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CE2155 Structural Mechanics and Materials

Mechanics of Materials
(Part 3)
by
Assoc Professor T. H. Wee
Department of Civil Engineering
Email: cveweeth@nus.edu.sg

Introduction
• The mechanical properties of a material have been discussed only in
relation to loading in Mechanics of Materials Parts 1 & 2.
• The consequences due to loading in particular the failure of the
materials will be discussed in Part 3.

WHY STUDY Failure?
• Failure of materials may lead to huge costs and other serious
consequences.
• Causes include:
–improper materials selection or processing,
–improper design of components, and
–improper use (eg. overloading).
CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials

Examples of Material Failures CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials Examples of Material Failures CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials .

CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials . be familiar with appropriate design principles that may be employed to prevent in-service failures. the design of a component or structure often calls upon the engineer to consider: – proper materials selection or processing. to minimize the possibility of failure. in addition. – proper design of components.e. and creep . fatigue. it is important to understand the mechanics of the various failure modes ..and. fracture. and – proper use • For this.Examples of Material Failures CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials Introduction • Therefore.i.

• The most common type of tensile fracture profile for ductile metals is that represented in figure (b). These highly ductile materials neck down to a point fracture. compressive. showing virtually 100% reduction in area. • The configuration shown in figure (a) is found for extremely soft metals and polymers.Fundamental of Fracture • Fracture is a form of failure where the material separates in two or more pieces due to an imposed stress at temperatures below the melting point. CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials . shear. or torsional. where fracture is preceded by only a moderate amount of necking. • The applied stress may be tensile. • Steps in fracture (response to stress): – Crack formation – crack propagation CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials Ductile Fracture • Ductile fracture surfaces will have their own distinctive features on both macroscopic and microscopic levels. • The fracture is termed ductile or brittle depending on whether the deformation is large or small. • The figure shows schematic representations for two characteristic macroscopic fracture profiles.

which signify plastic deformation.Ductile Fracture Stages of ductile fracture (a) Initial necking (b) small cavity formation (microvoids) (c) void growth (elliptical void) by coalescence into a crack CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials Ductile Fracture Stages of ductile fracture (Cont’d) (d) fast crack propagation around neck. Shear strain at 45o (e) final shear fracture (cup and cone) The interior surface is fibrous. irregular. Cup-and-cone fracture in aluminium CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials .

large deformation • Brittle fracture: eg.many pieces . • The direction of crack motion is very nearly perpendicular to the direction of the applied tensile stress and yields a relatively flat fracture surface. cast iron pipe .Brittle Fracture • Brittle fracture takes place without any appreciable deformation. Brittle fracture in a mild steel CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials Examples of Ductile and Brittle Fracture Failure of a pipe • Ductile fracture: .small deformation CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials .one piece . as indicated in figure (c). and by rapid crack propagation. • Fracture surfaces of materials that failed in a brittle manner will have their own distinctive patterns. steel or copper pipe eg. any signs of gross plastic deformation will be absent.

the presence of crack-producing flaws. • This has demonstrated the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms of fracture. Extensive research endeavors over the past several decades have led to the evolution of the field of fracture mechanics. (Note: Fracture Mechanics will be taught in higher modules and will not be dealt with any further in this module.) CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials .Characteristics of Ductile and brittle fracture CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials Fracture Mechanics • Brittle fracture also sometimes occur in ductile materials depending on the circumstances. and crack propagation mechanisms. stress level. and thus prevent structural failures. • This subject allows quantification of the relationships between material properties. • Design engineers are now better equipped to anticipate.

CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials FATIGUE • Fatigue is a form of failure that occurs in structures subjected to dynamic and fluctuating stresses (e. estimated to comprise approximately 90% of all metallic failures. ceramics and concrete (except for glasses) are also susceptible to fatigue failure but to a lesser extent. occurring very suddenly and without warning. aircraft. fatigue is catastrophic and insidious.Example of brittle fracture in ductile material An oil tanker that fractured in a brittle manner by crack propagation around its girth. it is possible for failure to occur at a stress level considerably lower than the tensile or yield strength for a static load. • The term “fatigue” is used because this type of failure normally occurs after a lengthy period of repeated stress or strain cycling. • Under dynamic and fluctuating stresses. CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials . and machine components). bridges. • Fatigue is important inasmuch as it is the single largest cause of failure in metals. • Polymers. • Furthermore.g..

and ordinarily the fracture surface is perpendicular to the direction of an applied tensile stress.FATIGUE • Fatigue failure is brittle-like in nature even in normally ductile metals. gross plastic deformation associated with failure. • The process occurs by the initiation and propagation of cracks. in which the stress alternates from a maximum tensile stress (+) to a maximum compressive stress (-) of equal magnitude. or torsional (twisting) in nature. flexural (bending). in that there is very little. CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials FATIGUE Cyclic Stresses • The applied stress may be axial (tension-compression). if any. (a) Reversed stress cycle. • In general. relative to the zero-stress level CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials . three different fluctuating stress–time modes are possible.

tensile stresses are positive and compressive stresses are negative. CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials FATIGUE (c) Random stress cycle. For example. • Finally. in which maximum and minimum stresses are asymmetrical relative to the mean-stress level. and stress amplitude σa.FATIGUE (b) Repeated stress cycle. range of stress σr. are as indicated in the figure. CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials . for the reversed stress cycle. the stress ratio R is just the ratio of minimum and maximum stress amplitudes: • By convention. the value of R is -1. mean stress σm.

below which fatigue failure will not occur. called the fatigue limit (also sometimes the endurance limit). • This procedure is repeated on other identical specimens of the same material at progressively decreasing maximum stress amplitudes. The higher the magnitude of the stress. For many steels. CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials FATIGUE THE S-N CURVE • For some ferrous (iron base) and titanium alloys. • This fatigue limit represents the largest value of fluctuating stress that will not cause failure for essentially an infinite number of cycles. the smaller the number of cycles the material is capable of sustaining before failure. the number of cycles to failure is counted. • Data are plotted as stress S versus the logarithm of the number N of cycles to failure for each of the specimens. CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials .FATIGUE THE S-N CURVE • A series of tests are commenced by subjecting a specimen to reversed stress cycling (i. usually on the order of two thirds of the static tensile strength. or there is a limiting stress level. the S–N curve becomes horizontal at higher N values.e mean stress =0) at a relatively large maximum stress amplitude (σmax). fatigue limits range between 35% and 60% of the tensile strength. • Two distinct types of S–N behavior are observed.

magnesium) do not have a fatigue limit. fatigue will ultimately occur regardless of the magnitude of the stress. and (3) final failure. which occurs very rapidly once the advancing crack has reached a critical size. during which this crack advances incrementally with each stress cycle. • Another important parameter that characterizes a material’s fatigue behavior is fatigue life. the fatigue response is specified as fatigue strength. CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials .CRACK INITIATION AND PROPAGATION The process of fatigue failure is characterized by three distinct steps: (1) crack initiation. wherein a small crack forms at some point of high stress concentration.g.FATIGUE • Most nonferrous alloys (e.. The S–N curve continues its downward trend at increasingly greater N values.g. which is defined as the stress level at which failure will occur for some specified number of cycles (e. as taken from the S–N plot. aluminum. (2) crack propagation. It is the number of cycles to cause failure at a specified stress level. Thus. copper. For these materials. cycles). CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials FATIGUE FATIGUE ..

• Numerous factors influence fatigue resistance. this influence may be represented by a series of S–N curves. will also affect fatigue life. the proper management of which will lead to an improvement in fatigue life. scratches.) • Therefore. flaws and other defects. the maximum stress within a component or structure occurs at its surface. etc. CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials FACTORS THAT AFFECT FATIGUE LIFE Surface Effects (Material Factors) • For many common loading situations. • Mean stress.FACTORS THAT AFFECT FATIGUE LIFE Mean Stress • The dependence of fatigue life on stress amplitude is represented on the S–N plot. • Consequently. • Such data are taken for a constant mean stress σm. often for the reversed cycle situation (σm = 0). however. These include design factors as well as various surface treatments. CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials . It has been observed that improving the surface finish by polishing will enhance fatigue life significantly. each measured at a different σm. specifically at stress amplification sites (eg. increasing the mean stress level leads to a decrease in fatigue life. small scratches and grooves are invariably introduced into the work piece surface by cutting tool action. These surface markings can limit the fatigue life. • As may be noted. it has been observed that fatigue life is especially sensitive to the condition and configuration of the component surface. most cracks leading to fatigue failure originate at surface positions. • During machining operations.

and so on. holes. • The origin of these thermal stresses is the restraint to the dimensional expansion and/or contraction that would normally occur in a structural member with variations in temperature.FACTORS THAT AFFECT FATIGUE LIFE Surface Effects (Design Factors) • The design of a component can have a significant influence on its fatigue characteristics. • Any notch or geometrical discontinuity can act as a stress raiser and fatigue crack initiation site. the smaller the radius of curvature). CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials FACTORS THAT AFFECT FATIGUE LIFE Environmental Effects (Thermal Fatigue) • Thermal fatigue is normally induced at elevated temperatures by fluctuating thermal stresses. (b) Good design: fatigue lifetime improved by incorporating rounded fillet into a rotating shaft at the point where there is a change in diameter. the more severe the stress concentration. The sharper the discontinuity (i. threads.e.. these design features include grooves. • The magnitude of a thermal stress developed by a temperature change ΔT is dependent on the coefficient of thermal expansion α and the modulus of elasticity E according to σ = α E ΔT CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials . keyways. (a) Poor design: sharp corner.

which include plastics and rubbers. are especially sensitive to creep deformation. • Amorphous polymers. However. • Measures to reduce the rate of corrosion fatigue includes. • Creep is normally an undesirable phenomenon and is often the limiting factor in the lifetime of an element. for metals it becomes important only for temperatures greater than about 0.FACTORS THAT AFFECT FATIGUE LIFE Environmental Effects (Corrosion Fatigue) • Failure that occurs by the simultaneous action of a cyclic stress and chemical attack is termed corrosion fatigue. which serve as points of stress concentration and therefore as crack nucleation sites. CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials . It is observed in all materials types. CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials CREEP • Creep is defined as time-dependent and permanent deformation of materials when subjected to a constant load or stress.4Tm (Tm = absolute melting temperature in Kelvin). • Crack propagation rate can also be enhanced by corrosive environment. and reducing the corrosiveness of the environment. selecting a more corrosion-resistant material. Concrete also experience creep deformation under sustained load. applying protective surface coatings. For example. steel absolute melting temperature is 1811K (1811-273 = 1538 degree C). • Corrosive environments have a deleterious influence and produce shorter fatigue lives. Small pits may form as a result of chemical reactions between the environment and material.

the strain continues even at room temperature. the following will be noted: (1) the instantaneous strain at the time of stress application increases. which yield information of an engineering nature. However.Generalised Creep Behaviour • A typical creep test consists of subjecting a specimen to a constant load or stress while maintaining the temperature constant. • With either increasing stress or temperature. and (3) the rupture lifetime is diminished. CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials . at a temperature substantially below 0. •The most important parameter from a creep test is the slope of the secondary portion of the creep curve (Δt/Δε). for concrete. each of which has its own distinctive strain–time feature. this is often called the minimum or steady-state creep rate. the strain is virtually independent of time. CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials Generalised Creep Behaviour Stress and Temperature Effects • Both temperature and level of applied stress influence the creep characteristics. For metals. deformation or strain is measured and plotted as a function of elapsed time. The resulting creep curve consists of three regions.4Tm and after the initial deformation. • Most tests are the constant load type. (2) the steady-state creep rate is increased.

εe1 .Creep and Stress Relaxation Creep (under sustained load) is the phenomenon of a gradual increase in strain with time under a given level of sustained stress Relaxation (under sustained strain) is the phenomenon of gradual decrease in stress with time under a given level of sustained strain CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials Creep of Concrete • The phenomenon of creep is associated with many materials. a typical variation of deformation with time is shown. but the general pattern is illustrated by considering a member subjected to axial compression. The characteristics of creep are: 1. by the curve in the figure below. • The precise behavior of a particular concrete depends on the aggregates and the mix design. The final deformation of the member can be three to four times the short-term elastic deformation. but it is particularly evident with concrete. Creep strain Creep recovery versus Time CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials . For such a member.

5. Thus the compressive stresses in the steel are increased so that the steel takes a larger proportion of the load. often helps to concrete restrain the deflections due to creep. called a creep recovery. only the instantaneous elastic deformation will recover* – the plastic deformation will not. * ε approximately equal to ε e1 Creep strain Creep recovery versus Time e2 CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials Creep of Concrete • For the case of an axially loaded RC column. The deformation is roughly proportional to the intensity of loading and to the inverse of the concrete strength. The provision of reinforcement in the compressive zone of a flexural member.Creep of Concrete 2. an immediate elastic recovery. CE2155 – Structural Mechanics and Materials . damage to finishes. the redistribution of load is caused by the changes in concrete compressive strains being transferred to the reinforcing steel. • The effects of creep are particularly important in beams. where the increased deflections may cause the opening of cracks. 3. and the non-alignment of of mechanical equipment. If the load is removed within a short period. 4. There is a redistribution of load between the concrete and any steel present. The instantaneous recovery is followed by a gradual decrease in strain. If a specimen is unloaded after a period under a sustained load. however. εe2 is obtained.