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covered by something else

put a jacket over your shirt

meaning more than

over 16 years of age

getting to the other side (also across)

walk over the bridge

overcoming an obstacle

climb over the wall

something with limits on top, bottom and the

drive through the tunnel


enter a room / a building

go into the kitchen / the



out of

getting to the other side (also over)

walk across the bridge

getting to the other side

swim across the lake

leaving a car / Taxi

get out of the taxi

note: The words "past" and "passed" sound exactly the same, and they are sometimes used in similar ways. For example:

She is past the age of retirement. ("Past" is used as a preposition to indicate the passage of time.)

She has passed the age of retirement. (The verb "pass" is in the form of the present participle in the present
perfect tense.)

He got the ball past the goalkeeper. (The word "past" is used as a preposition along with the verb "get.")

The ball passed by the goalkeeper. (The verb "pass" is in the past tense in this sentence.)

9. The main objective in

soccer is to get the ball past
your opponents and into the

1. They took a walk past the

park, but they didn't go there.

2. He drove his car past the

mountains on his way to the

3. If you go past the store,

could you please stop and
get some tomatoes?

She's walking down the steps.

(note: the word "steps" is
preferred over "stairs" in this
case because the location is

2. They're canoeing down the


There's a beautiful building

along the river.
(note: You could also say, "by
the river," "on the river,"
"beside the river," or
"alongside the river." The best
choice here, in my opinion is
"along the river.")

2. These trees are lined up

along the road.

. The sign along the highway

tells drivers the name of the
highway and the distance to
the next couple of towns.

The word "along" is added to many different verbs to make a verb phrase: "get along," "take along," and "bring along" are
a few examples:

He gets along with his coworkers. (get along = have a good relationship.

You should take an umbrella along with you. It might rain. (take along = carry something)

She brought her little brother along to the party. (bring along = accompany; take something or someone with-this is very similar to "take along.")

They're traveling up the


2. You need to walk up the

stairs to get to the temple.

3. The arrow on this sign

points up.

He's walking through a

revolving door.
(Click here to see how I make
this word. You must put your
tongue to your teeth to make
the "th" sound.)

. Buses and cars drive

through the city.

4. She rode through the

forest on her horse.

5. The sun is peeking

through the clouds.

6. I ride my bike through this

tunnel almost every day.

The cow jumped over the

("over" is similar to
"above" but it's used with
words that express
movement like "go," "run,"
"fly," "throw," etc.)

2. A rainbow appeared
over the horizon when the
sun came out.

1. Throw the can into the

recycling bin.

2. These animals are headed

into the water for some relief
from the heat.

3. She's diving into the water.

4. This road leads into the


Around Halloween, many

people carve pumpkins into

7. They're very into new music.

They're also very into each
(When used as an idiom, "into"
means "to like." I'm into
rock'n'roll. She's into yoga.
We're into Indian food.)

along 1 /l / ||/l/ adverbio


(forward): it's a bit further ~ on the right est un poco ms adelante, a mano derecha;
I was walking ~ iba caminando;
see also come, get, move etc along


(with one): why don't you come ~? por qu no vienes conmigo/con nosotros?;
she brought her brother ~ trajo a su hermano;
take an umbrella ~ llvate un paraguas;
see also sing along


(in phrases)


along with (junto) con


along about (AmE colloq): ~ about five o'clock a eso de or como a las cinco
along 2 preposicin:we walked ~ the shore caminamos por la playa;
all ~ the coastline a lo largo de la costa;
a bit further ~ the road un poco ms adelante
Diccionario Espasa Concise 2000 Espasa Calpe:
along ['l]


adverbio you can come along with me, puedes acompaarme

the bus will be along at eight o'clock, el autobs llegar a las ocho
along with, junto con
prep (movimiento, posicin) a lo largo de: there are trees all along the river, hay rboles a lo largo del ro
a bit further along, un poco ms adelante
to go along, seguir bien o mal: things are going along really well, las cosas marchan estupendamente
to move along, seguir movindose: they talked as they were moving along, hablaban mientras iban caminado

Concise Oxford Spanish Dictionary 2009 Oxford University Press:

across 1 /krs / ||/krs/ adverbio

(indicating movement): the boatman ferried them ~ el barquero los cruz;

seven ~ (crossword clue) siete horizontal


(indicating position) del otro lado;

they're already ~ ya estn del otro lado;
she sat ~ from me estaba sentada frente a m or enfrente de m


(in width, diameter): it is 20m ~ tiene or mide 20m de ancho

across 2 preposicin

(from one side to other): they ran ~ the road cruzaron la calle corriendo;
he shouted to her ~ the room le grit desde el otro lado de la habitacin;
a tree had fallen ~ the road un rbol se haba cado en mitad de la carretera


(on the other side of): they live just ~ the road viven justo enfrente

Diccionario Espasa Concise 2000 Espasa Calpe:

across ['krs]


1 a travs, de un extremo a otro
to go across, atravesar
2 (medidas) the road is 10 metres across, la calle mide 10 metros de ancho
1 a travs de
to go across the street, cruzar la calle
2 al otro lado de: she lives across the park, vive al otro lado del parque

Concise Oxford Spanish Dictionary 2009 Oxford University Press:

through 1 /ru/ preposicin


(from one side to the other) por;

it went right ~ the wall atraves la pared de lado a lado;
to hear/feel sth ~ sth or(conj.)/sentir(conj.) algo a travs de algo;
he was shot ~ the head le pegaron un balazo en la cabeza;
the truck crashed ~ the barrier el camin se llev la barrera por delante;
they struggled on ~ the crowd siguieron abrindose paso entre la multitud;
he spoke ~ clenched teeth habl entre dientes;
we drove ~ Munich atravesamos Munich (en coche);
she glanced ~ the magazine hoje la revista;
I worked my way ~ the textbook me le el texto de punta a punta


(past, beyond) to be ~ sth haber(conj.) pasado algo;

we're ~ the preliminary stages already ya hemos pasado las fases iniciales



(in time): we worked ~ the night trabajamos durante toda la noche;

half-way ~ his speech en medio de su discurso, cuando iba (or vaya etc) por la mitad del discurso;
after everything we've been ~ together despus de todo lo que hemos pasado juntos;
~ the centuries a travs de los siglos


(until and including) (AmE): Tuesday ~ Thursday de martes a jueves;

offer good ~ May 31 oferta vlida hasta el 31 de mayo;
October ~ December desde octubre hasta diciembre inclusive


(by): she spoke ~ an interpreter habl a travs de un intrprete;

I heard about it ~ a friend me enter a travs de or por un amigo;
~ his help gracias a su ayuda or mediante su ayuda;
~ no fault of her own sin tener culpa alguna
through 2 adverbio


(from one side to the other): the train sped ~ without stopping el tren pas a toda velocidad sin parar;
he barged ~ pas dando empujones;
the red paint shows ~ se nota la pintura roja que hay debajo;
see also get, pull, put etc through


(in time): all night ~ durante toda la noche;

we worked ~ without a break trabajamos sin parar para descansar


(completely): wet/soaked ~ mojado/calado hasta los huesos


through and through: he's a soldier ~ and ~ es militar hasta la mdula

through 3 adjetivo


( Transp ) (before n) train/route directo;

~ traffic trfico m de paso;
(on signs) no through road calle sin salida


(finished) (colloq) (pred): aren't you ~ yet? no has terminado an?;

as a journalist, you're ~ como periodista, ests acabado;
to be ~ WITH sb/sth haber(conj.) terminado CON algn/algo;
to be ~ (WITH) -ING : I'm ~ trying to be nice to you no pienso seguir tratando de ser amable contigo


(BrE Telec ): you're ~! hable!;

we're ~ to Madrid nos han conectado con Madrid
Diccionario Espasa Concise 2000 Espasa Calpe:
through [r:]
1 a travs de, por, de un lado a otro de: we walked through the woods, paseamos por el bosque
half-way through lunch, en medio de la comida
2 (en el tiempo) durante
all through the war, durante toda la guerra
(esp US) Monday through Friday, de lunes a viernes inclusive
3 (causa) por medio de, por causa de, por: he died through your neglect, muri a causa de tu negligencia
I got the job through a friend, consegu el trabajo por medio de un amigo
adj (una ruta, un tren) directo,-a
(trfico) de paso
1 (en un sitio) de un lado a otro: let me through!, djenme pasar!
2 (en el tiempo) to work through, trabajar sin descanso
3 (completamente) wet through, mojado,-a hasta los huesos
4 I'm British through and through, soy britnico,-a hasta la mdula
5 familiar acabado,-a: are you through?, has terminado?
to be through with sb, haber terminado con alguien
6 Tel I'll put you through, le pongo [to, con]
you're through, puede hablar!
past 1 /pst/ ||/pst/ adjetivo


(former) anterior;
life pasado;
(old) antiguo;
she knew from ~ experience that saba por experiencia que ;
in times ~ (liter) antao (liter), aos ha (liter), antiguamente


(most recent) week/month/year ltimo;

in the ~ few days en los ltimos das;
for some time ~ desde hace tiempo


(finished, gone) (pred): what's ~ is ~ lo pasado, pasado;

in days long ~ en tiempos remotos


, ( Ling ): the ~ tense el pasado, el pretrito

past 2 sustantivo



uncountable (former times) pasado m;

steam trains are a thing of the ~ las locomotoras de vapor han pasado a la historia;
in the ~, women antes or antiguamente or en otros tiempos las mujeres ;
that's all in the ~ eso forma parte del pasado, eso ya es historia


countable (of person) pasado m;

(of place) historia f


uncountable ( Ling ) pasado m, pretrito m

past 3 preposicin

(by the side of): I go ~ their house every morning paso por (delante de) su casa todas las maanas;
she walked straight ~ him pas de largo por su lado


(beyond): it's just ~ the school queda un poco ms all de la escuela;

how did you get ~ the guard? cmo hiciste para que el guardia te dejara pasar?;
the second turning ~ the lights la segunda calle despus del semforo


(after) (esp BrE): it's ten ~ six/half ~ two son las seis y diez/las dos y media;
it was ~ eleven eran las once pasadas;
it's long ~ midnight son mucho ms de las doce;
till ~ midnight hasta despus de la medianoche;
it's ~ your bedtime ya deberas estar acostado


(older than): once you get ~ 40 despus de los 40 , una vez pasados los 40 ;
I'm ~ the age/stage when ya he pasado la edad/superado la etapa en que


(outside, beyond): to be ~ -ING : I'm ~ caring ya no me importa;

I wouldn't put it ~ her no me extraara que lo hiciera, la creo muy capaz de hacerlo;
to be ~ it (colloq): they think everyone over 40 is ~ it piensan que cualquiera que tenga ms de 40 ya est para el arrastre (fam) or para cuarteles
de invierno
past 4 adverbio
(with verbs of motion): to fly/cycle/drive ~ pasar volando/en bicicleta/en coche;
he hurried ~ pas a toda prisa;
we watched the troops march ~ vimos desfilar a las tropas



(giving time) (esp BrE): it's twenty-five ~ son y veinticinco

over 1 / vr / || / v(r)/ adverbio


(across): come ~ here! ven aqu!;

look ~ there! mira all!;
he came ~ to say hello vino or se acerc a saludar;
she called me ~ me llam (desde el otro lado);
you must come ~ sometime! tienes que venir un da!;
I'll be right ~ enseguida estoy all;
he reached ~ and took the money se estir y tom el dinero;
we can jump ~ podemos saltar por encima;
the journey ~ to/from France el viaje hasta/desde Francia;
how did you come? I drove/flew ~ cmo viniste? en coche/avin


(overhead) por encima;

a plane flies ~ every five minutes pasa un avin cada cinco minutos


(in another place): she was sitting ~ there/here estaba sentada all/aqu;
~ on the far bank en la otra orilla;
he's ~ in England est en Inglaterra;
she's ~ from London ha venido de Londres;
how long are you ~ (here) for? cunto tiempo te vas a quedar (aqu)?;
See Also come over, go over


(on other page, TV station etc): see ~ vase al dorso;

for the latest news, ~ to New York para las ltimas noticias, conectamos ahora con Nueva York


( Rad, Telec ) corto;

~ and out! corto y fuera


(out of upright position): to knock sth ~ tirar or (AmL exc RPl) botar algo (de un golpe);
to tip sth ~ volcar(conj.) algo


(onto other side): let's get her ~ onto her back pongmosla boca arriba;
see also turn over 4


(finished): the film was ~ by 11 o'clock la pelcula termin or acab antes de las 11;
it's all ~ between us lo nuestro se ha acabado, ya no hay nada entre nosotros;
the worst is ~ ya ha pasado lo peor;
to be ~ (and done) with haber(conj.) terminado or acabado


(remaining): if you have any material ~ si te sobra or te queda tela;

3 into 10 goes 3 and 1 ~ 10 dividido (por) 3 cabe a 3 y sobra 1


(as intensifier): twice/ten times ~ dos/diez veces

(again) (AmE) otra vez;
we had to start ~ tuvimos que volver a empezar

(more) ms;
all words of six letters and ~ todas las palabras de seis letras o ms

(excessively) careful/aggressive demasiado


(in phrases)


all over


(everywhere) por todas partes;

I've been looking all ~ for you te he estado buscando por todas partes


(over entire surface): the tabletop is scratched all ~ el tablero de la mesa est todo rayado;
I'm aching/itching all ~ me duele/pica todo (el cuerpo)


(through and through) (colloq): that's her/Dee all ~ eso es tpico de ella/de Dee


(finished) to be all ~ see II 1

(all) over again: to start (all) ~ again volver(conj.) a empezar (desde cero), empezar(conj.) de nuevo

over and over (repeatedly) una y otra vez;

(rolling): turning ~ and ~ as it fell rodando al caer
over 2 preposicin




(across): he jumped ~ the fence salt (por encima de) la valla;

they built a bridge ~ the river construyeron un puente sobre el ro;
she peered ~ his shoulder atisb por encima de su hombro;
to sling sth ~ one's shoulder colgarse(conj.) algo del hombro;
they live ~ the road (BrE) viven en frente

(above) encima de;

the portrait hangs ~ the fireplace el retrato est colgado encima de or (AmL tb) arriba de la chimenea;
a cold front ~ the Atlantic un frente fro sobre el Atlntico
( Math ) sobre
(covering, on): there are grilles ~ the windows hay rejas en las ventanas;
snow was falling ~ the countryside nevaba sobre la campia;
my room looks out ~ the square mi habitacin da a la plaza;
he pulled his hat down ~ his eyes se encasquet el sombrero tapndose los ojos;
he put a coat on ~ his pajamas se puso un abrigo encima del pijama;
she hit me ~ the head with her stick me dio con el bastn en la cabeza

(through, all around): to show sb ~ a building/an estate mostrarle(conj.) or (esp Esp) ensearle un edificio/una finca a


~ an area of 50km2 en un rea de 50km2 ;
I've been ~ the details with her he repasado los detalles con ella;
we've been ~ and ~ what happened hemos vuelto una y otra vez sobre lo que sucedi

(referring to experiences, illnesses): is she ~ her measles yet? ya se ha repuesto del sarampin?;
we're ~ the worst now ya hemos pasado lo peor;
he isn't ~ her yet todava la quiere

(during, in the course of): ~ the past/next few years en or durante los ltimos/prximos aos;
we can discuss it ~ lunch podemos hablarlo mientras comemos;
we'll be in Italy ~ the summer pasaremos el verano en Italia;
spread (out) ~ a six-week period a lo largo de seis semanas, en un plazo de seis semanas

(by the medium of) por;

~ the loudspeaker por el altavoz

(about, on account of): to cry ~ sth llorar por algo;

they argued ~ money discutieron por asuntos de dinero

all over


(over entire surface of): there are black marks all ~ the floor hay marcas negras por todo el suelo;
to be all ~ sb (colloq) (defeat heavily) darle(conj.) una paliza a algn (fam);
(be demonstrative toward): they were all ~ each other estaban de lo ms acaramelados (fam)


(throughout): all ~ town por toda la ciudad;

I've been all ~ the place looking for you te he estado buscando por todas partes


(more than) ms de;

think of a number ~ 10 piensa en un nmero mayor de or que 10


over and above (in addition to) adems de


(senior to) por encima de

(indicating superiority) sobre;
to have control ~ sb/sth tener(conj.) control sobre algn/algo

(in comparison to): sales are up 20% ~ last year las ventas han aumentado un 20% con respecto al ao pasado;
she has one great advantage ~ her rivals tiene una gran ventaja sobre sus rivales

Diccionario Espasa Concise 2000 Espasa Calpe:

past [p:st]



nombre pasado: they delved into his past, hurgaron en su pasado

1 anterior
2 ltimo
the past few days, los ltimos das
3 pasado
in past years, en aos pasados
adv (movimiento) to drive/walk past, pasar en coche/andando
1 al lado de, delante de: we drove past the church, pasamos delante de la iglesia
2 ms all de
just past the lights, justo pasado el semforo
3 (hora) it's past ten, son las diez pasadas
half past one, la una y media