Maharaja Institute of Technology

Security and ethical Challenges

Ethical Responsibility of Business Professionals As a business professional, you have a responsibility to promote ethical use of information technology in the work place, whether you have managerial responsibility or not, you should accept the ethical responsibilities that come with your work activities. That includes properly performing your rule as a vital human resource in the business systems you help develop & use in your organization. As a Manager,

it will be your responsibility to make decisions about business activities and the use of information technologies which may have an ethical dimension that must be considered. For example, Should you electronically monitor your employee’s work activities & electronic mail? Should you let employees use their work computers for private business or take home copies of s/w for their personal use ? etc.

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MIT- Maharaja Institute of Technology

Maharaja Institute of Technology
Security and ethical Challenges

There are a few examples of the types of decisions you will have to make that have a controversial ethical dimension.

Technological Ethics: Another important ethical dimension deals specifically with the ethics of the use of any form of technology. Ethical Principles to help evaluate the Potential harms or risks of the Use of new technologies Proportionality : The good achieved by the technology must out weigh the harm/risk. Moreover, there must be no alternative that achieves the same or comparable benefit with less harm or risk. Informed consent : Those affected by the technology should understand & accept the risks.

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MIT- Maharaja Institute of Technology

Maharaja Institute of Technology
Security and ethical Challenges

Justice : The benefit & burdens of the technology should be distributed fairly. Those who benefit should bear their fair share of the risks & those who do not benefit should not suffer a significant increase in risk.

Minimized Risk: Even if judged acceptable by the other 3 guidelines, the technology must be implemented so as to avoid all unnecessary risk. These principles can serve as basic ethical requirements that co., should meet to help ensure the ethical implementation of Information Technology & Information systems in business. Computer Crime: Cyber crime is becoming one of the Net’s growth businesses. Today, criminals are doing everything from dealing intellectual property & committing fraud to unleashing viruses & committing acts of cyber terrorism.

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MIT- Maharaja Institute of Technology

Maharaja Institute of Technology
Security and ethical Challenges

Computer crime is a growing threat to society caused by the criminals who are taking advantage of the widespread use & vulnerability of computers & the Internet & other networks. Cyber crime is defined by the Association of IT professional as including
1)

The unauthorized use, access, modification & destruction of hardware, software, data or network resources.

2)
3) 4)

The unauthorized release of information The unauthorized copying of s/w. Denying an end user access to his / her own H/w, S/w data or network resource &

5)

Using or conspiring to use computer or network resource to illegally obtain information or tangible property.

Hacking: Cyber ethics have at their fingertips a dozen dangerous look, from “Scans” that ferret out weakness in website S/w program to “Sniffer” that match password

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MIT- Maharaja Institute of Technology

Maharaja Institute of Technology
Security and ethical Challenges

Hacking in computer is the obsessive use of computer or the unauthorized access & use of networked computer systems. One of the issues in hacking is what to do about a hacker, who commit only electronic breaking & entering that is, gets access to a computer system, ready some files, but neither steals nor damages, anything. This situation & common computer crime cases that are prosecuted.

Hackers can monitor e-mail, web serves access of file transfers to extract passwords of steal network files or to plant data that will cause a system to welcome intruders Telnet, an internet tool for interactive use of remote computer can help hackers discourse information to plan other attacks. Hackers have use telnet to access a computers e-mail part. Thats why internet security measures like encryption & firewall, as discussed once, to vital to the access of electronic commerce & other ebusiness application. Examples of common hacking tactics to assault co., through the Internet & other networks

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MIT- Maharaja Institute of Technology

Maharaja Institute of Technology
Security and ethical Challenges

1.

Logic Bombs:

As instruction is a computer program that

triggers a malicious act.
2.

Password crackers: S/w that can guess password

Cyber Theft: Many computer crimes involve the theft of money. In the majority of cases, they are “inside job” that involves unauthorized network entry of fraudulent alteration of computer data base to cover the task of the employees involved. In most cases, the scope of financial losses is much larger than the incidents reported. Most co., don’t reveal that they have been target or victims of the computer crime. They fear scaring off customer & provoking complaints by share holders. Unauthorized use at work: The unauthorized use of computer system & network can be called “ times & resource theft” A common example is unauthorized use of co., owned computer network by employee. This may range from doing Pvt., counseling or personal finances, or playing video games. Network monitoring S/w

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MIT- Maharaja Institute of Technology

Maharaja Institute of Technology
Security and ethical Challenges

called sniffer, is frequently used to monitor network traffic to evaluate network capacity, as well as reveal evidence of improper use. S/w Piracy: Computer programs are valuable property & these are the subjects of theft from computer system. However, unauthorized copying of S/w or software piracy is also a major form of S/w theft. Unauthorized copying is illegal because software is intellectual property that is protected by copy right law & well licensing agreement. For eg. In US, commercial S/w packages are protected by the computer S/w piracy and counter feiting amendment to the federal copy right act. The alternatives are “Share wave”, which allows you to make copies of S/w for others & “Public domain S/w” which is not copy righted. Piracy of intellectual property:S/w is the only property subject to computer based piracy. Other

intellectual property in the form of copy righted material, such as music, videos, images, articles, books and other written works are especially

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Maharaja Institute of Technology
Security and ethical Challenges

vulnerable to copyright infringement, which most courts have deemed illegal. Digitized version can easily be captured by computer system and made available for people to access to download at internet websites, or can be readily disseminated by e-mail or attachments. For eg. P2P file sharing S/w enables direct MP3 audio file transfer of specified tracks of music between your PC and those of the other uses on the internet. Thus, such S/w creates a Peer – to- peer network of millions of internet users who electronically trade digital version of copy righted or public domain sevice stored on their PC’s hard drive.

Privacy Issues:It makes it technically & economically – feasible to collect, store, integrate, interchange & retriever data & information quickly & easily. The characteristic has an important beneficial effect on the efficiency & effectiveness of computer based information system. However, the

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Maharaja Institute of Technology
Security and ethical Challenges

power of I.T. to store retrieve information can have a negative effect on the “right to privacy” of every individual. Important privacy issues are being debated in business & govt. an internet technologies accelerate the ubiquity of global telecommunication connection in business & society. Example :
1) Accruing individual’s Pvt., e-mail conversation & computer records

& collecting and sharing information about individuals gained from their visits to internet websites and new groups (violation of privacy)
2) Always knowing where a person & especially a mobile & paging

service becomes more closely associated with people rather than place (computer monitoring ) 3) Using customer information gained from many sources to market additional business services (computer marketing)

4) Collecting telephone Nos., E-mail address, credit card Nos., & other

personal

information

to

build

individual

customer

profile

(unauthorized personal files)

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MIT- Maharaja Institute of Technology

Maharaja Institute of Technology
Security and ethical Challenges

Business ethics: is concerned with the numerous ethical questions that managers meet confront a part of their daily business decision making. Basic categories of ethical business issues, it has caused ethical controversy in the areas of intellectual property rights, customer & employee privacy, security of co., information and workplace safety.

Equity

Rights

Honesty Employee conflict of internet Security of Co., information

Executive Corporate due salaries process comparable with employee health product pricing screening intellectual customer privacy

Exercise of process corporate Product safety environmental issue disagreement corporate

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Maharaja Institute of Technology
Security and ethical Challenges

Property Rights Non competition agreement

Employee Privacy Sexual harassment affirmation action equal employment opportunity. Sharer holder interest employment at will whistle – blowing

Inappropriate Gfte advertising content. Govt. contract issue. Financial and cash Mgt procedures questionable business practices in foreign country

Contribution Social issues raised by religious organizations plant or facility clourers and downsizing political action committee. Work place safety

The above table outlines some of the basic categories of ethical issues & specific business practice that have serious ethical consequences. Notice that the issues of intellectual property rights, customer & employee privacy, security of co., records and work place safety are highlighted because they have been major areas of ethical controversy in I.T. Internet privacy: If you don’t take the proper precaution, any time you send an e-mail, access a website, post a message to a new group, or use the internet for banking and shopping. Whether you are online for business or pleasure,

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Maharaja Institute of Technology
Security and ethical Challenges

you’re vulnerable to anyone bent on collecting data about you without your knowledge.

Fortunately, by using tool like encryption & anonymous remailers & by being selective about the sites you visit and the information you provide you can minimize, if not completely eliminate the risk of your piracy being violated. The internet is notorious for giving its users a feeling of anonymity, when its actuality, they are highly visible & open to violation of their privacy. Of course, you can protect your privacy in several ways. For eg: Sensitive e-mail can be protected by encryption of both e-mail parties use compatible encryption S/w built into there e-mail program. Finally, you can decline to several personal data & internet on online service & website user profile to limit your exposure to electronic whooping. CHALLENGES IN WORKING CONDITIONS:

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Maharaja Institute of Technology
Security and ethical Challenges

It has eliminated monotonous tasks in the office & the factory that formerly had to be performed by people. For eg: word processing and desktop publishing make producing office document a lot easier to do, while robot have taken over repetitive welding and spray painting jobs in the automotive industry. Thus, it can be said to upgrade the quality of work being it can upgrade the quality of working conditions and the content of work activities. It must be remembered that some jobs in IT data entry are quite repetitive and routine. Many automated operations are also criticized for relegrating people to a “do-nothing” standby role, where workers spend most of their time waiting for infrequent opportunities to push some buttons. Such effects do have a determinate effect on the quality of work, but they must be compared to the less burdensome & more creative jobs created by I.T. CHALLENGES TO INDIVIDUALITY A frequent criticism of information systems concerns their negative effect in the individuality of people, computer based systems are

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Security and ethical Challenges

criticized an impersonal systems that dehumanize & depersonalize activities that have been computerized, since they eliminate the human relationships present in non-computer systems.

Another aspect of the loss of individuality in the regimentation of the individual that seems to be required by some computer based systems. However, many business applications of IT are designed to minimize depersonalization and regimentation For eg: Many e-commerce systems are designed to stress

personalization & community features to encourage repeated visits to ecommerce websites. Thus, the widespread use of the personal

computers & the Internet has dramatically improved the development of people oriented & personalized information systems. HEALTH ISSUES: The use of IT in the work place raises a variety of health issues. Heavy use of computer is reportedly causing health problems like job stress, damaged arm and neck muscles etc.

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Maharaja Institute of Technology
Security and ethical Challenges

For eg: Computer monitoring in balanced as a major cause of computer related job stress. Workers, unions & govt. officials criticize computer monitoring as putting so much stress on employee that it leads to health problems.

Some pregnant workers have reported miscarriages & fetal deformities due to prolonged exposure to CRT’s at work. However, several studies have failed to find conclusive evidence concerning this problem, still, several problems recommend that female workers minimize their use of CRTs during pregnancy. Social Issues:As we have discussed in the beginning of the chapter, the internet & other ITs can have many beneficial effects on society. We can use IT’s to solve human & social problems such as medical diagnosis, govts. Program planning etc. For eg: Computers can help diagnose an illness, prescribe necessary treatment & monitor the progress of hospital patients. Computer

assisted Instruction (CAI) and computer based training (CBT) enable

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Maharaja Institute of Technology
Security and ethical Challenges

interactive instruction tailored to the needs of students. Distance learning is supported by telecommunications networks, video

conferencing, e-mail & other technologies. IT’s can be used for crime control through various law enforcement applications.

For eg: Computerized alarm systems allow police to identify & quickly respond to evidences of criminal activity. It should be obvious to you that many of the detrimental effects of IT are caused by individuals or organization that are not accepting the ethical responsibility for their actions. Like other powerful technologies, IT possess the potential for great harm or pool for all human kind. If managers, business professional & IS specialists accept their ethical responsibilities, then IT can help make this world a better place for us.

ERGONOMICS:

Solutions to some of these health problems are based on the science of “ergonomics “sometimes called “Human factor engineering”. The goal

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Maharaja Institute of Technology
Security and ethical Challenges

of this is to design healthy work environment that are safe, comfortable & pleasant for people to work in, thus increasing employee morale & productivity. Ergonomics stresses on the healthy design of work place and even S/w package. other health issues may require ergonomics solutions emphasis job design rather than work place design.

For eg: This may require policies providing for work breaks from heavy use every hour, while limiting the CRT exposure of pregnant workers. Ergonomic job design can also provide more variety in job tasks for those workers who spend most of their work day at computer work stations.

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MIT- Maharaja Institute of Technology

Maharaja Institute of Technology
Security and ethical Challenges

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