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# UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO

## DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING

ECE 318: Introduction to Communication Systems
Midterm Examination
Friday, Octorber 28, 2011, 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm

## Instructors: Zhou Wang

Duration of exam: 80 minutes
Total marks = 100 (mark allocations are shown within questions)

## 1. The output signal from a DSB-LC AM modulator is

u(t) = 20 cos(300t) + 6 cos(280t) + 6 cos(320t)
(a) [5] Determine the Fourier transform U (f ) of u(t).
(b) [5] Determine the normalized message signal mn (t) (which satisfies max{|mn (t)|} = 1) and
the carrier signal c(t).
(c) [5] Determine the average power of u(t).
(d) [5] Determine the modulation index.
(e) [5] Determine the modulation efficiency (which is the ratio between sideband power and total
power) [Answer with fractional number is fine].

2. A message signal m(t) = cos(2fm t) is used to amplitude modulate a carrier with frequency
fc . The modulated signal is given by
u(t) = A cos[2(fc fm )t] + A(1 ) cos[2(fc + fm )t]
where 0 1. [Hint: think about the amplitude spectra of the signals]
(a) [5] When = 0, determine the type of the resulting AM modulation.
(b) [5] When = 1, determine the type of the resulting AM modulation.
(c) [5] When = 0.5, determine the type of the resulting AM modulation.
(d) [5] When = 0.1, determine the type of the resulting AM modulation.

3. A lower sideband SSB signal and a uppper side band SSB signal are created by modulating a
carrier signal
c(t) = cos(2000t)
using a message signal
m(t) = cos(200t) + 2 cos(400t)
(a) [6] Determine the Hilbert transform of m(t).
(b) [8] Determine the time domain expressions of the lower and upper sideband SSB signals.
(c) [8] Sketch the amplitude spectra of the lower and upper sideband SSB signals.
(d) [6] To demodulate the upper sideband SSB signal, we multiply it by 2 cos(2000t) and then
apply an ideal lowpass filter with unit gain. Determine the minimal and maximal bandwidths of
the ideal lowpass filter such that the original message signal can be fully recovered.

4. Two signals m1 (t) and m2 (t) with amplitude spectra M1 (f ) and M2 (f ) given below are to be
transmitted simultaneously over a channel by the multiplexing scheme shown in the block diagram below. The signal b(t) is the multiplexed signal, which is modulated by a carrier, resulting
in the signal c(t) transmitted over a channel.

(a) [15] Sketch the amplitude spectra of the signals a(t), b(t) and c(t) in the block diagram,
respectively. Label the amplitude and the frequency axes.
(b) [6] Determine the bandwidths of the signals a(t), b(t) and c(t), respectively.
(c) [6] Design and sketch the block diagram of a receiver that will recover signals m1 (t) and m2 (t)
from the modulated signal c(t). Specify the type and the cutoff frequency for every filter you use
in your design, give the specifications for any other component you might use.

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