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Research Paper

ANALYSIS FOR OPTIMUM WEIGHT & THERMAL

EFFECTIVENESS

1

ME- Mech Product Design and Development- pursuing, D.K.T.Es Textile and Engineering Institute,

Ichalkaranji, Kolhapur

2

Mechanical Department, D.K.T.Es Textile and Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji, Kolhapur

3

Director-Able Technologies India Pvt. Ltd., Pune

ABSTRACT

This report is about the design of steam piping and its stress analysis of a given process flow diagram. The prime objective

of this project is to design the piping system and then to analyze its main components. Wall thicknesses are calculated for all

pipes which were found very safe for the operating pressure. For header pipe the calculated wall thickness is 3.54 mm and

the standard minimum wall thickness is 8.18 mm which is greater than the calculated one by more than 2.3 times. Different

loads such as static loads, occasional loads and thermal loads of all pipes were also calculated. After load calculations,

spacing of supports and designing of expansion loops were carried out. Thermal, static and seismic analysis of main system

pipe has been done and results were compared with ASME Power Piping Code B31.1. After calculation of all applied loads,

pipe components were designed and analyzed both manually and on ANSYS software. The results obtained from both

methods were compared and found safe under available applied loads.

Considering the mathematical model for the piping design, the calculations might suggest an under-designed system vis-vis the relevant CODE. Though, a certain standard exists for a given application, there is enough room to explore the

optimization of design since the projects associated with piping are normally associated with a high quantum of purchase

running in several million rupees to a few billion! Any attempt to rationalize the design would directly improve the savings

for the budgetary outlay for the project work while ensuring safety and addressing concerns for potential claims arising due

to accidents or malfunction of the system.

KEYWORDS- Piping Engineering, Design, Stress Analysis, Expansion loops, CAE software (Ansys)

1] INTRODUCTION

Pipes are the most delicate components in any

process plant. They are also the busiest entities. They

are subjected to almost all kinds of loads, intentional

or unintentional. It is very important to take note of

all potential loads that a piping system would

encounter during operation as well as during other

stages in the life cycle of a process plant. If we ignore

any such load while designing, erecting, hydrotesting, start-up shut-down, normal operation,

maintenance etc, It can lead to inadequate design and

engineering of a piping system. The system may fail

on the first occurrence of this overlooked load.

Failure of a piping system may trigger a Domino

effect and cause a major disaster. Stress analysis and

safe design normally require appreciation of several

related concepts. An approximate list of the steps that

would be involved is as follows.

1. Identify potential loads that would come on

to the pipe or piping system during its entire

life.

2. Relate each one of these loads to the stresses

and strains that would be developed in the

crystals/grains

of

the

Material

of

Construction (MoC) of the piping system.

3. Decide the worst three dimensional stress

state that the MoC can withstand without

failure

loads on the 3-D stress scenario in the piping

system under consideration.

5. Alter piping system design to ensure that the

stress pattern is within failure limits.

The goal of quantification and analysis of pipe

stresses is to provide safe design through the above

steps. There could be several designs that could be

safe. A piping engineer would have a lot of scope to

choose from such alternatives, the one which is most

economical, or most suitable etc. Good piping system

design is always a mixture of sound knowledge base

in the basics and a lot of ingenuity.

Piping System design and analysis is a very

important field in any process and power industry.

Piping system is analogous to blood circulating

system in human body and is necessary for the life of

the plant. The steam piping system, mentioned in the

project will be used for supplying steam to different

locations at designed temperature and pressure. This

piping system is one of the major requirements of the

plant to be installed.

2] PIPING SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURES

The following are the steps which need to be

completed in mechanical design of any piping

system.

Int. J. Adv. Engg. Res. Studies/III/II/Jan.-March.,2014/108-113

More et al., International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN22498974

1 Process Design

This process is based on the requirement of the

process variables. It defines the required length &

cross sectional area of pipe, the properties of fluid

inside the pipe, nature & rate of flow in it. These

variables affect the positioning and placements of

equipments during lay outing and routing. The

operating and design working conditions are clearly

defined. The end of Process Plan Design is the

creation of a Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and

Process & Instrumental diagram (P&ID), which are

used in the designing & lay outing of the Pipe.

2 Piping Structural Design

In piping structural design, according to pressure in

pipelines, the design and minimum allowable

thicknesses are calculated; according to the required

codes and standards. ASME codes for various

standards are available, for process fluid flow, ASME

B31.1 (Code for power/steam piping) is used. In the

structural design of pipes, when all the loads are

calculated then the required span is also calculated

for supporting the pipes.

ASME B31.1 covers the minimum requirements for

the design, materials, fabrication, erection, testing,

and inspection of power and auxiliary service piping

systems for electric generation stations, industrial

institutional plants, and central and district heating

plants. The code also covers external piping for

power boilers and high temperature, high-pressure

water boilers in which steam or vapor is generated at

a pressure of more than 15psig and high-temperature

water is generated at pressures exceeding 160 psig or

temperatures exceeding 250F. This code is typically

used for the transportation of steam or water under

elevated temperatures and pressure as mentioned

above, so this is the reason that why this code is

selected for the steam piping system which is

external to the boiler.

Boiler outlet section of the steam system comes

under the category of ASME Code B31.1 Power

piping. In order to ensure the safety of the piping

system, code requirements should be fully satisfied.

For different loads this code incorporates different

relationships for stress level as given below .[]

A] Stresses due to sustained loadings

The effects of the pressure, weight, and other

sustained loads must meet the requirements of the

following equation.

=

Where

.

1.0

Do = Outside diameter of Pipe, mm

t = nominal wall thickness, mm

Z = Section modulus of pipe, mm

=Resultant moment due to loading on cross section due

to weight and other sustained loads, Nmm

= Sum of the longitudinal stresses due to pressure, wt &

the sustained loads

= Basic material allowable stress at design pressure, kPa

The effects of pressure, weight, and occasional loads

(earthquake) must meet the requirements of the

following equation.

10000.75& 10000.75&(

+

+

)

4"#

'

'

Where

occasional loads, Nmm

Int. J. Adv. Engg. Res. Studies/III/II/Jan.-March.,2014/108-113

rest of the terms are same to above equation.

The effects of thermal expansion must meet the

following equation.

1000&(

+ +

'

Where

f = Stress range reduction factor

( = Range of resultant moment due to thermal expansion,

N-mm

= Allowable stress range for expansion kPa; The rest of

the terms are same to above equation.

There are various failure modes which could affect a

piping system. The piping engineer can provide

protection against some of these failure modes by

performing stress analysis according to the piping

codes. Protection against other failure modes is

provided by methods other than stress analysis. For

example, protection against brittle fracture is

provided by material selection. The piping codes

address the following failure modes, excessive plastic

deformation, plastic instability or incremental

collapse, and high-strainlow-cycle fatigue. Each of

these modes of failure is caused by a different kind of

stress and loading. It is necessary to place these

stresses into different categories and set limits to

them. The major stress categories are primary,

secondary, and peak. The limits of these stresses are

related to the various failure modes as follows.

Primary Stress

The primary stress limits are intended to prevent

plastic deformation and bursting. Primary stresses

which are developed by the imposed loading are

necessary to satisfy the equilibrium between external

and internal forces and moments of the piping

system. Primary stresses are not self-limiting.

Therefore, if a primary stress exceeds the yield

strength of the material through the entire cross

section of the piping, then failure can be prevented

only by strain hardening in the material. Thermal

stresses are never classified as primary stresses. They

are placed in both the secondary and peak stress

categories. Primary stresses are the membrane, shear

or bending stress resulting from imposed loadings

which satisfy the simple laws of equilibrium of

internal and external forces and moments as arranged

in table below;

Table 1 Primary stress of pipes

strength of the piping material will result in gross

distortion or failure.

Secondary Stress

The primary plus secondary stress limits are intended

to prevent excessive plastic deformation leading to

incremental collapse. Secondary stresses are

developed by the constraint of displacements of a

structure. These displacements can be caused either

by thermal expansion or by outwardly imposed

restraint and anchor point movements. Under this

loading condition, the piping system must satisfy an

imposed strain pattern rather than be in equilibrium

More et al., International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN22498974

distortions of the piping system tend to relieve these

stresses. Therefore, secondary stresses are selflimiting.

Secondary stresses are self equilibrium stresses

which are necessary to satisfy the continuity of forces

within a structure. As contrasted with stresses from

sustained loads, secondary stresses are not a source of

direct failure in ductile with only a single application

of load. If the stresses exceed the material yield

strength, they cause local deformation which result in

a redistribution of the loading and upper limit of the

stress in the operating condition. If the applied load is

cyclic, however these stresses constitute a potential

source of fatigue failure e.g. the secondary stresses

due to different type of loads are given below

Table 2 Secondary stresses of pipes

Piping codes ASME B31.1 Paragraph 104.1.2 require

that the minimum thickness tm including the

allowance for mechanical strength, shall not be less

than the thickness calculated using Equation.[-] "/ =

+8

-1234567

Where

t = pressure design thickness, mm

P = internal pressure, kPa

D: = outside diameter of pipe, mm

S = allowable stress at design temperature (known as hot

stress), kPa

A = allowance, additional thickness to provide for material

removed in threading, corrosion or erosion allowance;

manufacturing tolerance (MT) should also be considered.

Y = coefficient that takes material properties and design

temperature into account. For temperature below

900F, 0.4 may be assumed.

E< = quality factor.

The allowable working pressure of a pipe can

be determined by Equation.[-] =

-1234 7

=-6

Where

t = specified wall thickness or actual wall thickness

in mm. For bends the minimum wall thickness after

bending should not be less than the minimum

required for straight pipe.

iii) Sustained Load Calculations

Sustained loads are those loads which are caused by

mechanical forces and these loads are present

throughout the normal operation of the piping

system. These loads include both weight and pressure

loadings. The support must be capable of holding the

entire weight of the system, including that of that of

the pipe, insulation, fluid components, and the

support

K

F

GHIIJ - -

KL

4

F

K

Fluid Weight = G QJRS

4

KL

Pipe Weight =

Where

K

KL

Di = Inside diameter of pipe, mm

t = Insulation Thickness depend on the NPS, mm

g = Acceleration due to gravity, m/sec

Int. J. Adv. Engg. Res. Studies/III/II/Jan.-March.,2014/108-113

GHIIJ = Density of steel, kg/mm

GQJRS = Density of water, kg/mm

Gb#HRJc # = Density of Insulation, kg/mm

insulation of the pipe.

iv) Wind Load Calculations

Wind load like dead weight, is a uniformly

distributed load which act along the entire length or

portion of the piping system which is exposed to

air.[d]

For standard air, the expression for the wind dynamic

pressure is given below:

= 0.00256 g h

And to calculate the wind dynamic load (lb/ft), the

following expression is used:

i = 0.000213 g h

Where

P = Dynamic pressure, kg/cm

V = basic wind speed, miles/hr

CD = Drag co-efficient, dimensionless, CD can be

calculated using table and the following equation;

R = 780 V D

R = Reynolds number

F = Linear dynamic pressure loading (kg/cm)

D = Pipe Diameter (cm)

All pipes will be installed at ambient temperature. If

pipes carrying hot fluids such steam, then they

expand, especially in length, with an increase from

ambient to working temperatures. This will create

stress upon certain areas within the distribution

system, such as pipe joints, which, in the extreme,

could fracture. The amount of the expansion is

readily calculated using the following expression.[]

Expansion mm = n o q

Where

q = Temperature difference between ambient and

operating Temperatures (C)

= Expansion coefficient (mm/mC) 10

Occasional load will subject a piping system to

horizontal loads as well as vertical loads, Where as

sustained loads are normally only vertical (weight).

There are different types of occasional loads that act

over a piping system but for our analysis we will use

wind loads and seismic loads.[d]

vii) Seismic Loads

Earthquake loads are of two major types

Operation Based Earthquake Load

Safe Shutdown Earthquake Load

Piping systems and components are designed to

withstand two levels of site dependent hypothetical

earthquakes, the safe shut down earthquake and the

operational basis earthquake. Their magnitudes are

expressed in terms of the gravitational g. There

motions are assumed to occur in three orthogonal

directions, one vertical and two horizontal directions.

Earthquake loads can either be calculated by dynamic

Analysis or static Analysis. In Dynamic analysis

frequency response of the system is used to calculate

the Earthquake load whereas in Static Analysis, these

loads are taken to be some factor of the Pipe Dead

load.[d]

3] PIPE DESIGN CALCULATIONS

In this chapter piping thickness as well as all the

basic loads are calculated and the characteristics are

also given below.

More et al., International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN22498974

Design Parameters

As already sizing of this piping system has been done

and the available information are;

Number of pipes = 48

Number of junctions = 49

Wind Velocity = 100 miles/hr

for the beam solved

required & Standard thickness

Fig.4-2 Bending Moment Diagram

Operating pressure

available & with reference to ASME B31.1 code.

After calculation, following graphical relation (Fig.

3-1, 3-2 & 3-3) & Structural load calculations have

been found for steam piping system.[][]

From these three graph, It is found that standard

minimum pipe wall thickness is almost greater than

2.4 times than actual rquired. And all the allowable

pressures are greater than the operating pressure by

more than 4 times. So that it is concluded from above

table that all the pipes are safe under applied

pressure.

Minimum Pipe supporting span length is also greater

than that of standard length as per CODE. Hence,

piping system can be say safe based on standard

support

lb-in at x = 799.92 in

Verification of static load from Code

The effects of the pressure, weight, & other sustained

loads must meet the requirements of the following

equation.[r]

10000.75&

+

1.0

4"#

'

193.7 8.625 0.75 1 32700

+

1.0 14400

4 0.322

16.8

=

2.75 x 103 < 14.4 x 103

Piping Analysis on ANSYS

Analysis was performed for the pipe in ANSYS for

using the data.

Element type = Beam 3

Material properties

Modulus of Elasticity = 27.5 Mpsi

Poisons Ratio = 0.283

Density = 0.283 lb/in3

Type of Loads

Code requirement

4] ANALYSIS:

Thermal, static and seismic loads on pipes and their

analysis along with verification from the code have

been done []

A. STATIC LOAD ANALYSIS

cFor Static loads calculation, considering again same

pipe line and taking its section up to first vertical leg

of the expansion loop. This pipe is to be considering

as a straight beam with uniformly distributed load

(beam) and taking its specification.[r]

As this pipe section is considered as straight beam

with one anchor support & four vertical restraints, so

there are five unknowns in this problem. For solving

this problem, singularity method has been followed

Int. J. Adv. Engg. Res. Studies/III/II/Jan.-March.,2014/108-113

More et al., International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN22498974

E = Modulus of Elasticity, psi

I = Section modulus, in

pipe:# =

~

DOF constrained at the start.

Gravity = 9.81(386.22 in/sec2)

Final Meshing = 96 elements for total length of the

beam (22 elements for first four each sections and 8

elements for the last section. Refining the mesh from

24 elements up to 96 elements but there is no change

found in deformation values and bending moment

values).

Comparison of static load Analysis

The maximum deflections and bending moment

values obtained from both methods are arranged in

below Table-4

Table-3 Comparison of analysis for beam

ANSYS, the difference in maximum deflection is

6.4% where on the other hand the difference in the

max. Bending moment is 1.35%. Deformation is less

than 0.1 inch and also the maximum bending stress is

1947.55 psi which is quite less than the allowable

stress of the pipe

B. THERMAL ANALYSIS

Based on spacing calculated above considering

header pipe P-208 of length segment 200ft.At both

side of this expansion loop there are anchor supports

and eight guided supports equally spaced at length

22.22 ft. This expansion loop will be further analyzed

for thermal and static loads.[]

Where

n = Displacement absorbed by leg n, in

Ln = length of leg n, ft

Li = length of each leg resisting specified displacement, ft

T = Total displacement to be absorbed, in

then taking its half symmetry for analysis by

assuming the pipe segments to be straight and acts

just a cantilever beam. As shown in figure the header

pipe no. 208 has been divided into different sections.

As this pipe has two main sections, one is the main

line and the other is vertical leg which is

perpendicular to the main line, so the nomenclature

of the piping section as given below:

Main line including the segments A-B, B-C, C-D, DE = 22.22 ft, E-F= 7.1 ft

As per above methodology, all resultant loads are

found as table.

Table-4 Summary of all Loads due to Thermal

expansion

The effects of thermal expansion must meet the

following equation.

+ +

support in one line

Methodology

For thermal analysis in pipes we will use method of

guided cantilever method, in which thermal load

and moments will be calculated as given

Below

12 | Y

o

6|Y

Moment M =

o

Thermal Load F =

4.032 x 10 < 34.502 x 10

The value obtained from the above equation show

that that the maximum moment due to thermal

expansion will produce no disturbance, if an

expansion loop is used for 200ft length of pipe.

C. SEISMIC LOADS CALCULATIONS

For a system seismic supports designed in the rigid

range, the designed load for a system decreases. For

such a system the seismic stress and load are given

below.[d][-]

Seismic stress

A simplified seismic analysis can be done by

assuming the simple beam formulas and the load is to

be most often considering in the lateral directions of

the pipe. Seismic stress based on seismic acceleration

is calculated as follows.

.

Where

o = 0.75 & 12

1.5

8'

G = seismic acceleration in gs = 0.15 (Data provided)

I = stress Intensification factor for straight pipe = 1.00

Where

= Thermal Expansion, in

L = Length of segment under observation, in

Int. J. Adv. Engg. Res. Studies/III/II/Jan.-March.,2014/108-113

[r]

For seismic lateral load based on static analysis is to

be used to evaluate power piping.

More et al., International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN22498974

statically applied uniform load equivalent to the site

dependent earth-quake acceleration in each of the

three orthogonal directions. For seismic lateral load

considering only in horizontal direction using

equation below

Where

g = ' Y h

REFERENCES:

1.

2.

Z = constant depend upon earth quake zone 0.5 up to 1.0 =

1(Assuming maximum)

I = Occupancy factor b/w 1.00 and 1.5 = 1 (Low occupancy

region)

1

h=

= 0.12

15q

3.

S = soil factor b/w 1 and 1.5 = 1.5 (Data provided)

W = Total dead weight of the structure = 10,000lb

(For 200 feet of pipe length)

V = 1 x 1 x 1.5 x 0.12 x 1.5 x 10000

V = 2700 lb

5.

To verify that the applied seismic loads are within the

limits as defined by the code, following equation is

used.[-]

7.

4.

Where

0.75& + *

+

4"

'

6.

8.

Where

Do = Out Side diameter of Pipe, in

t = nominal wall thickness, in

MA = Resultant moment due to loading on cross Section

due to weight and other sustained loads lb-in

MB = Resultant moment loading on cross section due to

occasional loads, psi

MB = x Z = 108.482 x 16.8 = 1822.5 psi

K= Constant factor depend on plant operation time

the comparative results of seismic load,

193.7 8.625 0.75 1 32700 + 108.482 16.8

+

16.8

4 0.322

1.2 14400

2.838 x 103 < 17.280 x 103

It means that the pipe is safe by more 7 times than

allowable limits under the seismic loads.

5] CONCLUSION

Following conclusions are made from the analysis of

the designed system.

The designed pipe verified all the conditions

defined by the ASME Boiler and Pressure

Vessel code B31.1. Thickness and working

pressure calculated are in the safe limit.

Thermal, Seismic and Sustained analysis results

obtained are in the safe limits defined by the

Code.

The analysis shows that the complete system is

safe and the results are verified by manual

calculations and ANSYS software.

On the positive side of the manual calculations

lays the fact that it gives fully basic concept of

the piping system. While the assumptions made

during manual calculations make the results

slightly differ from the software results.

As for thermal analysis is concerned, guided

cantilever method was used and this proved to

be a useful tool for thermal stress loads

calculations.

To do seismic analysis by manual calculations

is really a tough job but static analysis method

was a handy tool to deal it

Int. J. Adv. Engg. Res. Studies/III/II/Jan.-March.,2014/108-113

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

gasketed flanged joints using finite element analysis, G.

Mathan, N. Siva Prasad, International Journal of

Pressure Vessels and Piping, Available online 8

October 2011,

Stress analysis of non-uniform thickness piping system

with general piping analysis software, Ming Li,

Manohar Lal Agrawal, Nuclear Engineering & Design,

Volume 241, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 555-561

Finite element-based limit load of piping branch

junctions under combined loadings, Fu-Zhen Xuan, PeiNing Li, Nuclear Engineering and Design, Volume 231,

Issue 2, June 2004, Pages 141-150,

The thermal and mechanical behavior of structural steel

piping, F.J.M.Q. de Melo, C.A.M. Oliveira,

International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping,

Volume 82, Issue 2, February 2005, Pages 145-15,

E.M.M. Fonseca,

Flexibility analysis of the vessel-piping interface,

Martin M. Schwarz, International Journal of Pressure

Vessels and Piping, Volume 81, Issue 2, February 2004,

Pages 181-189

Optimization for pressure vessel and piping design,

Design & Analysis, Volume 1, 1989, Page 601D.E.

Dietrich, J.A. Swanson,

Calculation of equivalent static loads and its

application, Nuclear Engineering and Design, Volume

235, Issue 22, November 2005, Pages 2337-234, WooSeok Choi, K.B. Park, G.J. Park

Design of a steam-heated sterilizer based on finite

element method stress analysis, R.M. Natal Jorge, A.A.

Fernandes, International Journal of Pressure Vessels

and Piping, Volume 78, Issue 9, September 2001, Pages

627-63,

Piping seismic adequacy criteria recommendations

based on performance during earthquakes, Nuclear

Engineering and Design, Volume 107, Issues 12, April

1988, Pages 155-160, G.S. Hardy, P.D. Smith, Y.K.

Tang

Experimental stress analysis at reactor and plant

components using hard- and software, H. Joas, Nuclear

Engineering and Design, Volume 87, July 1985, Pages

415-424,

The American Society of Mechanical engineers, ASME

B31.1-2001 Power piping, revised edition

Sam Kannappan, Introduction to Pipe Stress Analysis,

John Wiley & Sons, USA, 1986. Pages 23-67,

Mohinder L. Nayyar, Piping Hand Book, 7th Edition,

McGraw-Hill, Inc. Singapore, 2000.

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