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and its population is 3,06,96,520 according to the 2001 census. The name means "land of Telugu people". It consists of the Telugu speaking parts of the state of Hyderabad. The region lies on the Deccan plateau to the west of the Eastern Ghats range, and includes the northwestern interior districts of Andhra Pradesh state. Telangana region has 10 districts. Theyare Warangal,Adilabad, Khammam, Mahabubnagar, Nalgonda, Rangareddy, Karimnagar, Nizamaba d, Medak, and the state capital of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad. The Krishna andGodavari rivers flow through the region from west to east. On December 9, 2009, the Government of India announced that the process for the formation of Telangana state will be initiated upon introduction and passage of a separation statement by the state assembly of AP. However, on December 23, 2009, the Government of India announced that the issue of a new state will be addressed only after a consensus is reached, thus effectively putting the formation of the new state in abeyance.
Merger of Telangana and Andhra
In December 1953, the States Reorganization Commission was appointed to prepare for the creation of states on linguistic lines. The States Reorganization Commission (SRC) was not in favour of an immediate merger of Telangana region with Andhra state, despite the common language between the two. Para 382 of States Reorganization Commission Report (SRC) said "opinion in Andhra is overwhelmingly in favour of the larger unit, public opinion in Telangana has still to crystallize itself. Important leaders of public opinion in Andhra themselves seem to appreciate that the unification of Telangana with Andhra, though desirable, should be based on a voluntary and willing association of the people and that it is primarily for the people of Telangana to take a decision about their future". Telanganas had several concerns. The region had a less developed economy than Andhra, but with a larger revenue base (mostly because it taxed rather than prohibited alcoholic beverages), which Telanganas feared might be diverted for use in Andhra. They also feared that planned dam projects on the Krishna and Godavari rivers would not benefit Telangana proportionately even though Telanganas controlled the headwaters of the rivers. Telanganas feared too that the people of Andhra who had access to higher education, would have the advantage in government and educational jobs.
The commission proposed that the Telangana region be constituted as a separate state with a provision for unification with Andhra state, after the 1961 general elections, if a resolution could be passed in the Telangana state assembly with two-third majority. Chief Minister of Hyderabad State, Burgula Ramakrishna Rao strongly believed majority of Telangana people were against the merger. Prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru initially ridiculed the idea of merging Telangana with the Andhra State, fearing a “tint of expansionist imperialism” in it. Later, he compared the merger to a matrimonial alliance having “provisions for divorce” if the partners in the alliance cannot get on well. However, following the "Gentlemen's agreement, the central government, established a unified Andhra Pradesh on November 1, 1956 . The agreement provided reassurances to both parties in terms of power sharing as well as administrative domicile rules and distribution of expenses of various regions.
Separate Telangana state movement
In the following years after the formation of Andhra Pradesh state, however, Telangana people had a number of complaints about how the agreements and guarantees were implemented. Discontent with the 1956 Gentleman's agreement intensified in January 1969 when the guarantees that had been agreed on were supposed to lapse. Student agitation for the continuation of the agreement began at Osmania University in Hyderabad and spread to other parts of the region. Government employees and opposition members of the state legislative assembly swiftly threatened "direct action" in support of the students. This movement, also known as Telangana movement, led to widespread violence and deaths of hundreds of people including 360 students. Although the Congress faced some dissension within its ranks, its leadership stood against additional linguistic states, which were regarded as "anti-national." As a result, defectors from the Congress, led by M. Chenna Reddy, founded the Telangana People's Association (Telangana Praja Samithi). Despite electoral successes, however, some of the new party leaders gave up their agitation in September 1971 and, much to the disgust of many separatists, rejoined the safer political haven of the Congress ranks. During the movement Government promised to correct the violation to Gentleman's agreement in jobs, budget allocations, educational facilities. Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi was strongly aginst the division of the state but on her recommendation, P. V. Narasimha Rao became first Chief minister of Andhra Pradesh from Telangana on September 30, 1971. 
Still some of the extremist leaders who were not the Congress men remained in the cause. The non Congress men formed the STPS (Samyukta Telangana Praja Samiti) Leader include, Badri Vishal Pitti, Sada Laxmi, Konda Laxman etc. under leadership of Sridhar Reddy, student leader. In the year 1972, all candidates belonging to STPS under the leadership of M Sridhar Reddy contested the assembly elections, however, only Mr Thakkalapalli Purushotham Rao got elected from Wardhannapet constituency of Warangal District and rest were defeated. In 1969, Mr Purushotham Rao unveiled Telangana map in the state assembly. At the end of 1972, when the Supreme Court upheld the Mulki rules, Jai Andhra movement started in Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions protesting the protections mentioned in the Gentleman's agreement. P. V. Narasimha Rao had to resign as Chief minister of Andhra Pradesh on January 10, 1973. President's rule was declared in the state. Finally, a political settlement was arrived at under the aegis of the Central Government. A Six-Point Formula was agreed upon by the leaders of the two regions to prevent any recurrence of such agitations in future. The `Six-Point Formula' included (1) the abolition of Mulki rules and the Telangana Regional Committee (protections mentioned in the Gentleman's agreement) and (2) the establishment of a Central University at Hyderabad to augment educational facilities. (3) In regards to jobs, state divided into six zones, within the framework of three regions, namely, Coastal Andhra, Rayalaseema, and Telangana (Zone V, and Zone VI) with Hyderabad under Zone VI. Each zone should prefer local candidates for state government jobs. However according to GOM, the regions were rezoned with Zone I,II,III Coastal Andhra, Zone IVRayalaseema, Zone V,IV Telangana.
Movement in 1990-2004
The emotions and forces generated by the movement, in 1969, were not strong enough, however, for a continuing drive for a separate state until 1990s when Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), promised a separate Telangana state if they came to power. BJP created Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Uttarkhand states in year 2000 as promised. But the BJP could not create a separate Telangana state because of the opposition from its coalition partner, Telugu Desam Party. These developments brought new life into the separatist Telangana movement by year 2000. Congress party MLAs from the Telangana region, supported a separate Telangana state and formed the Telangana Congress Legislators Forum.
In another development, a new party called Telangana Rashtra Samithi (or TRS) was formed with the
single point agenda of creating a separate Telangana state, with Hyderabad as its capital lead by Kalvakuntla Chandrasekhar Rao popularly known as KCR.
PROBLEMS IN TELANGANA
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The literacy rate in Telangana is 37% as against 46% in Coastal Andhra, 45% in Rayalaseema and 72% in the Capital City. Enrollment of students at the school level in Telangana is 30% instead of 40%, based on the size of population. Over 75% of the expenditure on government and government-aided colleges is incurred in the other two regions. Out of 21 Universities and University level Institutions funded either by the State or the Central Government, 3 are located in Coastal Andhra, 7 in Rayalaseema, 10 in the Capital city and just one in the entire Telangana region. 69% percent of catchments area of river Krishna and 79% percent of catchments area of river Godavari are in the Telangana, and Telangana region gets less than 15% of the river waters. The Coastal Andhra has usurped 80% of assured waters of Krishna allocated to the State by the Bachawat Tribunal. 90% of surplus waters, yet to be allocated, are reserved for the Rayalaseema, denying the Telangana its rightful share. The Godavari waters have already been harnessed to irrigate more than 12 lakh acres in Coastal Andhra while the corresponding figure for Telangana is 4 lakh acres. The proposed Polavaram Project on Godavari is to serve the Coastal Andhra region is planned to be six times larger than the proposed Ichampalli Project to serve the backward Telangana region. The net area under tank irrigation in the Telangana region had declined by 76% between 1956 and 1998. The Telangana farmers mostly depend on well irrigation. The farmers of Coastal Andhra get cheap canal water subsidized by the State, while the Telangana farmers are forced to pay higher electric pump bills. The net cultivated area in the Telangana region has decreased by 22% during the period 1956 and 1998, while it has increased by 4.25% in Coastal Andhra region. 40% of the cultivated area in the State is in the Telangana region, and the institutional credit available to the Telangana farmers is far less. They get 18%, 23% and 28% of the total credit provided by the District Cooperative Central Banks (short-term), the A.P. Cooperative Central Bank (long-term) and the Scheduled Commercial Banks. Inadequate Institutional credit is forcing the Telangana farmers to fall into the debt trap laid by the private moneylenders, leading to an unprecedented number of suicides during the last five years. No major industry worth its name has been setup in any of the districts of the Telangana region as compared to the establishment of several industries in Visakapatnam, Vijayawada, Kakinada, Nellore, Tirupati, and Cuddapah. Quite a few major industries established in the Telangana region during the rule of Nizams are being closed one after the other by the successive governments. Important among the closed industries are Azamjahi Mills (Warangal), Sir Silk Factory (Sirpur), Antargaon Spinning Mills (Adilabad), DBR Mills, and Allwyn Factory. Further the famous Nizam Sugar Factory (Nizamabad) is on the verge of closure. There are about 15 lakh jobs in the government and government-funded offices and establishments. Based on the size of population, 40% of these jobs, i.e. 6 lakhs, should have been filled in by the Telangana job seekers. But the total number of jobs now occupied by them is less than 2 lakhs. The State Government issued orders as back as in the year 1984 to remove all the non-locals appointed and to appoint only Telangana locals against the vacancies created. Besides not implementing these orders, further recruitment of non-locals in the Telangana region is going on.
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The contribution of Telangana region to the State’s Exchequer has all along been around 43%. But the expenditure incurred on the development of this region has never been more than 25%. The lower per capita income of the Telangana region enabled the State Government to get higher allocation of funds from the successive Finance Commissions. But the benefit of such higher allocation of funds never materialized for the Telangana region. More than 80% of loans taken from the World Bank and other International and National agencies are being spent for the development of Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema. But the burden of repayment of these loans and interest on them is being borne by the people of Telangana to the extent of 40 to 43%. A cumulative effect of these and similar factors, over the years, has been the diversion of thousands of crores of rupees meant for the development of Telangana region, for the development of other regions.
Telangana has been subjected to oppression and neglect for over five hundred fifty years. First five hundred years, Muslim Kings made the decisions for Telangana, and the last 47 years, Andhras are making decisions for Telangana. The Telangana people were free for only four years (1952 – 1956) to make their own decisions. Freedom to determine one’s own destiny, as you know is the highest of the rewards for a true democracy. Four and a half decades have passed since the State of Andhra Pradesh was formed. As you are aware, the merger of Telangana with the former Andhra State became possible only because a set of solemn promises were made and constitutional guarantees were given to protect against the possible neglect and exploitation of Telangana. These promises were made not just once, but numerous times and all were broken. Consequently, the exploitation of the region and its people is continued. The people of the region are not only deprived of their legitimate share in the development but are also marginalized in the political process. They have been humiliated on the cultural and linguistic fronts and are virtually reduced to the status of second-class citizens in their own homeland. A prolonged neglect of the region has provided a fertile ground for the emergence and spread of Naxalite violence and also unending farmer suicides. The development scenario of Telangana is very depressing. There is not even a single sector in which this region has not been ignored. We would, however, like to bring to your notice only a few areas to underscore the gravity of the situation.
Every time Telangana people open their mouths, doubting Toms raise some concerns and doubts and questions. Some of these doubting Toms don’t know the historical background, some others don’t understand political strategies and outcomes. Some are protecting selfish interests while others think they are protecting unity of Telugu speaking people. Whatever the motives and basis for these doubts or questions and concerns, investigating and finding appropriate answers backed by facts, is essential. Why are we hearing separate Telangana slogan again? The demand for a separate state of Telangana isn’t new. Telanganites have very clearly expressed their opposition a decade before Andhra Pradesh was formed. They reasoned that in a united Andhra Pradesh they will not get justice. Even after five decades, this demand is continuing. The reason for this is the experience of past 48 years that justice will not be done to Telangana and belief that it will continue to be denied to Telanganites in united AP. (Please see pages112 –117 for historical facts). Isn’t Telangana slogan the creation of unemployed politicians? Telangana demand is a peoples’ movement born out of their problems. Are all the people robbed unabatedly,
continuously for the 48-years and raising their voice again , unemployed political leaders? Who are the unemployed political Leaders? Are they the farmers that have been suffering for lack of drinking water, irrigations water, and cuts in electric supply? Are they the workers who lost their livelihood due to lack of new industries, and closure of existing industries? Are they the unemployed youth whose job opportunities are hijacked by outsiders? Are they the innumerable people who have been labeled and suppressed as terrorists because they raised their voice for Telangana? When people are subject to robbery and injustice and take to the streets, it is natural for leaders to enter the fray. Just because out of power politicians support Telangana statehood, does it stop being peoples’ movement? In any movement, politicians in and out of power join in. Some even deceive and attempt to side line the movement, but they can’t stop the movement. Movements continue until justice is served to the people. The educated that are the pillars of this movement aren’t unemployed. They aren’t even after employment for themselves. Why didn’t the Chief Ministers that came from Telangana area work to develop Telangana? It is true that PV Narasimha Rao, Marri Chenna Reddy (twice), T. Anjiah from Telangana were Chief Ministers of AP. Altogether they were in power for 6-years in four terms. It is also true they haven’t made any noticeable development of Telangana. Jalagam Vengal Rao was a settler. He never assimilated himself in Telangana. He is credited with the disservice to Telangana by extending Nagarjun Sagar left canal. Then what about, Rayala Seema? There were stalwarts from Rayala seems that were in power for twenty years. (N. Sanjeeva Reddy-2terms, Damodaram Sanjeeviah, K. Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy-2 terms, CB Naidu-2 terms). Why is Rayalaseema backward? Fact is they slaved for the Coastal Andhra wealth and the privileged few of these wealthy that control the politics of the state. Fazal Ali commission recognized the consequences of mixing a developed area with a backward area and recommended that Telangana be kept as a separate state. If this country’s politicians had the wherewithal to listen to the wise men, we wouldn’t be in this situation! Isn’t it detrimental to Indian national unity if small states are continuously created? Out of the 35 states currently in India (28 states and 7 central possessions), 70% are smaller than Telangana. Telangana’s population is 30 million plus. There are 25 states that are smaller than Telangana. If these twenty-five don’t cause national unity issues, why would creation of a larger state be any dangerous? (See P119-120 for details) What would you do if the backward districts in Telangana want a separate state of their own after formation of Telangana state? Backwardness of Telangana is a major reason for the Telangana state demand but not the sole reason. All ten Telangana districts have same historical background, geographic closeness, cultural commonality, language unity, and mutual understanding among the people. These factors are all foundation for unity of thought. Never did the people of Telangana districts express a desire or sentiment to be separate from the rest of the districts directly or indirectly. There isn’t an opportunity for such either. In our country there are some other backward districts in various states. Are they all demanding a separate statehood? It is meaning less and baseless argument. Why do people with one language need two states? If one language, one state is the norm, why do we have 9-Hindhi speaking states? Next to Hindi, Telugu is the most spoken language in India. What is wrong with having two states that speak Telugu? Some people claim that Telangana Telugu isn’t the proper Telugu. Some others say it isn’t even Telugu. Why should these people that make fun of Telangana language and ridicule its culture should be objecting if Telangana is separate state? Isn’t a separate state, a nation dividing, people separating, demand? If the desire of a people of a region to have their own state is a divisive act, then all states formation is a divisive act. In fact language based state formation itself is a divisive act. Same reasons that Potti Sriramulu the architect for separation of Andhra from Madras state, presented are the reasons Telanganites want their own state. The same argument used by the Andhras in the past is used by Telanganites now. If it was not an objectionable demand then how could it be objectionable now? How long should states division continue? Staes re-organization is a continuing activity in India. Even before Fazal Ali commission this process has started, Example: Formation of Andhra, split from Madras. It has been continuing ever since, Ex: Eastern states division, Maharastra,Gujrath, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jarkhand, Uttaranchal, Chattisghad. Why should there be any objections for Telangana formation when there were no such objections for these states formation? There are other backward areas in the state. Why should only Telangana people have a separate state of their own? Just as Telangana, Rayalaseema and north Andhra have been discriminated. True. But, additionally Telangana has been systemically robbed. Diversion of this regions natural resources, water, under ground
resources and their income to other areas, the robbing of jobs from the region’s people, Colonization aren’t directed at other areas. Additionally the Telanganites have been subject to ridicule with respect to the language and the politicians have been looked down upon to the extent they lost their own self image. To preserve their self respect and to protect their region’s natural resources, people of Telangana want their own state. Aren’t Naxalites the cause of Telangana’s backwardness? Only people that don’t understand or like to conveniently ignore historical facts would ask such questions. Naxals aren’t the cause of Telangana backwardness. They are an effect of Telangana backwardness. Naxals came up in Telangana due to this region has been subject to continues neglect and systematic theft of its resources.
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If Naxals are the reason, then districts where Naxals activity is less should be more developed than those with strong Naxals presence. Then why is it that Mahabubnagar where naxals presence was low is further behind Naxals strong holds of Karimnagar, Warangal and Nizamabad? Similarly, why is Vizag one of the important centers of Naxals activity is a flourishing industrial center not just in state but also in the country? How is the Kothagudem thermal station which is in the middle of forested area able to complete its expansion under the schedule? How is National thermal electric center in Ramagundam (even though its electricity isn’t used for Telangana) operating without any problems? How is the coal from Singareni mines being mined and sent to Andhra and Rayalaseema? How are Andhra settlers that bought off locals are able to flourish safely and prosperously in many Telangana areas? In Warangal forests how is AP rayons, a private factory, operating? How are the cement factories in Nalgonda singareni coal belt, those established by the Andhra Capitalists, able to operate and make profits? Who is responsible for the closure of Ajamjhahi mills, Sirpur sirsilk mills, Anthargam spinning mills, DBR mills, Alwyn factories, Republic forge, fourteen milk cooling plants? Didn’t Naxals object to such irresponsible Government mismanagement? If Naxals are the cause of Telangana backwardness, how is the current Government who promised to complete all pending projects within three years in Telangana going to do it? The cause of 1969 Telangana revolution was the Governments partiality. There were no Naxals then. Who doesn’t know that the powers that are used to the stealing of Telangana resources and neglecting Telangana for the past 48 years want to continue to do the same, and are using Naxals as an excuse? Otherwise why would the Government that started talks as a response to people’s wishes is throwing stones in the talks process?
Instead of asking for a separate state, why can’t you fight for development within the frame work of united AP? The promises of Telangana development have been made for the past 48 years in united AP. Before and after the formation of AP, Which promises were kept? Which agreements were respected? Which projects were implemented? Which principles were they bound to? From the first day of AP formation, till to-day, agreements are being broken. What were the united AP wishers do? Did they even express any concerns? How long should the Telangana people bear this and put up with this injustice? Isn’t separate Telangana state an anti-Andhra people’s movement? Emphatically, no. Telangana people don’t bear any animosity against the coastal Andhra or Rayalaseema people or the ordinary migrants from those areas to Telangana. Telangana people’s anger is with: The rulers that are raping Telangana resources. With their supporters in Andhra and also from Telangana. Those that came to Telangana and think they are the rulers of Telangana. Those that control the state Government with their financial strength and rob Telangana. Those that ridicule, Telangana language, culture and their mannerisms. All those that become a part of Telangana and share in the happiness and sorrow of Telangana with the locals are welcomed and, respected and loved. What is there to be gained by the SC, ST and weaker sections in separate Telangana? What did these groups gain in united AP in 48 years? Apart from Sanjeeviah being CM for few months, when did any of these classes have any power? What is the status of these peoples leadership? What is the attitude of current Congress, BJP, both the communist parties, TDP? Not only the weaker sections, even the forward
classes of Telangana, do they have any opportunity to exert any real power? For these classes to gain power they have to become active. For the past few years these people are rising, becoming active. No matter how active they become, in the united AP, not only these but other classes of people will also not progress. At least the forward class in Telangana have come to realization that it is unavoidable in the society for all people to a rightful share in the political power. Because of this there is opportunity in Separate Telangana for true democracy represented by all people, to prevail. Andhras have built Hyderabad. Is it fair to ask them to leave it now? Hyderabad was a beautiful city built by Nizam on the sweat of Telangana villagers. One of the reasons Andhras eyed Telangana was Hyderabad- a ready made beautiful Capitol city. It was fifth largest city before AP was formed and it still is fifth largest city. If Andhras contributed to Hyderabad, it was not out of love for Telangana but was for the convenience of the rich Andhras that have made Hyderabad their home. Hydearabd is still growing but not from Andhras coming to settle but from the middle classes and forward classes of Telangana moving to the city for security and for services and livelihood, as the village economy in Telangana is all but destroyed by neglect of the ruling class, and failure of monsoons. Besides, nobody is asking anybody to leave any place. India is a free country and anybody can go and stay and pursue their livelihood anywhere in India. Hyderabad is a cosmopolitan city and people from many languages and all states of India call it their home. Also, this isn’t a separation of people like Pakistan and India. It is merely a separation of political and administrative machinery so people of Telangana can control their own destiny. The settlers are welcome to stay, contribute and share in the success of Telangana.
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