REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE I. Definition of Wastes II. Classification of Wastes A. Solid Waste B. Liquid Waste C. Sludge D.

Hazardous Waste III. Waste Management

I. Definition of Wastes -- ito ang mga bagay na sa tingin natin ay hindi na ginagamit, wala ng silbi, o patapon. Sa panahong maitapon ang isang bagay sa tinatawag nating basurahan, ito ay pwede nang tawaging basura. II. Classification of Wastes – Waste is categorized broadly into "controlled waste" and non-controlled waste". The types of waste regulated by the Agency are called "controlled waste." This includes household, commercial and industrial waste. Other waste called "non-controlled waste" are not currently regulated in the same way. Solid Waste -- -- Any unwanted or discarded material that is not a liquid or gas. Includes organic wastes, paper products, metals, glass, plastics, cloth, brick, rock, soil, leather, rubber, yard wastes, and wood, but does not include sewage and hazardous materials. Liquid Waste --
originating from a community. They may have been composed of domestic wastewaters or industrial discharges.

Sludge -- a thick soft substance that remains when liquid has been removed from something in an industrial process

Hazardous Waste -- special type of waste because it cannot be disposed of by common means like other by-products of our everyday lives. Depending on the physical state of the waste, treatment and solidification processes might be available. III. Waste Management A. Waste Management in Developed Countries

1. Solid Waste Management A.) Landfill --
A method of solid waste disposal in which refuse is buried between layers of dirt so as to fill in or reclaim low-lying ground.

B.) Recycling on the 3R’s - (Reduce - Reuse - Recycle) are at the heart of the "simple things you can do for the earth" movement. The concepts stretch into all areas of our lives. We know it can be tough to change habits, especially when we are bombarded with messages to buy more and try to the latest, greatest convenience fad. But intuitively we know that using something once and tossing it into the trash is wasteful. It just doesn't feel right. C.) Incineration -- waste treatment technology that involves the combustion of organic materials and/or substances. 1. Liquid Waste Management A.) Management Plans

B.) Wastewater Treatment -- Wastewater is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food scraps, oils, soaps and chemicals. In homes, this includes water from sinks, showers, bathtubs, toilets, washing machines and dishwashers. Businesses and industries also contribute their share of used water that must be cleaned. Wastewater also includes storm runoff. Although some people assume that the rain that runs down the street during a storm is fairly clean, it isn't. Harmful substances that wash off roads, parking lots, and rooftops can harm our rivers and lakes. C.) Injection Wells -- Injection wells are used for many purposes. One of these is waste water dumping, in which waste water is injected into the ground between impermeable layers of rocks to avoid polluting fresh water supplies. In this case, when the injection well is full, it would be cemented to seal it to avoid leakage from the injection point. Another use of injection wells is in petroleum production. Steam, carbon dioxide, water, and other substances can be injected into an oil-producing unit in order to maintain reservoir pressure, heat the oil or lower its viscosity, allowing it to flow to a producing well nearby. See the article on water injection for oil production for more details. Yet another use for injection wells is in environmental remediation, for cleanup of either soil or groundwater contamination. Injection wells can insert clean water into an aquifer, thereby changing the direction and speed of groundwater flow, perhaps towards extraction wells downgradient, which could then more speedily and efficiently remove the contaminated groundwater. Injection wells can also be used in cleanup of soil contamination, for example by use of an ozonation system. Complex hydrocarbons and other contaminants trapped in soil and otherwise inaccessible can be broken down by ozone, a highly reactive gas, often with greater cost-effectiveness than could be had by digging out the affected area. Such systems are particularly useful in built-up urban environments where digging may be impractical due to overlying buildings.[1] Theoretically, an injection well is a safe way to dump waste waters as wastes are injected into layer of rocks where water can't go through and building an injection well is strictly controlled, however injection wells are known to be prone to leaking because of earthquakes and fractures in the rock structure. 1. Hazardous Waste Management

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