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CHAPTER 1

INTROCUCTION

A. Background of the Study


English has four skills that have to be learned they are listening,
speaking, reading, and writing. Writing is one of the four skills that should be
mastered by Senior High School students. It is the subject that the students
are not interested. It can be seen from their attitude in the teaching learning
process they have low enthusiasm in writing class. Many students got
difficulties in writing English, because most of them have not understand yet
about the aspects of English that used in writing English, such as grammar,
vocabularies, idea and many others. Besides, students need a long time to
have any idea that they want to write.
Writing narrative text is one of subject that have to be mastered by
students of Senior High School. On writing narrative text students need many
ideas and creativity. Ideas and creativity can make the students produce
narrative text by themselves and that is theirs. In fact many students tend to
copy from the internet and their friends because they get difficulties when
they imagine what they want to write and it is wasting their time. Narrative
text is a text that has a series of happenings in which action occurs and
characters are involved.
There are several factors that influence the students in mastering
English writing narrative text. The limited students vocabulary also becomes
a problem. When the students do not have enough vocabulary, of course they
will get difficulties to choose the appropiate word. The students also fear in

making mistake in their writing especially in grammar, they lack of practice


in writing English.
There are internal and external factors that influence the students in
mastering English writing. The internal factors are from the students
themselves. It can be caused by the fact that students are still affraid to
express their ideas, and they also have low motivation in studying English
especially in writing English.
The external factors can also come from the school environment. The
teacher does not use an interesting media in teaching learning process. The
teaching learning process runs depend on the teacher. It is one of the causes
why students find difficulty in capturing the lessons. The students lack of
enthusiasm in learning English. Because learning media is one of the
important thing that have to use in teaching learning process. Media can
motivate the students to study and it can make them interested.
Teaching English in Senior High School needs interesting media to
make the students interested and motivated in study English. In fact, most
students tend to be less actively involved especially in the tenth grade
students of SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Muntilan. It causes monotonous class
situation, because the teacher there seldom use the interesting media to give
motivation to the students. The teacher should be able to apply an interesting
media to make the students motivated.
Based on the problem that mentioned above, the writer was interested
to give an effective media to motivate the students and easy to find the idea in
writing narrative text. And the writer hopes that from using this media it will
make students easy to start writing and improve their creativity in writing

narrative text. In this study, the writer took the title, Using Silent Movie to
Improve the Narrative Text Writing Skill of the Tenth Graders of SMA
Muhammadiyah 1 Muntilan in the School Year 2014/2015.
B. Identification of the Problem
There were many factors that be a problem for the students to get
success in writing English, such as:
1. Students get difficulty to find the idea on writing narrative text.
2. Students are lack motivation and practice.
3. The students are afraid to express their idea on writing.
4. The students have lack enthusiasm in learning and writing English.
5. The teacher has limited media in teaching.

C. Limitation of the Problem


The writer realized that it was impossible to conduct a research based
on all the problems that have been indentified, because of limited knowledge
and time. Therefore, the writer made a limitation of the problems to discuss
the improvement students learning motivation and using media in giving idea
for the students to write narrative text, to the tenth grade of SMA
Muhammadiyah 1 Muntilan in the school year 2014/2015.
D. Formulation of the Problems
By conducting the writer formulated the problems as follow:
1. Can Silent Movie improve the students learning motivation of the
writing skill of the tenth grade of SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Muntilan in
the school year 2014/2015?

2. How great is the improvement of students writing ability on narrative


text taught by using Silent Movie of the tenth grade of SMA
Muhammadiyah 1 Muntilan in the school year 2014/2015?

E. Objectives of the Research


Related to the assumption above the writers objectives in this
research as follows:
1. To know whether Silent Movie can improve the students learning
motivation of the writing skill of the tenth grade students of SMA
Muhammdiyah 1 Muntilan in the shcool year 2014/2015.
2. To know how great is the improvement of students writing ability on
narrative text taught by using Silent Movie of the tenth grade of SMA
Muhammadiyah 1 Muntilan in the school year 2014/2015.

F. Significance of the Study


The writer hopes this study will be useful for various parties include:
1. For the teachers
The result of the research will support them to apply and use this
media.
2. For the students
This research is expected to help students to improve their idea
after they watched silent movie to improve English writing skill
especially in writing narrative text.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

A. Theoretical Background
1. Motivation
a. Definition of Motivation
There are some definitions of motivation. Biehler and
Snowman (1997:399) say that motivation is the forces that account
for the arousal, direction and continuation of behavior. Brown
(2000:160) states a cognitive view of motivation includes factors
such as the need for exploration, activity stimulation, new
knowledge, and ego enhancement.

According to William and Burden (1997:20), motivation is a


state of cognitive arousal which provokes a decision to act and give
rise to a period of sustained intellectual and/or physical effort so
that the person can achieve some previously set goal.
Gottfried (1990: 525) defines motivation as enjoyment of
school learning characterized by a mastery orientation; curiosity;
persistence; task-endogeny; and the learning of challenging, difficult,
and novel tasks. Dornyei (2001:56) states that motivation explains
why people decide to do something, how long they are willing to
sustain the activity, and how hard they are going to pursue it.
Based on the definitions of motivation above, the writer
concludes that motivation is the cognitive view includes factors such
as the need for exploration, activity stimulation, new knowledge, and
ego enhancement which provokes a decision to act and give rise to a
period of sustained intellectual or physical effort so that the person
can achieve some previously set goal.
b. Type of Motivation
Harmer (2001:51) states that there are two types of motivation.
They are extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation.
(1) Extrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic motivation is a motivation that comes from
outside of individual. It is caused by any number of outside
factors, for example, the need to pass an exam, the hope of
financial reward, or the possibility of future travel.
(2) Intrinsic Motivation
By contrast, intrinsic motivation is a motivation that comes
from within the individual. Thus a person is motivated by the

enjoyment of the learning process itself or by a desire to make


themselves feel better. Most writer and methodologist have come
to the view that intrinsic motivation is especially important for
encouraging success. Even where the original reason for taking up
a language course, for example in extrinsic, the changes of
success will be greatly enhanced if the students come to love the
learning process.
c. Learning Motivation
Hamzah (2007:31) states that learning motivation is the
internal and external supports that encourage the students who are
learning a certain subject to make a change in attitude by using some
of indicators that contains a desire to be success, there are a support
and necessity in learning, an expectation, reward and interesting
activity in the conducive learning environment.
While Maslow (in Nashar, 2004) states that students learning
motivation is the need to develop a personal ability optimally, so that
can do the better, prestigious and creative. Winkle (2007) says that
learning motivation is all of the psychological stimulants of the
students that create a learning activity and make a direction to that
learning activity in order to get an objective
d. Language Learning Motivation
Motivation takes an important role in the language learning. It
has a special attention in the research of language acquisition. Focus
on second language acquisition (SLA), there is a model which is
considered as the most influential model in language learning. It is
known as Socio educational model which is developed by Gardner

(1985). In his model, he explains that there are two kinds of


motivations:
(1).Integrative motivation
Integrative motivation refers to learners desire to at least
communicate or at

most integrate (or even assimilate) with the

members of the target language.


(2).Instrumental motivation
Instrumental motivation refers to more functional reasons
for learning the language such as getting a better job, a higher
salary or passing an examination (Gardner:1985).
Gardner emphazises most on an integrative motivation. He has
a notion that learners who highly interested in second language (L2)
community have more motivation to learn L2 than those who
concerned with the instrumental use of the language.
e. How to Measure Motivation
According to Notoatmodjo (2005) there are some ways to
measure motivation, they are:
(1).Projection Test
The projection technique that is most known is Thematic
Apperception Test (TAT). What the people say is a projection
inside of them. To know what the people think, they should be
given stimulus that can be interpreted.

(2).Behavioral Observation
Creating a certain situation is one of the ways in
measuring motivation. The situation can be created according to
the indicators that make and show an attitude of the client that
can be categorized as a motivation.
2. Writing
a. Definition of Writing
Brown (1987:14) argued that writing is the ability of decoding
ideas, interest of feeling in written codes. There should be purposed
to communicate with the reader without pressure and to explore
experience.
In the same way with Brown, Bryne (1998:20) stated that
writing is the act of forming symbol: marking mark on a flat surface
of some kinds. The symbol has to be arranged according to certain
conventions, to form words and words have to be arranged to form
sentences.
Gerbat and Rodriguez (1998:67) explained that writing is a
means of people to communicate their ideas, thoughts, feelings,
interest, and by which impression trough graphic symbol of sound
and meaning. Through writing human being can transmit their needs,
desires, problems, and thoughts.

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Allen (1981:14) stated that writing is much more than an


orthographic symbolization of speech: it is more importantly, a
purposeful selection and organization of experience.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium
trough the use of a set of signs or symbols. It is distinguished from
illustration, such as carve drawing and painting and recording of
language via a non-textual medium such as magnetic tape audio.
From the definition above, it can be summarized that writing
of English is about expression of ideas, thoughts, and feelings to
other people or other thing in written form to make them understand
about the ideas expressed.
b. Characteristics of Writing
The usual things associated with writing are word choice, use
of appropriate grammar, syntax, mechanics (punctuations, spelling
and hand writing), and organization of ideas into a focus on audience
and purpose, as well as a recursive process of discovering meaning.
When students write, they usually have someone in mind
whose will read what they wrote and have a purpose, a reason to
write. Writing is a process of creating the piece of writing until
discovering what is wanted to say and express the meaning in the
clear way.

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To be able to write well, students have to use all elements of


writing in English and also create something that is easy to
understand by the readers.
There are seven forms of writing that cause weather the writing
is good or not, they are:
(1).Cohesion
Cohesion concerns the flow of sentences and paragraphs
from one to another. It involves the tying together of old
information and new. When we write academic essays,
particularly in the humanities, we work hard to foster cohesion
structurally, which is enhances a reader's understanding of our
ideas.
Brown, (2006) stated that when sentences connect he calls
it is the cohesions.
(2).Coherence
The logical connections that readers or listeners perceive
in a written or oral text.
Coherence is fundamentally not an objective property of
the produced text. Rather, that text is a by-product of the mental
processes

of

discourse

production

and

comprehension, which are the real loci of coherence.

discourse

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(3) Intention
Intention is the thing that you plan to do or achieve.
Everything that you plan to be your aim or your purpose. In
writing we need an intention because when we want to write
something we will explore our ideas. So intention is one of
necessary thing in writing.
(4) Information
Information is everything that happened and will be your
inspiration to write.
(5) Receivable

Everything that you have been written can be received by


the reader.
(6) Report, and
(7) Intellectual
Writing can represent the language, but not vice versa that
the language represent the writing. Nature writing is related to
language and society. Writing is not just a mechanical process,
but has a social meaning and culture importance. (Tukiran,
1997)
c. Some Factors which Influence the Ability of Writing
Samson (1980:74) stated that a good writing is influenced by
some factors that correlate one and another. The following factors
are important to produce a good writing:

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(1).Knowledge of the English alphabet is needed for the students to


know the spelling words, so that later they can look them up in
the dictionary in the effective manner.
(2).Knowledge of the English phoneme is needed for the students to
decode and encode number of characters.
(3).Knowledge of possible sentence structure in English.
(4).Knowledge of friendly letter, advertising, and articles.
(5).Knowledge of the structures of formal discussion such as
magazines, editorial, and business letters.
(6).Knowledge of paragraph types in English such as recount,
narration, description, and argumentation.
d. Steps of Writing
Porter and Hernacky (2002) say the process of writing contains
a number of stages and it can be grouped into seven major activities.
(1).Pre-writing
Pre-writing is the preparation stage before e write prepare
the idea, the point of view, the purpose and audience, and gather
of information. This is the step of the writing process involves
writing your thoughts on paper or on the computer. This step
called pre-writing, it is time to relax and begin your writing.

a) Brainstorming
One way to capture your thought is by brainstorming,
or listing thoughts as they come to you. You might
brainstorm a second or third time to generate more ideas.
b) Clustering
In clustering, you write your subject in the middle of
page and then circle it. You write related around the circle

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as they occur to you. Then you circle the ideas and connect
them to your subject circle. These related ideas are like
branches.
c) Free writing
Another way to get started is free writing. You simply
write about the subject without worrying about sentence,
structure, spelling, logic, and grammar. Writing as you
would speak so that you can get your ideas down fast.
(2).Drafting
After getting the idea, students have to make a draft about
the topic that will be written. They draft the entire easy or
writing, from the beginning to the end. Drafting helps the
students to develop the idea. Now you can begin your first draft
of your paragraph. Some steps for drafting can be stated as
follows:

Say something about before you write in.


(a). Write fast by hand or by computer.
(b).Use only one side of the paper.
(c). Leave wide margins and double space to make room for
changes.
(3).Sharing
Sharing is the most important thing to do out we always
ignore it. As writers, students can not see the essay objectively,
so they read somebody else to read and give feed back to it.
Share what you write with your friends or the people around

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you. From that you can know and understand what you need to
make your writing almost perfect. If there is a mistake you can
fix it before you end your writing.
(4).Revising
Revising is among the most important steps in writing
especially for people who write in a second language. Revising
means improving what you have already written. When you
revise, you examine how tell you first draft make its point and
achieves its purpose for its audience. That may require
rearranging the ideas, developing ideas further, cut out ideas that
do not support your point, and changing the wording of your
sentences. We check weather the writing needs to change or not.
We can revise it using the readers feedback. These are some tips
for revising:
a) Make notes in the margin or writing new material on
separate sheet of paper.
b) Circle words you think you misspelled or will want to
change later.
c) Tape or staple additions where you want them to go.
d) On the computer, use cut and paste or insert commands to
move things around.
e) Print out a double space copy for revision: slow and revise
in pencil.
(5).Editing
It is dealing with surface errors like grammar, spelling,
and punctuation. Those have to be eliminated in writing. After
you have revised your paragraph, you can edit your work. Check
in carefully focus on grammar, words choice, verb form,

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punctuation, and spelling. Read the paper more than once. Copy
it over or print it our again with all your corrections. This draft
should be net and should represent your best effort.
(6).Re-writing
Re-writing is the writing project and includes the revising
and editing result.
(7).Evaluations
Evaluation is checking to make sure about the writing that
the researcher has researched the best writing.
e. Element of Writing
Jacob (1981:120) pointed out of five components of writing.
Those five components are content, organization, vocabulary,
language use and mechanic.
(1).Content
There are at least three things which can be measured in
connection in with content, the point of information to be
brought, the sequences in which the points are presented and
formal signals given the reader to guide in understanding the
topic fully.
(2).Organization
The process of organizing materials in writing involves
coherence, order of importance, general to specific, specific to
general, chronological order pattern and spatial order pattern.
(3).Vocabulary
Vocabulary is one of the language aspects dealing with the
process of writing. Vocabulary enables us to do several things
such as arrange our ideas into sentences into paragraph.

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(4).Language Use
Language is used in writing involve correct usage
grammar or structure. Grammar is one of the important
components in writing. It governs utterance to be right and
orderly. Therefore, it also has a great influence on the quality of
piece of writing.
(5).Mechanics
Mechanics of writing deals with capitalization, spelling
and punctuation. Capital letters have two principles in English
writing. First, they may be used to distinguish between
particular and general classes of place, person and things. They
are some special situations that call for use of capital letters.
First word in quotation, a formal statement and etc.
f. The Teaching of Writing
Teaching of writing in the classroom means that the teacher
guides the students to create a good writing. In teaching writing
students are expected to be able to communicate in written language
fluently and accurately. To achieve this competence, English teacher
have to teach students by implementing an effective technique
according to the recent teaching approach that is contextual teaching
and learning process. Not only technique but also an interesting
media that almost the student like it and interested in it. So that the
students can enjoy the lesson and catch what the teacher wants them
to do.

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3. Text
a. Definition of Text
According to Derewianka (1995:17) said that a text is only
meaningful stretch of language-oral or written. But of course not all
texts are the same and functional model of language tries to describe
the ways in which they differ.
When we use language to write, we are creating text. When we
read we are interpreting texts. When we talk and listen, we are also
creating and interpreting texts. A text is a product of a particular
context of culture and context of situation. We need to understand a
text in term of the context in which it is produced. The differences in
text because of the choice that we make from the language system
(Board of Studies NSW, 1994:67)
Text are defined by genre (and other semiotics systems which
are part of the context of culture) and register (the meaning of
associated with the context of situation field, tenor and mode).
Furthermore, the oral and written text which people create also act
upon an influence the context (genre and register) which are part of
the environment of all speakers and writers (Literacy and Education
Research Network, 1990:78)
Based on the explanation above, it can be summarized that text
is a product of particular context of culture and context of situation
in oral or written form.
b. Types of Text
Gerot and Wignell (1994:17) explained there are 15 kinds of
writing text as follows:

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(1).Recount
Recount is a kind of text which is used to retell event for
the purpose of informing.
(2).News story
News story is a factual text which informs the readers
about events of the day which are newsworthy or important.
(3).Exemplum
Exemplum is a kind of text which deals with incidents
that are some respect out of the usual, point to some general
value in the cultural context.
(4).Anecdote
Anecdote is a kind of the text that is used to share with
others an account of unusual or amusing incident.
(5).Narrative
Narrative is a kind of text it is used to amuse, entertain,
and to deal with various experience in different ways.
(6).Spoof
Spoof is a kind of text which is used an event with a
humorous twist.
(7).Procedure
Procedure is a kind of text which is described how
something is accomplished through a sequence of events or
step.
(8).Explanation
Explanation is a kind of text which is used to explain the
process involved the formation or working of natural and
social cultural phenomena.
(9).Report
Report is a kind of text which is used to describe the
ways things are, with reference to arrange or natural, manmade
and social phenomena in our environment.
(10). Analytical exposition

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Analytical exposition is a kind of text which is used to


persuade the reader or listener that something is in the case.
(11). Hortatory exposition
Hortatory exposition is a kind of text which is used to
persuade the reader that something should or should not be the
case.
(12). Discussion
Discussion is a kind of text which is used to present (at
least) two points of view about an issue.
(13). Description
Description is a kind of text which is used to describe
particular person, place or things.
(14). Review
Review is a kind of text which is used to critique an art
work or event for a public audience.
(15). Commentary
Commentary is a kind of text which is used to explain
the process involved in the formation (evaluation) of a socio
cultural phenomenon, as though a natural phenomenon.
4. Narrative Text
a. Definition of Narrative Text
Meyers (2005:52) states that narrative is one of the most
powerful ways of communicating with others. A good written story
lets your reader response to some event in your life as if it were own.
They not only understand the event, but they can almost feel it. The
action, details, and dialogue put the readers in these seem and make
it happen for them.
Sadler and Hayllar (2000:15) stated that narrative set out to
entertain and amuse listeners and readers. To achieve this purpose,

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they must attract and hold on audiences attention. The interesting


and extraordinary events can hold an audience spellbound.
According to Toolans (2001:7) opinion, a narrative is a text
composed in any medium that describe a sequence of real or unreal
events. It drives from the Latin verb narrare, which means to
recount and is related to the adjective gnama, means knowing or
skilled. The word story may be used as a synonym of narrative, and
it can also be used to refer to the sequence of events described in a
narrative.
Narratives can be spoken or written text. They are usually told
by a narrator, who may be one of the characters or an outsider.
b. Social Function of Narrative Text
Narrative is a kind of text that is used to amuse, entertain, and
to deal with actual or vicarious experiences in different ways
(Hartono, 2005:6)
c. Generic Structure of Narrative Text
Neo (2005:2) stated that a narrative has a structure, a shape or
a pattern.
(1) The composition, it established the characters and situation.
(2) Rising action, it refers to a series of complication leads to the
climax.
(3) The climax is the critical moment when problem/conflict
demands something to be done about them.
(4) Felling action is the moment away from the highest peak of
excitement.
(5) The resolution consists of the result or outcome.
Sadler and Hayllar (2000:16) explain that narrative is usually
has a series of happenings in which action occurs and characters are
involved. It consists of the following three parts:
(1) Orientation (beginning)

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The orientation tells the readers who, when, where, what,


and why: the character(s), the time, the place, and the direction
of the story are all introduced.
(2) Complication (middle)
As the story develops, complications occur. At least one
problem arises that a character most overcome before the goal of
the story can be reached. There is often a sequence of events
involving the characters in action that test their courage,
determination, and other qualities.
(3) Resolution (ending)
As the sequences of events bring the story to an end, the
problem that faced the characters is solved or resolved. A
resolution is achieved, which leads to a happy or unhappy
ending in the story.
d. Language Features of a Narrative Text
Macken (1990:15) stated that the language features of narrative
text are focus on specific (usually individualized) participants, use of
past tense, use of temporal conjunctions, used of material (action),
processes (in complication and resolution stages especially), use of
relational and mental processes (in orientation and evaluation stages
especially).
e. The Types of Narrative Text
There are many types of narratives according to Harwen, W.
2004. They can be imaginary, factual or combination of both. The
types of narrative text are:
(1) Fable
A fable is brief, in prose or verse, that features animals,
plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature which are

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anthropomorphized (given human qualities), and that illustrates


a moral lesson (a moral), which may at the end be expressed
explicit in a pity maxim. The word fable comes from the Latin
fibula, a brief narrative. In its moral general sense, though, the
world fable refers simply to a genre of short stories designed to
impart a moral lesson.
(2) Detective story
Detective story is a tale that features to mastery and or the
commission of a crime, emphasizing the search for a solution.
The detective story is distinguished from other forms of fiction
by the fact that it is a puzzle. The tables climax is the solution
of a puzzle, and the bulk of narrative overcomes the logical
process by which the investigator follows a series of clues to this
solution.
(3) Fairy tales
A fairy tales is a fictional story that usually features
folkloric characters and enhancement, often involving a farfetched sequence of events. In modern day parlance, a fairy tales
ending is refers to happy ending. However, unlike legend and
epics, they usually do not contain more than superficial
references to religion and actual places, person, and events; they
take place once upon a time rather than in actual times.
(4) Humor
A humorous narrative is one that aims to make the
audience laugh as part of telling story. Usually, the characters

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have funny names. There will be something crazy happens in the


complication.
(5) Romance
A romance narrative typically tells of two lovers who
overcome difficulties to end up together. The writing of the story
is exotic setting, such as sunsets, beaches, moonlight. The
complication usually happens when a boy meet a girl. The story
ends when a boy gets a girl.
(6) The diary novels
This type of narrative has the text of presented like diary
entries. The main character is the narrator itself. Contain of the
story related to romance, adventure, humor, mysteries. The
sequence of events tells of feelings, hopes, and happenings.
(7) Science fiction
Science fiction narrative was a setting involving science
and technology. The action involves technology, science, and
super invention.
5. The Learning Media
a. Definition of Learning Media
In teaching learning process, a teacher is usually explains the
lesson with the words. Sometimes it is make the students bored. So
the teacher should have an interesting media to make an interesting
class. Teaching English can be fun and interesting if the teacher use
an interesting media for their students.
According to Wilbur Schramns opinion (1977), the word of
media comes from Latin that is medium which its meaning a

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mediator, or in other word medium/introductory. Media is a means to


deliver or mediator of information from the sender to the receiver of
information.
Locates and Atkinson (1984) define media as the means for
transmitting or delivering messages. It can be means of, method and
technique which is used in order to make communication and
interaction between the teacher and students in the process of
teaching learning at school more effective.
Meanwhile, according to Briggs (1997) is a physical means of
learning media to deliver content or learning materials such as
books, movies, videos, and so on. Then, according to the National
Education Association (1969) revealed that learning is means of
communication media in print and point of view heard, including
technology hardware.
From definition above, can be summarized that learning media
is the media that carry messages or information aimed at
instructional media tools that are physically used to convey the
contents of teaching materials consisting of books, tape recorders,
cassettes, video camera, video recorder, film, movie, slides (images),
photographs, images, graphics, television and computer.

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b. Benefits of Learning Media


According to Hamalik (1986), appropriate learning media can
raise the motivation, the desire of interest, and excitement to the
students. So as to help understanding, presenting data with
interesting and reliable, facilities the interpretation of data, condense
the information. So the appropriate learning media can bring success
in learning and teaching in the classroom.
According to Schramns opinion (1977), benefits of media are:
(1) Clarifying message presentation in order not to be too having
the character of verbally (in the form written or rally).
(2) Overcoming the limitation of space, time and senses.
(3) By using media of education precisely and vary, the passive
attitude of students can be overcome. In this case media of
education is good for:
(a) Generating a desire in learning.
(b) Making possible directly instruction between students,
environment, and fact.
(c) Enabling students learn by them-selves according to their
ability and enthusiasm.
(4) Giving equality of experience and perception. Andrew Goodwyn
(2001) states that the function of media are:
(a) To develop students creativity.

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(b) To deepen students understanding on what they study.


(c) To give the pleasure and enjoyment in learning situation.
(d) To create students become more active.
From some description of the function of learning media
above, it can be concluded that learning media has a lot of function
which can assist the success of teaching learning process. Media or
teaching aid tool is very important to assists increasing the students
learning spirit, making them eager to know what will be done by
teacher with the media. Through that way, the students will be more
interested with the lesson that will be convoyed and their attention
will concentrate to the lesson.

c. Types of Learning Media


According to Zulkarnaen as what in Bahri (1995:17), media of
education can be classified to become the visual media consist of the
picture or photo, sketch, diagram, chart, graph, card, poster, map,
and globe; and also audio media consist of radio, magnetic, sheet,
recorder and language laboratory. Audio-visual media such as film,
movie, and video.
Gegne, such as what is cited by Sudirman (1986:84) classifies
media become seven kinds; that is object to be demonstrated, oral
communications, the printing media (including text book),

28

motionless picture, motion picture, film which has voice, film which
has not voice (silent movie) and learning media.
d. Movie
(1) The Definition of Movie
A movie is one type of mass mediated culture. Mass
mediated culture is an expression of culture as it is received
from contemporary media, whether arises from elite, popular, or
mass origins. The movies are the portrayal of a certain culture
which is reflected in an action in order to transmit it to other
culture. In this way, a movie becomes a popular culture of which
is based on the assumption that all cultures when transmitted by
mass media. (English Version of Thesaurus of Films and Types
of Movie).
(2) Types of Movie
(a) Animation Movie
Animation movie is an animated movie or cartoon.
(b) Biopic Movie
Biopic movie is a movie based on the events of someones
life.
(c) Buddy Movie
Buddy movie is a movie that is mainly about the friendship
between two people.

(d) Costume Drama Movie


Costume drama movie is a movie about a particular
historical period in which the actors wear clothes typical of
that period.
(e) Documentary Movie

29

Documentary movie is a movie or television program that


deals with real people and events.
(f) Silent Movie
Silent movie is a movie in which voices and other sound are
not heard, especially a very old movie. There is no speech
between the actors.
(g) Home Movie
Home movie is an informal movie that someone makes
themselves, often about their own life and family.
(English Version of Thesaurus of Films and Types of
Movie).
(3) Silent Movie
(a) The Definition of Silent Movie
Silent movie is a movie in which voices and other sound are
not heard, especially a very old movie. There is no speech
between the actors. This movie uses appropriate movements that
portray characters, emotions and meanings. Such as, hand
gestures, body movements, facial expressions, and blocking
(movements in space).
(http://silentology.wordpress.com/2014/03/06/how-to-watch-asilent-film/)
Silent movie is a movie which is not use verbal language.
This film could even completely without any sound. (Bakdi
Sumanto, 1992:1)
Silent movie is a movie that tells a story with the motion
only. (Richard Levin, 1960:131)

30

From the definitions above can be summarized that silent


movie is a movie without sound. The movie just show the events
that include in that film, and there is no a sound of the dialogue
between the actors. And from that film students are able to write
narrative text.
(b) Procedure of Learning Using Silent Movie
Gonzalez Blasco,P.,Moreto,G.et al., (2006) a lesson plan
that involves movie material might be thought of in terms of
three distinct phases:
(1) Pre-Viewing
Before viewing it is important to prepare students for
what they are about to see and to introduce the broad
topic. Any parts of the movie that the teacher believes to
challenge students can be outlined at this time. Previewing exercises such as brainstorms may help to focus
attention.
(2) Viewing
Continuous interruptions during viewing risk breaking
concentration and should be avoided. However, students
can be given simple tasks to carry out while watching a
movie which will help them to engage with the movies
content. A balance has to be found which doesnt ask too
much students, but does help to keep them interest.
(3) Post-Viewing
Many different types of activity might follow on from
watching a movie. Content might be used to begin a

31

discussion, it might be written or the students do a roleplay.


From the procedure above the students can make a
narrative text after the watched a silent movie. The
content of the text is depends on the story of the movie.
(c) The Advantages of Silent Movie
There are some advantages of silent movie as follows :
(a). It is very interesting activity to students for learn English.
(b). It does not make the students tired of listening material,
because they watch a movie.
(c). The students will not bored during the lesson.
(d). A movie always increases their interest level, their
motivation, enthusiasm and willingness to study English.
(d) The Disadvantages of Silent Movie
There are some disadvantages of silent movie as follows:
(a). The students have to concentrate to the movie.
(b).The students who cannot remember the whole story in that
movie will lose their opportunity to rewrite the story.
B. Conceptual Framework
In teaching English, teachers follow the material that will be taught.
Based on four basic skills that have to be mastered, speaking, listening,
reading and writing. Writing is the important skill and it is considered as the
difficult one. Writing is and ability to solve and express ideas, interests, and
feelings (Brown, 1987)
Writing skill is very important because by writing students can express
their feeling and ideas. However, students usually get difficulties to find the
appropriate words that they need in writing.
To overcome these difficulties, the teacher should be able to choose
the suitable media in teaching writing especially narrative text. One of the
media that can be used in teaching narrative text is using silent movie. Using

32

silent movie in teaching writing is interesting and good to be used in teaching


senior high school, because most of students are interested in watching
movie. Besides, it will improve their motivation and enthusiasms in learning
English. It will give a chance to think creatively and it can improve their self
confidence to write English.
The students can imagine a story to write a narrative text. They are
able to know where the story take places, who the main characters are, how
the story begins, what the problem is, and how the problem is going to be
resolved. So, the students do not get difficulties to get an idea to write.
From the explanation above, we can know that students have to find
many ideas to write English and students have to get facilities such as
interesting media to improve their idea in writing English. Especially in
writing narrative text.
C. Action Hypothesis
Based on the conceptual framework above, the hypothesis of this research
are:
1. Silent movie can improve students learning motivation on writing
narrative text in the tenth grade of SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Muntilan in
the school year 2014/2015.
2. The improvement of the students ability on writing narrative text by
using silent movie to tenth grade of SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Muntilan in
school year 2014/2015 is great.
CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. Type of Research

33

The type of this research is Classroom Action Research since the


major point of the research is to improve the existing classroom condition and
students learning motivation or writing skill. This approach is to collect and
interpret data that involve clear, repeated in the cycle procedures. This means
that Classroom Action Research is done. To make up learning condition to be
better than before in repeated procedures (Baley, 2000: 490)
There was three-cycles applied in this research; Pre-Cycle, Cycle I,
and Cycle II. The Pre-Cycle was done as the writer is doing a teaching
practice and gave the students test to know the students writing skill, so that
continued with the Cycle I and Cycle II. The researcher did and quitted in
Cycle III, since the result reaches the goal. In each cycle consist of four
phases; planning, acting, observing, and reflecting.

B. Subject of Research
The subject of this research is the tenth grade students of SMA
Muhammadiyah 1 Muntilan, in the school year 2014/2015. Based on the
writers observation, all students have different abilities and motivation in
learning English, especially in writing skill. The average score of the writing
skill of the majority of the students was 60, less than standard score of 75. It
indicated that the degree or writing skill of the majority of the students is low.
They had difficulties in organizing information or ideas logically and
applying the schematic structure of the text. The writer did the research in
Pre-Cycle, Cycle I, and Cycle II. The students also had different ability in

34

choosing the appropriate words, vocabulary, and improving their idea to


write, so that the researcher choose this class because most of the students are
smart but still have low motivation in writing English.

C. Setting of Research
The writer did this research on August 19 th 2014 to September 2nd
2014 and carried out the research in class X-IPS 4 of SMA Muhammadiyah 1
Muntilan. They learn English two times in a week. There are 34 students, 12
boys and 22 girls. Nanang Hasan Azwar, S.Pd is the English teacher and be
the writers collaborator. An English teacher in SMA Muhammadiyah 1
Muntilan would be the collaborator in this research. The aim of use the
collaborator is to help observe and give some suggestions how the writer
doing the research and how the research go on till done.

D. Research Procedure
The writer conducted classroom action research through a Pre-Cycle
test and Cycle test. This research was conducted into three cycles; they are

35

Pre-Cycle, Cycle I, and Cycle II. The researcher gave action in Cycle I by
using Silent Movie and continued in the Cycle II.
1. Pre-cycle
The Pre-Cycle was conducted at the beginning of the research
before the two cycles. There were two activities in this cycle,
observation and test. The first activity was observation. The writer
observed when the English teacher taught the students. Then, the
writer started to observe the teaching-learning process in class to know
students motivation in learning activity.
The second activity was test. The purpose was to check the
students weakness and strength in writing skill whether they were
understood or not with narrative text and how the students learning
motivation.
2. Cycle 1
Based on the result of Pre-cycle test, the writer gave the
action in Cycle I by using Silent Movie. In cycle I the writer did some
activities as follows:
a. Planning
The aim of this stage was to plan teaching learning process
in order that there was improvement students learning motivation
and writing skill. Based on the result of analyzing the problem in

b.

the pre-cycle, the researcher did some preparation, they were:


Making a lesson plan, observation and questionnaire sheets.
Preparing the materials.
Making a cycle I test of narrative writing test.
Doing documentation.
Acting

36

In this stage the students were taught using Silent Movie.


This action was done to know the improvement of students writing
skill in two cycles.The procedure of teaching-learning process in
Cycle I was explained as follows:
(1) Pre - Activity
a. The writer greeted the students.
b. The writer asked about the previous meeting.
c. The writer checked the students attendance.
d. The writer motivated students by telling the purpose of
writing comprehension on narrative text.
(2) Main-activity
(a) Pre-Viewing
Before viewing it is important to prepare students for what
they are about to see and to introduce the broad topic. Any
parts of the movie that the teacher believes to challenge
students can be outlined at this time. Pre-viewing exercises
such as brainstorms may help to focus attention.
(b) Viewing
Continuous interruptions during viewing risk breaking
concentration and should be avoided. However, students can
be given simple tasks to carry out while watching a movie
which will help them to engage with the movies content. A
balance has to be found which doesnt ask too much
students, but does help to keep them interest.
(c) Post-Viewing
The students begin discuss about the content of the movie
with the teacher. The content of the movie can improve as

37

narrative text. In this case the students begin their creativity


to write their own narrative text based on the Silent movie.
The step in this main activity is appropriate with the
planning. However, the time limitation made students unable to
practice optimally, so it will be continued in cycle 2.
(d) Post-activity
(a) Analyzing the students writing
(b) Correcting some students mistakes.
(c) Giving conclusion and suggestion about the movie.
(d) Giving them assignment to discuss the given motions home.

c. Observing

The collaborative teacher observed the students in learning


activity using an observation sheet. Then he also took photograph
during the teaching learning process. The result of this photograph
was used as the image of immortalized students during learning
process.
d. Reflecting

Reflection was the activity of evaluating critically about the


progress or change of the students, class and also writer. The writer
made reflection in the Cycle I based on some formal questionnaire
with the students and observation sheet, to decide and repair of
learning in Cycle II.

38

3. Cycle II
Based on the reflection in the Cycle I, the writer decided to
continue the treatment in Cycle II in order to improve the students
writing skill and students learning motivation by using Silent
Movie. The process similar to the Cycle I but in Cycle II the movie
was different.
a. Planning
Cycle II was done based on the analysis of the first cycle.
The writer tried to revise the lesson plan and teaching activity with
different genre of movie. There was a test and observation sheet for
evaluation.
a. Acting
In this stage, the writer recalled the material and continued
the steps about Silent Movie.
(1) Pre - Activity
e. The writer greeted the students.
f. The writer asked about the previous meeting.
g. The writer checked the students attendance.
h. The writer motivated students by telling the purpose of
writing comprehension on narrative text.
(2) Main-activity
(a) Pre-Viewing
Before viewing it is important to prepare students for what
they are about to see and to introduce the broad topic. Any
parts of the movie that the teacher believes to challenge
students can be outlined at this time. Pre-viewing exercises
such as brainstorms may help to focus attention.

39

(b) Viewing
Continuous interruptions during viewing risk breaking
concentration and should be avoided. However, students can
be given simple tasks to carry out while watching a movie
which will help them to engage with the movies content. A
balance has to be found which doesnt ask too much
students, but does help to keep them interest.
(e) Post-Viewing
The students begin discuss about the content of the movie
with the teacher. The content of the movie can improve as
narrative text. In this case the students begin their creativity to
write their own narrative text based on the Silent movie.
The step in this main activity is appropriate with the
planning. However, the time limitation made students unable to
practice optimally, so it continued in cycle 2.
(3) Post-activity
(e) Analyzing the students writing
(f) Correcting some students mistakes.
(g) Giving conclusion and suggestion about the movie.
(h) Giving them assignment to discuss the given motions home.
b. Observing
The collaborative teacher observed the activity of students
learning process by using an observation sheet. The writer gave

40

writing test in second cycle. The test was same with the cycle test
before the test to know good or bad of students learning
motivation and students understanding in learning writing
especially in writing narrative text.using Silent Movie.
c. Reflecting
In the end of the cycle, reflection was done to know the
improvement of students learning motivation and students writing
ability using Silent Movie. The writer also analyzed the result of
observation sheet, questionnaire and students worksheet. The
above data was used to know whether Silent Movie was successful
in improving students learning motivation and students ability on
writing narrative and also giving idea to the students to writing
.The writer did not continue the research in the Cycle III.
E. Technique of Collecting Data
The writer used some technique to collect the data, they are:
1. Technique of Test
This action research carried out in three cycles. There was a test in
each cycle. The purpose of the test is to measure the students progress
and the result of the teaching learning activities and students learning
motivation. The test of this research is writing narrative text. The writer
asked the students to do several tests:
a. Pre-cycle test

41

b. Writing test in cycle 1


c. Writing test in cycle 2
The writing assessment of the research is follows (Brown,2004):
Writing
elements
Content

Score

Criteria

20-18

Use clearly appropriate details to support


or illustrate an idea.

17-15

Use details to support or illustrate an idea.

14-12

Use some details to support or illustrate an


idea.

11-6

Inappropriate or insufficient details to


support or illustrate generalization.

Organizatio

5-1
20-18

Little or no detail or irrelevant specifics.


Well organized and well developed.

17-15

Generally well organized and developed.

14-12

Adequately well organized and developed.

11-6

Inadequately

well

organized

and

developed.
Vocabulary

5-1
20-18

Serious disorganization.
Demonstrate variety and appropriate word
choice.

17-15

Demonstrate some varieties and range


vocabulary.

14-12

May contain some errors that occasionally


obscure meaning.

42

11-6

Noticeably inappropriate choices of words


and word forms.

Language

5-1
20-18

Serious problem with focus.


Display consistency facility in the use of
language.

17-15

Display facility in the use of language.

14-12

Demonstrate adequate but possibly


inconsistent facility with usage.

11-6

An accumulation of errors in sentences


structure and/or usage.

Mechanics

5-1

Serious and frequent error in sentences

20-18

structure or usage.
Effectively addresses the writing tasks.

17-15

Addresses some parts of the task more


effectively than others.

14-12

Addresses the writing topic adequately but


may slight part of the task.

11-6

Error in sentence punctuation.

5-1

Severe spelling problems.

Notes: Total maximum score: 100


Total minimum score: 5
2. Technique of Non-test
a. Observation

43

Observation was done to get the data of students behavior in


writing class. The writer used the result of observation in Pre-Cycle,
Cycle I, and Cycle II to know whether there was students behavior
change by using silent movie as the media in writing skill. The
observation guidance was explained as follows:
THE OBSERVATION SHEET GUIDANCE

No

1.

Behavioral
Types
The students
motivation to
listen the
teachers
explanation.

Number
Observation Focus

Students
1. The students give
attention to
teachers
explanation.
2. The students ask
about the material
of the lesson.
3. The students give
comment to the
material of the
lesson.
4. The students
answer the
teachers question.

2.

of

5. The students make


notes.
The students 6. The students have
spirit
in learning
motivation
process.
during
teaching
7. The students have
learning
motivated
in
process,
teaching
learning
process it can be
seen from how they

Total
Students

Percentage (%)

44

interested
watching
movie.
8.

3.

The students
motivation to
do the duty
that was given
by teacher.

in
silent

The
students
involve in learning
how
to
write
narrative text.

9. The students have


discussion in the
narrative
writing
learning.
10. The students do
the task of writing
narrative text.
11.The students
produce a narrative
text.
12. The students
directly improve
that movie as
narrative text on
time.

b. Questionnaire
A questionnaire is a list of questions to be answer
by

group

questionnaire

of

people

collectad

to

get

information.

data/information

from

The
the

students based on the needs, interest, like and dislike


about teaching learning process and the media that
used by the writer.

45

QUESTIONS
1. Do you like studying English?
2. Do you think that writing is important?
3. Do you think that writing narrative text is
difficult?
4. Do you understand narrative text?
5. Are you able to understand the teachers
explanation well?
6. Are
you
bored
with
the
teachers
explanation?
7. Are you able to make a narrative text after
the teacher uses Silent Movie?
8. Do you feel that this media can improve your
writing skill?

YES

NO

46

9. Do you have high motivation after the


researcher uses Silent Movie?
10. Do you like Silent Movie?

c. Documentation
The writer and the collaborator took photographs from
students

activity

during

the

teaching

learning

process.

Documentation would use as visual evidence in learning activity


during the research.

F. Technique of Analyzing Data


Technique analyze data are quantitative and qualitative
1. Quantitative analysis data
Quantitative data was obtained from the result of narrative text
writing test by using silent movie media in Cycle I and Cycle II. Data
analysis of test quantitative do with summarizing obtained students score
calculated cumulative score from all aspects. Calculated class means
scores, and calculated percentages. To calculate the percentage of score
use formula as follows:
SP =

SS
R

x100

Explanation:

47

SP

: Score Percentage

SS

: Score is reached by students

: Respondent
The data analysis was compared the score of Pre-Cycle, Cycle I,

and Cycle II. The result of this research gave description about
percentage of improving writing skill in narrative text by using silent
movie media in every cycle.
2. Qualitative analysis data
Qualitative data was obtained from data of non-test they are
observation, questionnaire, and documentation. The result of this
qualitative data analysis was used to know changing students behavior in
learning process Pre-Cycle, Cycle 1, and Cycle II, and it is also to know
improving writing skill of narrative text by using Silent Movie.

G. Performance Indicator
Performance indicators in this research are as follows:
1. Students minimum motivation of learning reaches 75%.
2. Students who get score 75 of writing narrative text test in SMA
Muhammdiyah 1 Muntilan reaching 75%.

48

CHEPTER IV
RESULT AND DISCUSSION

A. The Result of the Research


This chapter presented the results of test and non test. The result of test
was divided into three phases. They were Pre-Cycle, Cycle I, and Cycle II test.
1. The Result of the Pre-Cycle
a. The Result of the Test
The result of Pre-Cycle was in the form of Narrative text writing
skill of the student any clues before the writer applied the action. This
test had function to know the early situation of narrative text writing
skill of the students. The result of Pre-Cycle test can be shown in Table
Table 1
The Result of Pre-Cycle Test
Category
Explanatio
Very
Very
n
Good
Fair
Poor
Good
Poor
Number of
0
8
7
16
2
student
8
7
16
2
x 100
x 100
x 100
x 100
33
33
33
33
Percentage
0.00
=
=
=
=
24.24
21.21
48.48
6.06
1970
=59.70
Avarage
33
Score

Based on above table, it shows that the students have reached


average score in Pre Cycle test 59.70% and it belongs to poor category.
The number of students who got very good category were zero, and
good category were 8 or 24.24%. Students who got fair category was 7

49

or 21.21%. Students who got poor category were 16 or 48.48% and very
poor category were 2 or 6.06% from all students. The average score was
from number of score on writing assessment aspects; there were
organization, content, grammar, mechanic and vocabulary.
The scores category result of Pre Cycle test is shows by Diagram 1
Diagram 1
The Result of Pre-Cycle Narrative Text Writing Skill
60
48.48

50
40
30

24.24

21.21

20
10
0

6.06

Very 0
Good

Good

Fair

Poor

Very Poor

Diagram 1 shows that the highest bar was at poor category This
matter indicator that 48.48% students, writing skill in narrative text at
poor category, and very poor category was 6.06%.
b. The Result of the Non-Test
The result of non-test

in

Pre-Cycle

was

observation

questionnaire, and documentation. The result of non test can be shown


as follow:
1) The Result of observation
The observation was done during narrative text writing
learning process using silent movie of tenth graders of SMA

50

Muhammadiyah 1 Muntilan. It focused on 2 behavioral types. They


were the motivation of students during narrative text learning
proccess, and the achievement of students done the duty which was
given by the teacher. The result of observation in Pre Cycle shows
at table 2.

51

Table 2
The Result of Observation in Pre-Cycle
No.
1

2.

3.

Behavioral Type

Observation Focus

The
students 1. The
students
give
motivation
to
attention to teachers
listen
the
explanation
teachers
2. The students ask about
explanation
the material of the
lesson
3. The
students
give
comment of the lesson
4. The students answer the
teachers question
5. The students make notes
The students
6. The students have spirit
motivation during
in learning process
teaching learning 7. The
students
have
process
motivated in teaching
learning process, it can
be seen from how they
interested in watching
silent movie
8. The students involve in
learning how to write a
narrative text
9. The
students
have
discussion
in
the
narrative text writing
learning
The students
motivations to do
the duty that was
given by the
teacher

Sum
Average

10. The students do the task


of writing narrative text
11. The students produce a
narrative text.
12. The students directly
improve that silent
movie as narrative test
on time

Numbe
r of
student

Total
number
of
students

Percentage
(%)

22

33

66.67

21

33

63.64

23

33

69.70

26

33

78.79

24

33

72.73

20

33

60.61

33

0.00

19

33

57.57

21

33

63.64

30

33

90.00

30

33

90.91

33

236
19.67

396
33

715.17
59.60

52

Based on table 2, it shows that the motivation of the students


to listen to teachers explanation as follows:
The number of students who paid attention to teachers
explanation reached 22 students or 66.67%. The students who
raised questions about the material were 21 students or 63.64%. The
students who commented about the material were 23 students or
69.70%. The students who responded teachers question reached 26
students or 78.79%. The students who make note reached 24
students or 72.73%. The motivation of students class participation
during narrative text writing process as follows: The students who
hare spirit in learning process reached 20 or 60.61%. The students
who have motivated to learn writing narrative text after they
watched silent movie is 0 or 0.00%, because the writer havent give
a silent movie yet. The students who involved in learning how to
write a narrative text reached in l9 or 57.57%. The students who
raised discussions of narrative text writing reached 21 or 63.64%. In
the motivation of students to do the assignment that was given by
the teacher as follows: The students who did the task of writing
narrative text reached 30 or 90.91%. The students who produce a
narrative text reached 30 or 90.91%. The students who improved
the silent movie as narrative text on time is 0 or 0.00%, because
silent movie havent given yet to the students.
The result of observation in Pre-Cycle could be seen at
Diagram 2.

53

Diagram 2
The Result of Observations Score in Pre-Cycle
100

90.9190.91

90
80
70 66.6763.64

69.7

78.79
72.73
63.64
57.57

60.61

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1

0
7

10

11

0
12

54

2) The Result of the questionnaire


The result of the questionnaire could be seen on the Table 3
bellow:
Table 3
The Result of questionnaire in Pre-Cycle

Question

Yes

No

1. Do you like English?

26

2. Do you think that writing is important?

20

13

3. Do you think that writing narrative text is difficult?

30

4. Do you understand the narrative text?

18

15

5. Are you able to understand the teachers explanation


well?

28

6. Are you bored with the teachers explanation?

27

33

33

33

7. Are you able to make a narrative text after the teacher


uses silent movie?
8. Do you feel that this media can improve your writing
skill?
9. Do you have high motivation after the teacher uses silent
movie?
10. Do you like silent movie?

From the table 3 above, the writer summarized that the PreCycle condition has not reached the ideal condition yet. It can be
seen through the percentage of the students in answering the
questionnaire. It motivated the writer to do this research
enthusiastically to improve the students narrative text writing skill
using silent movie.
3) Documentation

55

The writer and the collaborator took some photos during


teaching learning process of the tenth graders in SMA
Muhammadiyah 1 Muntilan in the school year 2014/2015. Photos
documentation is used as visual evidence of learning process. These
photos documentation can be seen on appendices.

2. Result of Cycle 1
a. The Result of the Test
The result of the cycle 1 test could be seen on the table 4 bellow:
Table 4
The Result of Cycle 1 Test
Explanatio
n
Number of
student
Percentage

Category
Very
Good

Good

Fair

Poor

Very
Poor

19

19
x 100
33

7
x 100
33

5
x 100
33

2
x 100
33
= 6.06

Average
Score

= 57.57
2305
=69.85
33

= 21.21

0.00

= 15.15

Table 4 shows that the students have reached average score in


cycle 1 test was 69.85% and it belongs to fair category. There were 2
students or 6.06% who got very good category, 19 students who got
good category reached 57.57%. There were 7 students that belongs to
fair category reached 21.21%. There were 5 students who got poor
category reached 15.15%, and none of students who got very poor
category. In this cycle the students had higher motivation than in Pre-

56

Cycle, but it still unsatisfied. So the follow up of this cycle can be seen
on cycle II. The writer needs to do action to help them in improving
their narrative text writing skill and their motivation in learning process
by using silent movie. The result of text in cycle 1 can also be seen in
diagram 3 to make it clear.
Diagram 3
The Result of Cycle 1 Test
70
57.57

60
50
40
30

21.21

20
10

15.15
6.06

0
Verry Poor

Good

Fair

Poor

Very0Poor

After observing the implementation of the action in cycle 1, the


writer would like to know whether there was a better progress or not,
there was a consistency or not. The result of evaluation in cycle 1 was
used to find out the strengths and the weaknesses of the student in
teaching learning process. It was successful to improve the students
achievement scores and the students motivation if it was concerned
with the result of test in Pre-Cycle. It was good improvement, out there
was some students that still found difficulties in grammar and
organization.

57

b. The result of Non Test


1) The Result of the observation
Observation was done during the teaching learning process
to kwon the students condition and opinion by using silent movie.
The Result of observation can be seen on the Table 5 bellow:

Table 5
The Result of Observation in cycle 1
No.
1.

1. The students give attention


to teachers explanation

23

Total
number
of
students
33

2. The students ask about the


material of the lesson
3. The students give comment
of the lesson
4. The students answer the
teachers question
5. The students make notes

21

33

63.64

20

33

60.61

19

33

57.57

18

33

54.54

6. The students have spirit in


learning process
motivation
7. The
students
have
during teaching
motivated in teaching
learning process, it can be

28

33

84.85

28

33

84.85

Behavioral
Type
The students
motivation to
listen the
teachers
explanation

2.

The students

Observation Focus

Number
of
students

Percentage
(%)
69.70

58

learning

seen from how they


interested in watching
silent movie
8. The students involve in
learning how to write a
narrative text
9. The
students
have
discussion in the narrative
text writing learning

process

The students

10. The students do the task of


writing narrative text
motivations to
11. The students produce a
do the duty that
narrative text.
12.
The
students
directly
was given by
improve that silent movie
the teacher
as narrative test on time.
Sum
Average

19

33

57.57

18

33

54.54

30

33

90.91

32

33

96.97

32

33

96.97

288

396

872.72

24

33

72.73

Based on table 5, it shows that the motivation of the students


to listen to teachers explanation as follows:
The number of students who paid attention to teachers
explanation reached 23 students or 69.70%. The students who
raised questions about the material were 21 students or 63.64%. The
students who commented about the material were 20 students or
60.61%. The students who responded teachers question reached 19
students or 57.57%. The students who make note reached 18
students or 54.54%. The motivation of students class participation
during narrative text writing process as follows: The students who
had spirit in learning process reached 28 or 84.85%. The students
who have motivated to learn writing narrative text after the watched

59

silent movie reached 28 or 84.85%, because the writer gave a silent


movie in this cycle. The students who involved in learning how to
write a narrative text reached in 19 or 57.57%. The students who
raised discussions of narrative text writing reached 18 or 54.54%. In
the motivation of students to do the assignment that was given by
the teacher as follows: The students who did the task of writing
narrative text reached 30 or 90.91%. The students who produce a
narrative text reached 32 or 96.97%. The students who improved
the silent movie as narrative text on time 32 or 96.97%. The result
of observation in Cycle 1 could be seen at Diagram 4.
Diagram 4
The Result of Observations Score in Cycle I
120
96.9796.97
90.91

100
84.8584.85
80

69.7
63.6460.61
57.5754.54
60

57.5754.54

40
20
0
1

10

11

12

60

2) The Result of the Questionnaire


The result of the questionnaire could be seen on the table 6
bellow:
Table 6
The Result of Questionnaire in Cycle I
Question
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Do you like English?


Do you think that writing is important
Do you think that writing narrative text is difficult?
Do you understand the narrative text?
Are you able to understand the teachers explanation well?
Are you bored with the teachers explanation?
Are you able to make a narrative text after the teacher uses
silent movie?
8. Do you fell that this media can improve your writing skill?
9. Do you have high motivation after the teacher uses silent
movie?
10. Do you like silent movie?

Yes
30
27
27
27
29
29

No
3
5
5
5
4
4

25

24

27

30

61

Table 6 shows that the cycle 1 conditional has not reached


the ideal condition yet. It can be seen through the percentage of the
students in answering questionnaire it become the motivation for
the researcher to do action with enthusiasm in the cycle II.
3) The Result of Cycle II
Based on the reflection in the previous cycle, the research
was continued to cycle II to repair cycle I. Cycle II still used silent
movie in teaching writing especially for writing narrative text.
Based on the action in cycle II, the writer got the data of test and
non-test.
a) The Result of the Test
The result of the Cycle II test could be seen in the table
7 bellow:
Table 7
The Result of Cycle II Test
Category
Explanation
Number of
student
Percentage

Very
Good

Good

Fair

Poor

Very
Poor

23

23
x 100
34

2
x 100
34

0.00

0.00

= 67.65

= 5.88
2675
=78.66
34

9
x 100
34
= 26.47

Average
Score

Table 7 shows that the students have reached average score in cycle
II test was 78.66% and it belongs to good category. Students who got
very good category were 9 students or 26.47%, 23 students who got good

62

category were 23 students or 67.65%, 2 students who got fair category


reached 5.88% and none of students who got poor and very poor category
are 0.00%.
In this cycle the students began to pay attention and they interested
in learning writing process. It can be seen from their writing and their
enthusiasm in improving the silent movie as narrative text.
The implementation of silent movie in cycle II gave a good
improvement to the students motivation on writing narrative text. The
students did not copy from the internet again, but they improve that silent
movie as narrative text, and the students can explore their creativity to
write, but there were some students that still had difficulty to choose the
appropriate words. Most of them are able to produce and wrote narrative
text after they watched a silent movie.
The result of test in Cycle II can also be seen in diagram 5 to make
it clear.
Diagram 5
The Result of Cycle II Test

63

80
67.65

70
60
50
40
30

26.47

20
10

5.88

0
Very Good

Good

Fair

0
Poor

Very 0
Good

Based on the observation test, the writer could give


reflection to what had been implemented in cycle II. There were
positive results of implementation of silent movie on writing
narrative text in cycle II the students got many exercise in writing
these exercise made them had better understanding and creativity
than before in learning motivation. The negative result was that
some of the students still confused in choosing appropriate word,
but they used the right tenses especially past tense but same
students were still made mistakes in using the right vocabulary.
b) The Result of Non-Test
1) The result of the Observation
The Result of observation could be seen on the
Table 8 bellow:

64

Table 8
The Result of Observation in Cycle II
No
.
1.

2.

Behavioral Type
The students
motivation to
listen the
teachers
explanation

The students
motivation during
teaching learning
process

The students
motivations to do
the duty that was
given by the
teacher

Observation Focus
1. The students give attention
to teachers explanation
2. The students ask about the
material of the lesson
3. The students give comment
of the lesson
4. The students answer the
teachers question
5. The students make notes
6. The students have spirit in
learning process
7. The students have motivated
in teaching learning process,
it can be seen from how they
interested in watching silent
movie
8. The students involve in
learning how to write a
narrative text
9. The students have discussion
in the narrative text writing
learning
10. The students do the task of
writing narrative text
11. The students produce a
narrative text.
12. The
students
directly
improve that silent movie as
narrative test on time

Number
of
students
27

Total
Percen
number
tage
of
(%)
students
34
79.41

23

34

67.65

26

34

76.47

23

34

67.65

29
21

34
34

85.29
61.76

24

34

70.59

22

34

64.70

25

34

73.53

34

34

100

34

34

100

34

34

100

65

Sum
Average

322
26.83

408
34

947.05
78.92

Based on table 8, it shows that the motivation of the students


to listen to teachers explanation as follows:
The number of students who paid attention to teachers
explanation reached 27 students or 79.41%. The students who
raised questions about the material were 23 students or 67.65%. The
students who commented about the material were 26 students or
76.47%. The students who responded teachers question reached 23
students or 67.65%. The students who make note reached 29
students or 85.29%. The motivation of students class participation
during narrative text writing process as follows: The students who
hare spirit in learning process reached 21 or 61.76%. The students
who have motivated to learn writing narrative text after the watched
silent movie 24 o or 70.59%. The students who involved in learning
how to write a narrative text reached in 22 or 64.70%. The students
who raised discussions of narrative text writing reached 25 or
73.53%. In the motivation of students to do the assignment that was
given by the teacher as follows: The students who did the task of
writing narrative text reached 34 or 100%. The students who
produce a narrative text reached 34 or 100%. All students who
improved the silent movie as narrative text on time 34 or 100%,
because silent movie was given to the students.

66

The result of observation in Cycle II could be seen at


Diagram 6.

Diagram 6
The Result of Observations Score in Cycle II
120
100 100 100

100
80

85.29
76.47
73.53
70.59
67.65
67.65
64.7
61.76

79.41

60
40
20
0
1

10

11

12

Table 9
The Result of Questionnaire in Cycle II
Question

Yes

No

1. Do you like English?

32

2. Do you think that writing is important

32

3. Do you think that writing narrative text is difficult?

31

4. Do you understand the narrative text?

30

Are you able to understand the teachers explanation 30


well?
6. Are you bored with the teachers explanation?
31

7. Are you able to make a narrative text after the teacher uses 31
silent movie?
8. Do you feel that this media can improve your writing skill 30

9. Do you have high motivation after the teacher uses silent 30


movie?

5.

67

10. Do you like silent movie?

30

Based on the result of questionnaire in Cycle II, it showed that


most students have very good opinion and response to the teaching
learning process and the media that used in this research.
B. Discussion
The research findings show some important point as follow:
1. The improvement of Students Learning Motivation in Writing
Class.
From the result of non-test, which consisted of observation and
questionnaire in Pre-Cycle, it could be concluded that the students did
not really understand about writing narrative text and Silent Movie was
considered new learning media for them. Some of them had low
enthusiasm to write narrative text and the class situation still noise.
Some of their behavior showed less good behavior. The writer did action
to help them in improving their narrative text writing skill by using
Silent Movie. To overcome the problem in Pre-Cycle, the writer made
improvement such as explaining more about narrative text and Silent
Movie in Cycle I and Cycle II. In Cycle I the writer also explained and
corrected about common mistakes in narrative text written by the
students.
There was changing the students motivation in cycle I and
successful to improve the students achievement score concerned with
the result of Pre-Cycle. The writer still found problem faced by students

68

that was not dominated in class, and some students till found difficulties
in grammar and organization.
There were positive results of implementation Silent Movie in
narrative text writing skill in Cycle II. The students got many experience
in writing. They were prepared and had more spirit and motivation in
learning English. They were more interested in giving attention, asking,
and answering teachers questions. They also could write narrative text
better and finish it on time which has been determined. It happened
because they had more comprehension about writing narrative text. The
result of the test was satisfactory. It can be concluded that students
motivation and giving idea to the students in learning writing narrative
text using Silent Movie showed changing to be good behavior. The
negative result was that most students still forgot using correct verb in
past tense.
2. The Improvement of Narrative Text Writing Skill
The writer compared the result of Pre-Cycle, Cycle I and Cycle
II test to know the improvements of narrative text writing skill to the
tenth graders of SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Muntilan. The improvement of
narrative text writing skill could be seen in table 10.

Table 10
The Result of Writing Skill of Pre-Cycle, Cycle I, and
Cycle II
Assessment Aspect

Average of Score

Improvement

69

Writing

PC

CI

CII

PC-

CI-CII

PC-CII

59.70

69.85

78.66

CI
10.15

8.81

18.96

Table 10 shows that the average score of Pre-Cycle test is 59.70%, it


belongs to poor category. The average score of Cycle I test is 69.85%, it
belongs to fair category. It means that the score of test of Pre-Cycle and Cycle
I did not fulfilled score goals. There is improvement of the average of
narrative text writing skill from Pre-Cycle to Cycle I is 10.15 points.
While, the average of writing test of Cycle II reached 78.66%, it
belongs to good category. It means that the score test of Cycle II have fulfilled
determined score goals, because it reached more than 75.00 as the standard
mastery of learning of English lesson in SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Muntilan.
Thus, the writer did not continue to Cycle III. The improvement of writing test
from Cycle I to Cycle II is 8.81 points and whole improvement of writing
narrative text test from Pre-Cycle to Cycle II is 18.96 points.
The writer summarized that using Silent Movie can improve writing
skill in narrative text to the tenth graders of SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Muntilan.
The improvement of every writing skill could be seen in diagram 7.

Diagram 7
The Improvement of Every Writing Test

70

90
78.66

80
69.85

70
60

59.7

50
40
30
20
10
0
Pre-Cycle

Cycle I

Cycle II

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

A.

Conclusions
Based on the analysis of the data in Pre-Cycle, Cycle I, and Cycle II test,
it can be concluded as follows;

71

1. The students learning motivation of writing narrative text of tenth


graders of SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Muntilan in the school year
2014/2015 improved by using Silent Movie.
2. The improvement of students writing ability on narrative text taught
by using Silent Movie of the tenth graders of SMA Muhammadiyah
1 Muntilan in the school year 2014/2015 has made great
improvement, which is 18.96 points.

B.

Suggestions
Based on the result of this research, the writer suggests to:
1. The teachers
Teacher must be creative in designing teaching learning process.
He must be flexible to manage the class based on the situation and
students condition. He must use an interesting media that can make
the students interested in learning process. The implementation of
Silent Movie is one of media that liked by students, because most of
students like watching a movie. There are many medium in it that can
encourage students motivation and creativity in writing class. The
teacher has adapted it in order to make teaching and learning process
better and more enjoyable.

2. The Students

72

The writer suggests students to study English hard and try to


use it in their activities such as at school, with friends, and teacher.
She hopes they will be active and motivated in composing writing
and sending it at school wall magazine as training media to improve
their skill and self confidence.
One of the ways to improve their writing and grow their
motivation and self confidence in studying English is Silent Movie.
By using this media, the students are challenged to show their
creativity and develop their idea to write a narrative text. It can make
the students creative with their own word and their creativity, because
Silent Movie just make them interested in learning writing and give
idea what they have to write as narrative text.

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