You are on page 1of 6

# Experiment 7.

## Schmitt Trigger and Multivibrator Circuits

I. INTRODUCTION
1. Objectives
The purpose of this experiment is to get familiar with different types of Schmitt trigger and
multivibrator circuits and their implementations.
2. Prerequisites
You are expected to get familiar with the basics of the Schmitt trigger and multivibrator circuits.
You can start by reading the section titled CMOS Schmitt Trigger Circuits, from Thomas A.
Demassa and Zack Ciccone (pages 437-439), and Chapter 11.6.1 (p/588) of Microelectronic
Circuit Design by R. Jaeger and T. Blalock. These sections explain what basically hysteresis is,
and why it may be needed. While the referenced chapter explains digital Schmitt trigger circuits,
analog circuits will be constructed in the laboratory. Detailed information on the analog Shmitt
trigger and multivibrator circuits can be obtained in the related parts of the Microelectronics
Circuits by Adel S. Sedra, Kenneth C. Smith. Reading the provided references and completing
the preliminary work will help you understand the topic prior to your actual lab session, and will
enable you to interpret your experiment results.
II. PRELIMINARY WORK
1. What is hysteresis? Name a few application areas and give representative input and output
waveforms showing the advantage of using a circuit with hysteresis.
2. Simulate the circuit given in Figure 7.1 in LTspice circuit simulator. As OPAMP use UA741
(TI spice model and symbol creation directions in APPENDIX A). Use +6V and 6V supplies.
Obtain and plot the transfer function for an input range from -6 V to +6 V (apply a 100 Hz
triangular signal to the input of the circuit with the given peak-to-peak voltage range using
PWL mode), and monitor the output voltage against the input voltage in simulation for a full
period of the waveform. You may maintain a maximum time step of 10 s in the transient
simulation to avoid long simulation time. Use 1 k and 100 k for the R1 and R2, respectively.
While entering the circuit schematic, be careful with the polarities of the OPAMP inputs.
a) Submit simulation results, and explain briefly the operation of the circuit.
b) Derive an analytical relationship based on your simulation observations, between the
amount of hysteresis in the circuit against the resistor values and supply voltages (+VCC
and VCC).
c) Do the results change if the OPAMP input polarities are switched, i.e. if we apply the
feedback from the negative terminal instead of positive one? Submit simulation results.
R2
R1
Vin

R1 1k
10k
+6V

R 2 100k

Vout

VCC 6V

-6V

METU-NCC

## EEE 312/EEE 282 Digital Electronics Laboratory

3. What are monostable and astable multivibrators? What are the main differences and
similarities between them? Try to find at least one application area for both types of these
multivibrator circuits.
4. A) Figure 7.2 depicts a monostable multivibrator circuit constructed using CMOS NAND gates,
a resistor, and a capacitor. Assume VDD=5 V, C=1 F, and R=1 k. Calculate the
approximate output pulse width, and plot the output waveform, Vout, when the input is
excited as shown in the figure. Plot also the voltage waveform across the resistor under the
output waveform. Explain very briefly one cycle of the operation of this circuit, and comment
on why this circuit is classified as a monostable multivibrator.
Vin

VDD=5V

Vin

NA2

NA2

Vout

R
t

0
T
input pulse

## NA2=2-input NAND gate

Figure 7.2. The schematic view of a monostable multivibrator circuit constructed using
CMOS NAND gates.
B) Use the 74HC00 model in Appendix B and copy the LTSPICE NAND2 symbol provided with
this lab exercise to your Project directory to build the monostable multivibrator circuit. Show
your simulations results, and comment on any differences from your calculations in Part A.
5. Draw the internal block diagram of the 555 Timer IC. Figure 7.3 gives the pin diagram of
the 555 IC, and the required connections for astable and monostable multivibrator circuit
configurations. Considering the internal diagram that you have drawn and the circuit
configurations given in Figure 7.3, explain briefly the operation of these two multivibrator
circuits. For the astable mode plot the output voltage (Vout(t)) and the voltage across the
capacitor (VC(t)). For a detailed discussion on 555 multivibrator circuits, you can refer to the
second reference mentioned at the beginning.
VCC

VCC

Rb

TRIG
THR

THR
TRIG

VC
C
OUT

Vout

Vtrigger

TRIG
THR

TRIG
OUT

Vout

OUT

555 IC

THR
TRIG

VCC

VCC

555 IC

VC

GND

VCC

555 IC

Ra

DIS
THR

DIS

DIS
GND

(a)

GND

RES

(b)

CONT

(c)

Figure 7.3. The schematic views of the 555 Timer circuits: (a) Astable multivibrator, (b)
Monostable multivibrator, (c) pin diagram of the 555 Timer IC.

Experiment

METU-NCC

## EEE 312/EEE 282 Digital Electronics Laboratory

6. A) Given a 555 Timer IC, a 741 OPAMP IC, resistors and capacitors, design a triangular
wave generator, paying attention to total cost. Start by considering that OPAMP behaves
as a constant current source with a typical current of +/- 25 mA for UA741 model in Appendix
A. Sketch the schematics of your design and explain briefly.

Bonus: Can you derive the equation to relate triangular wave frequency to the design
parameters?
B) Simulate your circuit in LTSPICE and explain any unexpected behavior.
III. EXPERIMENT

## Basic Schmitt Trigger Circuits

1.

Construct the circuit given in Figure 7.1 using the 741 IC. Use R1=10k and R2=100k.
i.

Set the output of the function generator to High Z (You have to repeat this each
time you turn on the function generator). Connect the input of the circuit to the
output of the function generator and set the waveform to a triangular wave with 8Vpp
amplitude at a frequency of 100Hz.

ii.

Connect the input to Channel-1 and output to the Channel-2 of the scope, and observe
the transfer characteristics on the scope in the X-Y mode.

iii.

Repeat parts (i) and (ii) for the following circuit (R1=1k, R2=100k).

R2

R1

+6V

Vin

Vout
-6V

Figure 7.4. The schematic view of another basic Schmitt trigger circuit.
2.

Briefly explain the operation of these circuits. Which one of them has an inverting
characteristic? Do the results agree with the simulation results performed in the preliminary
work?

## Monostable Multivibrator Circuit using CMOS NAND Gates

3.

Construct the circuit given in Figure 7.2 using two NAND gates from a 74HC00 (NOT
74LS00). Apply +5V to VDD and 0V to the ground pins of the 74HC00 (R=1k, C=1F).

4.

Set the output of the function generator to High Z. Set the waveform to a square wave
with 5Vpp amplitude and 2.5V offset at a frequency of 100Hz. Connect the input of the
circuit to the output of the function generator. Record Vout(t) and Vin(t) indicating all the
voltage levels and time intervals.

5.

Measure the pulse width of the output signal. Compare this with the calculated value in
the preliminary work.

Experiment

METU-NCC
6.

## EEE 312/EEE 282 Digital Electronics Laboratory

Measure the pulse width of the output signal when the input signal frequency is increased
to 200Hz. Comment on the results that you obtained up to here in this part.

## Astable Multivibrator Circuit using 555 IC

7.

Construct the circuit given in Figure 7.3(a) using 555 IC whose pin diagram is given in
Figure 7.3(c). Apply +9V to the VCC pin and 0V to the GND pin of the 555 IC. Use
Ra=Rb=1k and C=1F.

8.

Record output voltage Vout(t) and the voltage across the capacitor VC(t). Compare these
results with the ones that you have calculated and plotted in your preliminary work.

9.

Measure the positive and negative pulse widths and compare them with your preliminary
work results.

10. Change Rb to 10k and then measure the positive and negative pulse widths. Comment
on the effect of Rb on the output pulse width. Does this agree with what you have found
in the preliminary work?

## Monostable Multivibrator Circuit using 555 IC

11. Construct the circuit given in Figure 7.3(b). Use R=1k and C=1F.
12. Set the output of the function generator to High Z. Set the waveform to a square wave
with 8Vpp amplitude and 4V offset at a frequency of 300Hz. Connect the output of the
function generator to the triggering input of the circuit. Record Vout(t) and Vin(t) indicating
all the voltage levels and time intervals.
13. Measure the pulse width of the output signal. Repeat this also for R=2.2k. Comment on
the results.
14. Change R back to 1k. Measure the pulse width of the output signal when the input
frequency is increased to 400Hz. Comment on your results.
15. Finally, what kind of a triggering (rising or falling) is this?
(BONUS) Construct and test the circuit that you have designed in part 5 of the preliminary
work. Record Vout(t) and comment whether it operates as you have designed in the preliminary
work.
IC LIST FOR EXPERIMENT 6
741 IC

Operational Amplifier-OPAMP

555 IC

Timer IC

74HC00

Experiment

METU-NCC

## APPENDIX A: UA741 Component Integration into LTSPICE

Add the following UA741 model from Texas Instruments to the previous
standard.comp file in your project directory:
* UA741 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER "MACROMODEL" SUBCIRCUIT
* CREATED USING PARTS RELEASE 4.01 ON 07/05/89 AT 09:09
* (REV N/A)
SUPPLY VOLTAGE: +/-15V
* CONNECTIONS:
NON-INVERTING INPUT
*
| INVERTING INPUT
*
| | POSITIVE POWER SUPPLY
*
| | | NEGATIVE POWER SUPPLY
*
| | | | OUTPUT
*
| | | | |
.SUBCKT UA741
1 2 3 4 5
*
C1
11 12 4.664E-12
C2
6 7 20.00E-12
DC
5 53 DX
DE
54 5 DX
DLP 90 91 DX
DLN 92 90 DX
DP
4 3 DX
EGND 99 0 POLY(2) (3,0) (4,0) 0 .5 .5
FB
7 99 POLY(5) VB VC VE VLP VLN 0 10.61E6 -10E6 10E6 10E6 -10E6
GA 6 0 11 12 137.7E-6
GCM 0 6 10 99 2.574E-9
IEE 10 4 DC 10.16E-6
HLIM 90 0 VLIM 1K
Q1
11 2 13 QX
Q2
12 1 14 QX
R2
6 9 100.0E3
RC1
3 11 7.957E3
RC2
3 12 7.957E3
RE1 13 10 2.740E3
RE2 14 10 2.740E3
REE 10 99 19.69E6
RO1
8 5 150
RO2
7 99 150
RP
3 4 18.11E3
VB
9 0 DC 0
VC 3 53 DC 2.600
VE
54 4 DC 2.600
VLIM 7 8 DC 0
VLP 91 0 DC 25
VLN
0 92 DC 25
.MODEL DX D(IS=800.0E-18)
.MODEL QX NPN(IS=800.0E-18 BF=62.50)
.ENDS

Experiment

METU-NCC

## Follow the following instructions in order to create a symbol for UA741

subckt in your project directory, and associate it with the above SUBCKT:
i.

Copy the existing symbol for opamp2 from LTSPICE installation area (most likely
C:\Program Files\LTC\LTspiceIV\lib\sym\Opamps\opamp2.asy) into your project
directory, and rename it to UA741.asy to match the above defined SUBCKT
model.

ii.

When you annotate the opamp component symbol to your circuit in LTSPICE by
picking it up from your project directory, change its Value attribute to UA741 so
that the symbol gets associated with the SUBCKT definition in your model file.

## APPENDIX B: 74HC00 IC Modeling in LTSPICE

Add the following 74HC00 NAND2 model to the standard.comp file in your project
directory:
* 2-input NAND gate
* tpd 25n/9n/7n
* tr 19n/7n/6n
.SUBCKT 74HC00 A B Y VCC VGND vcc1={vcc} speed1={speed} tripdt1={tripdt}
.param td1=1e-9*(9-3-3)*4.0/({vcc1}-0.5)*{speed1}
XIN1 A Ai VCC VGND 74HC_IN_1 vcc2={vcc1} speed2={speed1}
XIN2 B Bi VCC VGND 74HC_IN_1 vcc2={vcc1} speed2={speed1}
* tripdt=1n
A1 Ai Bi 0 0 0 Yi 0 0 AND tripdt={tripdt1} td={td1}
XOUT Yi Y VCC VGND 74HC_OUT_1X vcc2={vcc1} speed2={speed1}
.ends

tripdt2={tripdt1}
tripdt2={tripdt1}

tripdt2={tripdt1}

.SUBCKT
74HC_IN_1
in
out
VCC
VGND
vcc3={vcc2}
speed3={speed2}
tripdt3={tripdt2}
.param Cval = 0.55e-12*4/({vcc3}-0.5)*{speed3}
.param vt1=0.5
.param gain=(1/{vcc3})
R1 in out10 10k
C1 out10 VGND {Cval}
R2 in VGND 1e8
B1 out20 0 V=LIMIT(0,V(out10,VGND)*{gain},1)
*B1 out20 0 V=LIMIT(0,V(out10,VGND)/max(V(VCC,VGND),1),1)
AE1 out20 0 0 0 0 0 out 0 BUF ref={vt1} vhigh=1 tripdt={tripdt3}
.ends
* Standard output driver
.SUBCKT
74HC_OUT_1X
in
out
VCC
VGND
vcc3={vcc2}
speed3={speed2}
tripdt3={tripdt2}
.param trise1=6e-9*4.0/({vcc3}-0.5)*{speed3}
.param Rout=60*4.0/({vcc3}-0.5)*{speed3}
AE1 in 0 0 0 0 0 out10 0 BUF tripdt={tripdt3} trise={trise1}
E1 out20 VGND out10 0 {vcc3}
Rout out20 out {Rout}
.ends

Experiment