Tobacco Prevalence o In 2004-05, 23% of adults were current smokers, about 3.5 million persons.

o 21% of adults reported being regular daily smokers (representing 92% of smokers), while 2% reported smoking less frequently than daily. o 30% of adults reported being ex-smokers and 47% reported never smoking regularly Death Rates 15% of all deaths (approximately 19,000 deaths) were due to tobacco smoking in 1998. Most of these deaths (around 14,800) occurred at older ages, but a substantial number (around 4,200) occurred at ages under 65 years. Morbidity Overall, only 45% of current smokers reported very good or excellent health, compared to 57% of ex-smokers and 60% of those who reported never smoking

Smokers also reported higher levels of psychological distress. About 20% of current smokers reported high or very high levels of psychological distress, compared to only 10% of those who had never smoked, after adjusting for age differences. Smokers had higher levels of respiratory disease than those who had never smoked. For example, 4% of current smokers reported bronchitis and 11% reported asthma, after adjusting for age differences. Corresponding proportions for those who never smoked were lower at 2% and 9% respectively.

Alcohol Prevalence While the majority of adults reported drinking alcohol in the week before the NHS interview (62%), about one in every eight adults drank at a risky/high risk level . This represents 13% of all adults, or approximately 2.0 million persons in 2004-05. 78% of those who drank alcohol in the week before the survey, did so at a low health risk level. Mortality Alcohol is the second largest cause of drug-related deaths and hospitalisations in Australia (after tobacco) Alcohol is the main cause of deaths on Australian roads. In 1998, over 2,000 deaths of the total 7,000 deaths of persons under 65 years, were related to alcohol

Morbidity Drinking heavily over a long period of time can cause harm to a person's brain and liver functioning and contribute to depression, relationship difficulties and hence quality of life. It can also increase the risk of developing cancer, cirrhosis of the liver, cognitive problems, dementia and alcohol dependence. High risk consumption of alcohol is strongly associated with oral, throat and oesophageal cancer Drinking alcohol increases the risk of breast cancer among females Heroin Prevalence According to the 1998 survey, the number of recent users of heroin was estimated at around 113,000 persons, or 0.8% of the total Australian population aged 14 years and over The survey further showed that: • Males were twice as likely to be recent heroin users as females. • Among the youngest age group (aged 14–19 years), females were twice as likely to report being a recent user compared with males. • Among those aged 30 years and over, as age increased, the reporting of heroin use decreased. Mortality