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Murray Rothbard

Murray Newton Rothbard (/mrirbrd/; March


2, 1926 January 7, 1995) was an American heterodox
economist of the Austrian School,[1][2] a revisionist
historian,[3][4] and a political theorist[5](pp11, 286, 380)
whose writings and personal inuence played a seminal
role in the development of modern libertarianism.[6]
Rothbard was the founder and leading theoretician of
anarcho-capitalism, a staunch advocate of historical
revisionism, and a central gure in the twentieth-century
American libertarian movement. He wrote over twenty
books on anarchist theory, revisionist history, economics,
and other subjects.[7] Rothbard asserted that all services
provided by the monopoly system of the corporate
state could be provided more eciently by the private
sector and wrote that the state is the organization of
robbery systematized and writ large.[8][9][10][11][12][13]
He called fractional reserve banking a form of fraud and
opposed central banking.[14] He categorically opposed
all military, political, and economic interventionism in
the aairs of other nations.[15](pp45, 129)[16] According
to the libertarian Hans-Hermann Hoppe, There would
be no anarcho-capitalist movement to speak of without
Rothbard.[17]

in the school. Local families tended to send their sons


to other, more prestigious schools. Rothbard later stated
that he much preferred Birch Wathen to the debasing
and egalitarian public school system he had previously
attended in the Bronx.[24]
Rothbard wrote of having grown up as a right-winger
(adherent of the "Old Right") among friends and neighbors who were communists or fellow-travelers. Rothbard characterized his immigrant father as an individualist who embraced the American values of minimal
government, free enterprise, private property, and a determination to rise by ones own merits. To Rothbard
all socialism seemed to me monstrously coercive and
abhorrent.[24]

A heterodox economist,[18][19] Rothbard refused to publish in academic journals.[20] According to economist


Je Herbener, who calls Rothbard his friend and intellectual mentor, Rothbard received only ostracism
from mainstream academia.[21] Rothbard rejected mainstream economic methodologies and instead embraced
the praxeology of his most important intellectual precursor, Ludwig von Mises. To promote his economic and
political ideas, Rothbard joined Llewellyn H. Rockwell,
Jr. and Burton Blumert in 1982 to establish the Ludwig
von Mises Institute in Alabama.

Life and work


Rothbard in the mid-1950s

1.1

Education
He attended Columbia University, where he received a
Bachelor of Arts degree in mathematics in 1945 and,
eleven years later, his PhD in economics in 1956. The
delay in receiving his PhD was due in part to conict
with his advisor, Joseph Dorfman, and in part to Arthur
Burns rejecting his doctoral dissertation. Burns was a
longtime friend of the Rothbard family and their neighbor
at their Manhattan apartment building. It was only after
Burns went on leave from the Columbia faculty to head
President Eisenhowers Council of Economic Advisors

Murray Rothbards parents were David and Rae Rothbard, Jewish immigrants who had immigrated to the U.S.
from Poland and Russia respectively. David Rothbard
was a chemist.[22] Rothbard was born in the Bronx, but
the family moved to an apartment on the Upper West Side
of Manhattan, where he attended Birch Wathen, a private
school on the Upper East Side.[23] According to Rothbard, Birch Wathen gave tuition subsidies to middle-class
boys such as himself in order to maintain gender balance
1

1 LIFE AND WORK

that Rothbards thesis was accepted and he received his


doctorate.[5](pp4344)[25] Rothbard later stated that all of
his fellow students there were extreme leftists and that he
was one of only two Republicans on the Columbia campus at the time.[5](p4)
During the 1940s Rothbard became acquainted with
Frank Chodorov and read widely in libertarian-oriented
works by Albert Jay Nock, Garet Garrett, Isabel Paterson,
H. L. Mencken and others, as well as Austrian economist
Ludwig von Mises[5](p46) In the early 1950s, when Mises
was teaching at the Wall Street division of New York University Business School, Rothbard attended Mises unofcial seminar. Rothbard was greatly inuenced by Mises
book, Human Action. Rothbard attracted the attention of
the William Volker Fund, a group that provided nancial backing to promote various right-wing ideologies
in the 1950s and early 1960s.[26] The Volker Fund paid
Rothbard to write a textbook to explain Human Action in
a form which could be used to introduce college undergraduates to Mises views; a sample chapter he wrote on
money and credit won Misess approval. For ten years,
Rothbard was paid a retainer by the Volker Fund, which
designated him a senior analyst.[5](p54) As Rothbard
continued his work, he enlarged the project. The result
was Rothbards book Man, Economy, and State, published
in 1962. Upon its publication, Mises praised Rothbards
work eusively.[27](p14)

1.2

Marriage, employment and activism

In 1953, in New York City, he married JoAnn Schumacher (19281999), whom he called Joey.[27](p124)
JoAnn was his editor and a close adviser, as well as hostess of his Rothbard Salon. They enjoyed a loving marriage, and Rothbard often called her the indispensable
framework behind his life and achievements. According
to Joey, patronage from the Volker Fund allowed Rothbard to work from home as a freelance theorist and pundit
for the rst fteen years of their marriage.[28] The Fund
collapsed in 1962, leading Rothbard to seek employment
from various New York academic institutions. He was
oered a part-time position teaching economics to the
engineering students of Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute in
1966, at age 40. This institution had no economics department or economics majors, and Rothbard derided its
social science department as Marxist. However, Justin
Raimondo writes that Rothbard liked his role with Brooklyn Polytechnic because working only two days a week
gave him freedom to contribute to developments in libertarian politics.[5]
Rothbard continued in this role for twenty years, until
1986.[29][30] Then 60 years old, Rothbard left Brooklyn
Polytechnic Institute for the Butt Business School at the
University of Nevada, Las Vegas, where he held the title
of S.J. Hall Distinguished Professor of Economics, an endowed chair paid for by a libertarian businessman.[31][32]
According to Rothbards friend, colleague and fellow

Misesian economist Hans-Hermann Hoppe, Rothbard led


a fringe existence in academia, but was able to attract a large number of students and disciples through
his writings, thereby becoming the creator and one
of the principal agents of the contemporary libertarian movement.[33] Rothbard maintained his position at
UNLV from 1986 until his death.[29] Rothbard founded
the Center for Libertarian Studies in 1976 and the Journal
of Libertarian Studies in 1977. In 1982, he co-founded
the Ludwig von Mises Institute in Auburn, Alabama, and
was vice president of academic aairs until 1995.[29] The
Institutes Review of Austrian Economics, a heterodox
economics[34] journal later renamed the Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics, was also founded by Rothbard
in 1987.[35]

Rothbard with his wife Joey

After Rothbards death, Joey reected on Rothbards happiness and bright spirit. "...he managed to make a living for 40 years without having to get up before noon.
This was important to him. She recalled how Rothbard
would begin every day with a phone conversation with
his colleague Llewellyn Rockwell. Gales of laughter
would shake the house or apartment, as they checked in
with each other. Murray thought it was the best possible way to start a day.[36] Rothbard was irreligious and
agnostic toward the existence of god,[37][38] describing
himself as a mixture of an agnostic and a Reform jew.
Despite identifying as an agnostic, Rothbard was critical
of the left-libertarian hostility to religion.[39] In Rothbards later years, many of his friends anticipated that he
would convert to Catholicism, but he never did.[40] The
New York Times obituary called Rothbard an economist
and social philosopher who ercely defended individual
freedom against government intervention.[29]

1.3 Conict with Ayn Rand


In 1954, Rothbard, along with several other attendees of Mises seminar, joined the circle of novelist Ayn Rand, the founder of Objectivism. He soon
parted from her, writing, among other things, that her
ideas were not as original as she proclaimed but similar to those of Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas and Herbert

2.1

Heterodox economics

Spencer.[5](pp109114) In 1958, after the publication of


her novel, Atlas Shrugged, Rothbard wrote a "fan letter"
to Rand, calling her book an innite treasure house,
and not merely the greatest novel ever written, [but]
one of the very greatest books ever written, ction or
nonction. He also wrote that you introduced me to
the whole eld of natural rights and natural law philosophy, prompting him to learn the glorious natural rights tradition.[5](pp121, 132134)[41](pp145, 182)[42] He
rejoined her circle for a few months, but soon broke with
Rand once more, over various dierences, including his
defense of anarchism.
Later, Rothbard satirized Rands acolytes in his play
Mozart Was a Red and the essay The Sociology of the
Ayn Rand Cult.[41](p184)[43][44] Mozart Was a Red was
Rothbards unpublished one-act play written as a farce.[45]
Rothbard characterized Ayn Rands circle as a dogmatic,
personality cult. His play parodies Rand (through the
character Carson Sand) and her friends, and is set during a visit from Keith Hackley, a fan of Sands novel The
Brow of Zeus (a play on Rands most famous novel, Atlas
Shrugged).[46]

Ethical and philosophical views

2.1 Heterodox economics


Rothbard rejected the application of the scientic method
to economics, and dismissed econometrics, empirical and
statistical analysis, and other tools of mainstream social science as useless for the study of economics.[47]
He instead embraced praxeology, the strictly a priori methodology of Ludwig von Mises. Praxeology
conceives of economic laws as akin to geometric or
mathematical axioms: xed, unchanging, objective,
and discernible through logical reasoning, without the
use of any evidence.[47] On the account of Misesian
economist Hans-Hermann Hoppe, eschewing the scientic method and empirical evidence distinguishes the
Misesian approach from all other current economic
schools. Mark Skousen of Grantham University and the
Foundation for Economic Education, a critic of mainstream economics,[48] praises Rothbard as brilliant, his
writing style persuasive, his economic arguments nuanced and logically rigorous, and his Misesian methodology sound.[20] However, citing Rothbards absence of
academic publications, Skousen concedes that Rothbard
was eectively outside the discipline of mainstream
economics and that his work fell on deaf ears outside his
ideological circles. Paralleling Skousens remarks, HansHermann Hoppe laments the fact that all non-Misesian
economists dismiss the Misesian approach, which both he
and Rothbard embraced, as dogmatic and unscientic.
Though he self-identied as an Austrian economist,
Rothbards methodology was at odds with many other
Austrians. In 1956, Rothbard deprecated the views of
Austrian economist Fritz Machlup, stating that Machlup
was no praxeologist, and calling him instead a positivist
who failed to represent the views of Ludwig von Mises.
Rothbard stated that in fact Machlup shared the opposing positivist view associated with economist Milton
Friedman.[49] Mises and Machlup had been colleagues in
1920s Vienna before each relocated to the United States,
and von Mises later urged his American protege, Israel
Kirzner, to pursue his PhD studies with Machlup at Johns
Hopkins University.[50] Professors Gabriel J. Zanotti and
Nicolas Cachanosky recently reviewed the controversy
stating " Machlups interpretation shows that Austrian
epistemology is well grounded in post-Popperian epistemology and that most criticisms of Austrian economics
based on its aprioristic character are misplaced. Furthermore, Machlups interpretation provides us with a setting to re-build the academic interaction between Austrians and non-Austrians that was characteristic of the early
twentieth century. [51]

Ludwig von Mises

According to libertarian economists Tyler Cowen and


Richard Fink,[52] Rothbard wrote that the term evenly
rotating economy (ERE) can be used to analyze complexity in a world of change. The words ERE had been
introduced by von Mises as an alternative nomenclature
for the mainstream economic method of static equilibrium
and general equilibrium analysis. Cowen and Fink found

4
serious inconsistencies in both the nature of the ERE and
its suggested uses. With the sole exception of Rothbard,
no other economist adopted Mises term, and the concept
continued to be called equilibrium analysis.[53]
In a blog post written in response to Lew Rockwells claim
that Rothbard has been much more inuential than Milton Friedman,[54] economist George Selgin wrote that as
a monetary economist, Rothbard was mediocre to bad.
His version of the Austrian business cycle theory was
naive in essence it equated behavior of M consistent
with keeping interest rates at their natural levels with
the elimination of fractional-reserve banking, an equation
that holds only with the help of about a dozen auxiliary
assumptions, all of which are patently false. He then went
on to conjure up an equally false history of banking and of
bank contracts designed to square his theory of the cycle,
with its implied condemnation of fractional reserve banking, with his libertarian ethics.[55] Rothbard strongly opposed central banking, at money, and fractional reserve
banking and advocated a gold standard and a 100% reserve requirement for banks.[14](pp8994, 9697)[35][56][57]

2 ETHICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL VIEWS


ate economist and a competing libertarian theorist. In
a polemic entitled Milton Friedman Unraveled, he maligned Friedman as a statist, a favorite of the establishment, a friend of and apologist for Richard Nixon, and
a pernicious inuence on public policy.[64][65] Rothbard said that libertarians should scorn rather than celebrate Friedmans academic prestige and political inuence. Noting that Rothbard has been nasty to me and
my work, Friedman responded to Rothbards criticism
by calling him a cult builder and a dogmatist.[66]

In a memorial volume published by the Mises Institute,


his protg Hans-Hermann Hoppe wrote that Rothbards
Man, Economy, and State presented a blistering refutation of all variants of mathematical economics. and
listed this as among Rothbards almost mind-boggling
achievements. Hoppe lamented that like his own mentor
Ludwig von Mises, Rothbard died without winning the
Nobel Prize which Hoppe says Rothbard deserved twice
over. Though Hoppe conceded that Rothbard and his
work were largely ignored by academia, he called Rothbard an intellectual giant comparable to Aristotle, Locke
[67]
In an 2011 article critical of Rothbards reexive oppo- and Kant.
sition to ination, The Economist noted that his views
are increasingly gaining inuence among politicians and
laypeople on the Right. The article contrasted Roth- 2.2 Ethics
bards categorical rejection of inationary policies with
the monetary views of sophisticated Austrian-school Although Rothbard adopted von Mises deductive
[68]
he
monetary economists such as George Selgin and Larry methodology for his social theory and economics,
White, [who] defend rule-based ination-targeting poli- parted with Mises on the question of ethics. Specically, he rejected Mises conviction that ethical values
cies not all that dierent from Mr Sumner's.[58]
remain subjective, and opposed utilitarianism in favor
According to economist Peter Boettke, Rothbard is betof principle-based, natural law reasoning. In defense
ter described as a property rights economist than as an
of his free market views, Mises employed utilitarian
Austrian economist. In 1988, Boettke noted that Rotheconomic arguments aimed at demonstrating that inbard vehemently attacked all of the books of the younger
terventionist policies made all of society worse o.
[59]
Austrians.
Rothbard, on the other hand, concluded that interventionist policies do in fact benet some people, including
certain government employees and beneciaries of
2.1.1 Polemics against mainstream economists
social programs. Therefore, unlike Mises, Rothbard
an objective, natural law basis for
Rothbard authored a series of scathing polemics aimed attempted to assert
the free market.[27](pp8789) He called this principle
at discrediting key gures in the development of modern
loosely basing the idea on the writings
mainstream economics. He vilied Adam Smith, call- "self-ownership,
of John Locke[69] and also borrowing concepts from
ing him a shameless plagiarist who set economics oliberalism and the anti-imperialism of the Old
track, ultimately leading to the rise of Marxism. In re- classical
[5](p134)
Right.
sponse to Rothbards charge that Smiths The Wealth of
Nations was largely plagiarized, David Friedman castigated Rothbards scholarship and character, saying that
he was [either] deliberately dishonest or never really read
the book he was criticizing.[60] Tony Endres called Rothbards treatment of Adam Smith a travesty.[61] Rothbard was contemptuous of John Maynard Keynes,[62] and
wrote that governmental regulation of money and credit
creates a dismal monetary and banking situation. He
demeaned John Stuart Mill as a wooly man of mush,
and speculated that Mills soft personality led his economic thought astray.[63]

Rothbard accepted the Labor theory of property, but rejected the Lockean proviso, arguing that if an individual
mixes his labor with unowned land then he becomes the
proper owner eternally, and that after that time it is private property which may change hands only by trade or
gift.[70]

Rothbard was a strong critic of egalitarianism. The title essay of Rothbards 1974 book Egalitarianism as a
Revolt Against Nature and Other Essays held, Equality
is not in the natural order of things, and the crusade to
make everyone equal in every respect (except before the
Rothbard denigrated Milton Friedman, a Nobel Laure- law) is certain to have disastrous consequences.[71] In it,

2.4

Race, gender and civil rights

Rothbard wrote, At the heart of the egalitarian left is


the pathological belief that there is no structure of reality; that all the world is a tabula rasa that can be changed
at any moment in any desired direction by the mere exercise of human will.[72]

5
economist in a free market is limited but is much larger in
a government that solicits economic policy recommendations. Rothbard argues that self-interest therefore prejudices the views of many economists in favor of increased
government intervention.[81][82]

In a critical examination of Rothbards ethical and political theories, Noam Chomsky notes that they are not taken
seriously by mainstream philosophers and academics.[73]

2.3

Anarcho-capitalism

Various theorists have espoused legal philosophies similar to anarcho-capitalism. The rst person to use
the term, however, was Murray Rothbard, who in the
mid-20th century synthesized elements from the Austrian School of economics, classical liberalism, and
19th-century American individualist anarchists.[74] According to Llewellyn Rockwell, Rothbard is the conscience of all the various strains of libertarian anarchism,
whose contemporary advocates are former colleagues
of Rothbard personally inspired by his example.[75]

2.4 Race, gender and civil rights

Michael O'Malley, Associate Professor of History at


George Mason University, characterizes Rothbards
overall tone regard[ing]" the Civil Rights Movement and
the womens surage movement to be contemptuous and
hostile.[83] Rothbard vilied womens rights activists, attributing the growth of the welfare state to politically active spinsters whose busybody inclinations were not fettered by the responsibilities of health and heart. Rothbard had pointed out in his 'Origins of the Welfare State'
that progressives had evolved from elitist Gilded Age
During his years at graduate school in the late 1940s, pietist protestants that wanted to bring a secularized verMurray Rothbard considered whether a strict laissez- sion of millennialism under a welfare state, which was
faire policy would require that private police agencies re- spearheaded by a shock troop of Yankee protestant and
place government protective services. He visited Baldy Jewish women and lesbian spinsters.[84]
Harper, a founder of the Foundation for Economic Ed- Rothbard called for the elimination of the entire 'civil
ucation,[76] who doubted the need for any government rights structure stating that it tramples on the propwhatsoever. During this period, Rothbard was inu- erty rights of every American. Rothbard also urged the
enced by nineteenth-century American individualist an- (state) police to crackdown on street criminals, writing
archists, like Lysander Spooner and Benjamin Tucker, that cops must be unleashed and and allowed to adand the Belgian economist Gustave de Molinari who minister instant punishment, subject of course to liability
wrote about how such a system could work.[27](pp1213) when they are in error. He also advocated that the poThus he combined the laissez-faire economics of Mises lice clear the streets of bums and vagrants, and quipped
with the absolutist views of human rights and rejection of Hopefully they will return to the productive classes of
the state from individualist anarchists.[6] In an unpub- society from the cosseted bum class in response to the
lished memo written around 1949 Rothbard concluded
question of where these people would go after being rethat in order to believe in laissez-faire one must also em- moved from public property.[85]
brace anarchism.[27](pp1213)
Rothbard held strong opinions about many leaders of the
Rothbard began to consider himself a private property an- civil rights movement. He considered black separatist
archist in 1950 and later began to use "anarcho-capitalist" Malcolm X to be a great black leader and integrato describe his political ideology.[77][78] In his anarcho- tionist Martin Luther King to be favored by whites becapitalist model, a system of protection agencies compete cause he was the major restraining force on the develin a free market and are voluntarily supported by con- oping Negro revolution.[5] Rothbard praised Malcolm X
sumers who choose to use their protective and judicial for acting white through use of his intellect and wit,
services. Anarcho-capitalism would mean the end of the and contrasted him favorably with the fraudulent intelstate monopoly on force.[77]
lectual with a rococo Black Baptist minister style, Dr.
In Man, Economy, and State, Rothbard divides the King. But while he compared Malcolm Xs black navarious kinds of state intervention in three categories: tionalism favorably to Kings integrationism, and for a
autistic intervention, which is interference with private time praised black nationalism,[86] he ultimately rejected
non-economic activities; binary intervention, which is the vision of a separate black nation, asking does anyforced exchange between individuals and the state; and one really believe that ... New Africa would be content
triangular intervention, which is state-mandated ex- to strike out on its own, with no massive foreign aid
change between individuals. According to Sanford Ikeda, from the U.S.A.?"[87] Rothbard also suggested that opRothbards typology eliminates the gaps and inconsis- position to King, whom he demeaned as a coercive intencies that appear in Misess original formulation.[79][80] tegrationist, should be a litmus test for members of his
Rothbard writes in Power and Market that the role of the paleolibertarian political movement.[88][89]

6
2.4.1

2 ETHICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL VIEWS


Race and intelligence

2.6 Middle East conict

Both Michael O'Malley and political scientist Jean


Hardisty have noted Rothbards praise of the argument,
made in Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray's book
The Bell Curve, that blacks are genetically inferior to
whites with respect to intelligence.[90] Both authors quote
Rothbards remark that intellectual and temperamental
dierences between races are self-evident.

Rothbards The Libertarian Forum blamed the Middle


East conict on Israeli aggression fueled by American
arms and money. Rothbard warned that the mid-East
conict would draw the U.S. into a world war. He was
anti-Zionist and opposed U.S. involvement in the Middle East. Rothbard criticized the Camp David Accords
for having betrayed Palestinian aspirations and opposed
O'Malley quotes Rothbard as stating that public accep- Israels 1982 invasion of Lebanon.[99] In his essay, War
tance of the books thesis would put a bullet through the Guilt in the Middle East, Rothbard states that Israel reheart of the egalitarian socialist project, by providing an fused to let these refugees return and reclaim the propintellectual justication for racial inequalities.[91]
erty taken from them.[100]

2.5

Opposition to war

Like Randolph Bourne, Rothbard believed that war is


the health of the state. According to David Gordon, this
was the reason for Rothbards opposition to aggressive
foreign policy.[35] Rothbard believed that stopping new
wars was necessary and that knowledge of how government had led citizens into earlier wars was important.
Two essays expanded on these views War, Peace, and the
State and The Anatomy of the State. Rothbard used
insights of Vilfredo Pareto, Gaetano Mosca, and Robert
Michels to build a model of state personnel, goals, and
ideology.[92][93] In an obituary for his friend historical revisionist Harry Elmer Barnes, Rothbard wrote:
Our entry into World War II was the crucial act in foisting a permanent militarization upon the economy and society, in bringing to the country a permanent garrison state,
an overweening military-industrial complex, a
permanent system of conscription. It was
the crucial act in creating a mixed economy
run by Big Government, a system of state
monopoly capitalism run by the central government in collaboration with Big Business and
Big Unionism.[94]
Rothbards colleague Joseph Stromberg notes that Rothbard made two exceptions to his general condemnation of
war: the American Revolution and the War for Southern
Independence, as viewed from the Confederate side.[95]
Rothbard condemned the Northern war against slavery, saying it was inspired by fanatical religious faith
and characterized by a cheerful willingness to uproot
institutions, to commit mayhem and mass murder, to
plunder and loot and destroy, all in the name of high
moral principle.[96][97][98] He celebrated Jeerson Davis,
Robert E. Lee, and other prominent Confederates as
heroes while denouncing Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S.
Grant and other Union leaders for open[ing] the Pandoras Box of genocide and the extermination of civilians
in their war against the South.

2.7 Historical revisionism


Rothbard embraced historical revisionism as an antidote to what he perceived to be the dominant inuence exerted by corrupt court intellectuals over mainstream historical narratives.[5](pp15, 62, 141)[101] Rothbard
wrote that these mainstream intellectuals distorted the
historical record in favor of the state in exchange for
power, prestige, and loot from the state.[5] Rothbard
characterized the revisionist task as penetrating the fog
of lies and deception of the State and its Court Intellectuals, and to present to the public the true history.[101]
He was inuenced by and a champion of Harry Elmer
Barnes.[101][102][103] Rothbard endorsed Barness revisionism on World War II, favorably citing his view that
the murder of Germans and Japanese was the overriding
aim of World War II. In addition to broadly supporting his historical views, Rothbard promoted Barnes as an
inuence for future revisionists.[104]
Rothbards endorsing of World War II revisionism and his
association with Barnes and other Holocaust deniers have
drawn criticism from within the political right. Kevin D.
Williamson wrote an opinion piece published by National
Review which condemned Rothbard for making common cause with the 'revisionist' historians of the Third
Reich, a term he used to describe American Holocaust
deniers associated with Rothbard, such as James J. Martin of the Institute for Historical Review. The piece
also characterized Rothbard and his faction as being
culpably indulgent of Holocaust denial, the view which
specically denies that the Holocaust actually happened
or holds that it was in some way exaggerated.[105]
In an article for Rothbards 50th birthday, Rothbards
friend and Bualo State College historian Ralph Raico
stated that Rothbard is the main reason that revisionism has become a crucial part of the whole libertarian
position.[106]

2.10

Science and scientism

2.8

Childrens rights and parental obliga- 2.9.1 Torture of criminal suspects


tions

In the Ethics of Liberty, Rothbard explores issues regarding childrens rights in terms of self-ownership and
contract.[107] These include support for a womans right
to abortion, condemnation of parents showing aggression
towards children, and opposition to the state forcing parents to care for children. He also holds children have the
right to run away from parents and seek new guardians as
soon as they are able to choose to do so. He asserted that
parents have the right to put a child out for adoption or
sell the rights to the child in a voluntary contract in what
Rothbard suggests will be a ourishing free market in
children. He believes that selling children as consumer
goods in accord with market forces, while supercially
monstrous, will benet everyone involved in the market: the natural parents, the children, and the foster parents purchasing.[108][109]
In Rothbards view of parenthood, the parent should not
have a legal obligation to feed, clothe, or educate his children, since such obligations would entail positive acts coerced upon the parent and depriving the parent of his
rights.[108] Thus, Rothbard stated that parents should
have the legal right to let any infant die by starvation.
However, according to Rothbard, the purely free society
will have a ourishing free market in children. In a fully
libertarian society, he wrote, the existence of a free baby
market will bring such 'neglect' down to a minimum.[108]
Economist Gene Callahan of Cardi University, formerly
a scholar at the Rothbard-aliated Mises Institute, observes that Rothbard allows the logical elegance of his
legal theory to trump any arguments based on the moral
reprehensibility of a parent idly watching her six-monthold child slowly starve to death in its crib.[110]

2.9

Retributive theory of criminal justice

In The Ethics of Liberty, Rothbard advocates for a


frankly retributive theory of punishment or a system
of a tooth (or two teeth) for a tooth.[111] Rothbard emphasizes that all punishment must be proportional, stating
that the criminal, or invader, loses his rights to the extent
that he deprived another man of his.[112] Applying his
retributive theory, Rothbard states that a thief must pay
double the extent of theft. Rothbard gives the example
of a thief who stole $15,000, and says he not only would
have to return the stolen money, but also provide the victim an additional $15,000, money to which the thief has
forfeited his right. The thief would be put in a [temporary] state of enslavement to his victim if he is unable to
pay him immediately. Rothbard also applies his theory to
justify beating and torturing violent criminals, although
the beatings are required to be proportional to the crimes
for which they are being punished.

In chapter twelve of Ethics,[111] Rothbard turns his attention to suspects arrested by the police.[110] He argues that
police should be able to torture certain types of criminal
suspects, including accused murderers, for information
related to their alleged crime. Writes Rothbard, Suppose ... police beat and torture a suspected murderer
to nd information (not to wring a confession, since obviously a coerced confession could never be considered
valid). If the suspect turns out to be guilty, then the police should be exonerated, for then they have only ladled
out to the murderer a parcel of what he deserves in return;
his rights had already been forfeited by more than that extent. But if the suspect is not convicted, then that means
that the police have beaten and tortured an innocent man,
and that they in turn must be put into the dock for criminal assault.[111] Gene Callahan examines this position
and concludes that Rothbard rejects the widely held belief that torture is inherently wrong, no matter who the
victim. Callahan goes on to state that Rothbards scheme
gives the police a strong motive to frame the suspect, after
having tortured him or her.[110]

2.10 Science and scientism


In an essay condemning "scientism in the study of man,
Rothbard rejected the application of causal determinism
to human beings, arguing that the actions of human beings, as opposed to those of everything else in nature,
are not determined by prior causes but by "free will".[113]
He argued that determinism as applied to man, is a selfcontradictory thesis, since the man who employs it relies
implicitly on the existence of free will. Rothbard opposed what he considered the overspecialization of the
academy and sought to fuse the disciplines of economics,
history, ethics, and political science to create a science
of liberty. Rothbard described the moral basis for his
anarcho-capitalist position in two of his books: For a
New Liberty, published in 1973, and The Ethics of Liberty, published in 1982. In his Power and Market (1970),
Rothbard describes how a stateless economy might function.

3 Political activism
As a young man, Rothbard considered himself part of the
Old Right, an anti-statist and anti-interventionist branch
of the Republican Party. In the 1948 presidential election, Rothbard, as a Jewish student at Columbia, horried his peers by organizing a Students for Strom Thurmond chapter, so staunchly did he believe in states
rights.[114]
By the late 1960s, Rothbards long and winding yet
somehow consistent road had taken him from anti-New

POLITICAL ACTIVISM

ducing ination and unemployment.[117]


Rothbard criticized the frenzied nihilism of left-wing
libertarians, but also criticized right-wing libertarians
who were content to rely only on education to bring down
the state; he believed that libertarians should adopt any
moral tactic available to them in order to bring about
liberty.[118]

Llewellyn Rockwell

Deal and anti-interventionist Robert Taft supporter into


friendship with the quasi-pacist Nebraska Republican
Congressman Howard Buett (father of Warren Buffett) then over to the League of (Adlai) Stevensonian
Democrats and, by 1968, into tentative comradeship with
the anarchist factions of the New Left.[115] Rothbard advocated an alliance with the New Left anti-war movement, on the grounds that the conservative movement had
been completely subsumed by the statist establishment.
However, Rothbard later criticized the New Left for supporting a "Peoples Republic" style draft. It was during
this phase that he associated with Karl Hess and founded
Left and Right: A Journal of Libertarian Thought with
Leonard Liggio and George Resch, which existed from
1965 to 1968.
From 1969 to 1984 he edited The Libertarian Forum, also
initially with Hess (although Hesss involvement ended in
1971).[116] The Libertarian Forum provided a platform
for Rothbards writing. Despite its small readership, it engaged conservatives associated with the National Review
in nation-wide debate. Rothbard rejected the view that
Ronald Reagan's 1980 election as President was a victory for libertarian principles, and he attacked Reagans
economic program in a series of Libertarian Forum articles. In 1982, Rothbard called Reagans claims of spending cuts a fraud and a hoax, and accused Reaganites
of doctoring the economic statistics in order to give the
false impression that their policies were successfully re-

Imbibing Randolph Bournes idea that war is the health


of the state, Rothbard opposed all wars in his lifetime,
and engaged in anti-war activism.[35] During the 1970s
and 1980s, Rothbard was active in the Libertarian Party.
He was frequently involved in the partys internal politics. He was one of the founders of the Cato Institute,
and came up with the idea of naming this libertarian
think tank after Catos Letters, a powerful series of British
newspaper essays by John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon
which played a decisive inuence upon Americas Founding Fathers in fomenting the Revolution.[119][120] From
1978 to 1983, he was associated with the Libertarian
Party Radical Caucus, allying himself with Justin Raimondo, Eric Garris and Williamson Evers. He opposed
the low-tax liberalism espoused by 1980 Libertarian
Party presidential candidate Ed Clark and Cato Institute
president Edward H Crane III. According to Charles Burris, Rothbard and Crane became bitter rivals after disputes emerging from the 1980 LP presidential campaign
of Ed Clark carried over to strategic direction and management of Cato.[119]
Rothbard split with the Radical Caucus at the 1983 national convention over cultural issues and aligned himself with what he called the right-wing populist wing
of the party, notably Lew Rockwell and Ron Paul, who
ran for President on the Libertarian Party ticket in 1988.
Rothbard worked closely with Lew Rockwell (joined
later by his long-time friend Burt Blumert) in nurturing
the Ludwig von Mises Institute, and the publication, The
Rothbard-Rockwell Report; which after Rothbards 1995
death evolved into the website, LewRockwell.com.[119]

3.1 Paleolibertarianism
In 1989, Rothbard left the Libertarian Party and began
building bridges to the post-Cold War anti-interventionist
right, calling himself a paleolibertarian, a conservative
reaction against the cultural liberalism of mainstream
libertarianism.[121][122] Paleolibertarianism sought to appeal to disaected working class whites through a synthesis of cultural conservatism and libertarian economics.
A 2014 article in the New York Times noted that Rothbard
applauded the right-wing populism of David Duke, a
former Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard who ran for governor of Louisiana.[123] According to Reason, Rothbard
advocated right-wing populism in part because he was
frustrated that mainstream thinkers were not adopting the
libertarian view and suggested that Duke and former Wisconsin U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy were models for

9
an Outreach to the Rednecks eort that could be used
by a broad libertarian/paleoconservative coalition. Working together, the paleo coalition would expose the unholy alliance of 'corporate liberal' Big Business and media elites, who, through big government, have privileged
and caused to rise up a parasitic Underclass. Rothbard
blamed this Underclass for looting and oppressing the
bulk of the middle and working classes in America.[121]
In addition to praising Dukes political strategy, Rothbard
favored Dukes substantive political program, stating that
there was nothing in it that could not also be embraced
by paleoconservatives or paleo-libertarians; lower taxes,
dismantling the bureaucracy, slashing the welfare system,
attacking armative action and racial set-asides, calling
for equal rights for all Americans, including whites.[124]
In an interview on Reason TV Gene Epstein', described
as a devotee of Rothbard, lamented Rothbards period
of infatuation with Southern populism, Pat Buchanan
and David Duke.[125]
Rothbard supported the presidential campaign of Pat
Buchanan in 1992, and wrote that with Pat Buchanan
as our leader, we shall break the clock of social
democracy.[126] When Buchanan dropped out of the Republican primary race, Rothbard then shifted his interest and support to Ross Perot,[127] who Rothbard wrote
had brought an excitement, a verve, a sense of dynamics
and of open possibilities to what had threatened to be a
dreary race.[128] Rothbard ultimately supported George
Bush over Bill Clinton in the 1992 election.[129][130]
Like Buchanan, Rothbard opposed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).[131] However,
by 1995, Rothbard had become disillusioned with
Buchanan, believing that the latters commitment to protectionism was mutating into an all-round faith in economic planning and the nation state.[132]
After Rothbards death in 1995 Lew Rockwell, President
of the von Mises Institute, told The New York Times that
Rothbard was the founder of right-wing anarchism.[29]
William F. Buckley, Jr. wrote a critical obituary in
the National Review criticizing Rothbards defective
judgment and views on the Cold War.[15](pp34) The
von Mises Institute published Murray N. Rothbard, In
Memoriam which included memorials from 31 individuals, including libertarians and academics.[133] Journalist Brian Doherty summarizes Buckleys obituary as follows: when Rothbard died in 1995, his old pal William
Buckley took pen in hand to piss on his grave.[134] Hoppe,
Rockwell and Rothbards colleagues at the Mises Institute
took a dierent view, arguing that he was one of the most
important philosophers in history.[133]

Works

Books
Man, Economy, and State, D. Van Nostrand Co.,

1962; Full text reprint of second edition (Scholars


Edition), Mises Institute, 2004, ISBN 0-945466-307
The Panic of 1819: Reactions and Policies,
Columbia University Press, 1962; Full text reprint,
Mises Institute, 2004, ISBN 1-933550-08-2.
Americas Great Depression, D. Van Nostrand Co.,
1973; Full text reprint, fth edition, Mises Institute,
2005, ISBN 0-945466-05-6
Power and Market: Government and the Economy, Sheed Andrews and McMeel, 1970; Full text
reprint, reattached to Man, Economy, and State,
Mises Institute, 2004, ISBN 0-945466-30-7
For a New Liberty: The Libertarian Manifesto, Collier Books, 1973, 1978; Full text reprint/Audio
book, Mises Institute, ISBN 0-945466-47-1)
The Essential von Mises, Bramble Minibook,
1973; Full text reprint, Mises Institute, 1988
Egalitarianism as a Revolt Against Nature and Other
Essays, Libertarian Review Press, 1974; Full text
reprint, Second edition, Mises Institute, 2000, ISBN
0-945466-23-4.
Conceived in Liberty, (4 vol.), Arlington House Publishers 19751979; Full text collected in single volume, Mises Institute, 2012, ISBN 0-945466-26-9
The Logic of Action (2 vol.), Edward Elgar Pub,
1997, ISBN 1-85898-015-1 and ISBN 1-85898570-6; Full text reprint as Economic Controversies,
Mises Institute, 2011
The Ethics of Liberty, Humanities Press, 1982; New
York University Press, 1998; Full text reprint/Audio
Book, Mises Institute, ISBN 0-8147-7506-3
The Mystery of Banking, Richardson and Snyder,
Dutton, 1983; Full text reprint, Mises Institute,
2007, ISBN 978-1105528781
The Case Against the Fed, Mises Institute, 1994; Full
text reprint, Mises Institute, ISBN 0-945466-17-X
An Austrian Perspective on the History of Economic
Thought, (2 vol.), Edward Elgar Pub, 1995, ISBN
0-945466-48-X; Full text reprints Vol. 1: Economic
Thought Before Adam Smith and Vol. 2: Classical
Economics, Mises Institute, 2009
Making Economic Sense, Mises Institute, 2007,
ISBN 0-945466-18-8; Full text reprint updated
7/15/2011 version
The Betrayal of the American Right, Mises Institute
publication of 1970s unpublished work, 2007, ISBN
978-1-933550-13-8, Full text reprint

10
Monographs
The Case for the 100 Percent Gold Dollar, originally published in Leland B. Yeager (editor), In
Search of a Monetary Constitution, Harvard University Press, 1962; published separately by Mises Institute, 1991, 2005, ISBN 0-945466-34-X; Full text
reprint/Audio Book
What Has Government Done to Our Money?, Pine
Tree Press, 1963; Full text reprint, Mises Institute,
1980; Audio book, ISBN 0-945466-44-7
Economic Depressions: Causes and Cures, Constitutional Alliance of Lansing, Michigan, 1969; Full
text reprint, Ludwig von Mises Institute, 2007
Wall Street, Banks, and American Foreign Policy,
World Market Perspective, 1984; Center for Libertarian Studies, 1995, Mises Institute 2005; Full text
reprint, Second edition, Mises Institute, 2011
Education: Free and Compulsory, Center for Independent Education, 1972; Full text reprint, Mises
Institute, 1999, ISBN 0-945466-22-6
Individualism and the Philosophy of the Social Sciences, introduction by Friedrich Hayek, Cato Institute, 1979, ISBN 0-932790-03-8
Articles/Essays
Left and Right, Selected Essays 195465, (includes
essays by Rothbard, Leonard Liggio, etc.), Arno
Press (The New York Times Company), 1972,
ISBN 0405004265; Mises Institute information
page
Ebeling, Richard M., (editor), The Austrian Theory of the Trade Cycle and Other Essays, (includes
also essays by Ludwig von Mises, Friedrich Hayek,
Gottfried Haberler, Mises Institute, 1996, ISBN
0-945466-21-8; Full text reprint, Mises Institute,
2009
(2008). Free Market. In David R. Henderson (ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Economics
(2nd ed.). Indianapolis: Library of Economics
and Liberty. ISBN 978-0865976658. OCLC
237794267.
Collections
Rockwell, Llewellyn H., Jr., (editor), The Irrepressible Rothbard: The Rothbard-Rockwell Report Essays of Murray N. Rothbard, LewRockwell.com,
2000, ISBN 1-883959-02-0
Salerno, Joseph T., (editor), A History of Money and
Banking in the United States, (Rothbard writings),
Mises Institute, 2002, ISBN 0-945466-33-1, Full
tex reprint

6 NOTES
Rothbard, Murray (editor), The Complete Libertarian Forum (196984; 2 vol.), 2006; Full text reprint
at LewRockwell.com, ISBN 1-933550-02-3
Modugno, Roberta A. (2009). Murray N. Rothbard vs. The Philosophers: Unpublished Writings on
Hayek, Mises, Strauss, and Polanyi, Mises Institute,
2009, ISBN 978-1-933550-46-6; Full text reprint

5 See also
American philosophy
List of American philosophers

6 Notes
[1] Lewis, David Charles (2006). Rothbard, Murray Newton
(19261995)". In Ross Emmett. Biographical Dictionary
of American Economists. Thoemmes. ISBN 1843711125.
[2] The following sources identify Rothbard as an economist,
philosopher, political theorist, Austrian economist, and
movement-builder, among other things:
David Boaz, Libertarianism The Struggle Ahead,
originally published at Encyclopedia Britannicablog, April 25, 2007; reprinted at Cato Institute
website. Boaz describes Rothbard as: a professional economist and also a movement builder.
Doherty, Brian. Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania:
PublicAairs. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-7867-3188-6.
Quote: economist and philosopher Murray Rothbard
David Miller, Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political
Thought, p. 290. Quote: the American economist
Murray Rothbard
F. Eugene Heathe. Encyclopedia of Business Ethics
and Society, SAGE, 2007, p. 89; Quote: an
economist of the Austrian school
Ronald Hamowy, Editor, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, Cato Institute, SAGE, 2008, ISBN
1412965802 Quotes: p. 62 calls Rothbard a leading economist of the Austrian school"; pp. 11, 365,
458 describe Rothbard as an Austrian economist
Kevin D. Williamson, The Politically Incorrect
Guide to Socialism, Regnery Publishing, 2010,
p. 75, ISBN 1596981741 Quote: the Austrian
economist Murray Rothbard.
Casey, Gerard (2010). Meadowcroft, John, ed.
Murray Rothbard. Major Conservative and Libertarian Thinkers 15. London: Continuum. pp. 5,
1617. ISBN 978-1-4411-4209-2.
[3] Rothbard, Murray (February, 1976). Revisionism and
Libertarianism. The Libertarian Forum.

11

[4] Doherty, Brian (2008). Rothbard, Murray (1926


1995)". In Ronald Hamowy, Cato Institute. Encyclopedia
of Libertarianism. SAGE. p. 441. ISBN 1412965802.

[20] Mark Skousen. The Making of Modern Economics (M.


E. Sharpe, 2009, p. 390). Skousen writes that Rothbard
refused to write for the academic journals.

[5] Raimondo, Justin (2000). An Enemy of the State: The Life


of Murray N. Rothbard. Amherst, New York: Prometheus
Books. ISBN 1-61592-239-3. OCLC 43541222.

[21] Herbener, J. (1995). L. Rockwell (Ed.), Murray Rothbard, In Memoriam. Auburn, AL: Ludwig von Mises Institute. p.87

[6] Miller, David, ed. (1991). Blackwell Encyclopaedia of


Political Thought. Blackwell Publishing. p. 290. ISBN
0-631-17944-5.

[22] Hoppe, Hans-Hermann (1999). Murray N. Rothbard:


Economics, Science, and Liberty. The Ludwig von
Mises Institute. Reprinted from 15 Great Austrian
Economists, edited by Randall G. Holcombe.

[7] Doherty, Brian (2008). Rothbard, Murray (1926


1995)". In Hamowy, Ronald. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications. pp. 441443. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4. OCLC
233969448.
[8] Rothbard, Murray (1997). The Myth of Neutral Taxation. The Logic of Action Two: Applications and Criticism from the Austrian School. Cheltenham, UK: Edward
Elgar. p. 67. ISBN 1-85898-570-6. First published in
The Cato Journal, Fall 1981.
[9] Hoppe, Hans-Hermann (1998). Introduction [to] The
Ethics of Liberty". Ludwig von Mises Institute.
[10] Rothbard, Murray (2002) [1982]. The Nature of the
State. The Ethics of Liberty. New York: New York University Press. pp. 167168. ISBN 0-8147-7506-3.
[11] Rothbard, Murray. The Great Society: A Libertarian Critique
[12] Rothbard, Murray.The Noble Task of Revisionism
[13] Rothbard, Murray. The Fallacy of the 'Public Sector'
[14] Rothbard, Murray (2008) [1983]. The Mystery of Banking (2nd ed.). Auburn, Alabama: Ludwig von Mises Institute. pp. 111113. ISBN 978-1-933550-28-2.
[15] Casey, Gerard (2010). Meadowcroft, John, ed. Murray
Rothbard. Major Conservative and Libertarian Thinkers
15. London: Continuum. ISBN 978-1-4411-4209-2.
[16] Klausner, Manuel S. The New Isolationism: An Interview with Murray Rothbard and Leonard Liggio.
Reason.
[17] Hoppe, Hans-Hermann (December 31, 2001). AnarchoCapitalism: An Annotated Bibliography. Retrieved June
2, 2013.
[18] Powell, Benjamin and Stringham, Peter (September 13,
2010). Economics in Defense of Liberty: The Contribution of Murray Rothbard. Social Science Research Network. Authors describe Rothbard as a heterodox political economist far out of the mainstream, who nonetheless
was a charismatic gure who caught the attention and provoked responses from the mainstream.
[19] Hoppe, Hans Hermann (n.d.). Austrian Method, Praxeology I. Mises.org. Professor Hoppe notes that Rothbard approached economics from a Misesian perspective
which, per Hoppe, is regarded as dogmatic and unscientic (i.e. heterodox) by all other economists.

[23] Flood, Anthony. Murray Newton Rothbard: Notes toward a Biography. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
[24] Rothbard, Murray. Life on the Old Right. Lewrockwell.com. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
[25] French, Doug (2010-12-27) Burns Diary Exposes the
Myth of Fed Independence, Mises Institute
[26] David Gordon, (editor), Strictly Condential: The Private
Volker Fund Memos of Murray N. Rothbard, 2010; Full
text reprint Quote from Rothbard: The Volker Fund concept was to nd and grant research funds to hosts of libertarian and right-wing scholars and to draw these scholars
together via seminars, conferences, etc.
[27] Gordon, David (2007). The Essential Rothbard. Auburn,
Alabama: Ludwig von Mises Institute. ISBN 978-1933550-10-7. OCLC 123960448.
[28] Scott Sublett, Libertarians Storied Guru, Washington
Times, 30 July 1987
[29] David Stout, Obituary: Murray N. Rothbard, Economist
And Free-Market Exponent, 68, The New York Times,
January 11, 1995.
[30] Peter G. Klein, Editor, F. A. Hayek, The Fortunes of Liberalism: Essays on Austrian Economics and the Ideal of
Freedom, University of Chicago Press, 2012, p. 54, ISBN
0226321169
[31] Rockwell, Llewellyn H (May 31, 2007). Three National
Treasures. Mises.org
[32] Frohnen, Bruce; Beer, Jeremy; Nelson, Jerey O., eds.
(2006). Rothbard, Murray (192695)". American Conservatism: An Encyclopedia. Wilmington, Delaware: ISI
Books. p. 750. ISBN 978-1-932236-43-9. Quote: Only
after several decades of teaching at the Polytechnic Institute of New York did Rothbard obtain an endowed chair,
and like that of Mises at NYU, his own at the University
of Nevada at Las Vegas was established by an admiring
benefactor.
[33] Hoppe, Hans-Hermann (1999). MURRAY N. ROTHBARD: ECONOMICS, SCIENCE, AND LIBERTY.
Mises.org
[34] Lee, Frederic S., and Cronin, Bruce C. (2010). Research
Quality Rankings of Heterodox Economic Journals in a
Contested Discipline. American Journal of Economics
and Sociology. 69(5): 1428

12

[35] Gordon, David. Biography of Murray N. Rothbard


(19261995)". Ludwig von Mises Institute. Retrieved
August 13, 2013.
[36] Rothbard, JoAnn. Murray Rothbard, In Memoriam.
Auburn, AL: von Mises Institute. p. viiix.
[37] Sciabarra, Chris (2000). Total Freedom: Toward a Dialectical Libertarianism, Penn State Press, 2000. p 358,
ISBN 0271020490
[38] Vance, Laurence M (March 15, 2011). Is Libertarianism
Compatible With Religion?" LewRockwell.com
[39] Justin Raimondo (2000). An Enemy of the State: the Life
of Murray N. Rothbard. Prometheus Books. p. 326.
ISBN 9781573928090. In the same letter, he reiterates
his atheism: On the religion question, we paleolibertarians are not theocrats, he writes. Obviously, I could
not be myself, both as a libertarian and as an atheist.
However, he continued, the left-libertarian hostility to
religion, based as it is on ignorance and the bitterness of
aging adolescent rebels against bourgeois America, is
monstrous.
[40] Casey, Gerard (2010). Meadowcroft, John, ed. Murray
Rothbard. Major Conservative and Libertarian Thinkers
15. London: Continuum. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-44114209-2.
[41] Burns, Jennifer (2009). Goddess of the Market: Ayn Rand
and the American Right. Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 9780-19-532487-7.

6 NOTES

[52] Tyler Cowen and Richard Fink (1985). Inconsistent


Equilibrium Constructs: The Evenly Rotating Equilibrium Economy of Mises and Rothbard. American Economic Review: 866. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
[53] Gunning, Patrick. Mises on the Evenly Rotating Economy. Journal of Austrian Economics 3 (3).
[54] , LewRockwell.com, July 25, 2011
[55] Selgin, George. Me Murray and Milton. Free Banking.
Retrieved 4 September 2013.
[56] Rothbard, Murray (1991) [1962]. The Case for a 100
Percent Gold Dollar. Ludwig von Mises Institute. Retrieved August 13, 2013.
[57] North, Gary (October 10, 2009). What Is Money? Part
5: Fractional Reserve Banking. LewRockwell.com. Retrieved August 13, 2013.
[58] free marketeers and ination. The Economist
[59] Boettke, Peter (1988). Economists and Liberty: Murray N. Rothbard. Nomos: 29. Retrieved 17 November
2013.
[60] Casey, Gerard (2010). Murray Rothbard. New York, NY:
The Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 112.
ISBN 978-1-4411-4209-2.
[61] Tony Endres, review of Classical Economics: An Austrian
Perspective, History of Economics Review, http://www.
hetsa.org.au/pdf-back/23-RA-7.pdf

[42] Mises and Rothbard Letters to Ayn Rand, Journal of


Libertarian Studies, Volume 21, No. 4 (Winter 2007):
1116.

[62] Keynes the Man, originally published in Dissent on Keynes:


A Critical Appraisal of Keynesian Economics, Edited by
Mark Skousen. New York: Praeger, 1992, pp. 171198;
Online edition at The Ludwig von Mises Institute

[43] Murray Rothbard play Mozart was a Red, early 1960s, at


LewRockwell.com.

[63] Gordon, David (1999). John Stuart Mill on Liberty and


Control. The Mises Review

[44] Rothbard, Murray (1972). The Sociology of the Ayn


Rand Cult.

[64] Ruger, William (2013). Meadowcroft, John, ed. Milton


Friedman. Major Conservative and Libertarian Thinkers.
New York, NY: Bloomsbury. p.174

[45] Chris Matthew Sciabarra, Total Freedom: Toward a Dialectical Libertarianism, Penn State Press, 2000. p 165,
ISBN 0271020490

[65] Rothbard, Murray (1971). Milton Friedman Unraveled.


LewRockwell.com

[46] Mozart Was a Red: A Morality Play in One Act by Murray


N. Rothbard, with an introduction by Justin Raimondo
[47] Rothbard, Murray (1976). Praxeology: The Methodology
of Austrian Economics. Mises.org

[66] Doherty, Brian (1995). Best of Both Worlds. Reason


[67] Rockwell, Llewellyn (1995). Murray N. Rothbard In
Memoriam. Alabama, USA: Mises Institute. pp. 3337.

[48] Where Modern Economics Went Wrong

[68] Grimm, Curtis M.; Hunn, Lee; Smith, Ken G. Strategy as


Action: Competitive Dynamics and Competitive Advantage.
New York Oxford University Press (US). 2006. p. 43

[49] In Defense of Extreme Apriorism Murray N. Rothbard


Southern Economic Journal, January 1957, pp. 314320

[69] Olsaretti, Serena. 2004. Liberty, Desert and the Market.


Cambridge University Press. p. 91

[50] Kirzner, Israel. Interview of Israel Kirzner. Mises Institute. Retrieved 17 June 2013.

[70] Kyriazi, Harold (2004). 31 Reckoning with Rothbard.


American Journal of Economics and Sociology 63 (2):
45184. doi:10.1111/j.1536-7150.2004.00298.x.

[51] Zanotti, Gabriel J. (Universidad Austral); Cachanosky,


Nicolas (Metropolitan State University of Denver). The
Epistemological Implications of Machlups Interpretation
of Misess Epistemology. Working Paper. SSRN. Retrieved 2 September 2013.

[71] George C. Leef, Book Review of Egalitarianism as a


Revolt Against Nature and Other Essays by Murray Rothbard, edited by David Gordon (2000 edition), The Freeman, July 2001.

13

[72] Rothbard, Murray (2003). Egalitarianism as a Revolt


Against Nature and Other Essays, essay published in
full at Lewrockwell.com. See also Rothbards essay The
Struggle Over Egalitarianism Continues, the 1991 introduction to republication of Freedom, Inequality, Primitivism, and the Division of Labor, Ludwig Von Mises Institute, 2008.
[73] Noam Chomsky, Understanding Power, The Indispensable Chomsky (New York: New York Press, 2002), p. 398
[74] Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought, 1987, ISBN
978-0-631-17944-3, p. 290; quote: A student and disciple of the Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises, Rothbard combined the laissez-faire economics of his teacher
with the absolutist views of human rights and rejection of
the state he had absorbed from studying the individualist
American anarchists of the 19th century such as Lysander
Spooner and Benjamin Tucker.
[75] Rockwell, Llewellyn (1995). Murray N. Rothbard: In
Memoriam. pp. 117
[76] Ronald Hamowy, ed. (Aug 15, 2008). The Encyclopedia
of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE.
p. 623. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4.Rothbard, Murray N
(2007-08-17). Floyd Arthur 'Baldy' Harper, RIP. Mises
Daily.
[77] Roberta Modugno Crocetta, Murray Rothbards anarchocapitalism in the contemporary debate. A critical defense,
Ludwig Von Mises Institute.
[78] Oliver, Michael (February 25, 1972). Exclusive Interview With Murray Rothbard. The New Banner: A Fortnightly Libertarian Journal. Capitalism is the fullest expression of anarchism, and anarchism is the fullest expression of capitalism.
[79] Ikeda, Sanford, Dyamics of the Mixed Economy: Toward
a Theory of Interventionism, Routledge UK, 1997, 245.

[89] Rothbard, Murray (November, 1994). Big-Government


Libertarians. LewRockwell.com
[90] Hardisty, Jean (1999). Mobilizing Resentment, Conservative Resurgence from the John Birch Society to the Promise
Keepers. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. pp. 165-167. Author holds a Ph.D. in Political Science from Northwestern
University.
[91] Rothbard, Murray (December, 1994). Race! That Murray Book. LewRockwell.com
[92] Stromberg, Joseph R. (January 10, 2005) [rst published
June 12, 2000]. Murray Rothbard on States, War, and
Peace: Part I. Antiwar.com. Also see Part II, originally
published June 20, 2000.
[93] See both essays: Rothbard, Murray. War, Peace, and the
State, rst published 1963; Anatomy of the State, rst
published 1974.
[94] Rothbard, Murray N. (2007) [1968]. Harry Elmer
Barnes, RIP. Ludwig von Mises Institute. Article originally appeared in Left and Right: A Journal of Libertarian
Thought.
[95] Stromberg, Joseph (June 12, 2000). Murray N. Rothbard
on States, War, and Peace: Part I. Antiwar.com
[96] Rothbard, Murray (1991). Just War. LewRockwell.com
[97] Denson, J. (1997). Costs of War: Americas Pyrrhic Victories. (pp. 119-133). New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.
[98] Dilorenzo, Thomas (January 28, 2006). More from
Rothbard on War, Religion, and the State. LewRockwell.com
[99] Perry, Marvin (1999). "Libertarian Forum 1969-1986.
In Lora, Ronald; Longton, William Henry (eds.). The
Conservative Press in Twentieth-Century America. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 372. ISBN 0-313-21390-9.

[80] Rothbard, Murray. Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Intervention from Man, Economy and State, Ludwig von Mises [100] Rothbard, Murray N. (Autumn 1967). War Guilt in the
Institute.
Middle East. Left and Right 3 (3): 2030. Reprinted
in Rothbard, Murray N. (2007). Left and Right: A Jour[81] Peter G. Klein, Why Intellectuals Still Support Socialnal of Libertarian Thought (The Complete Edition, 1965ism, Ludwig von Mises Institute, November 15, 2006
1968). Auburn, Alabama: Ludwig von Mises Institute.
ISBN 978-1-61016-040-7. OCLC 741754456.
[82] Man, Economy, and State, Chapter 7 Conclusion: Economics and Public Policy, Ludwig Von Mises Institute.
[101] Rothbard, Murray (February, 1976). The Case for Revisionism. Mises.org
[83] O'Malley, Michael (2012). Face Value: The Entwined
Histories of Money and Race in America. Chicago, IL: [102] Bertrand Badie, Dirk Berg-Schlosser, Leonardo Morlino,
University of Chicago Press. pp. 205-207
Editors, International Encyclopedia of Political Science,
Volume 1, Revisionism entry, SAGE, 2011 p 2310,
[84] http://mises.org/daily/2225
ISBN 1412959632
[85] http://archive.lewrockwell.com/rothbard/ir/Ch5.html

[103] Raimondo, Justin (2000). An Enemy of the State: The Life


of Murray N. Rothbard. Amherst, New York: Prometheus
Books. pp. 15, 62, 141. ISBN 1-61592-239-3. OCLC
[87] Rothbard, Murray N. (February 1993). Their Malcolm
43541222. Raimondo describes Rothbard as a champion
... and Mine. LewRockwell.com
of Henry Elmer Barnes, the dean of world war revisionism.
[88] Pendelton, Arthur (May 14, 2008). Lew Rockwell And
The Strange Death (Or At Least Suspended Animation) [104] Rothbard, Murray (1968). Harry Elmer Barnes as Revisionist of the Cold War.
Of Paleolibertarianism. VDARE.com
[86] http://mises.org/journals/lar/pdfs/3_3/3_3_2.pdf

14

7 FURTHER READING

[105] Williamson, Kevin D. (January 23, 2012). Courting the [120] 25 years at the Cato Institute: The 2001 Annual Report.
Cranks. National Review, January 2013 edition. p. 4
pp. 11, 12. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
(subscription required)
[121] Sanchez, Julian; Weigel, David (January 16, 2008). Who
[106] Raico, Ralph. Rothbard at his Semi-Centennial. Mises
Wrote Ron Pauls Newsletters?". Reason. Retrieved AuInstitute. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
gust 14, 2013.
[107] Walker, John (1991). Childrens Rights versus Murray [122] Rothbard, Murray (November 1994). Big Government
Rothbards The Ethics of Liberty". Libertarians for Life.
Libertarianism, Lew Rockwell.com
Retrieved August 13, 2013.
[123] Tanenhaus, Saul and Rutenberg, Jim (January 25, 2014).
[108] The Ethics of Liberty, Chapter 14 Children and Rights.
Rand Pauls Mixed Inheritance. The New York Times
[109] See also: Hamowy, Ronald (editor) (2008). The En- [124] Rothbard, Murray (January 1992). Right-wing Popcyclopedia of Libertarianism, Cato Institute, SAGE, pp.
ulism. LewRockwell.com. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
5961, ISBN 1-4129-6580-2, ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4
Originally published in the January 1992 RothbardOCLC 233969448
Rockwell Report.
[110] Callahan, Gene (February 2013). Liberty versus Lib- [125] /30/gene-epstein-at-freedomfest Gillespie, Nick and
ertarianism. Politics, Philosophy & Economics 12 (1):
Fisher, Anthony L. Fisher, "Gene Epstein: Murray
4867. doi:10.1177/1470594X11433739. ISSN 1470Rothbards Mixed Legacy., Reason, August 30, 2013.
594X. OCLC 828009007. (subscription required (help)).
[126] Rothbard, Murray.
Strategy for the Right.
[111] Rothbard, Murray (1998). Punishment and ProportionLewRockwell.com.
Retrieved August 14, 2013.
ality. The Ethics of Liberty. New York University Press.
First published in The Rothbard-Rockwell Report, January
pp. 8597. ISBN 0-8147-7506-3.
1992.
[112] Morimura, Susumu (1999). Libertarian theories of pun- [127] Rockwell, Jr., Llewellyn H. (April 8, 2005). Still the
ishment. In P. Smith & P. Comanducci (Eds.), Legal PhiStates Greatest Living Enemy. Mises Daily. Ludwig von
losophy: General Aspects: Theoretical Examinations and
Mises Institute. Retrieved August 13, 2013.
Practical Application (pp. 135-138). New York, NY:
Franz Steiner Verlag.
[128] Rothbard, Murray (1992-06-01) Little Texan Connects
Big With Masses: Perot is a populist in the content of his
[113] Rothbard, Murray (1960). The Mantle of Science.
views and in the manner of his candidacy, Los Angeles
Reprinted from Scientism and Values, Helmut Schoeck
Times
and James W. Wiggins, eds. (Princeton, N.J.: D. Van
Nostrand), 1960, pp. 159180, ISBN 978-0405004360 [129] Rothbard, Murray (July 30, 1992). Hold Back the
; The Logic of Action One: Method, Money, and the AusHordes for 4 More Years: Any sensible American has one
trian School (Cheltenham UK: Edward Elgar, 1997), pp.
real choice George Bush. Los Angeles Times.
323. ISBN 978-1858980157
[130] Raimondo, Justin (October 1, 2012). Race for the White
[114] McCarthy, Daniel (March 12, 2007). Enemies of the
House, 2012: Whom to Root For?". Antiwar.com. ReState. The American Conservative. Retrieved August 13,
trieved August 13, 2013.
2013.
[131] Reese, Charley (1993-10-14) The U.S. Standard Of Liv[115] Kauman, Bill (May 19, 2008). When the Left Was
ing Will Decline If Nafta Is Approved, Orlando Sentinel
Right. The American Conservative. Retrieved August
13, 2013.
[132] Lew Rockwell, What I Learned From Paleoism,
LewRockwell.com, 2002.
[116] Riggenbach, Je (May 13, 2010). Karl Hess and the
Death of Politics. Ludwig von Mises Institute. Retrieved [133] Murray N. Rothbard, In Memoriam, Preface by JoAnn
August 13, 2013.
Rothbard, edited by Llewellyn H. Rockwell, Jr, published
by Ludwig von Mises Institute,1995.
[117] Ronald Lora, William Henry Longton, editors, The Conservative Press in Twentieth-Century America, Chapter [134] Goldberg, Jonah. Idealists vs. Empiricists. New ReThe Libertarian Forum, Greenwood Publishing Group,
public. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
1999, p. 372, ISBN 0313213909,
[118] Perry, Marvin (1999). Libertarian Forum 19691986.
In Lora, Ronald; Henry, William Longton (eds.). The
Conservative Press in Twentieth-Century America. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 369.
ISBN 0-313-21390-9. OCLC 40481045.
[119] Burris, Charles (February 4, 2011). Kochs v. Soros: A
Partial Backstory. LewRockwell.com. Retrieved August
14, 2013.

7 Further reading
Boettke, Peter (FallWinter 1988). Economists
Nomos
and Liberty: Murray N. Rothbard.
(American Society for Political and Legal Philosophy): 2934; 4950. ISSN 0078-0979. OCLC
1760419.

15
Block, Walter E. (Spring 2003). Toward a Libertarian Theory of Inalienability: A Critique of Rothbard, Barnett, Gordon, Smith, Kinsella and Epstein. Journal of Libertarian Studies 17 (2). SSRN
1889456.
Doherty, Brian (2007). Radicals for Capitalism: A
Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement. PublicAairs. ISBN 1-58648350-1
Frech, H. E. (1973). The public choice theory of
Murray N. Rothbard, a modern anarchist. Public Choice 14: 14353. doi:10.1007/BF01718450.
JSTOR 30022711.
Hudk, Marek (2011). Rothbardian demand: A
critique. The Review of Austrian Economics 24 (3):
3118. doi:10.1007/s11138-011-0147-3.
Klein, Daniel B. (Fall 2004). Mere Libertarianism:
Blending Hayek and Rothbard. Reason Papers 27:
743. SSRN 473601.
Pack, Spencer J. (1998). Murray Rothbards Adam
Smith. The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics 1 (1): 739. doi:10.1007/s12113-9981004-5.
Touchstone, Kathleen (2010). Rand, Rothbard,
and Rights Reconsidered. Libertarian Papers 2
(18): 28. OCLC 820597333.

External links
Murray Rothbard full bibliography at Mises.org
Rothbard videos at YouTube channel of the Ludwig
von Mises Institute
Murray N. Rothbard Library and Resources from
LewRockwell.com
Murray Rothbard Institute, Belgium
Murray Newton Rothbard at Find a Grave

16

9 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

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