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Chapter 4

API 574
4.1

Introduction

This chapter of the book is about learning to become familiar


with the layout and contents of API 574. It is a code that is
strongly linked to API 570 and, in some areas, contains some
of the same information that appears in API 570. We saw in
the previous chapter how this linking of codes is a feature of
the API/ASME approach to plant inspection (and the API
certication exams).
API 574 is divided into twelve sections (sections 1 to 12)
and one single-page appendix. The body of the text (i.e.
sections 1 to 12) contains a large number of tables and
gures, mainly sketches of piping components, interspersed
with a few tables about pipe schedule wall thicknesses, etc.
The API 570 examination body of knowledge requires
candidates to have knowledge of effectively all of the twelve
sections. Hence API 574 is seen as a general piping
knowledge part of the API 570 certication syllabus.
Fortunately, understanding the twelve sections is not as
difcult as it rst appears. In layout, API 574 is a heavily
unbalanced code; i.e. a few sections (particularly section 10
covering inspection procedures) are quite long, up to fteen
pages, while most of them (sections 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11 and
12) are each only about one page long. In practice, sections 1,
2 and 3 are little more than preliminaries to the code and
dont contain much new information.
The only way to approach API 574 is from a section-bysection viewpoint, to build a general understanding of its
content. The best way of doing this is by reading important
sections of the document and then attempting questions on
the content.

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Quick Guide to API 570

4.2

API 574 section 4: piping components

Here are some of the important parts of API 574 section 4:


. How pipe sizes and wall thicknesses are dened. In section
4.1, look at table 1, table 1-A (for stainless steel pipe) and
table 3 on tolerances (situated near the back of the code).
. The different types of valves in section 4.3. You need to be
able to recognize them, not draw them. There are no
drawing questions in the API exam.
. The anges and ttings in gures 9 and 10. These are
important as they are covered by many of the data tables
in ASME B16.5.

4.3

API 574 familiarization questions

Look up the answers to these questions to help you become


familiar with API 574.
Q1. API 574 section 4.1.1: general
Pipe wall thicknesses are designated as pipe schedules in what
sizes of pipe?
(a) Up to 18 in
&
(b) Up to 24 in
&
(c) Up to 36 in
&
(d) Up to 48 in
&

Q2. API 574 section 4.1.1: general


What is an alternative system for dening pipe wall thicknesses?
(a) Standard, extra strong and double extra strong
&
(b) Normal, strong and extra strong
&
(c) Standard, strong and extra strong
&
(d) XX, XXX and XXXX
&

Q3. API 574 section 4.1.1: general


For NPS 12 pipe, which dimension stays the same, regardless of
the wall schedule thickness?
(a) The inside diameter (ID)
&
(b) The outside diameter (OD)
&
(c) The mean wall diameter
&
(d) None of these; they all vary with schedule thickness
&

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API 574

Q4. API 574 section 4.3.1: valves


Which ASME standard covers the pressure/temperature ratings
of valve bodies?
(a) ASME B31.3
&
(b) ASME B16.5
&
(c) ASME B16.34
&
(d) ASME VIII
&

Q5. API 574 table 3: ferritic pipe tolerances


What is the normal acceptable thickness under-tolerance on wall
thickness for A106 plain carbon steel pipe up to NPS 48?
(a) 0.125 in
&
(b) 10 % of nominal wall thickness
&
(c) 12.5 % of nominal wall thickness
&
(d) 15 % of nominal wall thickness
&

4.4

Corrosion monitoring and inspection

Read through API 574 section 6, paying particular attention


to the following topics:
. The use of corrosion circuits to help manage the inspections, calculations and record keeping relating to piping
inspection. Section 6.2.1 gives various parameters that can
be considered when identifying corrosion circuits.
. The 14 areas/locations of degradation listed in section 6.3.
Note how twelve of them are repeats from a similar list in
API 570.
. The content of gure 21 in the code which shows TMLs
marked up on a piping circuit diagram and section 6.3.1
about the inspection of injection points.
Then look at these important topics in API 574 section 10:
. Thickness measurements: section 10.1.2. Concentrate on
the explanations of the limitations of UT measurement
techniques
. Radiographic inspection: section 10.1.2.2. This gives a brief
summary of the types of RT techniques that can be useful
in piping inspection.

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Quick Guide to API 570

. Pressure tests: section 10.2.3. This explains the reason for


pressure testing and some of its limitations.

4.5 API 574 (sections 6 and 10) familiarization


questions
Try these questions to help you become familiar with these
sections
Q1. API 574 section 10.1.2: corrosion monitoring of
process piping
The API 574 view on what constitutes a good pipework
monitoring programme is based heavily on?
(a) Monitoring pipework wall thickness
&
(b) Monitoring uid velocities to prevent erosion
&
(c) Monitoring vibration using sensors
&
(d) All of the above, as they share equal responsibility for
pipe failures
&

Q2. API 574 section 6.2.1: piping circuits


A piping corrosion circuit comprises sections of piping of
similar design and which:
(a) Are at the same temperature
&
(b) Are at the same temperature and pressure
&
(c) Are exposed to conditions of similar corrosivity
&
(d) Appear on the same process and instrumentation
diagram (P&ID)
&

Q3. API 574 section 6.3: inspection for specic types


of corrosion and cracking
Which two damage mechanisms are listed in section 6.3 of API
574 but do not appear in the similar table 5-3 in API 570?
(a) Injection points and deadlegs
&
(b) CUI and soilair interfaces
&
(c) Fatigue cracking and creep cracking
&
(d) Corrosion at pipe supports and dew-point corrosion
&

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API 574

Q4. API 574 section 6.3.1: injection points


When designating an injection point circuit (IPC) for the
purposes of inspection, the recommended downstream limit of
the IPC is:
(a) The rst change in ow direction past the injection
point
&
(b) The second change in ow direction past the injection
point
&
(c) The third change in ow direction past the injection
point
&
(d) 25 feet past the second change in ow direction past
the injection point
&

Q5. API 574 section 6.3.1: injection points


The preferred method of inspecting injection points is?
(a) Dye penetrant and/or magnetic particle testing
(b) Dye penetrant and/or ultrasonic testing
(c) Ultrasonic testing
(d) Radiographic testing and hammer testing

&
&
&
&

Q6. API 574 section 10.2.3: pressure testing


As well as API 574, guidelines on pressure testing are found in?
(a) API 570 only
&
(b) ASME B31.3 only
&
(c) ASME B16.5 only
&
(d) All of the above
&

Q7. API 574 section 10.2.3: pressure testing


What is the main reason why it is necessary to bleed all of the air
out before a hydraulic pressure test of a pipework system?
(a) Air absorbs water and so reduces the test pressure
&
(b) For safety reasons
&
(c) Air causes shock loadings and so an unsteady pressure
gauge reading
&
(d) Air heats up as it is compressed, further increasing the
pressure
&

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Quick Guide to API 570

Q8. API 574 section 10.2.3: pressure testing


Which material would not be suitable for testing with water
containing chlorides (salts)?
(a) Ferritic plain carbon steels
&
(b) High carbon steels
&
(c) Austenitic stainless steels
&
(d) Low-pressure steam pipes
&

Q9. API 574 section 10.2.3: pressure testing


Which particular failure mechanism must be guarded against
when doing a full pneumatic test?
(a) Hydrogen failure
&
(b) Creep rupture
&
(c) Ductile fracture
&
(d) Brittle fracture
&

Q10.

API 574 section 10.2.3: pressure testing

A test at low pressure (10 % MAWP) using air or nitrogen and a


soap solution is known as?
(a) A hydraulic test
&
(b) A hydrostatic test
&
(c) A leak test
&
(d) A full pneumatic test
&

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