Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions St.

John’s University

PHS 3302

Biomedical II LAB

Dr. Louis D. Trombetta Anne Marie Basso

Revised 2/9/2008

LAB SAFETY AND PROCEDURES
Absences from the lab are not permitted unless due to an illness: If you are sick or unable to attend lab, please notify Dr. Diane Hardej, Director of Labs of the PHS Department (718) 990-6370 and your instructor will be told. All missed labs must be made up in the time period that that particular lab is running you must get a note from your instructor for the makeup of the missed lab. Quizzes can be made up only with a Doctor’s note and will be given by the instructor. After that time, the lab can not be repeated and the student must drop the course. The lab will begin promptly at the scheduled time. Excessive lateness (more than 15 min.) will be considered an absence. Lecture material will not be repeated. Chronic lateness will be reflected in your grade. The teaching fellow and assistants will constantly evaluate your performance in the lab. Your technique and lateness will be considered when you are graded. If you do not understand the procedure, please ask questions. Quizzes will be given in the form of a written or oral test. The quizzes will cover the past week’s work and the present week’s work. The lab is to be conducted in a quiet manner at all times. If anyone is found to be making excessive noise, he /she will be told to leave the lab and will be given a zero for the lab. The equipment used in this laboratory; is expensive and delicate. You will be held responsible for its proper use. If you are not sure as to how a particular piece of equipment works, ask the instructors. Disrespect for animals used in this lab will not be tolerated. Long white cotton lab coats must be worn during all the lab sessions. No open toed shoes will be allowed in the labs. For the exams, lab coats must be worn if the preserved animal specimens are displayed. No eating, drinking or smoking is permitted in the lab. No telephone use is permitted during the lab session. All phones on the OFF position. No one will be allowed to leave the lab before the end of the period. All accidents must be reported to the lab instructor immediately. The lab is to be left cleaner than when you came in.

Revised 2/9/2008

You are required to obtain the following equipment: 1.INTRODUCTION The teaching fellow will instruct all students as to the use and care of the binocular microscope. an instructor will do this. Dissection Guide & Atlas to the Rat by Smith &Schenk. blunt probes. . 2. . 2 forceps – one with teeth and one without. for use in the dissection of the preserved specimens.Morton Publishing Co. The course grading scale is as follows: Quizzes 30% Mid-term 35% Final Exam 35% 100% Deportment/ lateness will be considered in your overall grade. In this course we will be using 1. No student will leave the laboratory period without the Instructor’s permission. Marieb .With at least.Pearson publisher 2. . Human Anatomy and Physiology laboratory manual by Elaine N. if desired. No student is to pick up or return the microscope to the cabinet. A dissecting kit.a scissors. Disposable gloves.

Sheep Kidney and Rat Dissection Anatomy of the EYE and EAR / Lymphatic/Endocrine systems Digestive. Respiratory System / Respiratory Physiology .Table of contents Lab# 1 2 3 4 5 6 Title Bone / Skeleton – Human Bone Skeletal Muscles – Rat Dissection Circulatory System – Rat Dissection Urogenital System.Human Mid – Term Exam 7 8 9 10 11 Functions of Cell Membranes – active and passive transport Histology of the four types of Tissue Neuroanatomy – Sheep Brain & Spinal Cord / Electroencephalograph Muscle physiology – Human Cardiac Physiology – Human 17 19 25 27 28 Page# 4 7 8 11 13 15 4 .

middle and distal 3. trochlea. Lower Extremities: Femur. body of the pubis 4. lateral epicondyle. superior border. Illium – iliac crest. capitate. Femur – 5 . and the pubis. head. metacarpals of the palm. Time To Come Home from medial to lateral proximal row . and hamate metacarpals – The bones of the palm of the hand phalanges – fingers-Proximal. The humerusHead. pubis and ischium. intertubercular groove.LAB PERIOD 1 – Bone/Skeleton I. olecranon fossa. 2. ischial tuberosity. APPENDICULAR SKELETON Marieb EXERCISE 11. infraglenoid tubercle. 126 bones) 1.Upper extremities: Humerus. the ileum. Lower extremity. styloid process. Acetabulum – made up from illium. ramus. coracoid process. lesser tubercle. Pelvic girdle 4.Pectoral girdle scapula and clavicle The scapula – scapular notch. greater tubercle. tibia. radial tuberosity. conoid tubercle. patella. coronoid process. spine of ischium Pubis . styloid process.Pelvic girdle: (Os coxae or hipbones). triquetrum. Ulnar notch The ulna – olecranon process trochlear notch. acromion. (Approx. lunate. Ischium – obturator foramen.superior and inferior rami. sternal end. deltoid tuberosity. The handcarpals of the wrist Say Loudly To Pam. capitulum. fibula.scaphoid. nutrient foramen (on posterior side). radius. The clavicle – acromial end. page 105 Consists of: 1. posterior superior and inferior spines. shaft. and phalanges of the fingers. glenoid fossa or cavity. trapezoid. and calcaneus. carpals of the wrist. Upper extremity 3. Pectoral girdle 2. The radius head. the ischium. ulna. anterior superior and inferior spines. each of which consists of three fused bones. lateral border and medial border. and pisiform distal row – trapezium.

superior nucal line. foramen rotundum foramen ovale. medial epicondyle. jugular foramen. inferior nucal line 6 . zygomatic bone. sphenoid bone. Hyoid bone. vomer bone. occipital condyle. median palatine suture. intercondylar eminence. lateral condyle. medial condyle. olfactory foramina). tibial articular facet) Calcaneus –– The heel bone II. sella turcica. page 90 Consists of 80 bones including:. medial pterygoid process. palatine bone. sagittal suture occipital lambdoidal suture LOOKING FACE ONNasal bone.Marieb EXERCISE 10. cribriform plate. AXIAL SKELETON . supraorbital foramen. lateral epicondyle. 1. and medial malleolus. middle nasal concha. head (apex. foramen magnum. 1. Lateral viewTemporal bone. superior nasal concha. temporal process.Head. Vertebral column 3. lateral pterygoid process. Thoracic cage (Sternum and ribs) 4. patella. vomer. sphenoid bone. medial condyle. zygomatic arch. foramen spinosum. lesser trochanter. (crista galli. ethmoid bone. inferior nasal concha. body of the femur. mental foramen. Inferior viewPalatine process of maxilla. infraorbital foramen. styloid process. foramen lacerum. mastoid process. neck. lacrimal bone. external protuberance. tibial tuberosity. Interior viewEthmoid bone. carotid canal. mandibular condyle and mandibular fossa on skull. Skull 2. maxilla. zygomatic process. perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone. mandible. Patella – Apex and base Tibia – Lateral condyle. Fibula – Lateral malleolus. Skull: Superior view Frontal Coronal suture paired parietals. external auditory meatus. linea aspera. greater trochanter. gluteral tuberosity. optic canal. foramen ovale. fovea capitis. intercondylar fossa.

GeneralA centrum or body. neck. Likewise the manubrium because of the suture at the angle 4. first find the supra sternal notch and immediately above will be the thyroid. 5 Lumbar – The spinous process is thicker and blunted. the superior and inferior articulating surfaces are above and below.Vertebral Column: consists of the 33 individual vertebrae. Atlas (rests against the occipital condyle – allows the head to move up and down). The Ribs – 7 true ribs are joined to the sternum. 7 .5 fused vertebrae – Coccyx . Serves to aid tongue movement and swallowing. the angle and costal groove along the shaft and the sternal end. Axis (dens.the last vertebra –the tail 3. inferior and superior articulating processes..Thoracic Cage: Sternum and ribs consists of the 12 pairs of ribs and the sternum. When administering CPR the body of the sternum should be pressed not the xiphoid process because of the danger of this snapping off and lacerating the liver. a spinous process. the centrum is thicker and transverse process wider. allows the head to move from side to side). Hyoid Bone A floating bone attached to the styloid process of the head. 12 Thoracic – The spinous process is more pointed and always faces downward. body and xiphoid process. found at the junction of the floor of the mouth and the neck. and lamina. some of which are fused into larger structures such as the sacrum. 7 Cervical All cervical vertebra have a transverse foramen to allow blood vessels and nerves to travel up to the head and brain. 2 are in the back only and are called the floating ribs as well as false). The parts of the sternum are the manubrium. The ribs have a head. tubercle. held on by a transverse ligament. 5 false ribs (3 are joined to #7 and then to the sternum. The Sternum The sternum has a notch at the top. transverse process. In clinical application to orient yourself to the thyroid.2. Sacrum . a neural arch formed by pedicles. above the supra sternal notch is the thyroid gland.

pg.3. rectus femoris. clavotrapezius.15. Cut this muscle as close to the skin as possible to preserve it– for identification.6. adductor magnus. internal oblique. adductor longus.38) pectineus. DO NOT USE THE SCAPEL USE ONLY SCISSORS IN ALL DISSECTIONS: The first muscle encountered will be the cutaneous maximus this is attached to the skin on the dorsal side of the rat and is used to shiver the skin to rid the animal of any pest riding or biting it.26 spinodeltoid.3. Carefully perform the skinning as described in chapter 3 “the muscular system”.26) Thorax: (fig. IDENTIFY THE FOLLOWING Cutaneous Trunci (maximus). acromiotrapezius (cervical trapezius).6 pg.37) gracilis. 8 . transversus abdominus. 3. temporalis (fig.24) Sternohyoid. pg. acromiodeltoid (cleidobrachialis). biceps femoris.Pectoralis superficialis and profundis. gastrocnemius. masseter.10.29) external oblique.8.3.3. clavotrapezius (Cleiocervicalis). pg. semitendinosus.23.3. pg.3. pg. this will be the animal you will use for the remainder of the semester. 33) tibialis anterior (tibialis cranialis). Each pair of students will receive a preserved white rat. semimembranosus.14. pg. adductor brevis. rectus abdominus Thigh and hind limb: (fig. cranial and caudal belly of the digastric. (fig. page 20 in the inset labeled instruction in your rat book.MUSCULAR SYSTEM Rat Dissection The laboratory instructor will have microscopes out for you to review the structure of muscles.3. sternomastoid.3. spinotrapezius (thoracic trapezius).24) .11 pg.26) MUSCLES IN YOUR LAB RAT: Head and Neck: (Fig. 3. (Fig.6. latissimus dorsi Forelimb: (fig. semitendinosus. pg.3.4.LAB PERIOD 2 . ONLY PEEL BACK ALONG ONE SIDE OF THE RAT leaving one side intact for later dissection. (fig.32) epitrochlearis.5 pg. vastus medialis. triceps brachii and biceps brachii. fig.5. Abdomen: (fig. gluteus superficialis.

VEINS: right and left cranial (superior) vena cava.LAB PERIOD 3– Circulatory System Rat Dissection and Sheep Pluck In this exercise we will be using the rat and a sheep heart to explore the circulatory system.5.(THE RAT DISSECTION GUIDE BOOK PAGE 51 CHAPTER 5) Using your rat carefully cut through the rib cage and diaphragm (try to keep the diaphragm intact by cutting along the side) to expose the heart and the arteries and veins.general structure Figure 30. microscope will be set up in the lab for review of cardiac muscle histology. ARTERIES: aorta.11 HEPATIC PORTAL SYSTEM: Marieb Figure 32. (Fig. subclavian vein. HUMAN HEART BLOOD CIRCULATION Marieb exercise 30 . brachiocephalic. Marieb exercise 32 trace the arteries and veins of the human body. and coronary vessels. 5.5.66) abdominal aorta. ventricles. hepatic portal vein.4 pg. right common carotid artery. femoral artery. (figs. 5. caudal (inferior) vena cava. left common carotid artery. (figs. coronary sinus (fig.16) caudal vena cava renal vein. A demonstration rat will be used for the hepatic portal system. left subclavian artery. Identify the following: HEART: pericardium.6.5. atria.13 page 355 Your laboratory instructor will demonstrate the hepatic portal system with a specially injected rat. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM RAT . superior mesenteric artery.4 and 32. sheep heart with the pluck is also available to demonstrate the respiratory connection A A 1. renal artery.8 and 32. 32.5. right subclavian artery. 63) hepatic veins.62.13 pg.9. this will be available to the students during the class for closer inspection.2 9 . celiac artery. In this specimen the portal system is injected with a yellow dye to distinguish the hepatic vein and all the veins emptying into it. common iliac vein.12.56). You are responsible for figures 32. 2. internal and external jugular.10 pgs. common iliac arteries.

which connects the pulmonary artery and aorta. THE POSITION YOU HAVE PLACED THE HEART. QUESTION . SHEEP HEART DISSECTION Procedure: Rat book pages 69-72 This exercise is to familiarize the student with the anatomy of the heart through the dissection of the sheep heart and to compare it with a human model In preparing the sheep heart. The pericardium.14.12 verses the fetal circulation of blood to and from the lungs in the Marieb . the blood is pumped into the pulmonary artery via the right pulmonary semilunar valve. Locate the base and apex of the heart. On the diastole the blood flows down into the left ventricle through the bicuspid or mitral valve to be pumped out of the heart into the aorta through the aortic semilunar valve. 3. The anterior longitudinal sulcus divides the right and left ventricles. After the blood has flowed through the lungs it returns to the heart by the right and left pulmonary veins and enters into the left atrium. FETAL BLOOD CIRCULATION: Depending on where the blood vessels were severed in your sheep heart. NOTE: IN THE LEFT VENTRICLE IS ON THE RIGHT SIDE.What does the longitudinal sulcus contain? Observe now the exterior anatomy of the heart. it will be necessary for you to clean the heart.The anterior longitudinal sulcus.page 357 Figure 32. or membrane that surrounds the heart. Place the heart so that the ventral side is facing you. This side is identified by a longitudinal "line" .you may be able to find remnants. you may be able to locate the ligamentum arteriosum. May sure that you rinse the heart thoroughly with tap water. These are the right and left atria. Review the normal pulmonary circulation page 354 Figure 32. was most probably removed . THE RIGHT VENTRICLES ON THE LEFT SIDE FACING YOU WHILE Locate and identify the two flaps resting on top of the ventricles. 10 .The blood enters the heart via the inferior vena cava and enters into the right atrium on the diastole the blood flows downward into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve. The pulmonary artery leads the blood into the lungs to be oxygenated. On the next systole beat of the heart.

What is (are) the function(s) of the chordae tendinae? 5. Locate and determine the number of cusps in this valve. (locate and determine the number of cusps). once in the atrium. This main branch is the brachiocephalic artery (it branches from the aortic arch). you may be able to locate the ligamentum arteriosum. QUESTION: Are there chordae tendinae and papillary muscle in the left ventricle? Blood now exits the heart once more. Open the artery and locate the pulmonary semilunar valve. what parts of the body does the aorta supply? . The aorta is located at the midline of the heart. cut it parallel to the incision made in the ventricles and identify the aortic semilunar valve. Remove any coagulated blood. The string like structures attached to it are the chordae tendinae (locate and identify).the thin walled superior vena cava. which extends straight down to the right atrium and the inferior vena cava. Blood. They may or may not be visible depending on where the blood vessels were cut. QUESTION: How many papillary muscles can you identify? The blood then exits the right ventricle via the pulmonary aorta or trunk . now passes from the right atrium through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. In general.The brachiocephalic artery? 11 . Once in the lungs. attach to papillary muscles in the right ventricle. observe that the aorta appears to be two blood vessels. in turn. From the left atrium the blood now exits through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle. With a probe. These tendinae. through the aorta. Which ventricle has thicker walls? Why? 3.there are four veins that enter the left atrium (try to locate all four). The blood. How many pouches are present in the pulmonary semilunar valve? Are chordae tendinae attached to these? 4.it then branches to the right and left pulmonary arteries. Depending on where the blood vessels were severed.if they meet in the right atrium you've located the correct blood vessels. when it comes from the body to the heart enters the right atrium through two blood vessels . You can locate the aorta by placing a probe down the blood vessels and observing which one enters the left ventricle. the blood then returns to the heart via the pulmonary veins . What is the ligamentum arteriosum? What was its function? QUESTIONS: 1. Returning to the external surface. Once you identify the aorta. Insert a probe in each of the venae cavae . What is (are) the function(s) of the blood vessels in the anterior longitudinal sulcus? 2. which connects the pulmonary artery and aorta.To locate the remaining structures and blood vessels of the heart it will be necessary to "trace a drop of blood" through the heart: Make a cut through the heart from the apex to the base but do not cut through the large blood vessels (frontal section). determine which of the blood vessels is the pulmonary artery. The inferior vena cava has a large opening on the left side of the right atrium.

Reproductive and Excretory systems Sheep kidney. head and tail of the epididymis. 3. renal pelvis. follow along with the dissection in the Marieb page 446 Identify the following: 1. hilus. and reabsorbs metabolically important substances back into the circulatory system. renal calyces (major and minor). Penis. 3. 7. Scrotum. Preputial glands. renal sinus 10. 2. 7. and secretes the male reproductive hormone. 2. 8.LAB PERIOD 4 – UROGENITAL SYSTEM The urinary system filters dissolved material from the blood. 1. 5. renal medulla. transports the gametes to the female reproductive tract. identify the trigone area and discuss the reason for the frequency of trigonitis (bacterial infection of the bladder) in the female as opposed to the male. 4. rat kidney and models In the Marieb page 445. ureter. page 458 Rat . concentrates and stores waste products. 9. 11. (b) arteries and veins and nerve complex 5. Epididymis. renal column. 2. renal papillae. renal artery and vein. Prostate glands.2 containing: (a) ductus deferens (vas deferens). 6. Renal capsule. [the urinary bladder is in the midst of both these glands] 8. Testes. 4. The Male Genital System Human – Marieb Exercise 42.page 461. schematic p.42.80 Identify: 1. Inguinal canal. Seminal vesicles (coagulating glands). testosterone. renal pyramids. page 87. 12 . arcuate vessels. The female reproductive system not only produces gametes and receives the gametes from the male but also nourishes and supports the developing embryo and finally delivers the child into the outer environment. 14.in your rat book. The Urinary System KIDNEY: Human – Exercise 40 Marieb page 443 Rat . 10. urinary bladder. The male reproductive system produces male gametes. Spermatic cord . 9. regulates electrolytes and fluid volume.using a male rat and the pictures found in the rat book page 78 and 79.Glans of penis and Prepuce (foreskin). fig. 6. renal cortex.Rat book page 77. 12. 13. The female reproductive system is functionally more complex than the male reproductive system.

semimiferous tubules. From the models Identify – 1. placenta. The ovary: Study the models in the laboratory and the pictures in the rat book page 83. spematogenic cells. 3. 4. and body of uterus. and preputial gland. umbilical cord and 4. page 464 Rat . vagina. primordial follicles 3. oviducts.The instructor will set up a slide of a testis – Identify: 1. and diagram on page 472 in Marieb. Mature follicle (Graafian follicle) [containing oocyte. 3.use an available female rat and the diagram found in the rat book page 82 and 83 Identify in the Female rat: In the pregnant rat identify: 1. 1. Corpus albicans The instructor will set up a slide of an ovary Identify: 1. oocyte 5.. 2. Ovum. zona pellucida. 2. 7. amnion 6. interstitial cells and 4. urethra. Primordial follicle 2. the immature sperm on the slide of the testis 3. zona pellucida 6. uterine horns. granulosa cells] 5. Tunical albugeinea 2. antrum. 13 . Corpus luteum 6. antrum All part of the Graafian follicle In your Rat Dissection Book – page 81 check and know the functions of the structures identified in both the male and female systems. ovaries. 2. Primary follicle 3. 5. chorion 5. The oogenesis flowchart of meiotic events and the correlation with follicular development and ovulation in the ovary is pictured on page 471. embryo. 4. 3. The Female Genital System Human – Marieb Exercise 42. primary follicles 4. clitoris. fimbrae.

ciliary body and suspensory ligaments. and tympanic membrane. Widen the opening to identify and vitreous humor the three layer of the wall of the eye [retina-inside layer. and sclera. Eye Tests Perform Activities starting on page 271 of the Marieb Manual. The Eye 2.the area of Macula lutea sometimes degenerates in elderly people causing these people to loose sight in the center of the optical field seeing only the periphery. The Fovea is surrounded by an oval area of sensory retina called the Macula Lutea. cochlear nerve. cochlea. Middle Ear: malleus (hammer). auditory canal (eustachian tube). 1. Macula Degeneration . pupil and optic nerve Conjunctivitis – is the inflammation of the conjunctiva commonly called “pink eye” Internal Aqueous humor. iris. Inner Ear: Semicircular canals. choroidphotosensative layer. vestibular nerve. external auditory canal. The EAR Resources: Marieb Manual Lab exercise #25 and the models available in the lab Identify: External Ear: Pinna (auricle). pupil. Ear Tests Perform Activities starting on page 282 of the Marieb Manual. incus (anvil) and stapes (stirrup). If you draw a straight line from the opening of the pupil to the back of the eye you will hit the FOVEA CENTRALIS which is the focal point of light on the retina where the image is formed. Activity 10. Notice in the models it is marked with a yellow dot. cornea. 14 . excluding the test for color blindness. tympanic cavity. If you remove the vitreous humor and carefully strip away the retina layer you can see the point of attachment for the retina-this is the point at which the optic nerve enters the eye ball [the blind spot or optic disc].LAB PERIOD 5 Anatomy of the EYE and EAR/Lymphatic and Endocrine systems Resources: Chapter 8 in the rat book page 94. Marieb Manual Lab exercise #24 and the models available in the lab Follow the dissection instructions in the Marieb Manual on page 271 for the cow eye dissection Identify the following in the cow eye: External Conjunctiva – mucous membrane lining the anterior surface of the eyeball and posterior surface of the lids. vestibule. lens. excluding Activity 5 and Activity 6. facial nerve.the white of the eye].

Lymphatics or lymph vessels lead to regions of the body where lymph nodes cluster. Pancreas. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM The lymphatic system is difficult to study in preserved specimens because it collapses at death. collections of lymph nodes are found in the inguinal. pancreatic duct 6. lymph nodes. spleen.computer simulation 15 . ovary or testes depending on which rat you have Familiarize yourself with the chart on page 99 of the Rat Dissection Guide has the functions of each hormone from the each endocrine gland. Pituitary gland 3. It consists of lymph capillaries. Spleen 2.Exercise 27 in Marieb page 294 Rat . thorax and abdomen. Human . neck. 7. Thymus 4. axillary and cervical regions of the body.Rat book page 98.Marieb page 384. cisterna chyli.Rat book page 100 -101 using the rat provided Identify: 1.groin (inguinal region). tonsils and appendix Rat .3. Thyroid gland 5. On page 385 the lymphoid organs are named Primary: Thymus and bone marrow Secondary: lymph node.99 using the rat provided Identify: 1. Within the lymph nodes are macrophages that destroy bacteria.ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Human . Adrenal glands. figure 35. Pineal gland These will be identified in the sheep brain in a later lab 2. lymphatics.1 Note the circulation and primary nodes. Thymus gland 4. cancer cells and other foreign matter. Endocrine System Physiology Using your PhysioEx disc Preform Exercise 28B . lymph organs and tissues.

stomach.LAB PERIOD 6 –DIGESTIVE & RESPIRATORY Rat dissection . Spleen. colon. Esophagus Page 419 4. jejunum. Why is the greater omentum essential for digestion? 16 . The alimentary canal is sometimes known as the “food tube”. ileum) 11.the falciform ligament. Stomach– different regions (fundic. Page 419. gastrosplenic ligament (there is no gallbladder in the Page 419 and 429 rat). Diaphragm Not pictured 5. Pyloric sphincter Page 423 9.Human Respiratory Physiology The digestive system can be divided into two major parts. Pancreas. hepatic duct. Examples of accessory organs are the salivary glands. Why doesn’t the rat have a gallbladder? 2. gallbladder. rugae Page 423 8. 1. Esophageal hiatus in the diaphragm Not pictured 6. and pancreas. QUESTIONS: 1. pancreatic duct Page 419 13. 425 7. the alimentary canal and the accessory organs. and pyloric). Page 421 RAT . yet these organs do not come into direct contact with food. mandibular and sublingual) Page 419 – Marieb 3. . The alimentary canal is a long tube that runs from the mouth to the anus and comes into contact with food or the breakdown products of digestion. rectum) Page 428 12. Large intestine (caecum. liver. Some of the organs of the alimentary canal are the esophagus. Abdominal cavity small intestine Page 425 (duodenum. The accessory organs are important in that they secrete many important substances necessary for digestion. Liver (4 lobes). rectum and anus. chapter 4 Identify the following in the rat: Compare with the pictures of the human 1. Lesser and Greater Omentum Page 425 10.DIGESTIVE SYSTEM HUMAN – Marieb exercise 38.Using your rat and the rat book page 42. intestines. rat teeth are not studied Teeth in ¼ of the mouth – 2-1-2-3 2. body. Salivary glands (parotid.

inferior lobes and cardiac notch .RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Sheep pluck: Identify – 1.6000ml Notice that the maximum capacity 6000ml = residual volume 1200ml (amount always in the lung without collapsing) maximum intake 4800ml Using your Marieb Laboratory Manual. Larynx 6. Trachea. In the Right lung . Epiglottis. and inferior lobes 2. In Left lung .54 cm. Some terms needed understand the generated results are: Figure 37A. Heart 3.for normal quiet breathing . 2. Pleura – Parietal pleura. Diaphragm 3. LAB PERIOD 7 . page 73 Identify the following: 1. to convert inches to centimeters 1 inch = 2. pleural cavity. middle.superior.superior.Average human lung intake.CELL TRANSPORT 17 . Pericardium 8.415 follow the directions for measuring respiratory volumes. which influence breathing activity.Dissection in dissection guide of the rat book chapter 6. inferior lobes and cardiac notch 3.superior. Trachea. the amount remaining in the lungs of a healthy adult-1200mL Inspiratory Reserve – 3100ml Tidal volume . After getting your vital capacity compare with the charts on pages 407 & 408. Trachea 4. In Left lung .After maximal inspiration the maximum amount expired from the lungs – 4800mL Maximum capacity -Total lung capacity .2. Follow along with the human page 392 1. page 396 1. and inferior lobes 4.superior. In the Right lung . middle. 2.500ml Vital capacity . pages 412 . HUMAN RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY The purpose of this laboratory exercise is to become acquainted with some mechanical aspects of respiration and factors. 3.2 in Marieb page 401 Expiratory Reserve– (Residual volume) after forced expiration. Lungs (all lobes) 7. visceral pleura QUESTION: Where is the bacterial infection in Pleurisy? RAT: . Esophagus. 3. Esophagus. Esophagus. Pleura 2. 5. IN YOUR MARIEB – Exercise 36.

Activity #2 . Osmosis: Osmosis refers to the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from regions of higher water concentration to regions of lower water concentration. It allows nutrients to enter the cell but keeps out undesirable substances. A beaker of plain water will be filled and a few grains of Potassium Permanganate will be placed into the water.Each group will be provided with a microscope to observe the Brownian movement in Activity 1 page 41 of your Marieb manual. Active Transport – energy is provided by the cell (ATP) You will be working in groups of two. QUESTIONS: Why does the diffusion vary between solutions? Why is the molecular weight given to you for each chemical? What does the Kinetic theory have to do with Brownian movement.5% agar. The combination of solvent and solute is the solution.01M potassium dichromate. Transport occurs through a membrane in two basic ways – passive transport and active transport Passive Transport – two types: namely diffusion and filtration. Activity #3 . Water is the liquid into which material dissolves – the solvent. Valuable cell proteins and other substances are kept within the cell. with diffusion? Does the potassium permanganate move more rapidly through water or agar gel? Explain why.01M potassium permanganate. the particles will begin to spread out in the water.Cell Membranes: The plasma membrane is selective about what passes through it.MW 294 Temperatures: room temperature ~ 200 C Warming tray ~ 370C Ice bath ~ 00C Measure the diameter of each solution in its well at time “0” and record the time. If the particles become uniformly dispersed then the system has reached equilibrium. The dye material that becomes dissolved in water is the solute.MW 158 0. Place the Petri dishes in each of the three temperature areas and record the diameter every 20 minutes until 80 minutes have elapsed.MW 320 . Diffusion is defined as the movement of particles from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration. each table will perform all the exercises and each student will record the results.You will be provided with three petri dishes filled with 1. This is known as selective permeability. Solutions: 0.01M methylene blue . Passive Transport Diffusion: A demonstration of this movement will be placed on the teacher’s desk. Make the three wells in each of the plates using a medicine dropper to “suck” out a plug of agar. The difference between the two concentrations is known as the concentration gradient. Observe the color of the fluid in the beaker at the end of the lab period.observing the diffusion of dye through water – follow the procedure on page 43 of your Marieb lab manual. and excreta or wastes pass to the exterior. 0. driven by concentration. add one drop of each of three solutions and place each Petri dish at one of the three temperature stations. Brownian Movement: Activity #1 . If dye particles are placed in water. Osmosis is a type of 18 .

driven directly by hydrolysis of ATP. Active transport may be primary. it is a passive process.4. Active Transport There are two types of active processes: active transport and vesicular transport Active transport requires carrier proteins that combine specifically with the transported substance. acting with a primary transport system as a coupled system. the amount of filtrate formed is dependant on the pressure gradient. or secondary. Activity #5 in the Marieb page 45 A demonstration of Osmosis will be set up in the back of the room. The greater the difference in water concentration between two solutions the greater the concentration gradient = osmotic potential. A thistle tube osmometer is filled with a solution of 20% sucrose and placed in a beaker of distilled water. phagocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis 19 . This process is NOT selective. Filtration: Filtration is the process by which water and solutes are forced through a membrane from an area of higher hydrostatic pressure into an area of lower hydrostatic pressure. they move such things as amino acids and some sugars which a lipid insoluble and too large to pass through the membrane channels. The three types of endocytosis are depicted in your Marieb page 47 Figure 5A.diffusion. The opening of the bell is covered with an animal membrane and the position of the meniscus in the thistle tube is marked at the beginning of the lab period. Pinocytosis. fluids and solutes filter out of the capillaries into the kidney tubules because the blood pressure in the capillaries is greater than the fluid pressure in the tubules. Like diffusion. Activity #4 – Osmosis and the concentration gradient – follow the instructions in your Marieb Lab Manual page 43 for activity #4. Movement may be into the cell – endocytosis or out of the cells – exocytosis. The amount of force needed to balance or equilibrate osmosis is the osmotic pressure. In the kidneys. The carriers are commonly called solute pumps. In most cases the substances move against concentration or electrochemical gradients. Be sure to observe the results before the end of the lab period Activity #6 Osmosis and living cells: Follow the instructions for experiment 1 and 2 in the Marieb Lab Manual page 45. Vesicular transport carries into the cell large particles and molecules.

Embryonic [5 M AI N CATAGORIE S ] Slide # #2-lung & bronchioles. #23 trachea Slide #11 – mesenchyme and #12 .skin #16 – aorta b) type Dense regular Dense irregular Elastic 20 . #7 colon #2 lung and bronchioles. #4-kidney #6-thyroid. Exercise 6A in the Marieb Laboratory Manual will help you with pictures of the tissue types I .umbilical cord 2.found in mammary. #1-skin No slides. Simple type Squamous Cuboidal Columnar Pseudostratified 2. read pages 22 and 23 in your Marieb Manual about use and care of the compound microscopes – remember to focus in with the coarse adjustment knob until you see you’re your tissue. #4. You should take the full 3 hours to view each slide several times to be able to recognize the tissue without the benefit of the label for the quiz as well as the exam. #19 tendon #1. sweat glands No slides.EPITHELIUM: 1. Stratified type Squamous Cuboidal Columnar Transitional Slide # #5-esophagus & stomach.transitional.LAB PERIOD 8 – Histology of the FOUR TISSUE TYPES Before beginning this lab. large ducts of glands #8. salivary.found in male urethra.kidney #3-small intestine & stomach. Connective tissue proper a) Loose connective tissue type Slide # Areolar #13 Areolar Adipose #14 adipose fat stained and #15 adipose OsO4 stained Reticular #17 lymph node Dense connective tissue Slide # #18.ligament.found in bladder and linings of urinary organs II-CONNECTIVE TISSUE: 1. then you should need only a slight turn of the fine adjustment knob to focus.

Cardiac Muscle Slide # 81--.NERVOUS TISSUE Slide #54 Spinal cord and Ganglion 21 .trachea #22 – White Fibrocartilage #21 – elastic cartilage III.smooth muscle Slide # 83--.3.Skeletal .skeletal muscle cross section Slide # 82--. #23 . Cartilage type Hyaline Fibrocartilage Elastic 4. Bonetype Compact Cancellous (spongy) 5. Blood Slide #26 – blood smear Slide # #24 – compact bone (dry-ground) #25 – cancellous bone Slide # #20 – cartilage composite.Cardiac muscle IV.MUSCLE Slide # 51 muscle composite --.Smooth .

(Use great care when removing the pituitary. But this circulatory pattern can easily change. or Circle of Willis.Before viewing the ventral surface of the sheep brain observe the pituitary gland that has been left intact beneath the body of the brain. You will need your rat book as well as the Marieb lab manual The Brain The sheep brain dissection is pictured and described in the Marieb Manual on page 214 and in your Rat Dissection book on page 90. Before beginning the identification of parts of the brain carefully remove the dura mater from the surface of the brain. The Arterial Circle – (Circle of Willis) page 358 in your Marieb Manual . With this arrangement. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. Peripheral. and the chances for a serious interruption of circulation are reduced. 22 . and the rest of the brain receives blood from the vertebral arteries. anterior communicating and posterior cerebral arteries. because we will be identifying many of these nerves) you can see the infundibulum that connects the pituitary gland to the brain. and Autonomic systems.LAB PERIOD 9 – NEUROANATOMY Brain and Spinal Cord The nervous system is divided into Central. internal carotids. Carefully snip the nerve stalks. Pituitary gland: Sheep . the brain can receive blood from either the carotid or the vertebral arteries. close to the dura matter the contains the body of the gland. The peripheral system is made up of all the somatic myelinated nerves that enter or leave the central nervous system. Note the thickness and multilayers. The autonomic system is composed of visceral nonmyelinated nerves and ganglia.identify the basilar artery (formed from the vertebral arteries). which encircles the infundibulum of the pituitary gland. because the internal carotid arteries and the basilar artery are interconnected in a ring-shaped anastomosis called the cerebral arterial circle. The internal carotids normally supply the arteries of the anterior half of the cerebrum. leave the longer stalk of the nerves attached to the brain proper.

third and fourth ventricles. third ventricle. Cranial nerves in ventral view: Identify the following in the sheep brain: Olfactory bulb (1). page 215 Sheep Brain. Trigeminal nerve (V) [the thickest nerve].Dissection Guide & Atlas to the Rat – pages 90. Corpus callosum.External Dorsal View: Human . mammillary body. caudate nucleus. olfactory tracks. [containing the septum pellucidum. lentiform nucleus (putamen. medulla and spinal cord. Optic nerve (II). pituitary gland. 23 . pons. mammillary body. Spinal cord. medulla and spinal cord. cerebellum. midbrain (superior colliculus and inferior colliculus = corpora quadrigemina) cerebellum (vermis and cerebellar hemispheres). Midsagital section: Identify the following parts of the brain. corpus callosum. longitudinal fissure. cerebral cortex. cut through this.covering the lateral ventricle. fornix and rostrum]. pineal gland. optic chiasma. make a longitudinal cut (though the longitudinal fissure) notice the white matter beneath the longitudinal fissure. optic chiasma. thalamus. intermediate mass of the thalamus. olfactory bulb. superior and inferior colliculi. pineal gland (Marieb . right and left cerebral hemisphere. hypothalamus. stalks of optic nerve. Optic tract. cerebral peduncle. optic chiasma. medulla. Abducens nerve (VI) [a thin curved nerve lying along the medulla oblongata] Lateral view Turn the brain onto its side.exercise #19 in the Marieb Manual. Trochlear nerve (IV)[below the pons]. Coronal section: In the Marieb Manual Pages 206 and 218 compare the longitudinal cut of the human brain with the coronal cut Identify the following parts of the brain. transverse fissure. External Ventral View Identify the following in the sheep brain: Left and right cerebral hemispheres. Oculomotor nerve (III) [on either side of the peduncles]. ventral median fissure. 91 Identify the following in the sheep brain: Left and right cerebral hemispheres. olfactory bulbs. opening for the infundibulum. (amygdaloid nucleus). this is the corpus callosum. pons. globus pallidus).pg 216).

_____________________________________________________________________ II . The fibers end in the olfactory bulb.is taken from the arachnoid space – through a lumbar puncture Meningitis . anterior funiculus.Movements of the eyeballµ General somatic afferent . The retina is a part of the central nervous system.Spinal Cord and Nerves Following Laboratory exercise 21 in the Marieb Manual as well as the models in the laboratory Identify: Body of a vertebra. I . forms the optic chiasma. These structures (the optic nerves and tracts) are not true peripheral nerves. posterior median sulcus.TROCHLEAR Somatic efferent . arachnoid matter. the oculomotor nerve runs anteriorly into the orbit. proceed around the cerebral peduncles. Two bundles.Vision Comment . and end near the superior colliculi. posterior (dorsal) horn.After its origin from the midbrain. It runs posteriorly and.The trochlear nerve is a bundle of fibers that arise from the back of the midbrain.OCULOMOTOR Somatic efferent . The olfactory tract runs backward from the bulb and it ends at the base of the brain near the optic chiasma. Here the nerve ends in a single muscle attached to the eyeball. central canal meninges (dura matter.The filaments composing this nerve arise in the olfactory mucous membrane of the nasal cavity.This nerve arises from the retina of the eye.Movements of the eyeball General somatic afferent Proprioception from extrinsic eye muscles General visceral efferent (parasympathetic) pupillary constriction Comment . dorsal root ganglion. ventral root ganglion page 231 Page 228 white columns (posterior funiculus. where it ends in muscles that attach to the eyeball and move it in various directions. anterior (ventral) horn]. extend posteriorly from the chiasma.OLFACTORY Special visceral afferent .Smell (sometimes classified as special somatic afferent) Comment . around which it winds anteriorly to runs into the orbit.Proprioception from extrinsic eye muscles Comment . ___________________________________________________________________ III .is an inflammation of the membranes of the brain or spinal cord CRANIAL NERVES On Old Olympic Towering Tops A Fin And German Viewed Some Hops. anterior median fissure. lateral funiculus). but are fiber tracts of the central nervous system. A portion of the nerve is distributed to the smooth muscles within the eye. pia matter) A spinal tap .OPTIC Special somatic afferent . 24 . lateral horn. in joining the other optic nerve. IV . the optic tracts. gray matter [gray commissure.

where it supplies a single muscle attached to the eyeball. Its main distribution is to the muscles of expression (the facial muscles).The trigeminal nerve has a motor and a sensory root. It enters the orbit.TRIGEMINAL Special visceral efferent .ABDUCENS Somatic efferent . to the teeth.Facial Special visceral efferent . VII. the sensory root has an enlargement. Each has a small ganglion along its course in the inner ear.This nerve is attached laterally at the junction of the pons and medulla oblongata.Movement of eyeball General somatic afferent . statoacoustic. to mucous membranes of the mouth and nasal cavity.This nerve is attached laterally.Movements of mastication General somatic afferent . and on the forehead and scalp.facial expression General visceral efferent . VIII . to the eye (especially cornea). auditory)µ Comment . to the skin of the face and part of the scalp.V . Some fibers are also distributed to the mucous membrane at the anterior twothirds of the tongue (for taste) and some fibers travel to certain of the salivary glands and to the lacrimal gland. and to the dura mater. just above its junction with the medulla. located around the mouth. _____________________________________________________________________ VI . just at the junction of the pons and medulla oblongata.Taste Comment . Near the pons. both attached to the side of the pons. nose and eyes. called the spiral and vestibular ganglia. each of which arises in the inner ear.ACOUSTIC Hearing and equilibrium (Vestibulocochlear.Proprioception from extrinsic eye muscles Comment .Salivation and lacrimation (parasympathetic) Special visceral afferent . The motor root joins the branch which is distributed to the muscles of mastication.General sensation from face and head Comment . from which 3 large branches arise to be distributed to the muscles of mastication.The abducens nerve arises from the front of the pons. the trigeminal ganglion. It has cochlear and vestibular divisions. respectively. The geniculate ganglion is found on the nerve in its course through the skull. _____________________________________________________________________ 25 .

Taste General visceral afferent .HYPOGLOSSAL Somatic efferent .Visceral reflexes.Sensation from external ear Comment . which supplies the mucous membranes of the pharynx and larynx and also the muscles of these organs. which are found on the nerve within and just below its foramen of exit. larynx.Pharyngeal and laryngeal movements General visceral efferent .SPINAL ACCESSORY Special visceral efferent -Movements of pharynx.The majority of the rootlets attached to the lateral surface of the medulla form the vagus nerve.Pharyngeal movements General visceral efferent . which supplies the mucous membranes and a muscle of the pharynx. the superior and inferior. Electroencephalography Follow Activity #2 in your Marieb Manual page 221 LAB PERIOD 10: MUSCLE PHYSIOLOGY 26 .IX . There is a series of rootlets attached to the lateral surface of the medulla. head and shoulders General visceral efferent -Same as vagus (parasympathetic) Comment . it has a complex distribution to the viscera in the thorax and abdomen.Movements of the tongue Comment . a salivary gland.Vagus Special visceral efferent . The upper one or two of these rootlets form the glossopharyngeal nerve. _______________________________________________________________________________ XII .Visceral reflexes. ______________________________________________________________________ X .Taste General visceral afferent . The other division supplies the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles. It has two main ganglia. and the mucous membrane of the posterior third of the tongue for taste. joins the vagus nerve and is distributed with it to the muscles of pharynx and larynx.Movements and secretions of thoracic and abdominal viscera (parasympathetic) Special visceral afferent . which is composed of fibers arising from the medulla. sensation in the tongue and pharynxµ Comment . sensations in tongue and pharynxµ General somatic afferent . One division. In addition.Salivation (parasympathetic) Special visceral afferent .Formed from a number of rootlets attached to medulla oblongata between pyramid and olive. The accessory nerve formed by this mingling of fibers then divides.The lower of the nerve rootlets from the medulla oblongata joins others which have ascended through the foramen magnum from the cervical spinalcord.GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL Special visceral efferent .This nerve is closely associated and hard to distinguish from the Vagus. XI .

Experiment 3 . Muscle fatigue – Human Experiment 1 . Exercise16B.Human 3. 27 . Perform Activity #4 on page 176 of the Marieb Manual Experiment 2 . Virtual electrical stimulations Place the CD from the back of your Marieb Manual into the lap-top. page 254 of your Marieb Manual. Answer all the questions posed. 2 and 3 in your Marieb Manual starting on page 249. Muscle reflex physiology . 1.Human 4. The electromyogram .Human 2.The Human Electromyogram The purpose of this lab exercise is to demonstrate the existence of muscle action potentials as detected at the skin’s surface.Human Reflex time Reaction time is measured using the BIOPAC in Activity 10. and learn about basic control mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle tension. Perform activities 1 through 5 and 7 & 9. Begin on page P-17.Four experiments will be set up in the laboratory.Human Muscle reflex physiology Distinguish between a monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflex as pictured on page 248 in the Marieb manual. Experiment 4 – Human Muscle fatigue Follow Activity 2 on page 170 in your Marieb Manual using the lab manual and the rat dissection books. Reaction time . Follow Activity #1.

Blood pressure .Activity #5 on page 365 3. 2.Time from atrial to ventricular depolarization S to T -Time for ventricular contraction The Purkinje System is at work during the QRS complex The most sensitive indication of heart problems is the S to T time interval.Lab.Cardiac Physiology 1. A heart rate of over 100beats/min is referred to as Tachycardia. Period 11 . Electrocardiography – Activity #1b beginning on page 336 P .will be measured as described in Activity 2 on page 362 of the Marieb manual and with the BIOPAC following Activity #3 on page 363.atrial depolarization R – ventricular depolarization Q – atrial repolarization S – downward deflection of ventricular depolarization T – ventricular repolarization P to R . a rate below 60beats/min is Bradycardia. Fibrillation is a condition of rapid uncoordinated heart contractions which makes the heart useless as a pump. Plethysmograph: The Pulse . 28 .