You are on page 1of 6

More et al.

, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN22498974

Research Paper

DEVELOPMENT OF STEAM PIPING SYSTEM WITH STRESS


ANALYSIS FOR OPTIMUM WEIGHT & THERMAL
EFFECTIVENESS
1

Bhairavnath Uttamrao More, 2Prof. G.S. Joshi, 3Swapnil S. Kulkarni

Address for Correspondence

ME- Mech Product Design and Development- pursuing, D.K.T.Es Textile and Engineering Institute,
Ichalkaranji, Kolhapur
2
Mechanical Department, D.K.T.Es Textile and Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji, Kolhapur
3
Director-Able Technologies India Pvt. Ltd., Pune
ABSTRACT
This report is about the design of steam piping and its stress analysis of a given process flow diagram. The prime objective
of this project is to design the piping system and then to analyze its main components. Wall thicknesses are calculated for all
pipes which were found very safe for the operating pressure. For header pipe the calculated wall thickness is 3.54 mm and
the standard minimum wall thickness is 8.18 mm which is greater than the calculated one by more than 2.3 times. Different
loads such as static loads, occasional loads and thermal loads of all pipes were also calculated. After load calculations,
spacing of supports and designing of expansion loops were carried out. Thermal, static and seismic analysis of main system
pipe has been done and results were compared with ASME Power Piping Code B31.1. After calculation of all applied loads,
pipe components were designed and analyzed both manually and on ANSYS software. The results obtained from both
methods were compared and found safe under available applied loads.
Considering the mathematical model for the piping design, the calculations might suggest an under-designed system vis-vis the relevant CODE. Though, a certain standard exists for a given application, there is enough room to explore the
optimization of design since the projects associated with piping are normally associated with a high quantum of purchase
running in several million rupees to a few billion! Any attempt to rationalize the design would directly improve the savings
for the budgetary outlay for the project work while ensuring safety and addressing concerns for potential claims arising due
to accidents or malfunction of the system.
KEYWORDS- Piping Engineering, Design, Stress Analysis, Expansion loops, CAE software (Ansys)

1] INTRODUCTION
Pipes are the most delicate components in any
process plant. They are also the busiest entities. They
are subjected to almost all kinds of loads, intentional
or unintentional. It is very important to take note of
all potential loads that a piping system would
encounter during operation as well as during other
stages in the life cycle of a process plant. If we ignore
any such load while designing, erecting, hydrotesting, start-up shut-down, normal operation,
maintenance etc, It can lead to inadequate design and
engineering of a piping system. The system may fail
on the first occurrence of this overlooked load.
Failure of a piping system may trigger a Domino
effect and cause a major disaster. Stress analysis and
safe design normally require appreciation of several
related concepts. An approximate list of the steps that
would be involved is as follows.
1. Identify potential loads that would come on
to the pipe or piping system during its entire
life.
2. Relate each one of these loads to the stresses
and strains that would be developed in the
crystals/grains
of
the
Material
of
Construction (MoC) of the piping system.
3. Decide the worst three dimensional stress
state that the MoC can withstand without
failure

4. Get the cumulative effect of all the potential,


loads on the 3-D stress scenario in the piping
system under consideration.
5. Alter piping system design to ensure that the
stress pattern is within failure limits.
The goal of quantification and analysis of pipe
stresses is to provide safe design through the above
steps. There could be several designs that could be
safe. A piping engineer would have a lot of scope to
choose from such alternatives, the one which is most
economical, or most suitable etc. Good piping system
design is always a mixture of sound knowledge base
in the basics and a lot of ingenuity.
Piping System design and analysis is a very
important field in any process and power industry.
Piping system is analogous to blood circulating
system in human body and is necessary for the life of
the plant. The steam piping system, mentioned in the
project will be used for supplying steam to different
locations at designed temperature and pressure. This
piping system is one of the major requirements of the
plant to be installed.
2] PIPING SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES
The following are the steps which need to be
completed in mechanical design of any piping
system.

Flow chart: Complete stage designing of piping system


Int. J. Adv. Engg. Res. Studies/III/II/Jan.-March.,2014/108-113

More et al., International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN22498974

1 Process Design
This process is based on the requirement of the
process variables. It defines the required length &
cross sectional area of pipe, the properties of fluid
inside the pipe, nature & rate of flow in it. These
variables affect the positioning and placements of
equipments during lay outing and routing. The
operating and design working conditions are clearly
defined. The end of Process Plan Design is the
creation of a Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and
Process & Instrumental diagram (P&ID), which are
used in the designing & lay outing of the Pipe.
2 Piping Structural Design
In piping structural design, according to pressure in
pipelines, the design and minimum allowable
thicknesses are calculated; according to the required
codes and standards. ASME codes for various
standards are available, for process fluid flow, ASME
B31.1 (Code for power/steam piping) is used. In the
structural design of pipes, when all the loads are
calculated then the required span is also calculated
for supporting the pipes.
ASME B31.1 covers the minimum requirements for
the design, materials, fabrication, erection, testing,
and inspection of power and auxiliary service piping
systems for electric generation stations, industrial
institutional plants, and central and district heating
plants. The code also covers external piping for
power boilers and high temperature, high-pressure
water boilers in which steam or vapor is generated at
a pressure of more than 15psig and high-temperature
water is generated at pressures exceeding 160 psig or
temperatures exceeding 250F. This code is typically
used for the transportation of steam or water under
elevated temperatures and pressure as mentioned
above, so this is the reason that why this code is
selected for the steam piping system which is
external to the boiler.
Boiler outlet section of the steam system comes
under the category of ASME Code B31.1 Power
piping. In order to ensure the safety of the piping
system, code requirements should be fully satisfied.
For different loads this code incorporates different
relationships for stress level as given below .[]
A] Stresses due to sustained loadings
The effects of the pressure, weight, and other
sustained loads must meet the requirements of the
following equation.
 =

Where

.


1.0

P = Internal Pressure, kPa;


Do = Outside diameter of Pipe, mm
t = nominal wall thickness, mm
Z = Section modulus of pipe, mm
 =Resultant moment due to loading on cross section due
to weight and other sustained loads, Nmm
 = Sum of the longitudinal stresses due to pressure, wt &
the sustained loads
 = Basic material allowable stress at design pressure, kPa

B] Stress due to occasional loadings


The effects of pressure, weight, and occasional loads
(earthquake) must meet the requirements of the
following equation.

10000.75& 10000.75&(

+
+
)
4"#
'
'

Where

* = Resultant moment loading on cross section due to


occasional loads, Nmm
Int. J. Adv. Engg. Res. Studies/III/II/Jan.-March.,2014/108-113

k = Constant factor depend on plant operation time; The


rest of the terms are same to above equation.

C] Stresses due to thermal loadings


The effects of thermal expansion must meet the
following equation.
1000&( 
 + +  
'

Where
f = Stress range reduction factor
( = Range of resultant moment due to thermal expansion,
N-mm
 = Allowable stress range for expansion kPa; The rest of
the terms are same to above equation.

3 Piping Design Criteria


There are various failure modes which could affect a
piping system. The piping engineer can provide
protection against some of these failure modes by
performing stress analysis according to the piping
codes. Protection against other failure modes is
provided by methods other than stress analysis. For
example, protection against brittle fracture is
provided by material selection. The piping codes
address the following failure modes, excessive plastic
deformation, plastic instability or incremental
collapse, and high-strainlow-cycle fatigue. Each of
these modes of failure is caused by a different kind of
stress and loading. It is necessary to place these
stresses into different categories and set limits to
them. The major stress categories are primary,
secondary, and peak. The limits of these stresses are
related to the various failure modes as follows.
Primary Stress
The primary stress limits are intended to prevent
plastic deformation and bursting. Primary stresses
which are developed by the imposed loading are
necessary to satisfy the equilibrium between external
and internal forces and moments of the piping
system. Primary stresses are not self-limiting.
Therefore, if a primary stress exceeds the yield
strength of the material through the entire cross
section of the piping, then failure can be prevented
only by strain hardening in the material. Thermal
stresses are never classified as primary stresses. They
are placed in both the secondary and peak stress
categories. Primary stresses are the membrane, shear
or bending stress resulting from imposed loadings
which satisfy the simple laws of equilibrium of
internal and external forces and moments as arranged
in table below;
Table 1 Primary stress of pipes

Primary stresses which considerably exceed the yield


strength of the piping material will result in gross
distortion or failure.
Secondary Stress
The primary plus secondary stress limits are intended
to prevent excessive plastic deformation leading to
incremental collapse. Secondary stresses are
developed by the constraint of displacements of a
structure. These displacements can be caused either
by thermal expansion or by outwardly imposed
restraint and anchor point movements. Under this
loading condition, the piping system must satisfy an
imposed strain pattern rather than be in equilibrium

More et al., International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN22498974

with imposed forces. Local yielding and minor


distortions of the piping system tend to relieve these
stresses. Therefore, secondary stresses are selflimiting.
Secondary stresses are self equilibrium stresses
which are necessary to satisfy the continuity of forces
within a structure. As contrasted with stresses from
sustained loads, secondary stresses are not a source of
direct failure in ductile with only a single application
of load. If the stresses exceed the material yield
strength, they cause local deformation which result in
a redistribution of the loading and upper limit of the
stress in the operating condition. If the applied load is
cyclic, however these stresses constitute a potential
source of fatigue failure e.g. the secondary stresses
due to different type of loads are given below
Table 2 Secondary stresses of pipes

i) Pipe Thickness Calculations


Piping codes ASME B31.1 Paragraph 104.1.2 require
that the minimum thickness tm including the
allowance for mechanical strength, shall not be less
than the thickness calculated using Equation.[-] "/ =


+8
-1234567

Where

tm = minimum required wall th


t = pressure design thickness, mm
P = internal pressure, kPa
D: = outside diameter of pipe, mm
S = allowable stress at design temperature (known as hot
stress), kPa
A = allowance, additional thickness to provide for material
removed in threading, corrosion or erosion allowance;
manufacturing tolerance (MT) should also be considered.
Y = coefficient that takes material properties and design
temperature into account. For temperature below
900F, 0.4 may be assumed.
E< = quality factor.

ii) Allowable Working Pressure


The allowable working pressure of a pipe can
be determined by Equation.[-]  =

-1234 7

=-6 

Where
t = specified wall thickness or actual wall thickness
in mm. For bends the minimum wall thickness after
bending should not be less than the minimum
required for straight pipe.
iii) Sustained Load Calculations
Sustained loads are those loads which are caused by
mechanical forces and these loads are present
throughout the normal operation of the piping
system. These loads include both weight and pressure
loadings. The support must be capable of holding the
entire weight of the system, including that of that of
the pipe, insulation, fluid components, and the
support

K
F
GH IIJ - - 
KL
4
F
K
Fluid Weight = G QJRS  
4
KL
Pipe Weight =

Insulation Wt. = YZ[\]^"&_Z +^`"_a G b#HRJc 

Where

K
KL

D0 = Outside diameter of pipe, mm


Di = Inside diameter of pipe, mm
t = Insulation Thickness depend on the NPS, mm
g = Acceleration due to gravity, m/sec
Int. J. Adv. Engg. Res. Studies/III/II/Jan.-March.,2014/108-113

gc = Gravitational constants, m/ sec


GH IIJ = Density of steel, kg/mm
GQJRS = Density of water, kg/mm
Gb#HRJc  # = Density of Insulation, kg/mm

Insulation factor depends on the thickness of the


insulation of the pipe.
iv) Wind Load Calculations
Wind load like dead weight, is a uniformly
distributed load which act along the entire length or
portion of the piping system which is exposed to
air.[d]
For standard air, the expression for the wind dynamic
pressure is given below:
 = 0.00256 g h
And to calculate the wind dynamic load (lb/ft), the
following expression is used:
i = 0.000213 g h 
Where
P = Dynamic pressure, kg/cm
V = basic wind speed, miles/hr
CD = Drag co-efficient, dimensionless, CD can be
calculated using table and the following equation;
R = 780 V D
R = Reynolds number
F = Linear dynamic pressure loading (kg/cm)
D = Pipe Diameter (cm)

v) Thermal Loads Calculations


All pipes will be installed at ambient temperature. If
pipes carrying hot fluids such steam, then they
expand, especially in length, with an increase from
ambient to working temperatures. This will create
stress upon certain areas within the distribution
system, such as pipe joints, which, in the extreme,
could fracture. The amount of the expansion is
readily calculated using the following expression.[]
Expansion mm = n o q

Where

L = Length of pipe (m)


q = Temperature difference between ambient and
operating Temperatures (C)
= Expansion coefficient (mm/mC) 10

vi) Occasional Loads


Occasional load will subject a piping system to
horizontal loads as well as vertical loads, Where as
sustained loads are normally only vertical (weight).
There are different types of occasional loads that act
over a piping system but for our analysis we will use
wind loads and seismic loads.[d]
vii) Seismic Loads
Earthquake loads are of two major types
 Operation Based Earthquake Load
 Safe Shutdown Earthquake Load
Piping systems and components are designed to
withstand two levels of site dependent hypothetical
earthquakes, the safe shut down earthquake and the
operational basis earthquake. Their magnitudes are
expressed in terms of the gravitational g. There
motions are assumed to occur in three orthogonal
directions, one vertical and two horizontal directions.
Earthquake loads can either be calculated by dynamic
Analysis or static Analysis. In Dynamic analysis
frequency response of the system is used to calculate
the Earthquake load whereas in Static Analysis, these
loads are taken to be some factor of the Pipe Dead
load.[d]
3] PIPE DESIGN CALCULATIONS
In this chapter piping thickness as well as all the
basic loads are calculated and the characteristics are
also given below.

More et al., International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN22498974

Design Parameters
As already sizing of this piping system has been done
and the available information are;
Number of pipes = 48
Number of junctions = 49
Wind Velocity = 100 miles/hr

& Plotting shear force and bending moment diagram


for the beam solved

Fig.4-1 Symmetry of header pipe considering as a beam

Fig.3-1 Pipe wall thickness comparision of actual


required & Standard thickness
Fig.4-2 Bending Moment Diagram

Fig 4-3 Bending Moment Diagram

Fig.3-2 Relation between Allowable pressure &


Operating pressure

Pipe design calculation has been done per pipe data


available & with reference to ASME B31.1 code.
After calculation, following graphical relation (Fig.
3-1, 3-2 & 3-3) & Structural load calculations have
been found for steam piping system.[][ ]
From these three graph, It is found that standard
minimum pipe wall thickness is almost greater than
2.4 times than actual rquired. And all the allowable
pressures are greater than the operating pressure by
more than 4 times. So that it is concluded from above
table that all the pipes are safe under applied
pressure.
Minimum Pipe supporting span length is also greater
than that of standard length as per CODE. Hence,
piping system can be say safe based on standard
support

Maximum Bending Moment = Mtuv = -32741.44533


lb-in at x = 799.92 in
Verification of static load from Code
The effects of the pressure, weight, & other sustained
loads must meet the requirements of the following
equation.[r]

10000.75&
+
1.0
4"#
'
193.7 8.625 0.75 1 32700
+
1.0 14400
4 0.322
16.8
 =

2756.92 < 14400


2.75 x 103 < 14.4 x 103
Piping Analysis on ANSYS
Analysis was performed for the pipe in ANSYS for
using the data.
Element type = Beam 3
Material properties
Modulus of Elasticity = 27.5 Mpsi
Poisons Ratio = 0.283
Density = 0.283 lb/in3
Type of Loads

Fig.3-3 supporting span comparison of calculated &


Code requirement

4] ANALYSIS:
Thermal, static and seismic loads on pipes and their
analysis along with verification from the code have
been done []
A. STATIC LOAD ANALYSIS
cFor Static loads calculation, considering again same
pipe line and taking its section up to first vertical leg
of the expansion loop. This pipe is to be considering
as a straight beam with uniformly distributed load
(beam) and taking its specification.[r]
As this pipe section is considered as straight beam
with one anchor support & four vertical restraints, so
there are five unknowns in this problem. For solving
this problem, singularity method has been followed
Int. J. Adv. Engg. Res. Studies/III/II/Jan.-March.,2014/108-113

Fig 4-4 Loaded view of the meshed beam

Fig 4-5 Deflection (inch) in Pipe

More et al., International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN22498974
E = Modulus of Elasticity, psi
I = Section modulus, in

Total Displacement absorbed by a section of


pipe:# =

 ~


Fig.4-6 Bending stress (psi) in Pipe

Four Vertical constraints in the middle and one all


DOF constrained at the start.
Gravity = 9.81(386.22 in/sec2)
Final Meshing = 96 elements for total length of the
beam (22 elements for first four each sections and 8
elements for the last section. Refining the mesh from
24 elements up to 96 elements but there is no change
found in deformation values and bending moment
values).
Comparison of static load Analysis
The maximum deflections and bending moment
values obtained from both methods are arranged in
below Table-4
Table-3 Comparison of analysis for beam

From the results obtained both manually and on


ANSYS, the difference in maximum deflection is
6.4% where on the other hand the difference in the
max. Bending moment is 1.35%. Deformation is less
than 0.1 inch and also the maximum bending stress is
1947.55 psi which is quite less than the allowable
stress of the pipe
B. THERMAL ANALYSIS
Based on spacing calculated above considering
header pipe P-208 of length segment 200ft.At both
side of this expansion loop there are anchor supports
and eight guided supports equally spaced at length
22.22 ft. This expansion loop will be further analyzed
for thermal and static loads.[]

Figure 4-8 Header Pipe Sections

Where
n = Displacement absorbed by leg n, in
Ln = length of leg n, ft
Li = length of each leg resisting specified displacement, ft
T = Total displacement to be absorbed, in

Considering 200 feet segment of pipe no. 208 and


then taking its half symmetry for analysis by
assuming the pipe segments to be straight and acts
just a cantilever beam. As shown in figure the header
pipe no. 208 has been divided into different sections.
As this pipe has two main sections, one is the main
line and the other is vertical leg which is
perpendicular to the main line, so the nomenclature
of the piping section as given below:
Main line including the segments A-B, B-C, C-D, DE = 22.22 ft, E-F= 7.1 ft
As per above methodology, all resultant loads are
found as table.
Table-4 Summary of all Loads due to Thermal
expansion

Verification of thermal expansion from Code


The effects of thermal expansion must meet the
following equation.



 + + 

 

Fig. 4-7 Typical expansion loop between anchor


support in one line

Methodology
For thermal analysis in pipes we will use method of
guided cantilever method, in which thermal load
and moments will be calculated as given
Below
12 | Y
o
6|Y
Moment M =
o
Thermal Load F =

21400 + 1 14400 1297.098


4.032 x 10 < 34.502 x 10
The value obtained from the above equation show
that that the maximum moment due to thermal
expansion will produce no disturbance, if an
expansion loop is used for 200ft length of pipe.
C. SEISMIC LOADS CALCULATIONS
For a system seismic supports designed in the rigid
range, the designed load for a system decreases. For
such a system the seismic stress and load are given
below.[d][-]
Seismic stress
A simplified seismic analysis can be done by
assuming the simple beam formulas and the load is to
be most often considering in the lateral directions of
the pipe. Seismic stress based on seismic acceleration
is calculated as follows.
.

Where

o = 0.75 & 12
1.5
8'

Z = Section modulus of pipe, in3 = 16.8 in3 [r]


G = seismic acceleration in gs = 0.15 (Data provided)
I = stress Intensification factor for straight pipe = 1.00

Where
= Thermal Expansion, in
L = Length of segment under observation, in
Int. J. Adv. Engg. Res. Studies/III/II/Jan.-March.,2014/108-113

[r]

Seismic Lateral load


For seismic lateral load based on static analysis is to
be used to evaluate power piping.

More et al., International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN22498974

It is performed by analyzing a piping system for the


statically applied uniform load equivalent to the site
dependent earth-quake acceleration in each of the
three orthogonal directions. For seismic lateral load
considering only in horizontal direction using
equation below
Where

g = ' Y h 

REFERENCES:
1.

2.

V = Seismic lateral load, lb


Z = constant depend upon earth quake zone 0.5 up to 1.0 =
1(Assuming maximum)
I = Occupancy factor b/w 1.00 and 1.5 = 1 (Low occupancy
region)
1
h=
= 0.12
15q

3.

T =Fundamental period of structure, s = 0.3 sec


S = soil factor b/w 1 and 1.5 = 1.5 (Data provided)
W = Total dead weight of the structure = 10,000lb
(For 200 feet of pipe length)
V = 1 x 1 x 1.5 x 0.12 x 1.5 x 10000
V = 2700 lb

5.

Verification of seismic load from Code


To verify that the applied seismic loads are within the
limits as defined by the code, following equation is
used.[-]

7.

4.

Where

0.75& + * 

+

4"
'

6.

8.

Where

P = Internal Pressure, psi


Do = Out Side diameter of Pipe, in
t = nominal wall thickness, in
MA = Resultant moment due to loading on cross Section
due to weight and other sustained loads lb-in
MB = Resultant moment loading on cross section due to
occasional loads, psi
MB = x Z = 108.482 x 16.8 = 1822.5 psi
K= Constant factor depend on plant operation time

Using the values given specification.[-] for obtaining


the comparative results of seismic load,
193.7 8.625 0.75 1 32700 + 108.482 16.8
+
16.8
4 0.322

1.2 14400
2.838 x 103 < 17.280 x 103
It means that the pipe is safe by more 7 times than
allowable limits under the seismic loads.
5] CONCLUSION
Following conclusions are made from the analysis of
the designed system.
The designed pipe verified all the conditions
defined by the ASME Boiler and Pressure
Vessel code B31.1. Thickness and working
pressure calculated are in the safe limit.
Thermal, Seismic and Sustained analysis results
obtained are in the safe limits defined by the
Code.
The analysis shows that the complete system is
safe and the results are verified by manual
calculations and ANSYS software.
On the positive side of the manual calculations
lays the fact that it gives fully basic concept of
the piping system. While the assumptions made
during manual calculations make the results
slightly differ from the software results.
As for thermal analysis is concerned, guided
cantilever method was used and this proved to
be a useful tool for thermal stress loads
calculations.
To do seismic analysis by manual calculations
is really a tough job but static analysis method
was a handy tool to deal it
Int. J. Adv. Engg. Res. Studies/III/II/Jan.-March.,2014/108-113

9.

10.

11.
12.
13.

Study of dynamic response of piping system with


gasketed flanged joints using finite element analysis, G.
Mathan, N. Siva Prasad, International Journal of
Pressure Vessels and Piping, Available online 8
October 2011,
Stress analysis of non-uniform thickness piping system
with general piping analysis software, Ming Li,
Manohar Lal Agrawal, Nuclear Engineering & Design,
Volume 241, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 555-561
Finite element-based limit load of piping branch
junctions under combined loadings, Fu-Zhen Xuan, PeiNing Li, Nuclear Engineering and Design, Volume 231,
Issue 2, June 2004, Pages 141-150,
The thermal and mechanical behavior of structural steel
piping, F.J.M.Q. de Melo, C.A.M. Oliveira,
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping,
Volume 82, Issue 2, February 2005, Pages 145-15,
E.M.M. Fonseca,
Flexibility analysis of the vessel-piping interface,
Martin M. Schwarz, International Journal of Pressure
Vessels and Piping, Volume 81, Issue 2, February 2004,
Pages 181-189
Optimization for pressure vessel and piping design,
Design & Analysis, Volume 1, 1989, Page 601D.E.
Dietrich, J.A. Swanson,
Calculation of equivalent static loads and its
application, Nuclear Engineering and Design, Volume
235, Issue 22, November 2005, Pages 2337-234, WooSeok Choi, K.B. Park, G.J. Park
Design of a steam-heated sterilizer based on finite
element method stress analysis, R.M. Natal Jorge, A.A.
Fernandes, International Journal of Pressure Vessels
and Piping, Volume 78, Issue 9, September 2001, Pages
627-63,
Piping seismic adequacy criteria recommendations
based on performance during earthquakes, Nuclear
Engineering and Design, Volume 107, Issues 12, April
1988, Pages 155-160, G.S. Hardy, P.D. Smith, Y.K.
Tang
Experimental stress analysis at reactor and plant
components using hard- and software, H. Joas, Nuclear
Engineering and Design, Volume 87, July 1985, Pages
415-424,
The American Society of Mechanical engineers, ASME
B31.1-2001 Power piping, revised edition
Sam Kannappan, Introduction to Pipe Stress Analysis,
John Wiley & Sons, USA, 1986. Pages 23-67,
Mohinder L. Nayyar, Piping Hand Book, 7th Edition,
McGraw-Hill, Inc. Singapore, 2000.