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Original Title: The Sol Gel Process

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ISSN 2277-8616

Khalid Suliman Aboodh

Abstract: An increasingly important application of liquid jets is the disintegration of the jet to form droplets of liquid containing nuclear fuel. These

droplets are then dried and sintered to form ceramic micro spheres for use in fuel elements in nuclear reactors. The total operations required to

form the droplets, convert them to solids, and fire them to ceramic bodies comprise what are known as Sol-Gel processes (Reference [13]).

Keywords: sol-gel process ,jet breakup.

1 INTRODUCTION

The sol is an aqueous solution containing the metal (uranium

or plutonium) to be as nuclear fuel. This solution is dispersed

as droplets into an organic liquid drying agent (commonly 2ethy1-1-hexanol or isoamyl alcohol) which removes the water

from the sol, thus gelling the drops of sol into tiny spheres. The

final step is to dry and fire the spheres. A number of

techniques to form the sol droplets have been studied

(Reference [5]). Figure 1 illustrates three of the more common

techniques. With the shear nozzle, the sol issues from a

capillary at right angles to the drive fluid column, where it is

sheared from the capillary to form droplets. The major forces

in this technique are shear and inertia. In the two-fluid nozzle

system the sol, issuing from a capillary as a jet, is accelerated

and finally broken up by a drive fluid. Interfacial tension, shear,

and gravity are the major forces at play. In the vibrating

capillary technique, the capillary from which the sol issue is

vibrated while immersed in the drying agent. The drops of sol

are essentially shaken off from the end of the capillary. The

vibrating capillary technique has given good results, but only

over a limited range of sol drop diameters. The shear nozzle

technique is useful in producing micro spheres below the 200micron-diameter range (Reference [6]), the lower end of the

spectrum of useful micro sphere sizes, but the micro sphere

size is not very uniform. The two-fluid nozzle, on the other

hand, has been shown to produce the best uniformity in

sphere sizes over the widest

Range of sphere sizes. In the range of 200-to 2000-microndiameter droplets, two fluid nozzles have given 90 percent by

weight of the droplets within 15 percent of the mean

diameter .modern developments incorporate a vibrator with the

two fluid nozzle (Reference [7])for improved uniformity of drop

size.

________________________________

Math. Dept Omdurman Islamic University (http: //www.

fst. oiu. edu. sd) E-mail: khalidmath78@yahoo.com

Figure 2 is a photograph of fired urania micro spheres formed

by No turbulent operation of two nozzle system. The degree of

sphericity is quite apparent. Note also the absence of satellites

115

IJSTR2015

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 4, ISSUE 02, FEBRUARY 2015

becomes turbulent. (See for example, Reference [5]).

Consider the case of the driven jet as in figure 1, in which the

shear forces ominate. The shearing of the sol jet stream by the

drive fluid may be approximated by equation

rz |r a

1w 0 As

W

0 ( z) D 0

a

t ( z)

as equation

ISSN 2277-8616

the sol stream velocity has essentially attained the drive fluid

velocityW 0 . Then equation

4 becomes

7

F t02W0

R0 2tc

4F

W0

surface velocity, we have, from equation

So that

t q

( z )t ( z )

w 0 (z ) w (r , z ) |r t 0

w0 ( z ) 0

2

4 t

4s

For the case in which the sol viscosity is similar to that of the

s is the

1 into 2 Gives

Where

D W0

w0 ( z )

s 4

volumetric flow rate of the sol is given as

W t 2 ( z)

t 2 ( z ) w0 ( z ) D 0

s

4

s

q

When

t (z ) tc , the

12

4F

W0

1 2

4F

W0

depend on only three fundamental units: M , L, T ,so that

r 3 . We may therefore expect (n r ) 2

And

(1, 2 ) 0

c d e

R0a sb D

F Wo

Size

Property

1. Droplet radius

R0

3.Drive

viscosity

fluid

absolute

5.Velocity of drive fluid

Units

Fundament

al Units

m

L

kg /(m )(sec) M / LT

D kg /(m )(sec) M / LT

F

W0

m 3 / sec

m / sec

L3 /T

L /T

10

f ( R0 , s , D , F ,W0 ) 0

Where

Symb

ol

to Be of the form

first approximation the radius of the (spherical) droplet formed

is

R0 2tc 2 s

D

4F

W0

nozzle for the Sol-Gel process is indeed a complex one.

However, as for jet breakup length, the relationship between

the variables may be explored by use of dimensional analysis.

Consider the droplet size to depend on the variables given in

equation

4 yields

tc s

D

[9])

R0 1.2

Or hence

11

12

b

c 3 d

e

L

a M M L

L

LT LT T T

13

zero. Hence

116

IJSTR2015

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 4, ISSUE 02, FEBRUARY 2015

a b c 3d e 0

equation

14

bc0

bcd e0

unknowns may be chosen arbitrarily provided that they

independent of the others. As mentioned previously,

independency is established if the determinant of

coefficients of the remaining terms dose not vanish.

two

are

the

the

Since we desire

R0

a 1As

1 0 0 s

2 R001s D

F W0

c 3d e 1

Where

0, d 1

and

e1

. To

must have the determinant is

1 3 1

18

and

are

19

constants

to

19

be

F

R0 k s

W0

D

1 1

obtain

the

and x

k 4

grouping

W

1 R01s0 D0 F 1 2W01 2 R0 0

F

form

of

equation

6 where

1

.

2

16

determined

20

0 0 2 0

We

W0 s

,

0

F D

Ro

W

R0 0 k s

F

D

cd e0

Which has solution c

11

15

c0

17

agues also

choose b

12

First solution

ISSN 2277-8616

19 may be

densities of the sol and drive fluids,

s and D respectively,

and the geometry of the drive fluid flow channel. The results

(Reference [5]) may be expressed in the form

Second solution

1.

y

z

x

a b

0

s

s

Since 1 contains R 0 already, it is logical to take a 0 for

k Res Re D

R F D D

the second solution. Then equations 14 become

If viscosities are to appear at all, then we must try b

21

c 3d e 1

c 1

the Reynolds numbers for the sol and for the drive fluid,

c d e 1

Which has solution c 1 , d 0 and e 0 . The

second dimensionless grouping is thus established from

ith fluid stream and V i is its velocity. From experimental data,

equation

117

IJSTR2015

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 4, ISSUE 02, FEBRUARY 2015

0.1

R0

G s

1600

F D

R

0.5

ReD1.5

22

ReD 1000 and for laminar flow. Note the recovery of the

Where a

viscosities.

The general solution of

14

Publications, New York,1945), Vol.2,pp.351-359.

[12] P.D.McCormack, L.Crane, and S. Birch, An

Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Cylindrical

Liquid Jets Subjected to Vibration, British Journal of

Applied Physics, 16, 395 (1965).

1 3 1

1

Then

of Sol-Gel Spheres by Imposing a Vibration on the Sol

in Dispersion Nozzles, Report ORNL-TM-4094,Oak

Ridge

National

Laboratory,

Oak

Ridge,

Tennessee,(May 1973).

of the London Mathematical society, 10, 4(1879).

c 3d e k

c 0 0 k

c d e k

0 0 3 1 4 0

Reactor Fuels by Sol- Gel Processes, Chemical

Engineering Progress Symposium Series, 63,1627(1967).

Mixed Oxide Microspheres,

Then

Than 200 Microns Without Fluidation, Nuclear

Technology, 10,283-292, March (1971)

[8] Dr.HERMANN

SCHLICHTING,

Boundary-Layer

Theory, sixth Edition, Massachusetts, 1968.

b k , a

c 3d e k

c 0 0 k

c d e k

Let

ISSN 2277-8616

and Reactor Fuel Cycles, Gatlinburg, Tenn., May 47,1970.Oak Ridge National Laboratory Publication

CONF-700502.

[14] H.SCHLICHTING, Laminare

.ZAMM13, 260-263(1933).

b k , c k

stranhlenausbreitung

Mechanik, 2,136(1931).

Conclusion

In the dimensional analysis. A general solution of equation

[16] C.Weber,Zum Zerfall eines Flussig keitsstrahles, (Disintegration of a liquid Jet),Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte

Mathematik Und Mechanik, 11,136 (1931).

[17] E.H.ZARANTONELLO,

JETS,WAKES,

AND

CAVITIES, CAMBRIDGE, MASSA CHUSETTS, 1957.

References

[1] J.N.ANNO, The Mechanics Of Liquid Jets, Lexington

Book, Massachusetts, 1977.

[2] W.BICKLEY, The plane jet.phil.mag .ser . 7,23,727731(1939).

[3] P.W.Bridgman, Dimensional Analysis, (Yale University

Press, New Haven Conn., 1931)

kleiner Reibung. Proc. Of the Third intern. Mat. Congr.

Heidelberg 1904.Reprinted in Vier Abhdl. Zur Hydround Aerodynamik Gottingen 1927; NACA Tm 452

(1928); see also collected works (Gesammelte

Abhand-lungen), Vol.II, PP.575-584(1961).

[4] N.CURLE

and

H.JDAVIES,

MODERN

FLUIDDYNAMICS,

OLUME1:

INCOPRESSIBLE

FLOW,

STUDENTS

PAPERBACK

EDITION,

Massachusetts

118

IJSTR2015

www.ijstr.org

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