.0,74.01
(90.01
('AMPLITUUE!7.1.,' I
!0.01
!4.,4.1
!120.0,20.01

- 234 -

t,

CALL CHAARR(TJTLE,NWOROS,NFORMI
DRAW LINE
CALL MOVT02 ( 4:i. 0, 10. 0 l
CALL L!NT02 (265.0,10.01
CALL UEVENU
RETURN
END

c
c
c

REAL FUNCTION YMAX I Y. c!PTS I

c
C

THIS FUNFION

~~TURNS

c
REAL Y\NPTSI
YMAX "

YI1 l

DO 10 I " 2,NPTS
10

YMAX" MAX(YMAX.Y(!'ll
CONTINUE
RETURN
END

TilE MAX VALUE IN ARRAY YN

l l

APPENDIX D

Listing of microcomputer software

- 235 -

1 (1(.1

~3T=260C10

110 RNST REQUIRED SPEED


120 KP=ST+1 PROPORTIONAL GAIN
1~R KI=ST+2 INTEGRAL GAIN
140 KD=ST+S DERIVATIVE GAIN
150 AKI=ST+4 ADDITIONAL DIVISOR FOR INTEGRAL TERM
160 AKO=ST+5 ADDITIONAL DIVISOR FOR OERIV TERM
170 SE=ST+6 SIGN OF ERROR TERM RN-CN
180 E=ST +7 ERF.:OI': TEI'':II F.'I-~--CN
190 SD=ST+8 SIGN OF OERIV TERM
200 D=ST+9 DERIV TERM CN-1 -CN
210 DSLO=ST+11 PID RESULT LOW BTE
220 [I~;HI=~::T+l.3 F'ID RE:c;l_!LT HIGH E.:'T'TC
230 SPID=ST+12 SIGN OF PID RESULT
240 MS=ST+14 SIGN OF M2B
2~~0

t1H I =ST + 1 ::; HI E:\1 TE UF r1UL T

260
280
290
300
320
:3:30
340
350
:360
370

MLO=ST+17 LO BYTE OF MULl


TEt'IF'=ST + 1 :o:
NDS=ST+19 NEW DEMANDED SPEED:SPEED THIS SAMCLE:BEFORE lHIS HOLDS NOS FOR
JPREVIOUS SAMPLE
C1=ST+21 CN-1 PREVIOUS SPEED
Ct-~"'ST+2:" CN
ACT SI''EEIJ 1-101-1 ,.,,TI-1
DIVR=ST+lB NO OF SHIFTS TO REDUCE GAIN IHPUT TO MAX GAIN ALLONED
IS=ST+23 SIGN OF INTEGRAL TERM
It-~TI-II=ST+<'24 1-1 IGH OF' INTiot31"-:liL lEHi''l
INTLO=ST+25 LOW BYTE OF INTEGRAL TERM

39CJ

DDF.:I4:::::~:i945~7.~

4~:10

I t:)Rt=/:;:;594? l

41 (1

F'CI~:==~5946C:

4;;-~o

FB~~;=S94~56

4::::0 I
44C1

Ff;.:=~:i9469

;~.;:::;;;::t:;,C1l;)O

450 BYT 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,0,1,2,8,4 ..

455
456
460
465

; THE SYSTEM CONSTANTS AHE STORED


; IN THE BYTES ADOVE
PlO JSR FORMT GETS SPEED DIFFEH,
-ENCES AND SIGNS

4?0 Lm1 #J

4:=:0 :o:TH
4:::~~.:.;

D~:;LO

~:::TJ=i

[I~~H I

11-~

IT I Al_ I:;;[

~;Utl

5,6,7,8,9,0,1,2,3,4,5,6~7,8

- 236 -

500
510
520
530
540

STI"' ::;pI D
;ROUTINE TO PRODUCE INTEGRAL TERM
;REGISTERS INTHI,INTLO,IS To BE
;INITIALISED AT START
;INTEGRAL TERM=SIGMA KI*ERROR~AKI

!::~~;~J .~::;ICi~~ IH I:3


552 LDA J<I
r:;i54 r:::EC! DEF: 1

560 L.Df'l :3E


::i?()

STFI tJs

5:::0 LDI''I E
~:;so STI"I t'lfH
600 LDf~ I< I
.:;: l 0 :3TI'I 11LO
6:20 .J:::R 1'12E:
630 12 LSR AKI SHIFTS FOR DIVISION
640 BEQ IS NO MORE SHIFTS REQ'D
650 LDA :::E
660 E:tlE I 1
6?0 CLC SE +VE THUS FEED O'S
6::::0 I'WF: t'IHI
6S<O f<:OF< 1'1LO
7~:;:1~~~ CL'/
710 E:'/C !2

?20 !1 SEC SE -VE THUS FEED l'S


?:::o f':OR 1'1H I
?40 F:OF.: t1LO
76(1 BVC I2
?70 !3 CLC ADD IN NEW RESULTS TO

?80
?90
:::00
:::10
:::~:0

::;:so
84J
850
860
870
880
::::91-3
9(UJ

9Hl
920
9:3~:::1

940
950
960
9i'O
980
982
9:34
990

LDA MLO PREVIOUS SUM:INCLUDE


ADC INTLO SIGNS TO UPDATE SIGN
:::Ti"' I tHLO
LOA t1H I
HDC HHHI
sn:l HHHI
LDf1 t18
ADC IS
Atm #1
STA IS INTEGRAL TERM NOW UPDATED
;NOW ADD INTO FINAL RESULT
CLC
LDA I~ri"LO
:;Tr:l OSLO
LOA HHHI
STA DSHI
LDA I-:>
STA SPID
;PRODUCE DERIVATIVE TERM
; =f<:O*O,-'AI<D tlt~O ADO RESULT
;INTO DSLO,DSHI AND SIGN SPID
DEF.:1 LDA f<O
8ECI PROl
LDA :;o

- 237 -

1000
101>3
1 ~J2~3
1 (13~3
1 OlO
1 \.~l~i~)
1060
1. 070
1 nnn
10:30
1100
1110
11::20
11 :3~3
1l.40

STi"' tl:3
LDA [I
:3Ti=t t1H I
LDI"' I<D
:::T1"1 t1UJ
.J:o:l;.: t1 ;;: r::
02 LSf.~ flf':D
E:EC! D:::::
LDI=t r1:::;:
E:t-lE D :1.

1;.:01:;;: t1LO

cu::
1':01': t1H I

F:OI~: r"ll_O
CL'l
E:'/C D;:~
11~50 Dl :".:EC
116>::' F:OF.: tHH

:1. ~:,~-J

1200
1210
1220
123>3
124>3
1250
126>c'
121'0
12:30
1 :2:3<:
1::::oo
1:31>3
1320
1 :3:30
1 :340
1350
1:360
1:370
1 ~:SO
1 ~:90
14>30
1410
1420
14:30
1440
1450
1460
1470
14:30
1490
15>30
1510
15213
1530
1540
1550
156>3
1570
1580
1590
1591

D3 CLC DEF:IV TEF:M COMPLETE: NOW


;ADO INTO DSL0,0:3HI AND SIGN SPID
LDI''I 1"1LO
ADC 0:3LO
:::T:'l o::::LO
LOA t1H I
I'IDC [1:3H I
:::n'l D:3H I
LOA t13
ADC :::f~ ID
At-m #1
:3Ti"' _:3PID
_, 1-lmJ PF.:OUCE F'F:OPOf'.:T I otlAL TEF.:t1
.~ =I<P:+:EF.:F.:OR
F'F.:O 1 LDH I<P
:::TA t1LO
LOI"' E
:3Hl t1H I
LOI'l SE
3Ti"' 1"18
_r:;p t128
;NOW ADO INTO OSLO,OSHI AND :3IGNO
CLC
LOI"' t1LO
ADC OSLO
:::TA D:3LO
LOA t1H I
ADC OSHI
STA OSH I
L'DA t1S
ADC :;pI D
At-m #1
STA :3PID
;OSLO,OSHI AND SIGN SPIO CONTAIN
; SUt1: IF ::;:p ID= 1 THEt~ 0Et1Atl0 :3PEEO
;=O:IF OSHI>O THEN DEMAND SPEED
_, =255: OTHEF.:"J I ~:E OSLO HAS I~E"J
;COMPUTED SPEEO:WE CAN USE LOOK-UP
;TABLE TO COMPUTE THE DEMANDED
;:::PEED
LDI'l SPID

- 238 -

150l2
159:3
1594
1595

E:EO P 1
LDA #0
E:EO P2
F'1 LDf'l [l::;:HI

1596 E:Ec~ p:::;:


1597 LCIIi #;;-~~55
159:3 E:t~E P~:Z

1600 p:::: LDfl o::::L.O


1610 P2 STA NDS NOS HAS COMPUTED 0/P
16:30 LDI~ UJT_.:<
1640 STA 13? 13? Hf'IS LOOK-UP TABLE 0/P
1t;;:;~:!j~71

F:TS

1?00
1?10
1?20
1?30
1740
1750
1"?60

M28
LOA
E:EO
LDA
EOP
ADC

CL.C SUBROUTINE TO MULT TWO


MS BYTES IN MHI AND MLO
M3 f'INSWEP IS IN Sf'IME TWO
MHI BYTES:PPEDICT SIGN AND
#255 PUT IN MS:NUM8EP PUT IN
#1 ML.O IS ALWAYS +VE

STI~

1"1H I

1 7~='0 11:3 LDH :l:f:l:)


1 ? :;;:: ~] L. [1 ::-:; .If s
t '?91~~ CLC

l ' ""'"':J t'1:2 F<: m::: '"'


: . ::;: 10 POP t1LO

1 :o:<::"O BCC t'll


:l.:.:::::;;:o CLC
J. ::;:41c1 I'IDC 1"1H I
l :3~50 m DE::-::
:t;::::60 E:F'L 1'12
1 ::)7(1 ::::Ti~ t1H I
LDI'I 1"1:3
:L ::::::~;!l;::t

m::o

1::::no

fic)
LDI'I I''IHI

1910

ECI{;~

:tJ:2~5~:5

19~2~Z1

::;:TA f1H I
19:::n LDI~ t1LO
1940 EO I;,: #~~~55
19~3~J CLC
196(1 ADC #1

1970

19:33
1993

2(n30
2010
2020
20:30
2040

::;:TA t1LO
8CC t1~5
IHC t1H I
t15 F.:TS
FOPt'lT :3EC FOF.:t1S ERF.:OR TERt1 It-~ E
LDR RN AND DERIV TERM IN D,
::;:se Ct-~ H~ Tl-m::: Cot1PLEt1Et-JT
:3TA E :3 I Cit~S It-~ SE At~D SD

2(150 8C:3 Fl
2060 LDA #1
207(1 8NE F2

2383 F 1 LOA #3
209(l F'- STA :3E

"'

2100 SEC

21H3 LOA Cl
2120 :38C et~
2130 :3TA 0

2140 8CS F.-.


215~3

LOA #1"'

- 239 -

2160
21"70
21::::0
2190
2240
2250
2260
22?0
22D<C
2290
:2:300
;2:310
:.;:::3;;~0

2:3:30
;2:;:32
:23:34
2:34;2
2:37~3

:2:XK
230::5
2:39~J

2400
241 o
2420
;<:4:32
24C::4
24:36
24 ;'o
2480
2490
25(u:;:t
:2510

E:tlE F4
F:3 LDA #0
F4 3TA SD
F.:T::>
1<3 LDfl CIJ
::;:TI=t c: 1
LDI=t PCF:
OF:I=t tt~~24
::::T1~1 PCP CE::2= 1 ':;::TflF.:T COtl
1<1 LDA IF!~
AND #2 CHECK CON FINISH
E:EO 1<1
L.OI~ :M:O
::::TI=t DDF:ti
L.CII'i :$E:340
At-lD #24 7
STA $E840 PE::3 OFF ENABLES A TO D
LDA I Of~: A
::::Tn (tl
.J::::R F' ID
LDA #2!55
STfl DDRA PORT=O/P
LDf1 1 :c:;'
STA IORA PUT RESULT ON BUS
LDI=t $E:340
ORfl tt:3
STA SE840 P83 ON ENABLES D TO A
LCII~i

r=cr;:

l=ltJ[I #;;-~;;~:~:
STA PCR MAKE C82=0
I IK:: 1:36
E:t-lE f<:3
1 1
252~3 LD T Ct~
253(1 .JSR :t027C
254'.3 .J::::F.: $DCE3
2550 Lm: #~5
.,,;;...
256~3 K'"'
LDf1 w-
-.:.:::.
2570 ~TSI;;: SFFD2

DE::.::
2590 BtlE 1<2
2600 LD'~ NDS
2610 ,TSF.: SD27C
2620 .]:3F.: $DCE:3
26~a3 LDA #H)
264~3 JSR $FFD2
2650 LDA #1:3
2660 ..r::::R SFFD2
2670 J:3F.: SFFE4
268~3 Ct1P #64
269~3 BtlE K5
27(U] F~TS
2?10 f(5 ,Tt1P K:3
-

.. -

..-.

.. ....

.-..-..

.-.~

.-...

.-..-. ""\-...

.-...." .--..c::

-~c

- 240 -

~n

LUT BYT

U,lO,l~,l~,l~,lt,lr,l~,l~,~~.~~.~~.~,~0,~~,~,v,~

,~u,~u----

30 BYT 35,37,38,40,40,41,43,44,45,45,47,47,48,50,51,51,52,53,54,54,55,57,57
10 BYT 58,60,61,61,62,63,64,65,65,66,6E:,70,71,71,73,73,74,75,77,78,80,81,81
~0 BYT 83,84,85,86,87,88,89,90,91,92,94,94,95,96,97,98,98,100,180,101,102,10~
60
70
80
90

1:: 1T 1 T
BYT
BYT
BYT

1 ~::14

00
10
20
30

BYT
BYT
BYT
BY'T

152,153,155,157,158,158,159,160,161,161,162,164,165,166,168,168,170
170,171,172,173,174,175,175,176,178,180,180,181,181,182,183,184,186
187,187,189,190,191,192,192,193,194,195,196,198,198,199,200,201,202
203,203.r204,205,207~208,288,209,218,210,211,212,213,213,214,215,216

105,105,106,107,108,108,110,110,111,112,11~,113,114,115,116,117,118
118,119,120,121,122,123,124,125,126,127,128,129,130,131,132,132,133
134,135,136,137,138,139,140,141,142,143,144,145,147,149,150,150,151

40 BYT 217,218,219,220,221,222,222,223,224,225,225,226,227,228,228,229,230
50 BYT 231,231,232,2:33,234,235,236,23.?,23~~,239,240,241,241,242,242,243,244

60 BYT

2~~5,246,247,247,248,249~250,251,252,253,254,255

7.:1 Hm
90 POKE 250,1:E8=59456~00=59459~PA=594~~1~POKEE8,PEEK(E8)AND231 :POKE 00,255
70 IHF'UT"EIHEF.: I<:EC!Uli;:EIJ :3F'EEIJ 0::1":Pt1> "'"" :::>P=ItH(S/4) :POI<E ;26JOO . ::>P :Pf?II-fT
::;::~3

CL:$:=~

"

11

I Jll::l_lT n E~.rn::F: rlf~::-:: (31~ I J l ( :l .r :2 .r 4" ~ ... ;~"~~::i6) n .:~ 1:3 :: DF.:::::: I J.rr ( L.OCi ( ;;~56/Ci) ,..'L.CH3 ( ::2) +. 4)
POKE 26010,DR:POKE 136,0
PF.:HH"Ef'ICH UHIT OF CiFlHi COEFFICIEt--IT =L'" ';256,..-'G
IHPUT''EHTER PPOPORTIOHAL CiAIH '';PG:POKE 26001,PCi
I llPUT "0-HEP DER I '/fiT I \lE OH I ll " ' IJCi : 1=01<E ;2600:3 . DO
HII0 'UT"EtlTEi;: :1:1'-HI::OF:HL Of1II'I "" IO ::POKE :::::OOO;;, . IU
::;o F'f;: I IH "Et--I'TI::J<: HDD IT l OI"IHL D I ',' I :.3 I Clll F'()l;: I< I "
6(1 I HPUT 11 ( t .r 2 .r 4 ~ ... ;~::~:~6) !I .~ I~DI:~:
70 IF I~DP=O TI-IEI'-l F'F<:IrH""!J'' .'CL!c :F'f':II-i'T'CL:>: :PPIIrT ":::::r.::D" :OOTO :3150

90
00
10
20
:30
40

80 POKE 26023,(L.QG(A0R)/L.OG(2))
90 FOP 1'-126020 TO 26026:F'OKE H,0:FOP 1'-126011 TO 2601:3:POKE H,O
00 :;:;'T'S26426 :PI<: I IH : F'F.: I tIT "r.;:EC!U I F:ED ::WEED=" .: :::;
:tO F'I;:II..IT"I.1f:i:'':HItWI C;f1H-i'"" .G ::PI~II-fl'"O'/EF.:11LL PF.:OF'OPTICHH'IL GfiHl=" ,,c;,. ';256;.1'F'O
'2~3 F'l:;;: I I~T ''I)','Er;;:ALL DEF~: I \'AT I ','E 01:1 I li:::~ ,, .~ GW-00.'2~:~6
:::0 F'RHlT"O'/EF:i'ILL HHEOF.:flL Of1Hl=" .' IO>I<0.:;::56/I'IDP
'40 PRIHT:PF.:IHT:GOTO 3070
'50 FOF.: 1'-1=26010 TO 26013:F'OKE H,0:HEXT
'60 IHPUT''EHTEP MAXIMUM OHIH
'';D1:D=256/D1:DF.:=LOU<:D>/LOU<2>:S=0
'70 POKE 26024,0:POKE 26025,0:POKE 26026,0:ITEPM=0
'10:0 PP I IH "lotfTEI': l"lDD IT I OllHL D I ',' I:=; I otl 1:c11;: I< I"' :I HF'UT 1=1[11;:
~90

::oo

POKE

26023,LOG<ADR>~LOG(2)

F'P HlT "ENTEF.: C 1 . C2 . f<D . I<P . f< I , [1:3F'" : HIF'UT C 1 n . C214 . fc:D . f<:P, f< I . DP
: 10 . C214=C 11'1 : C lH=CtlA : H-lPUT" EtHEF: Ct1" .' Ct~n
120 POKE 26000,DP:POKE 26001,KP:POKE 26002,KI:POKE 26010,DR
1
:::::aJ POKE 26~32~3 .r C2A : FOI<E 26~::121 .~ C 11:~ :POKE 260~~2 .~ CliF~ : PO~<E 26~3~3:3 .~ I<D : ~::; r'~326~J29
l40 ITERM=ITEPM+KIWO::DP-CNfi)/140F::SKPW<DP-CNH>+ITEF:M+KD*<2*C1A-C2fi-CNH>
:6~3 :31=2~56*PEE~<(26(112>+PEEK<26~J11)

:A$=""

::70 IF PEEK(26C11:3>>127THEN A$="-" :::::1=256:+:256-Sl


,80 DD=PEEK<26019)
-:90 F'P I t1T" I 1-1 I=" ; F'EEf< ( ;;::6324) ' T1=1E: ( 1 ~~) "::;:I=" ; PEEK ( ;26006) ; TfiE: ( 21) "E:A:3 I C ::;:Ut1=" ' F:3
'=" .1'1,>.''
lOO PPHlT" II'1D=" .'F'EEf<C26(125) .:T1=1E:< 12) "SF'=" .PEEf<C26()~;)4) .'TI'IE:(21) "t1/C :::Ut1
HO F'HHH" ILO=" ;PEEf<<26026) .:TI'II::( 12:: "::m=" .I-'EEI<0::26008) ,,TAE:<21 >"DEt1Flt~DED '=" .DD
2J PP HH "SLO=" ; F'EEf< C260 11 > .:THE:< 1 ~~ > " I=" 'PEEK<: 26007) ' TAE: ( 21 ) "I TEF.:t1
=" ' I TEi ,
30 F'PitH":3t'ID=" .:F'EEf<<26012) ;THB< 12>" F'=" .:PEEK<26005)
40 PR INT 11 SHI== 11 .~PEEK ( 26(11:3) .~TAB< 12)" 0=" ;.PEEl< (;26~J09)
50 GOTO :33 H::1
.:H3(10 SS=26000 :
3100 PR I 1-H" :3PEED F:HtKiE 0-1 000 F:Pt1" : PF<: I ~H" SCHLE FACTOR 4"
3110 Hlf'UT" Et-ITEF.: PEG!U I F.:ED :3F'EED ( F.:PtD " ;. :3 : :;F'=S/4 : POI<E :3:3 . SF'
3120 PF.:ltH"EtHEF.: FF.:OPOF:Tiot-lAL OAH1 (f<F') ": H1F'UT"
1 ,2 255 ";PO :POKE :3:3+1 . F'
31:30 IHPUT''ENTER IHTEURHL CiAIH <KI> 0,1 255 '';IO:POKE SS+2,IG
3140 F'PIHT"EtHEP HDDITIOHAL HH. OAH1 DIVI:::OF.:": HlPUT"
<AKI"> 1 . 2 . 4 12:3 ".n'II

- 241 -

18150
l 0160
10170
10180
101:30
1 0200
10210
1 0~220

POKE SS+4,AI
PF.: I tH" 0\'ERl"'LL I IHEGF:HL GH I t1 ,=",;I G.'l"' I
HlPUT"Et-HEF: OEF.:I'/ GHH1 <KD) ( . 1 2~55 ".;DG :POKE :o::=.:+3 . DG
PF.:INT''ENTEF: ADDITIONAL DERIV GAIN DIVISOF.:''
H1PUT" <l'ii<:D) 1 . 2 . 4 1.:28 ".;l'iD :POKE :=.:3+5 ... 1:'1[1
FF.: I tiT" O'v'EF.:ALL DE F.: I V CHi I 11 =" ' f<D.'I"'D
POKE SS+23,0:POKE SS+24,0:POKE SS+25,0:REM ZEF.:OES INTEGRAL F.:EGISTEP:
POf':E ::;:::;:+22 . 0: F.:Etl PU: .: :,:;::;~ED t10~l=O

10230 SYS26426:GOTtJ 10000


20~3~:::1~3

:20010
:20020
:200:2 :l
200:c~c

:20023
:200:24
~:00~~~5

,,:002?
20030
20035
20037
20040
20050
20060
200;'0
.F<:EI"'D'T'.

:;;:;:;:.::~~t:.CJOO : ;=r;;~ II~T '' ;::~ ~

I !~PUT'' ENTEF~ C~~ '' .~ Ct~;~ : POI<ES!3+22 ... Cl~;-~


IliPUT"EtH:EF.: Cl1-1 ".t11:.; :FOI<E s::::+:2l. . 111:.;
HWUT"EtHEP DEtu=HIDED :::::PEED ".:cm;.; :i='CW:E :::3 . DD;.;
I IIF'UT" El'-lTEP F'ROPORT I Utlf'IL Gl'i I t1 " .: n::;.; : FOfe;E :3:::+ :l . f<F;.;
I HPUT" EtH:EF.: I I.ITEGF.:i"'L GH I H ".: K I;.; :POKE S~:+:~~, I< I;.;
IllF'UT"EtlTEP mmiTIOHFlL Dl','I30FC fW:I ".:1:11::.; :F'OKE ::::3+4 . Fli;;
I IIPUT" EtITEH DEl~: I\'t~T I '.'E Ol'i I t1 ".: I<D;-;: POKE ::::::+3 . f<D;;
IIIF'UT'"EtH'EF: HDDITI0t1HL DI','I:::OF~ Af<D ".:no;.; :POI<E :=.::::+~5 ... rm;.;
F'OI<E :C:S+~:3 . 0 ::POf,::E ::;::~>1-;;~4 . 0 :PCW:E ::.0::3+:25 . 0: IT=O
3YS2602:3:PPINT''HEW DEMANDED 3PEED <PI[l) ='';PEEKCSS+19)
EP%=DD%-CH%:D%=H1%-CH%::IT=IT+KI%*ER%~AI%
PI~KP%#ER%+KO%#D%~AD%+IT:

l"i1PEEKCS3+11):1"i2=PEEKCSS+12)::J"i3PEEK<3S+13)
PPIHT Fl3;Fl2;H1;256*A3+A1
PI~: I HT" 11[1:3 ( BA:3 I C) "~" .: 1= I
I llf'UT" Et-ITEIO.: IJEI.l ::;:FEED "; Ct1::.;: POkE :::::::+;2::2 . CIJ;~: OOTO 21)0:30