PDHPE Revision Stimulants are substances that increase the activity of the central nervous system.

Those stimulants that are legal include nicotine (found in tobacco products) and caffeine. Illegal stimulants include methamphetamine, cocaine and crack. Depressants are substances that slow the activity of the central nervous system. Legal depressants include alcohol and sleeping pills. Illegal depressants include heroin and morphine. Hallucinogens are substances that alter a persons' state of mind and mood. Examples include Acid and LSD. Effects Cannabis The immediate effects of low doses may include: • Loss of concentration • Slower reflexes Higher doses: • Confusion and anxiety • Detachment from reality Some of the long-term health effects for frequent and heavy cannabis users can include: • respiratory conditions • motivational changes • psychological effects Alcohol Alcohol at low doses relaxes the user and makes them more talkative and animated. Higher doses lead to slurred speech, loss of co-ordination, unsteadiness when standing or walking, impaired attention and judgement and sleepiness. Higher doses still lead to alcohol poisoning which can cause brain damage and death. Long-term effects of heavy alcohol use include loss of appetite, vitamin deficiencies, stomach ailments, sexual impotence, central nervous system damage, and memory loss. Ecstasy Immediate effects • increased heart rate, body temperature and blood pressure; • increased confidence; In greater quantities • convulsions (fits); • vomiting; Long term effects o Brain damage: Scientists have conducted research, which demonstrated that ecstasy damages nerve cells within the brains of rats and monkeys. * Psychosis: In Europe there have been reports of ecstasy use triggering psychosis. • Emotional Problems: People who use ecstasy in large amounts, frequently, or inject this drug report that they experience emotional problems such as panic attacks, paranoia, depression and deep anxiety. • Tolerance: Research suggests some users quickly build up a tolerance to ecstasy.

Speed Immediate effects: o Feel good and confident, heart beats faster o Excited or agitated, breathe faster Short term effects: o Get headaches o Feel dizzy, irregular heartbeat Long Term effects o Become dependant o Upset or depressed o Psychosis Definitions Binge Drinking: Drinking to intoxication. Drinking five or more drinks at a time is considered binge drinking. Drink Spiking: Drink spiking is when alcohol or another drug is added to your drink without you knowing. Influencing factors: factors that come into play when you are influenced to act upon an action. Strategies: A set of actions to be taken to finish an objective. Euphoria: feeling of well being. Affluent: well of financially, rich Prevalence: the measure of the proportion of the population affected with the specific case. Mortality: annual number of deaths Morbidity: The incidence of the disease in the population Epidemic: A widespread disease or outbreak where many people are affected at the same time Social Activities: activity considered appropriate on social occasions Prediction: a insight into the future/guessing the outcome of something Justification: a reason, fact, circumstance, or explanation that justifies or defends Promote: To encourage