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Modern

STEEL CONSTRUCTION

February 2015

Capacity Precision Strength

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February 2015
conference preview
48

High-Performance Steel Bridge


Coating Options
BY ROBERT KOGLER AND
LAURA ERICKSON
Theres more than one way to coat a bridge.

50

What Makes a Good


Design Drawing?
BY DARREN HARTMAN AND
ROB SCHOEN
Clearly defining the relevant parameters and
components is a good place to start.

40

features
32

40

Off the Grid


BY PAUL DANNELS
A vertical addition to a university
building is offset from the below
building by 31 in order to meet site
requirements.

columns
steelwise

17

BY MARTIN ANDERSON, CHARLES J.


CARTER, S.E., P.E., PH.D.,
AND THOMAS J. SCHLAFLY
Keeping tabs on current ASTM
specifications will help you make the right
choices when designing and building your
projects.

Safety First
BY GEOFF WEISENBERGER
On November 2, 2004, Central Texas
Iron Works experienced a lost-time
injury. It hasnt experienced one since.

Are You Properly


Specifying Materials?

business issues

29

52

Working with Large Trusses

56

The Business Case


for Integrated Lean
Project Delivery

BY SYLVIE BOULANGER, P.ENG., PH.D.,


AND COLLIN HUGHES
What to keep in mind from design
to erection.

BY HOWARD W. ASHCRAFT, JR.,


JASON COLLINS AND DAVE HAGAN
Why and when IPD is worth exploring.

in every issue
departments
6 EDITORS NOTE
9 STEEL INTERCHANGE
12 STEEL QUIZ
60 NEWS & EVENTS
66 STRUCTURALLY SOUND
resources
64 MARKETPLACE
65 EMPLOYMENT

Pre-Planning Tips and Tools


BY STEPHEN BURKHOLDER
If youre pre-planning after a job
has already started, youre not really
pre-planning.

ON THE COVER: Michigan State is moving on up with a vertical expansion to an existing classroom building (p. 32). Photo: Maconochie Photography
MODERN STEEL CONSTRUCTION (Volume 55, Number 2) ISSN (print) 0026-8445: ISSN (online) 1945-0737. Published monthly by the American Institute of Steel
Construction (AISC), One E. Wacker Dr., Suite 700, Chicago, IL 60601. Subscriptions: Within the U.S.single issues $6.00; 1 year, $44. Outside the U.S. (Canada
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MODERN STEEL CONSTRUCTION, One East Wacker Dr., Suite 700, Chicago, IL 60601.
DISCLAIMER: AISC does not approve, disapprove, or guarantee the validity or accuracy of any data, claim, or opinion appearing under a byline or obtained or
quoted from an acknowledged source. Opinions are those of the writers and AISC is not responsible for any statement made or opinions expressed in MODERN
STEEL CONSTRUCTION. All rights reserved. Materials may not be reproduced without written permission, except for noncommercial educational purposes where
fewer than 25 photocopies are being reproduced. The AISC and Modern Steel logos are registered trademarks of AISC.

FEBRUARY 2015

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editors note
Editorial Offices

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Chicago, IL 60601
312.670.2400 tel

Editorial Contacts

EDITOR & PUBLISHER


Scott L. Melnick
312.670.8314
melnick@modernsteel.com
SENIOR EDITOR
Geoff Weisenberger
312.670.8316
weisenberger@modernsteel.com

OVER AND OVER AGAIN DURING THE PAST TWO WEEKS, IVE SAT DOWN, PUT
FINGERS TO KEYBOARD AND STARTED THIS COLUMN. But each time, I stopped
and deleted my efforts.
The problem was that I had two distinct
beginnings, each leading in a completely different direction.
In one column, I began by writing about
a neat device I had recently purchased. The
Spiralizer is a simple kitchen tool that allows
me to convert zucchini and other vegetables
into long spirals (kind of like spaghetti).
The first dish I tried with my new toy was a
delicious lentil and tomato stew over garlic
sauteed zoodles. From there, my goal was to
segue into a discussion of neat tools, materials
and designs for steel constructionmost of
which you can see firsthand at NASCC: The
Steel Conference. (For a description of recent
innovative structural systems, some of which
I had planned to highlight in this column,
check out AISCs Steel Solutions Center
brochure available by visiting www.aisc.org/
myproject and click on innovative structural
steel systems in the right-hand column.) And,
of course, I would use this as an opportunity
to promote the Steel Conference and
remind you to register for this fantastic
event (March 25-27 in Nashville; register by
visiting www.aisc.org/nascc).
But every time I started typing, my mind
kept drifting back to something I had read in
some comments by Senator Bernie Sanders
(I-Vermont), who was quoting New York
Times reporter Bob Herberts book Losing our
Way. I just couldnt stop thinking about this
second column and the quote: Study after
study has shown that rebuilding the infrastructure is the quickest way to put larger

FEBRUARY 2015

numbers of people back to work, and the


return for each dollar invested in infrastructure renewal is significantly greater than all
other investments in the economy.
The quote rang true and obvious
and is certainly no surprise to anyone
reading this. So why arent we rebuilding
our infrastructure? The American Society
of Civil Engineers annually issues a
report railing against the declining state
of Americas infrastructure from bridges
to transmission lines to sewers (see www.
infrastructurereportcard.org). But if we all
know about it, if everyone agrees, why is it
so hard to pass a transportation act funding
infrastructure work?
Obviously, as my deadline neared for filing this column, I was still undecided on
which direction to go. Fortunately, I dont
have to choose; I can use both. But honestly,
as great as the Steel Conference is (and if
youve never been to one, ask someone who
has!), its even more important to properly
fund our nations infrastructure. I urge everyone to take every opportunity to contact
their elected officials and insist that we do a
better job of funding infrastructure work.
See you in Nashville!

ASSISTANT EDITOR
Tasha Weiss
312.670.5439
weiss@modernsteel.com
PRODUCTION COORDINATOR
Megan Johnston-Spencer
312.670.5427
johnstonspencer@modernsteel.com
GRAPHIC DESIGN MANAGER
Kristin Hall
312.670.8313
hall@modernsteel.com

AISC Officers

CHAIR
Jeffrey E. Dave, P.E.
VICE CHAIR
James G. Thompson
SECRETARY &
GENERAL COUNSEL
David B. Ratterman
PRESIDENT
Roger E. Ferch, P.E.
VICE PRESIDENT AND
CHIEF STRUCTURAL ENGINEER
Charles J. Carter, S.E., P.E., Ph.D.
VICE PRESIDENT
Jacques Cattan
VICE PRESIDENT
John P. Cross, P.E.
VICE PRESIDENT
Scott L. Melnick

Advertising Contact

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For advertising information,
contact Louis Gurthet or visit
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Address Changes and


Subscription Concerns
SCOTT MELNICK
EDITOR

312.670.5444 tel
312.893.2253 fax
admin@modernsteel.com

Reprints

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If youve ever asked yourself Why? about something


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Send your questions or comments to solutions@aisc.org.

Prying Action A Wider View

Are the prying action checks in Part 9 of the AISC Steel


Construction Manual only applicable to double-angle and
tee connections? Can they be applied to other conditions
like angles attached only to the outside wall of an HSS or a
perforated, end-plate splice used to join segments of large
diameter HSS?
It all depends on the details. Thornton (1992 and 1996) provides
background on the prying action equations presented in the
Manual. It is important to understand the assumptions made
when employing any engineering check, and especially this
one. And while these papers and Swanson (2002), which is also
referenced in the Manual, assume that the load is delivered by a
tee, the checks can be applied to similar situations.
In Figure 9-4 of the Manual, the dimensions b and b are
measured from the face of the tee stem or the center of the
angle leg. These values are valid for tees and for angles if
the load, 2T, is delivered symmetrically and the angle shown
represents one of a pair of back-to-back angles. It is reasonable
to assume that the increase in b and b for the double-angle
connection is due to the reduced stiffness of the angles as
opposed to the tee. When the angles are not back-to-back
and connected to a relatively flexible support, the effective
eccentricity may be increased and a distance measured to the
heel of the angle, or possibly somewhat greater, might be
warranted.
When the load is delivered asymmetrically, an even greater
moment might result. For instance, if the angle were attached
to only one flange of a wide-flange member used as a hanger
and the hanger were not restrained from rotating about the
bolt line, then eccentricity would have to be measured from
the centerline of the hanger or to the point of application of
the load. The prying action discussion in Part 9 of the Manual
is not intended to be applied to asymmetrical conditions.
There are other references to which you can turn for
special cases. One-sided flanges are commonly used for
connections in steel stacks, wind turbines, bins, hoppers,
transmission poles and other plate and shell structures. The
simplest approach to the flange design is in the CICIND
(2005) chimney book. Using the terminology in Figure 9-4b
on Page 9-11 of the 14th Edition AISC Steel Construction
Manual, the total force on the bolt, including the prying force,
is calculated based on equilibrium of the flange:
T+q=

T(b+a)
a

Theoretically, the maximum moment in the fitting is at


the center of the bolt. The CICIND method neglects the
reduction in bending strength due to the presence of the

steel
interchange

bolt hole, which gives the following equation for the nominal
strength (that is, with no ASD safety factor or LRFD phi
factor applied):
T=

Fy t2 p
4b

Adding these and also reducing the bending strength for


the presence of the bolt hole, the available strength of the
fitting is:
LRFD

ASD

F t2 ( p d')
T= y
4b

F t2 ( p d')
T= y
4b

All of these equations assume there is no moment


transfer between the flange and the structure to which it is
attached. That is, they assume all of the moment required for
equilibrium of the flange is taken at the bolt line.
The engineer must also choose an effective length over
which to assume the bending occurs. The discussion in the
AISC Manual recommends a 45 spread and the resulting
tributary length of 2b, but not exceeding the spacing
between the bolts. This is a conservative simplification, and
Dowswell (2011) and Wheeler et al (1998) provide alternative
approaches that are less conservative.
Another choice must also be made between the use of
the yield stress or the tensile stress of the flange. The use
of the tensile stress in the Manual is based on empirical
results and produces a prying action calculation that better
matches the results of tested connections. It also likely reflects
contributions from strain-hardening that occurs in the flange
as it is bent about its weak axis.
There are other special cases addressed in the literature
as well. For example, prying action for two-way bending is
treated for stiffened end-plates in AISC Design Guides 4 and
16 (Murray 2002 and 2003).
References and Resources
AISC (2010a), Specification for Structural Steel Buildings,

ANSI/AISC 360-10, American Institute of Steel


Construction, Chicago.
AISC (2010b), Steel Construction Manual, 14th Ed.,
American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago.
CICIND (2005), CICIND Chimney Book, International
Committee on Industrial Chimneys.
Couchax, M. Hjiaj, M., Ryan, I. and Bureau, A. (2009),
Effect of Contact on the Elastic Behavior of Bolted
Connections, Proceedings of the Nordic Steel
Construction Conference.
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

steel interchange
Dowswell, R.S. (2011), A Yield Line Component Method

for Bolted Flange Connections, Engineering Journal, AISC,


Vol. 48, No. 2, 2nd Quarter, Chicago.
Murray, T.M. and Shoemaker, W.L. (2002), Flush and
Extended Multiple-Row Moment End-Plate Connections,
Design Guide 16, AISC and MBMA, Chicago.
Murray, T.M. and Sumner, E.A. (2003), Extended End-Plate
Moment ConnectionsSeismic and Wind Applications, 2nd
Ed., Design Guide 4, AISC, Chicago.
Pinfold, G.M. (1994), Effect of Flange Geometry on the
Strength of Bolted Joints, CICIND Report, International
Committee on Industrial Chimneys, Vol. 11, No. 2.
Schaumann, P. and Seidel, M. (2000), Failure Analysis
of Bolted Steel Flanges, Proceedings of IMPLAST
2000-Structural Failure and Plasticity, Ed. Zhao, X.L. and
Grzebieta, R.H., Elsevier.
Swanson, J.A. (2002), Ultimate Strength Prying Models for
Bolted T-Stub Connections, Engineering Journal, Vol. 39,
No. 3, 3rd Quarter, pp. 136147, AISC, Chicago.
Thornton, W.A. (1992), Strength and Serviceability of
Hanger Connections, Engineering Journal, AISC, Vol.
29, No. 4, 4th Quarter, pp. 145149, Chicago. See also
ERRATA, Engineering Journal, Vol. 33, No. 1, 1st Quarter,
1996, pp. 39, 40.
Thornton, W.A. (1996), Rational Design of Tee Shear
Connections, Engineering Journal, AISC, Vol. 33, No.1, 1st
Quarter, pp. 3437, Chicago.
Wheeler, A.T., Clarke, M.J., Hancock, G.J. and Murray,
T.M. (1998), Design Model for Bolted Moment End-Plate
Connections Joining Rectangular Hollow Sections, Journal
of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 124, No. 2.
Question and answer compiled from questions addressed by
Larry S. Muir, P.E., and Bo Dowswell, P.E., Ph.D.

Design of Continuous Gusset

Figure 5-43 of the AISC Seismic Design Manual shows a


connection with a continuous gusset plate. There are not
calculations as to how the in. plates and welds were sized.
Is there a design example available that provides guidance as
to how to design this type of continuous gusset?
I am not aware of any published design examples for this case.
It is common to use the uniform force method and model the
connection as two separate gussets and as if a column web
were present between them. However, any other suitable
model that satisfies equilibrium should also be acceptable. If
modeled as a single, continuous gusset, other additional freebody diagrams beyond that cut at the column-to-gusset
interface may be required to establish the required gusset
thickness. For example, cuts near the elevations of the beam
flanges would be a logical location.
Larry S. Muir, P.E.

10

Deflection of Crane Supports

Several crane systems are suspended from roof trusses with


a 200-ft span. The truss deflections under dead load are
causing issues with the crane. Are AISC deflection requirements sufficient or should some other standard govern?
The AISC requirements are sufficient and must be met.
However, though the AISC Specification for Structural Steel
Buildings (a free download at www.aisc.org/2010spec)
requires that deflections must be considered, explicit deflection
criteria are not provided because the appropriate criteria will
vary by system and application. Deflection requirements are
addressed in Chapter L of the AISC Specification, which states:
Deflections in structural members and structural systems
under appropriate service load combinations shall not impair
the serviceability of the structure. The Commentary states:
Deflection limits depend very much on the function of the
structure and the nature of the supported construction.
The fact that the truss deflections are causing problems
with the crane is an indication that the intent of Chapter L has
not been satisfied.
AISC Design Guide 7 (a free download for members
at www.aisc.org/dg) states: Crane runway fabrication
and erection tolerances should be addressed in the project
specifications because standard tolerances used in steel
frameworks for buildings are not tight enough for buildings
with cranes. Also, some of the required tolerances are not
addressed in standard specification.
While not specifically addressing your particular situation,
Commentary Section 7.13 in the AISC Code of Standard
Practice states: The effects of the deflection of transfer girders
and trusses on the position of columns and hangers supported
from them may be a consideration in design and construction.
As in the case of differential column shortening, the deflection
of these supporting members during and after construction
will affect the position and alignment of the framing tributary
to these transfer members.
Carlo Lini, P.E.
The complete collection of Steel Interchange questions and answers is available online.
Find questions and answers related to just about any topic by using our full-text search
capability. Visit Steel Interchange online at www.modernsteel.com.

Larry Muir is director of technical assistance and Carlo Lini is a staff engineertechnical
assistance, both with AISC. Bo Dowswell is a consultant to AISC.

Steel Interchange is a forum to exchange useful and practical professional ideas and
information on all phases of steel building and bridge construction. Opinions and
suggestions are welcome on any subject covered in this magazine.
The opinions expressed in Steel Interchange do not necessarily represent an official position of
the American Institute of Steel Construction and have not been reviewed. It is recognized that the
design of structures is within the scope and expertise of a competent licensed structural engineer,
architect or other licensed professional for the application of principles to a particular structure.
If you have a question or problem that your fellow readers might help you solve, please
forward it to us. At the same time, feel free to respond to any of the questions that you
have read here. Contact Steel Interchange via AISCs Steel Solutions Center:
1 E Wacker Dr., Ste. 700, Chicago, IL 60601
tel: 866.ASK.AISC fax: 312.803.4709
solutions@aisc.org

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This month's Steel Quiz focuses on job-site safety and Occupational


Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations.

steel quiz

1 Per the OSHA safety regulations, columns are required


to have a minimum of _____ anchor rods. (Choose one.)
a) One, for gravity columns only
b) Two
c) Four
d) This is not a requirement, only a recommendation

5 True or False: Per OSHA safety regulations, the headed


stud and slab edge plate in Figure 3 is not permitted to
be shop attached.
Headed stud or
deformed anchor

2 True or False: The following beam-to-girder connection


does not meet OSHA safety requirements. (See Figure 1.)

Slab edge PL.


Beam
Figure 3

Double-Angle
Connection

Figure 1

6 True or False: For the connection of the gravity fram-

ing joist members shown in Figure 4, the joist bottom


chord should be welded to the stiffener/stabilizer plate.
Figure 4

3 True or False: It is typically more efficient to splice


columns every three floors.

4 Do OSHA safety regulations create any concern with


the proposed floor opening detail? (See Figure 2.)

3" Min.
Figure 2

Typ.
Guy cable hole
Column

Stiffener /
Stabilizer plates

TURN TO PAGE 14 FOR ANSWERS

12

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ANSWERS

1 c) Four. Per Section 1926.755(a)


(1) of Standard 29 CFR, OSHA
requires that all columns be
anchored by a minimum of 4
anchor rods (anchor bolts)." Note
that posts (which OSHA defines
as weighing less than 300 lb) are
distinguished from columns and
excluded from the four-anchorrod requirement.

2 True. Section 1926.756(a)(1)

states: During the final placing


of solid web structural members,
the load shall not be released
from the hoisting line until the
members are secured with at
least two bolts per connection.
The issue with this connection
is that an ironworker will need
to temporarily support the first

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beam without bolts (or remove


the bolts from the first beam that
is connected) in order to connect
the second beam. Yet the first
beam cannot be released from
the hoisting line until it has two
bolts in each connection that
cannot subsequently be removed
to permit erection of the second
beam, per OSHA requirement.
There are many solutions available,
and all eliminate the sharing
of all bolts in a common field
connection.

3 False. Connectors are required

to tie off when the fall distance


exceeds 30 ft. To work within
this height when a column splice
occurs every three floors, the
erector would erect two floors,
deck the second level first and
then deck the first level second;
thereafter, the third level must
be erected and decked before
starting the process again in the
next tier. The first two levels were
efficient because the decking at
the bottom and erection at the
top can occur simultaneously, but
the efficiency is lost in the third
level because it has to be erected
and decked before erection of the
next tier can proceed. Thus, for
construction speed and economy,
placing column splices every two
floors (or in some cases, every
four floors) is better than three
because it allows continuous
nesting of erection and decking
activities.

the interference of the upturned


angle shown, which will prevent
the placement of deck over the
opening to eliminate a fall hazard
until the opening must be cut
later in construction.

5 Tr u e . S e c t i o n 1 9 2 6 . 7 5 4 ( c ) ( 1 )

states: Shear connectors (such


as headed steel studs, steel bars
or steel lugs), reinforcing bars,
deformed anchors or threaded
studs shall not be attached to
the top flanges of beams, joists
or beam attachments so that
they project vertically from or
horizontally across the top flange
of the member until after the
metal decking, or other walking/
working surface, has been
installed. This stud isnt permitted
because it protrudes into the
width of the beam flange (walking
surface).

6 True. AISCs Detailing for Steel

Construction states: There is


no stiffener over the column,
and stability of the column
top is provided by welding the
extended bottom chords to the
stabilizer plates. These welded
connections create continuity in
the joists. Similar guidance for
this and other common cases of
column-top stability is provided
in Part 2 of the AISC Steel
Construction Manual.

4 Yes. As stated in Part 2 of the

14th Edition AISC Manual,


Framed metal deck openings
must have structural members
configured with projecting
elements turned down to allow
continuous decking, except
where not allowed by design
constraints or constructability.
The openings in the metal deck
are not to be cut until the hole
is needed. Thus, the concern is

Everyone is welcome to submit questions and


answers for Steel Quiz. If you are interested
in submitting one question or an entire quiz,
contact AISCs Steel Solutions Center at
866.ASK.AISC or at solutions@aisc.org.

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steelwise
Keeping tabs on current ASTM specifications
will help you make the right choices when
designing and building your projects.

ARE YOU PROPERLY


SPECIFYING
MATERIALS?
BY MARTIN ANDERSON, CHARLES J. CARTER,
S.E., P.E., PH.D., AND THOMAS J. SCHLAFLY

THE MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS used in building design and construction are almost universally designated by reference to an appropriate ASTM specification. This simplifies
the design and construction process because you can define all
the characteristics of a specified product. However, with dozens
of ASTM specifications applicable in steel building construction alone, it can be a challenge to keep the standard designations used in contracts current.
This article provides a summary of the common ASTM
specifications used in steel building design and construction,
including structural shapes, plate products, fastening products
and other products. This information is based upon similar and
This Article Covers Buildings, but for Bridges...
Another possibility for structural shapes and plates
is ASTM A709, which is an umbrella standard that
assembles ASTM A36, A572, A992, A588 and three
high-performance steel (HPS) grades into a convenient
single standard for bridge designers and fabricators.
The HPS grades are available in plate form only.
Grade 50S is available in shapes. The other grades
are available in plates form and as shapes, though
availability should be confirmed prior to specification.
ASTM A709 provides toughness levels for three
exposures and two uses. Much material supplied to
A709 meets one of those toughness levels. Material
furnished to ASTM A709 grades are acceptable for use
where the corresponding parent standard is specified.

more extensive information in the 14th Edition AISC Steel


Construction Manual. You may also find it convenient to use the
AISC publication Selected ASTM Standards for Steel Construction,
a compilation of more than 60 steel-related ASTM standards.
(Both the AISC Manual and Selected ASTM Standards are available for purchase online at www.aisc.org/bookstore.)
Note that ASTM standards routinely include a section on
ordering requirements that lists the variables in each standard
that should be specified in a complete order or specification for
the material. This is routine for the purchasing department at
the local fabrication company and may be of great interest to
others as well.
STRUCTURAL SHAPES
See Summary in Table 1 (page 18).
W-Shapes
The preferred material specification for W-shapes is ASTM
A992 (Fy = 50 ksi, Fu = 65 ksi). The availability and cost effectiveness of W-shapes in grades other than ASTM A992 should
be confirmed prior to their specification. W-shapes with higher
yield and tensile strength can be obtained by specifying ASTM
A529 Grade 55, ASTM A572 Grades 55, 60 or 65, or ASTM
A913 Grades 60, 65 or 70.
W-shapes with atmospheric corrosion resistance (weathering characteristics) can be obtained by specifying ASTM A588
Grade 50. These and other material specifications applicable to
W-shapes are shown in Table 1.

Martin Anderson (anderson@aisc.


org) is AISCs research and safety
project manager. Charles J. Carter,
S.E., P.E., Ph.D. (carter@aisc.org) is
a vice president and chief structural
engineer with AISC. Thomas J. Schlafly
(schlafly@aisc.org) is director of
research (and AISC liaison to ASTM,
AWS, RCSC and many other industry
organizations) with AISC.

Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

17

steelwise
Table 1
Table 2-4
Applicable ASTM Specifications for Various Structural Shapes
Steel Type

Fy Yield
Stressa (ksi)

ASTM
Designation
A36

36

58-80

A53 Gr B

35

60

42

58

46

58

46

62

50

62

Gr. B
A500
Gr. C
Carbon

A501
A529c

Gr. A

36

58

Gr. B

50

70

Gr. 50

50

65-100

55

70-100

36

36

58-80b

36

36-52

58

50

50-65

65

Gr. 42

42

60

Gr. 50

50

65

A1043d

T e

A572

Gr. 55

Gr. 60

Gr. 65e

High-Strength
Low Alloy

Gr.

Ib

Gr. III
50

II

55

70

60

75

65

80

50g

70g

50

65

50

65

50-65

65

50W

50

70

50

50h

65h

60

60

65

65

70

70

A992

50i

A588

50

A8 7

50

70

A913

HP

MC

HSS
Rect.

Round

Pipe

50S

A709

Applicable Shape Series

Gr. 55

A709

A618f

Fu Tensile
Stressa (ksi)

75
80
90

n
t

2
s


Corrosion
Resistant
High-Strength
Low-A oy

65i
70

= Prefer ed material spec fication.


= Other applicable material specificat on the a ailab ty f whi h shou d be confirmed prior to specificatio .
= Material specification does not apply.

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h

18

Min mum unless a range is shown.


For wide-flange shapes with flange thickness over 3 in., only the minimum of 58 ksi applies.
For shapes with a flange or leg thickness less than or equal to 1 in only To improve weldability, a max mum carbon equivalent can be specified
(per ASTM Supplementary Requirement S78). If desired, maximum tensile stress of 90 ksi can be specified (per ASTM Supplementary Requirement S79).
For shape profiles with a flange width of 6 in. or greater.
For shapes with a flange thickness less than or equal to 2 in. only.
ASTM A618 can also be specified as cor osion-resistant; see ASTM A618.
Min mum applies fo wal s nom nally -in. thick and under. For wa thi kness over -in Fy = 46 ksi nd Fu = 67 ksi.
If desired, maximum yield stress of 65 ksi and maximum yield-to-tensile strength ratio of 0.85 can be specified
(per ASTM Supplementary Requirement S75 .
A axim m yie d- o-te sile ra o of 0.85 and ca bon equi len formu a a e in luded as mandatory, an so e variation i allowed n uding for
shapes tested with coupons cut from the web; see AS M A992.

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M-Shapes and S-Shapes
The preferred material specification for these shapes is in transition. Use of ASTM
A36 (Fy = 36 ksi, Fu = 58 ksi) is now only slightly more common than use of a 50-ksi grade
like ASTM A572 Grade 50, ASTM A529 Grade 50, or ASTM A992; each of these 50-ksi
grades has Fy = 50 ksi and Fu = 65ksi for these shapes. The availability and cost effectiveness of M-shapes and S-shapes in grades other than these should be confirmed prior to
their specification.
M-shapes and S-shapes with a higher yield and tensile strength can be obtained by
specifying ASTM A572 Grades 55, 60 and 65, ASTM A529 Grade 55 or ASTM A913
Grades 60, 65 or 70. Atmospheric corrosion resistance (weathering characteristics)
can be obtained by specifying ASTM A588 Grade 50. These and other material specifications applicable to M-shapes and S-shapes are shown in Table 1.
Channels
The preceding comments for M-shapes and S-shapes apply equally to channels.
HP-Shapes
The preferred material specification for HP shapes is ASTM A572 Grade 50 (Fy
= 50 ksi, Fu = 65 ksi); the availability and cost effectiveness of other grades should be
confirmed prior to specification.
HP-shapes with atmospheric corrosion resistance (weathering characteristics)
can be obtained by specifying ASTM A588 Grade 50. These and other material
specifications applicable to HP-shapes are shown in Table 1.
Angles
The preceding comments for M-shapes and S-shapes apply equally to angles.
Structural Tees
Structural tees are split from W-, M- and S-shapes to make WT-, MT- and
ST-shapes, respectively. For the preferred material specifications, as well as other
suitable material specifications for structural tees, refer to the preceding sections on
W-, M- or S-shapes, as appropriate.
Rectangular (and Square) HSS
The preferred material specification for rectangular hollow structural sections
(HSS) is ASTM A500 Grade C (Fy = 50 ksi, Fu = 62 ksi). Note that a new standard,
ASTM A1085 (see sidebar New (and Recently New) Things), seeks to replace
it. The availability and cost effectiveness of rectangular HSS in grades other than
ASTM A500 Grade C should be confirmed prior to their specification.
Rectangular HSS with atmospheric resistance (weathering characteristics) can
be obtained by specifying ASTM A847. These and other material specifications applicable to rectangular HSS are shown in Table 1.
Round HSS
The preferred material specification for round HSS is ASTM A500 Grade C (Fy
= 46 ksi, Fu = 62 ksi). Note that a new standard, ASTM A1085 (see sidebar New
(and Recently New) Things), seeks to replace it. The availability and cost effectiveness of round HSS in grades other than ASTM A500 Grade C should be confirmed
prior to specification.
Generally speaking, only round HSS with the same cross-sectional dimensions as
steel pipe are stocked and available. See the sidebar 12 Tidbits for further information.
Round HSS with atmospheric corrosion resistance (weathering characteristics)
can be obtained by specifying ASTM A847. These and other material specifications
applicable to round HSS are shown in Table 1.
20

FEBRUARY 2015

Technical Spotlight
Bolt Length Selec on

STRUCTURAL BOLTS
ANCHOR BOLTS
GRIP
Nominal Bolt
Diameter

WELD STUDS

To determine required bolt length add to


grip (inches)
No washers

1 washer

2 washers

1/2

11/16

55/64

1-3/64

5/8

7/8

1-1/32

1-3/16

3/4

1-5/32

1-5/16

7/8

1-1/8

1-9/32

1-7/16

1-1/4

1-13/32

1-9/16

1-1/8

1-1/2

1-21/32

1-13/16

1-1/4

1-5/8

1-25/32

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steelwise
New (and Recently New) Things
A Channel Especially for Stair Stringers: The MC1214.3 that recently

was added to ASTM A6 was conceived as a stair stringer. It has a 218in. flange width, which is wide enough to accept the common handrail
pipe size and fillet weld around it. No more crimping the pipe or goobering the weld!
Bigger HP-shapes: The HP18- and HP16-series shapes that recently were
added to ASTM A6 provide for even higher pile strengths. They, like all
HP shapes, also have thicker webs (tw = tf) and may help eliminate the
need for stiffeners and doublers when used as columns.
Larger HSS: Until recently ASTM A500 HSS was limited to 58-in. thickness and 64-in. perimeter. It now permits HSS to 78-in. thickness and
88-in. perimeter. While the standards permit these larger sizes, they
are not currently made in the U.S.; availability should be checked.
HSS with sizes that exceed ASTM A500s 88-in. periphery limit can
also be obtained and are discussed in an article titled Larger Hollow Structural Sections in the November 2011 issue of Modern
Steel. This includes a discussion of ASTM A1065, which covers these
shapes produced by forming two channels and welding the channels
together.
ASTM A1085 for HSS: Formalized in April 2013, this new standard offers
tighter tolerances on wall thickness and corner radii, shape perimeters
of up to 88 inches, minimum yield strength of 50 ksi, minimum tensile
strength of 70 ksi and a maximum yield of 70ksi, standard CVN of 25
ft-lb at 40 F with the option to request a custom CVN through a supplementary requirement. For additional information on ASTM A1085, see
www.aisc.org/A1085 and Hollow Product, Solid Benefit in the September 2013 issue of Modern Steel.
Simpler Bolting: ASTM recently approved ASTM F3125, an umbrella
specification that covers what is now in ASTM A325, A490, F1852 and
F2280. The beauty of this standard is that these previously separate
standards have been unified, coordinated and made consistent with
each other (kudos to Chad Larson, president of LeJeune Bolt Company,
for leading the effort to create this significant improvement). In future
editions of RCSC and AISC standards, we expect you will see ASTM
F3125 referenced instead of the currently separate list of standards. The
names of the current standards are used as the names of the grades in
the new standard, so you will still be able to order A325, A490, F1852
and F2280 bolts, and you will still be able to identify them by the marks
on the head. Stay tuned!
Two other materials to mention: ASTM A283 covers low-yield carbon steel
plate material in four grades. ASTM A1043 covers plates and shapes and
is most commonly used as core material in the manufacture of bucklingrestrained braces. These two newer products are shown in Tables 1 and 2.
Very High Strength Bolting: ASTM also just approved ASTM F3111 and
F3043, which are 200-ksi structural bolts available in heavy hex and TC
versions, respectively. These bolts have strict environmental requirements that are discussed in the standards, but essentially they must
always remain dry and free from contact with corrosive chemicals. These
bolts are proprietary and not produced domestically ask the steel fabricator to make sure you can obtain these bolts; if so, they may be helpful, especially in large connections.

22

FEBRUARY 2015

Steel Pipe
The material specification for steel pipe
used in structural frames is ASTM A53
Grade B (Fy = 35 ksi, Fu = 60 ksi). In some
regions, ASTM A53 material is more readily available than ASTM A500 for round
cross sections. See the sidebar 12 Tidbits
for further information.
PLATE PRODUCTS
See Summary in Table 2.
Structural Plates
The preferred material specification
for structural plates is in transition. Use of
ASTM A36 (Fy = 36 ksi for plate thickness
equal to or less than 8 in., Fy = 32 ksi otherwise; Fu = 58 ksi) is as common as use of
ASTM A572 Grade 50 (Fy = 50 ksi, Fu =
65 ksi for plate thickness equal to or less
than 4 in.). The availability and cost effectiveness of structural plates in grades
other than these should be confirmed prior
to their specification. Note also the thickness ranges are different for other grades as
shown in Table 2-2.
Structural plates with higher yield and
tensile strength can be obtained by specifying ASTM A572 Grade 55, 60 or 65, ASTM
A529 Grade 55, ASTM A514 Grade 90 or
100 or ASTM A852. Structural plates with
atmospheric corrosion resistance (weathering characteristics) can be obtained by
specifying ASTM A588 Grade 42, 46 or
50. These and other material specifications
applicable to structural plates are shown in
Table 2.
Structural Bars
The preceding comments for structural
plates apply equally to structural bars, except ASTM A514 is not applicable.
Raised-Pattern Floor Plates
ASTM A786 is the standard specification for rolled steel floor plates. As
floor-plate design is seldom controlled
by strength considerations, ASTM A786
commercial grade is commonly specified.
If so, per ASTM A786 Section 5.1.3, the
product will be supplied with 0.33 percent
maximum carbonand without specified

steelwise
Table 2
Table 2-5
Applicable ASTM Specifications for Plates and Bars
Plates and Bars, in.
Steel Type

ASTM Designation

A36

Carbon

A283
A529
A709

A572
HighStrength
Low-Alloy
A709
A1043

Corrosion
Resistant
Quenched
and
Tempered
Low-Alloy

58-80

over
0.75
to
1.25
incl.

over
1.25
to
1.5
incl.

over
1.5
to 2
incl.

over
2 to
2.5
incl.

over
2.5
to 4
incl.

36

58-80
55-75

Gr. D

33

60-80

Gr. 50

50

70-100

Gr. 55

55

70-100

Gr. 36

36

58-80

Gr. 42

42

60

Gr. 50

50

65

Gr. 55

55

70

Gr. 60

60

75

Gr. 65

65

80

Gr. 50

50

65

Gr. 36

36-52

58

Gr. 50

50-65

65

42

63

46

67

50

70

42

63

46

67

50

70

90

100-130

100

110-130

50

70

A514
Gr. 50W
A709

32

to
0.75
incl.

30

A588

Quenched
and
Tempered
Alloy

Fu
Tensile
Stressa
(ksi)

Gr. C

A242

Corrosion
Resistant
HighStrength
Low-Alloy

Fy
Yield
Stressa
(ksi)

Gr. HPS 50W

50

70

Gr. HPS 70W

70

85-110

90

100-130

100

110-130

Gr. HPS 100W

over
4 to
5
incl.

over
5 to
6
incl.

over
6 to
8
incl.

over
8

= Preferred material specification.


= Other applicable material specification, the availability of which should be confirmed prior to specification.
= Material specification does not apply.
a
b
c
d

Minimum unless a range is shown.


Applicable for plates to 1-inch thickness and bars to 3-inch thickness.
Applicable for plates to 1-inch thickness and bars to 3-inch thickness.
Thickness is not limited to 2 in. in ASTM A283 and thicker plates may be obtained but availability should be confirmed.

Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

23

steelwise
mechanical properties. Alternatively, if a defined strength
level is desired, ASTM A786 raised-pattern floor plate can
be ordered to a specific plate material specification, such as
ASTM A36, A572 or A588; see ASTM A786 Sections 5.1.3,
and Section 7.
Sheet and Strip
Sheet and strip products, which generally are thinner than
structural plate and bar products, are produced to such ASTM
specifications as A606, A1008 or A1011. These are umbrella
standards with many types and grades; the structural steel
type is designated SS and the standards provide for grades
from 25 or 30 to 80. Availability should be checked before
specifying the grade.
FASTENING PRODUCTS
See Summary in Table 3.
Conventional Bolts
The preferred material specification for conventional (heavy
hex) high-strength bolts in steel-to-steel connections is ASTM
A325, although ASTM A490 is equally available and can be
specified when higher strength is desired. In either case, Type 1
is the most commonly specified (medium-carbon steel). When
atmospheric corrosion resistance is desired, Type 3 can be specified. While still formally permitted in the AISC Specification,
the use of other material specifications in steel-to-steel bolting
applications has become quite uncommon.

Compressible-Washer-Type Direct-Tension Indicators


When bolted joints are specified as pretensioned or slipcritical and the direct-tension-indicator pretensioning method
is used, ASTM F959 compressible-washer-type direct-tension
indicators are specified. Type 325 is used with ASTM A325
high-strength bolts and type 490 is used with ASTM A490
high-strength bolts. The use of these devices must conform to
the requirements in the RCSC Specification, which provides detailed requirements for pre-installation verification (Section 7),
installation (Section 8) and inspection (Section 9). The RCSC
Specification also permits alternative washer-type indicating devices subject to the provision in Section 2.6.2.

Nuts
The preferred material specification for heavy-hex nuts is
ASTM A563. The appropriate grade and finish is specified per
ASTM A563 Table X1.1 according to the bolt or threaded part
with which the nut will be used. For steel-to-steel structural
bolting applications, the appropriate grade and finish is summarized in Section 2.4 of the RCSC Specification. If its availability
can be confirmed prior to specification, ASTM A194 Grade 2H
nuts are permitted as an alternative, as indicated in Table 2.1 in
the RCSC Specification.

Anchor Rods
The preferred material specification for anchor rods is
ASTM F1554, which covers hooked, headed, threaded and nutted anchor rods in three strength grades: 36, 55 and 105. ASTM
F1554 Grade 55 is most commonly specified, although grades
36 and 105 are normally available. Note that, per Section 4.1
in ASTM F1554, when grade 36 is ordered the supplier may
substitute weldable grade 55 at their option.
ASTM F1554 Grade 36 may be welded, while Grade 55 may
be welded if it is ordered with Supplement S1. Grade 105 may
not be welded, as the heat will detrimentally affect performance.
Several other ASTM specifications also may be used. For
applications involving rods that are not headed, ASTM A36,
A193, A307, A354, A449, A572, A588 and A687 can be specified;
note that the ASTM A307 Grade C anchor bolt has been deleted from ASTM A307 and replaced by ASTM F1554 Grade
36. For applications involving headed rods, A354 and A449 can
be specified.

Washers for Structural Bolts


The preferred material specification for hardened steel washers is ASTM F436. This specification provides for both flat and
beveled washers. Recently, an extra thick option was added to
provide for the cases in RCSC Specification Table 6.1 that require
a special 516-in. thickness (when oversized or slotted holes are
used in the outer ply of a steel-to-steel structural joint).

Threaded Rods
The preferred material specification for threaded rods,
whether provided with plain or upset ends, is ASTM A36. Other material specifications that can be specified include ASTM
A193, A307, A354, A449, A572, A588 and A687. Note that
ASTM A354 Grade BC and A449 are permitted to be used for
bolts when the size required is outside the range of ASTM A325.

Twist-Off-Type Tension-Control Bolt Assemblies


There are two preferred material specifications for twistoff-type tension-control bolt assemblies; ASTM F1852,
which offers a strength equivalent to that of ASTM A325
bolts, and ASTM F2280, which offers a strength equivalent
to that of ASTM A490 bolts.

24

Washers for Anchor Rods


In anchor rod and other embedment applications, hole sizes
generally are larger than those for steel-to-steel structural bolting applications; see Table 14-2 in the AISC Steel Construction
Manual. Accordingly, washers used in such applications generally are larger and might require design consideration for
proper force transfer, particularly when the anchorage is subject to tension. Such anchor-rod washers generally are made
from plate or bar material. When anchor rods are used in holes
that are smaller (516-in. larger than rod diameters up to 1 in.;
-in. larger than rod diameters over 1 in. to 2 in.; and 1 in.
larger than rod diameters over 2 in.) ASTM F844 washers can
be used. Note that they can be ordered with a larger diameter
than ASTM F436 washers.

FEBRUARY 2015

steelwise
Table 3
Table 2-6
Applicable ASTM Specifications for Various Types of Structural Fasteners
Bolts

Type 1
A325
Type 3

120

0.5 to 1, incl.

Type 1

150

0.5 to 1.5

Type 3

150

0.5 to 1.5

105

1.125

120

0.5 to 1, incl.

105

1.125

120

0.5 to 1, incl.

Type 1

150

0.5 to 1.125

Type 3

150

0.5 to 1.125

A194 Gr. 2H

0.25 to 4

A563

0.25 to 4

F436

0.25 to 4b

A490

Type 1
F1852
Type 3
F2280

F844

any

F959

0.5 to 1.5

A36

36

58-80

to 10

75

100

over 4 to 7

95

115

over 2.5 to 4

105

125

2.5 and under

A193 Gr. B7
A307 Gr. A
Gr. BC

over 2.5 to 4, incl.

115
140

2.5 to 4 incl.

130

150

0.25 to 2.5, incl.

58

90

over 1.5 to 3 incl.

81

105

over 1 to 1.5 incl.

Type 3

92

120

0.25 to 1 incl.

Gr. 42

42

60

to 6

Gr. 50

50

65

to 4c

Gr. 55

55

70

to 2

Gr. 60

60

75

to 3.5

Gr. 65

65

80

to 1.25

42

63

over 5 to 8, incl.

46

67

over 4 to 5, incl.

50

70

4 and under

Gr. 36

36

58-80

0.25 to 4

Gr. 55

55

75-95

0.25 to 4

Gr. 105

105

125-150

0.25 to 3

Type 1

A588

F1554

0.25 to 4
0.25 to 2.5, incl.

99

Gr. BD

A572

60
125

115

A354

A449

109

= Preferred material specification.


= Other applicable material specification, the availability
of which should be confirmed prior to specification.
= Material specification does not apply.

a
b
c

Threaded &
Nutted

Headed

1.125 to 1.5, incl.

Hooked

105

Threaded Rods

0.5 to 1, incl.

Direct-Tension
Indicator

1.125 to 1.5, incl.

120

Plain

105

Hardened

Nuts

Diameter Range (in.)

Common

Fu
Tensile
Stressa
(ksi)

Twist-OffType Tension
Control

Fy
Yield
Stressa
(ksi)

Conventional

ASTM
Designation

Anchor
Rods

Washers

High
Strength

Indicates that a value is not specified in the material specification.


Minimum unless a range is shown or maximum (max.) is indicated.
Diameter range is in. to 1 in. for beveled and extra thick washers.
ASTM A572 permits larger rod diameters, but practicality of threading
should be confirmed before specification.
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

25

steelwise

12 Important Tidbits for 2015


1. When in doubt, check it out. Have questions about
availability? Call a fabricator or contact the AISC Steel
Solutions Center (solutions@aisc.org; 866.ASK.AISC).
Either one can keep you swimming in available steel.
Also visit www.aisc.org/availability.
2. Times change. ASTM A992 originally was introduced
covering only W-shapes. A later revision to this ASTM
standard expanded its scope to include other hotrolled structural cross sections (channels, angles, Mshapes, etc.), allowing them to be made to ASTM
A992. Nevertheless, A992 still is not common in
shapes other than W-shapes.
3. Round HSS steel pipe. Know the difference between
ASTM A500 and ASTM A53. ASTM A500 is for HSS (Fy
= 46 ksi for Grade C, 42 ksi for Grade B). ASTM A53 is
for steel pipe (Fy = 35 ksi).
4. Round HSS are similar to steel pipe. Know the similarity between available round HSS (ASTM A500) and steel
pipe (ASTM A53). Generally speaking, only round HSS
with the same cross-sectional dimensions as steel pipe
are stocked and available. So, avoid specifying a round
HSS with a cross section that does not match up to one
of the steel pipe cross sections. This is a lot easier than it
sounds; just use round HSS with non-zero numbers after
the decimal point. For example, HSS5.5630.258 has the
same cross-section as a Pipe 5 Std. And it will generally
be available, while HSS5.0000.250 is an HSS-only product and will require a mill-order quantity to obtain.
5. Properly designate your HSS. A round HSS is designated
by nominal diameter and wall thickness, each expressed
to three decimal placesfor example, HSS5.5630.258.
A square or rectangular HSS is designated by nominal
outside dimensions and wall thickness, each in rational
numbersfor example, HSS5338.
6. Properly designate your steel pipes. Use nominal pipe
size (NPS) designation through NPS 12for example,
Pipe 5 Std., Pipe 5 x-strong or Pipe 5 xx-strong. Note
26

FEBRUARY 2015

that this notation has commonly been abbreviated as


follows for the examples given: P5, PX5 and PXX5 respectively. Above NPS 12, use the format Pipe followed by nominal diameter nominal wall thickness,
each expressed to three decimal placesfor example,
NPS 14 Standard is designated Pipe 14.0000.375.
The latter format also applies to any steel pipe size
smaller than NPS 12 that does not have an NPS size.
7. Dont confuse anchor rods with structural bolts. Do not
specify your anchor rods as ASTM A325 or A490. The
ASTM A325 and A490 standards cover headed bolts,
with limited thread length, generally available only
up to 8 in. in length, and governed by provisions for
steel-to-steel structural joints only. You say youve always specified your anchorage devices this way and
its never been a problem? Well, the reality is that your
fabricator has been awfully nice to not embarrass you
by pointing out that youve specified a product that
does not come in the length you likely specifiedor
as a hooked or longer-threaded rod. Use ASTM F1554,
which covers hooked, headed and threaded/nutted
rods in three strength grades.
8. Have all the information at your fingertips. More extensive information can be found in the 14th Edition
AISC Steel Construction Manual and the AISC publication Selected ASTM Standards for Steel Construction,
which are available at www.aisc.org/bookstore.
9. Remember to specify the alternate core location CVN requirement when you have heavy shapes or plates with CJP
groove welds and subject to tension; see AISC Specification Sections A3.1c and A3.1d for further information.
10. When specifying weathering steel, think ASTM A588
first. ASTM A242 is increasingly less common.
11. Use the MC1214.3 for stair stringers. The handrail
pipe sizes will fitas will the fillet welds used to connect them on this new channel with a wider flange.
12. When in doubt, check it out and ask your fabricator.
Oh wait, this is number 1. Well, it is important.

steelwise

ASTM A354 Grade BD is permitted when the size required is


outside the range of ASTM A490. These standards are material
standards, not bolt standards, so the desired dimensions have
to be specified as per ANSI ASME B18.2.6 heavy hex class 2A.
Shear Stud Connectors
Shear studs are specified as given in AWS D1.1 Clause 7,
with material as required in Clause 7.2.6. Type B is usual and
the corresponding mechanical requirements are stated in AWS
D1.1 Table 7.1 (Fy = 51 ksi, Fu = 65 ksi).
Forged Steel Structural Hardware
Forged steel structural hardware products, such as clevises,
turnbuckles, eye nuts and sleeve nuts are occasionally used in
building design and construction. These products are generally
provided to AISI material specifications. AISI C-1035 is commonly used in the manufacture of clevises and turnbuckles. AISI
C-1030 is commonly used in the manufacture of steel eye nuts
and steel eye bolts. AISI C-1018 Grade 2 is commonly used in
the manufacture of sleeve nuts. Other products, such as steel
rod ends, steel yoke ends and pins, cotter pins and coupling nuts
are provided generically as carbon steel. The dimensional and
strength characteristics of these devices are described in the literature provided by their manufacturer. Note that such information may be provided as a safe working load and based upon a factor of safety as high as 5, assuming that the product will be used
in rigging or similar applications subject to dynamic loading. If
so, the tabular value might be overly conservative for permanent
installations and similar applications subject to static loading only.
In these applications, a factor of safety of 3 is more common.
Filler Metal
Filler metals permitted for use with prequalified welding
procedure specifications are shown associated with the base
metals for which they are considered matching in AWS D1.1
Table 3.1. A tensile strength of 70 is considered matching for
base metals up to 70 ksi minimum tensile strength.

OTHER PRODUCTS
Steel Castings and Forgings
Steel castings can be produced in a wide variety of chemical
compositions and mechanical properties; most are heat treated.
Two standards useful in steel structures are ASTM A216 Grade
WCB with Supplementary Requirement S11 and A958A958M
Grade SC8620 class 80/50. Steel forgings are specified as
ASTM A668.
Crane Rails
Crane rails are furnished to ASTM A759, ASTM A1 and/
or manufacturers specifications and tolerances. Rail is designated by unit weight in units of pounds per yard. Dimensions of common rail are shown in the AISC 14th Edition
Manual Table 1-21; other rail profiles also exist and may be
available.
Most manufacturers chamfer the top and sides of the
crane rail head at the ends unless specified otherwise to
reduce chipping of the running surfaces. Often crane rails
are ordered as end-hardened, which improves the crane rail
ends resistance to impact from contact with the moving
wheel during crane operation. Alternatively, the entire rail
can be ordered as heat-treated. When maximum wheel loading or controlled cooling is needed, refer to manufacturer
catalogs. Purchase orders for crane rails should be noted for
crane service.
Light 40-lb rails are available in 30-ft lengths, standard rails
in 33-ft or 39-ft lengths, and crane rails up to 80 ft. Consult
manufacturer for availability of other lengths.
Rails should be arranged so that joints on opposite sides of
the crane runway will be staggered with respect to each other
and with due consideration to the wheelbase of the crane. Rail
joints should not occur at crane girder splices. Odd lengths that
must be included to complete a run or obtain the necessary
stagger should be not less than 10 ft long. Rails are furnished
with standard drilling for splice bars in both standard and odd

lengths unless stipulated otherwise on the order.

Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

27

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business issues
If youre pre-planning after a job has already
started, youre not really pre-planning.

PRE-PLANNING
TIPS AND TOOLS
BY STEPHEN BURKHOLDER

When it comes to the when, based upon my experience, most


AS WE CONTINUE TO COME BACK from the recent ecofirms start what they consider to be the pre-planning phase
nomic downturn, job planning is more important than ever.
Gone are the days of people handing out negotiated con- during the project management processbut why? By the time
tracts and when there was plenty of skilled labor to handle the you get to the project management process, you have already
demands of the steel industry. Today, if you do not have a solid passed the halfway point of the project. If you wait until that
stage, its much too late to pre-plan! Pre-planning should start
plan, you may not survive too long.
In fact, as important as planning is, theres an equally impor- prior to the invitation to bid stage.
Executive leaders of every firm need to review each bid invite
tant step that should come first: pre-planning. As you might
guess, the idea is to plan as early as possible in the project to see if it fits into the companys business model. All too often
firms take a bid-it-all approach, then
(namely, at the beginning). I also
they get overbooked and this opens
describe it this way: Pre-planning
up door to lower quality, less safe
is the ability to create opportunity
Pre-planning is the ability to
operations and the potential for
for greatness within an organization
damaged or strained business relabefore the organization is ready to
create opportunity for greatness
tionships. In other words, pre-planbe great.
ning for a job can mean whether to
The first time I spoke those
words to my team, the looks on their
within an organization before the even commit to the job at that time.
Once it is determined that a job is a
faces were those of puzzlement. It
took time for me to convince them
organization is ready to be great. fit for the company, the estimating
department needs to have a plan on
that we had to be prepared to suchow to complete a full and detailed
ceed well before we were asked to
estimate of the job. By pre-planning
proceed. The day they all got it is
the day that my company, S&R Enterprises, started to change for each job, the estimators will know what kind of resources
for the better. Of course, presenting the concept of pre-plan- will be required to get the estimated ready for review. Never
ning brought up questions such as: Who should start the pro- should a project be bid on a reaction that is likely just asking
cess? When should the pre-planning commence? What exactly for disaster.
After a complete and thorough estimate is prepared, includshould be pre-planned?
So as we started this new way of thinking, we quickly ing a thorough review by executive management and the operadetermined that the answer to the who question is everyone tions team, the sales teams need to step in and start the dialogue
involved. For years I have preached that the number of valu- with the projects potential fabricator and general contractor.
able, team-oriented people you have in your boat has a direct These relationships should already be established, as the sales
correlation to how fast that boat will travel and in what direction. In other words, leave your ego at the door and be part of
Stephen Burkholder
the team!
(sburkholder@srenterprises.
In the steel industry the life of a project is typically outlined
com) is president of S&R
as follows:
Enterprises, LLC.
Invitation to bid
Estimating process
Sales process
Project management process
Operations
Archiving

Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

29

business
issues
team should be constantly pre-planning
for who your firm wants to do business
with; a work-for-anyone mentality typically breeds more failure than success.

After the bid is awardedwhich


should be viewed as confirmation that
your firm is the best one for the jobit
is time to turn the project over to the

operations team. Field managers are constantly learning from previous successes
and mistakes and are generally the biggest pre-planners on the team, as this is
all too often assumed to be the stage that
pre-planning makes or breaks a job. But
again, its way too late in the process for
pre-planning at this point. If real pre-planning is implemented, they will encounter
fewer mistakes to learn from and will go
into each job with the right information
from the get-go.
Now that weve discussed the when and
the who, lets wrap up with the what. The
answer is very simple: everything needs to
be pre-planned. Just think, when everyone
in an organization does their job to the best
of the abilities, the company will succeed.
So why not make pre-planning a part of
everyones job and encourage them to preplan all aspects of their work? It helps to
avoid mistakes further along in the process,
encourages constant improvement with
subsequent jobs and contributes to the success and happiness of your employees and

company.
This article is a preview of Session N35 PrePlanning Tips and Tools at NASCC: The
Steel Conference, taking place March 2527 in
Nashville. Learn more about the conference at
www.aisc.org/nascc.

30

FEBRUARY 2015

A vertical addition to a university building


is offset from the below building by 31 in order to meet site requirements.

Off the GRID

BY PAUL DANNELS,
FAIA

IT HAD TO BE DIAGONAL.
That was the determination after many months of deliberation about positioning a new academic building in relation to
an existing building at Michigan State University.
The new classroom and office building that would replace
the schools Morrill Hall, which was demolished, had been
considered in numerous locations and orientations. The final
decision, though, was that in order to meet all of the programmatic and site requirements, the new building needed to rise
three stories directly above the existing Wells Hall building
not aligned on the original buildings grid, but rather sprawled
diagonally across it.
Set at a 31 angle to its immediate surroundings, the
88,000-sq.-ft addition includes three stories and a mechanical
penthouse above existing classrooms. It provides a new home
for the College of Arts and Letters and allows the universitys
language programs to be brought together in a common facility that includes classrooms, offices, language labs, a two-story
atrium, a new auditorium, a coffee shop and a green roof. Its
a technologically advanced learning facility designed to be a
comfortable place of interaction between students and faculty.
32

FEBRUARY 2015

Planned Eccentricities
The design team took on the challenge with one disclaimer: Though the building would be oriented as desired,
constructed on time and on budget and built to preserve
functional existing ground-floor classrooms, the design team
would propose a regular structural grid and the university
would accept the plans eccentricities that the regular grid
imposed. Thus began a complicated geometric exercise of
overlaying potential structural grids diagonally across existing auditorium-type classrooms, many with demanding requirements for unobstructed views to the classroom podium.
Numerous bay sizes and lateral systems were considered,
then tweaked and shifted to leave columns in strategically
acceptable locations.
Ultimately, 17 column locations on a surprisingly regular
grid were proposed for surgically precise insertion into the
floor plan of the existing building: four outside the building and
13 inside, with four columns inside auditoriums. The column
grid was chosen to minimize impact on the classrooms, with
an emphasis on preserving seating, maintaining lines of view
and honoring circulation requirements. Once these priorities

Photos this page: Maconochie Photography

The new vertical expansion to Michigan States Wells Hall


added 88,000 sq. ft of space in three storiesat a 31 angle to
the existing building directly beneath it.
A cross section of the framing for the new structure...
...which penetrates the existing building below.

Paul Dannels
(paul@sdistructures.com)
is a principal with SDIStructures and a faculty
member in the school of
architecture at the University
of Detroit Mercy. He was a
2013 IDEAS2 Awards juror.

Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

33

were addressed, columns landed in locations of minimal functional impact, though one column appears in a corridor (and
was painted bright green to match the color scheme of the area).
In order to minimize the number of columns, a central spine
of 49-ft bays was established at the ground floor. Above, the wide
bay spacing is spanned by two-story-tall steel trusses with bottom
chords that cantilever 9 ft in one direction and 14 ft in the other
direction to add additional floor space in the above stories. As the
trusses were installed in the air, temporary shoring and bracing
was used to hold the cantilever in the proper position until the
field welding could be completed.
HSS members terminated by welded T-sections serve as
diagonal truss webs. At the connections to floor members,
which are W-shapes that serve as truss chords, web ends are
bolted with tension-control bolts to exposed gusset plates at

the column bases. At the top end of the diagonals, connections


are concealed above finished ceilings and the webs are welded
to gussets to provide for field adjustment. The vertical truss
elements act as building columns as well and are sized to carry
significant truss forces without web stiffeners. The use of the
two-story-tall trusses allowed lighter, shallower floor members at levels two, three and four, and the trusses were left architecturally exposed and are prominently visible throughout
the building. The bolted floor connections become a natural part of the buildings aesthetic and at locations where the
webs penetrate the finished ceiling, careful drywall and wood
detailing allows the members to gracefully pass through the
ceiling plane. The two-story trusses also provide stiffness to
the upper stories of the building and serve as part of the structures transverse lateral system. Ground-floor wide-flange mo-

Paul Dannels

HSS members terminated by welded T-sections serve as diagonal truss webs. At the top ends of the diagonals, connections
are concealed above finished ceilings and the webs are welded to gussets to allow for field adjustment.

Paul Dannels

34

FEBRUARY 2015

Maconochie Photography

Winners Choose
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Curve Steel
2002 EAE Merit Award 400 tons of 16 inch pipe
curved for JFK International Airport Terminal 4.
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Bridge Award 152 tons of 18 pipe
curved in our Kansas City plant for the
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channels and angle for the roof of the University of
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square tubing curved for the retractable, lenticular roof
trusses at the University of Phoenix Stadium. Phoenix, AZ.

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420 tons of rectangular tubing, pipe
and beams for the roof at the
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Maconochie Photography

At the connections to floor members, web ends are bolted with tension-control bolts to exposed gusset plates at the column bases.

Paul Dannels

The new additions orientation relative to the below, existing building.

ment columns complete the transverse lateral system to the


ground, and the longitudinal lateral system is also a steel moment frame that acts along the columns weak axis. The new
columns thread precisely through the existing buildings roof
structure to carefully selected locations in order to balance a
variety of competing concerns. These selected locations minimize disruption to the function of existing spaces, provide
uniformity to the new column grid and allow efficient placement of new foundations. Since the existing walls were left
in place, anchor rod installation was more difficult than with
new construction as the sight lines were obstructed from one
column to the next.
The new columns bear on pile caps that gather together
groupings of micro-piles. More than 200 steel-encased micro-

piles were installed to depths of up to 100 ft, most of them


installed from within the tight confines of the existing building. In some cases the piles caps were set in basement areas,
working with limited overhead clearance. In other cases pile
caps were set just below existing foundation bearing elevations to serve as underpinning for existing bearing walls. The
micro-piles resolve both gravity and lateral forces. In order
to install the micro-piles, all first-floor auditorium furnishings and finishes were meticulously removed prior to the new
foundation work and stored for future reinstallation after the
columns had been positioned and the slab re-poured. Based
upon the relatively heavy loads, several columns were upsized
to eliminate column web doublers and stiffeners in an effort
to reduce cost.
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

35

Columns were precisely inserted into the floor plan


of the existing building: four outside and 13 inside,
with four columns inside auditoriums. In one case, an
interior column was painted bright green to match the
color scheme of the surrounding area of the building.

Photos this page: Paul Dannels

Building on a college campus meant limited laydown


area, which mandated small sequences and frequent
steel delivery that was coordinated on a truck-by-truck
basis. The work was done over the summer and a single
semester during which no classes were scheduled in the
areas impacted by construction. Once the second-floor
steel deck had been installed and poured, construction
was far enough along that work could proceed safely
above while students attended classes below.
The new building now stands as a state-of-the-art
learning space that has gathered together previously dispersed programs in an inviting and new common setting.
Having missed only one semester of use, the first-floor auditoriums function just as beforewith a few new columns

tucked away here and there.


Owner
Michigan Sate University, East Lansing, Mich.
Design Architect
Hamilton Anderson Associates, Detroit
Architect of Record
Integrated Design Solutions, Troy, Mich.
Structural Engineer
SDI-Structures, Ann Arbor, Mich.
Construction Manager
Barton Malow, Southfield, Mich.
Steel Fabricator and Detailer
Steel Supply and Engineering, Grand Rapids, Mich.
(AISC Member/Certified)

36

FEBRUARY 2015

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On November 2, 2004, Central Texas Iron Works


experienced a lost-time injury. It hasnt experienced one since.

Safety FIRST

STORY AND
PHOTOS BY GEOFF
WEISENBERGER

SAFETY ISNT MAGIC. It isnt rocket science either.


Its a culture. Its a commitment. An ever-present awareness.
Ask any fabricator where they rank safety, and no doubt
most of them will tell you its their number-one priority. And
theyll mean it.
But its those shops that develop a culture of safety and an
ongoing commitment to it that achieve impressive featssuch
as not having a lost-time injury (LTI) for an entire decade.
Central Texas Iron Works (CTIW) in Waco, Texas, hit that
milestone this past November, and the streakwhich equates to
4.1 million labor hoursis still going. In fact, up until November 2, 2004, when the shop experienced an injury that sent an
40

FEBRUARY 2015

employee home for a few days (hes still with the company today),
it had also gone the previous 1,057 days (over one million labor
hours) without a lost time injurya nearly three-year stretch.
Before going any further, its worth explaining the difference between an LTI and whats referred to as a recordable.
An LTI means that a person has sustained an injury and must
take time off work to recuperate. A recordable incident is one
where a minor injury (like a cut) is sustained, but the employee
is able to return to workeven temporarily in another capacity, if necessaryafter tending to the injury. And in addition to
staying LTI-free for a decade, CTIW has drastically reduced
recordables as well.

CTIWs shop sits on 100 acres of land.

Members of CTIWs safety committee.

Much of CTIWs material arrives via rail spur.

Employees are given 80


hours of training before
starting work in the shop.

An visual indicator for a completed assembly.

Geoff Weisenberger
(weisenberger
@aisc.org) is Modern
Steels senior editor.

Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

41

Ten years ago we had roughly 38 recordables a year, says


Jay Cockerham, CTIWs human resources manager. Now,
were down to seven a yearthe most common of which is
typically a metal shaving in the eye. And even in those cases, the injury can be drastically reduced via proper irrigation.
What makes that type of injury worse is when someone starts
rubbing their eyes. So part of the philosophy is not only trying
to reduce accidents in the first place but also trying to reduce
their impact when they do occur.
The reduction in injuries has paid off not only in the wellbeing of CTIWs employees but also in its bottom line. In

Cable routed below the floor in a saw house


to minimize tripping.

FEBRUARY 2015

42

Bar codes help track material through the shop.

1991, Cockerham notes, the company typically saw $1 million


worth of injuries per year. Today, the annual injury cost is in
the low thousands.
Long-Term Commitment
So how is this high level of safety achieved? For CTIW, it
starts at the top.
A truly effective safety program involves acceptance of responsibility and accountability from the top down, says David
Harwell, CTIWs president and a former Chairman of AISCs
Board of Directors. We take an all-or-nothing approach, so

Safety records are posted as they happen.


One of the automated sections of the shop.

this mentality extends to the office, not just the shop. I once
got chastised by a shop employee for walking onto the floor
without eye protection.
A properly implemented safety program also involves providing employees with the resources they need to do things
safelypart of which, of course, is training. You have to acknowledge the nuances of working in a manufacturing environment so as not to make it dangerous.
And that training begins on an employees first day, which
consists of eight hours covering OSHA regulations, common
accidents and general orientation. From there, the shops safety

A stop light in the lunch room indicates if an


unsafe situation arises.

manager puts new employees through 80 hours of on-site training on tools and equipment before they are allowed to begin
work on the floor, and every new employee signs an agreement
to commit to safety.
After an employee becomes approved to work on the floor,
they have to wear an orange vest for three months. This, of
course, lets other shop personnel know to pay closer attention
to them and assist when necessary, as safety and awareness of
surroundings might not yet be habitual.
This concept of visibility is a big part of CTIWs safety plan,
and it doesnt just apply to newbies. The shop has a volunteer

Material is moved virtually untouched through the facility.


Each department keeps close, up-to-date track of its safety records.

Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

43

Safety committee members wear red hats or shirts in the shop.


Most material is transported through the shop via forklift.

FEBRUARY 2015

44

Employees keep an eye out for unsafe practices and conditions not only in their own respective areas but also across all areas of the shop,
creating a localized and also a 30,000-ft view approach to safety. Successes and issues are discussed at monthly toolbox meetings.

The shop has the capacity to fabricate roughly 2,500 tons


of steel per month.

safety committee of 22 employees, all of


whom wear a red shirt and/or hat in their
various stations throughout the facility and
serve as safety beacons for all of the companys 200 workers. Not only do they act as
go-to people for safety-related issues, they
also provide a visual cue to work safelya
heightened sense of awarenessand also
as a reminder that everyone must be vigilant for unsafe practices or situations.
The safety committee is not meant to
police employees but rather to educate and
empower them, notes Harwell. And that
education is continuous. Its not a matter of
just training someone then walking away
and telling them Good luck, its a matter
of encouraging constant awareness as well
as recognizing the ever-changing nature
of the shop. When equipment and layouts
change, you create a different work environment.
In other words, its about keeping the
macro safety radar on at all times to address safety fundamentals while also taking
the time to address micro issues related
to a new environmentalmost an ongoing
safety brainstorming session.
The idea is to make everyone part of
a shop-wide distant early warning system,
not just those on the safety committee. If
someone is seen doing something carelessly, such as standing on a bucket, the
expectation is that it can and should be addressed immediately by whomever notices
it first. And its not just about running immediately to someone on the safety committee; sometimes its a simple matter of
saying, Hey! Thats not a good idea. Its
as much a situation of watching over as it is
looking out for one another.
Its really about awareness, explains
Cockerham. We work in an environment
involving heavy machinery, equipment and
materials, but its when a worker isnt focused or tries to take a shortcut of some
sort that they get in harms way.
Team Effort
The backbone of the safety program
at CTIW is the safety committeewhich
again, is compiled of 22 shop and office
employees. Besides their high visibility
and duties on the floor, they also gather
every month for 45 minutes and hold what
are referred to as toolbox meetings. Near
missesincidents that could have gone
wrong but didntare discussed and addressed, as are common issues, such as
putting a grinder wheel-first on the floor

(which can damage the wheel and create a hazard during use). Each department raises their own issues to the
committee, which are then passed on to
management and addressed, creating a
system of checks and balances where
awareness and ideas are exchanged
between all areas of the facility. Issues
are discussed as are necessary solutions
or steps to be taken. For example, the
shops last LTI involved an employee
leaning into a machine, getting his

hand caught and not being able to free


himself (luckily, a coworker was nearby
and was able to assist). This led to the
practice of outfitting all machine operators with an alert necklace. In another
area of the shop, one of the saw houses,
wires were creating a tripping hazard,
so they are now routed below the floor.
This kind of tweaking of the shop
and addressing obvious or revealed
safety hazards has been a great complement to and result of the overall policy

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Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

45

Safety education is continuous, stresses CTIW president David


Harwell. Its a matter of encouraging constant awareness
as well as recognizing the ever-changing nature of the shop.
When equipment and layouts change, you create a different
work environment.

CTIW celebrated its decade of no LTIs with a party and 16-oz. ribeye steaks.

46

The company employs 200 people working one shift. The majority of the companys work is making modular assemblies for
industrial applications.

FEBRUARY 2015

While much steel arrives at the facility


via train, it all leaves via trucks.

Even seemingly little things, such as not putting a grinder wheel-first on the floor,
become everyday practice.

By stressing safety at work, the hope is that employees will practice it everywhere.

of awareness, and has made it more and


more difficult to find issues to addressa
good problem to have.
Honestly, nowadays its about nitpicking the small stuff, says one safety committee member. Back strains, flash burns
and hearing issues, people forgetting eye
protection. Weve come so far with the
awareness that we have the luxury of not
experiencing major issues. But its a matter
of maintaining that awareness.
The company also has a corporate safety
director who travels between CTIW and its
sister facilities (the company has been owned
by Herrick since 1983) and passes along information between the shops. And not only
are CTIWs practices noticed within its
corporate network, they are also noticed by
other steel and manufacturing facilities.
One of our supplier mills has approached
us about how our safety policy can apply to
their facility, says Cockerham. So has [candymaker] Mars and even some local schools. In
fact, weve had other fabrication shops ask for
advice as well. Fabricators arent big on sharing their processes with one another, but were
absolutely up for exchanging safety advice.
A final piece of the safety puzzle is rewarding its employees for a job done well
and safely. Salary adjustments are tied to
consistent safe practice and recognition is
given for meeting milestones. When the
company hit the ten-year mark with no
LTIs, for example, the shop stopped working and was treated to a steak lunch.
What has also helped, notes Cockerham,
is the fact that the steel industry in general
has become safer. He mentions a U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics ranking from 2007,
citing that the steel industry was the fourth
highest in terms of workplace fatalities.
Five years later, it wasnt even in the top ten.
All of these components add up to a safer workplace at CTIW. But Harwell reiterates the most important one of all: making
safety an ongoing priority.
Years ago, we didnt take time to go
off the floor to meet and talk about safety,
he says. That meant a loss of production.
Well, so does an accident. An accident
doesnt do anyone any good, and an employee obviously isnt being productive if
theyre hurt. So we had to raise our expectations of ourselves not only for production
purposes but also for human purposes.
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

47

conference preview
HIGH-PERFORMANCE
STEEL BRIDGE
COATING OPTIONS

Theres more than one way


to coat a bridge.

BY ROBERT KOGLER AND


LAURA ERICKSON

INDUSTRIAL PAINT SYSTEMS have been and continue face preparation and mediocre paint. When the use of deicers
to be the workhorse corrosion protection system for steel high- increased dramatically, these older systems were ill-suited to
perform for long periods of time, and the condition of the steel
way bridges.
For about the first 100 years of steel bridge construction, bridge inventory suffered. However, for those structures built
paint systems consisted of primarily simple, single-package, easy- or repainted more recently with modern paint systems, perforto-apply, inexpensive, lead-containing paints. The lead pigment mance has dramatically improved. So it is important to note
served as a corrosion inhibitor, and these coatings were easy to that when considering design options for new or replacement
use in both new construction and maintenance painting applica- bridges, the historical corrosion protection performance of a
tions. They were typically applied directly over intact mill scale painted steel bridge in a specific environment will likely not
and were used as a one-size-fits-all corrosion protection system. be representative of the improved performance expected from
Several key factors came together during the 1970s and a more modern high-performance coating system in the same
1980s to force the evolution of bridge painting systems toward bridge today.
the much more durable systems in use today. The advent of
high-production centrifugal blasting equipment coupled with Zinc-Rich Systems
The shift to zinc-rich coatings as the primary steel bridge
increased demands by bridge owners for durability allowed for
truly clean, profiled surfaces for paint applicationthus opening corrosion protection system has greatly increased the perforthe door for use of high-performance coating systems. Addition- mance of painted steel in salt-rich environments. This includes
ally, concerns over environmental and worker health and safety bridges located on the coast or exposed to chemical-containing
issues associated with lead-containing paints helped force change. runoff, drainage and traffic splash in areas that receive signifiSpecifically, zinc-rich coating systems eventually became cant deicing treatment in the winter. While real-time data rethe standard due to their greatly improved performance in salt- garding performance of modern paint systems is difficult to find,
rich environments. With the continuous pressure on owners there is a significant body of published information (from the
to maintain open roads and dry pavement at all times in all American Galvanizers Association, the Society for Protective
seasons, the use of deicing chemicals increased the demands Coatings, the Federal Highway Administration, the American
on corrosion protection systems nationwide. These factors Society for Testing and Materials and others) indicating that
conspired against the older steel bridges painted with no sur- better zinc-rich paint systems last 20 years or longer in harsh
marine environments (and likewise in the areas and details
of non-marine bridges that are directly impacted by deicing
chemicals). In fact, FHWA recently revisited the Corrosion
Protection of Steel Bridges section of the Steel Bridge Design
Handbook, Volume 19 specifically to enhance the discussion on
performance of modern bridge coatings. This revision is presently in final review and should be published in late 2015.
Also important to modern coating performance is the fact
that failure of these types of sacrificial paint systems is typically localized on the structure. Except for in the harshest marine exposures, there are usually specific areas of the structure
that show coating breakdown and corrosion first, before the
vast majority of the steel. These micro-environments concentrate the factors that drive coating breakdown and corrosion.
Robert Kogler (bobkogler@verizon.net) and Laura Erickson The areas directly beneath failed or open deck joints, members
(lauraerickson4@gmail.com) are both with Rampart, LLC.
directly in the way of traffic splash or details that tend to trap
48

FEBRUARY 2015

and hold debris, moisture and salts are usually the leading areas
for failure. By identifying these areas in maintenance practices,
the life-cycle maintenance burden of the structure can be focused on and greatly reduced when compared to the traditional
approach of a regular blast and repaint cycle for the entire
bridge, which is taken with so many older structures.
One Size does not Fit All
For continued progress in corrosion protection, bridge
owners must get over the mindset that there is only one
approach for corrosion protection.
Many states have
maintained a list of several different acceptable paint systems
over the years. Typically, the various systems are targeted
toward different required levels of durability, and for states
that have many bridges in areas that are far from natural salt
water and do not deice, this approach seems like a rational way
to decrease the cost associated with
coatings on the lower performance
end. However, with ever-increasing
performance demands in more
corrosive applications, owners are
increasingly looking toward use of
hot-dip galvanizing and metalizing
to enhance steel corrosion protection
in a more targeted manner. The data
available for both galvanizing and
metalizing show excellent long-term
performance, even indicating up to
40 years of protection for metalized
exposed steel in marine environments.
For many structures, this level of performance represents the
potential for a life of structure corrosion protection system
applied on new construction. That value proposition is gaining
recognition within the owner and fabricator community,
particularly for bridges in severe marine environments.
The next logical step in this evolution of coatings is to move
toward the application of corrosion protection systems to specific bridge elements on an as-needed basis. That is, the areas
of the bridge expected to be impacted by high levels of salt
and moisture can be constructed with an appropriately durable
coating system, while other areas expected to have a far less
severe service environment can be fabricated with a less costly
(and more efficiently constructed) system. Some possibilities
include:
priming interior girders with zinc-rich coatings and applying topcoats to fascia beams only
preferential galvanizing or metalizing of bridge elements
or areas known to have more corrosion incidents than
the bulk of the bridge (e.g., beam ends under joints or
horizontal members)
the use of topcoats over galvanizing and metalizing in
very aggressive environments
Corrosive Environments and Design Detailing
Bridge corrosion protection design must consider not only
the macro-environment (e.g., marine, heavy deicing, urban, rural, etc.) but also, and perhaps more importantly, the microenvironments created by the detailing of the structuree.g.,
the specifics of designed drainage, unintentional (but likely)
life-cycle drainage paths caused by failed deck joints and splash

created by traffic (both vertically and laterally) by considering


these areas up front in the design process, these potential problem areas can be minimized or addressed specific high-durability coating treatments if not fully eliminated.
This general approach has already become increasingly
popular for primarily aesthetic reasons. The beam ends of
weathering steel bridge members are frequently painted as a
risk mitigation measure for anticipating deck joint failure or to
prevent staining of concrete in the vicinity. Also, fascia beams
are frequently painted for aesthetics while the remainder of the
members (out of obvious public view) are left as bare weathering steel. This general approach of selective application could
provide a benefit for the many bridges constructed in non-marine areas that have only specific areas and details expected to
require periodic maintenance repainting.
Details to Consider (and Avoid)
There are many steel bridge details on existing structures that have
played a role in the initial failure of
THE
coating systems and have driven the
need for maintenance actions. Builtup riveted members and boxes with
CONFERENCE
lacing bars used in older designs tend
to trap moisture and debris, causing
coating breakdown and pack rust, and
are notoriously difficult to clean and
re-coat. The good news is that the
majority of these details are no longer
frequently employed on modern steel
bridge designs, and there are a few items to consider that can
provide a significant long-term benefit.
For example, splice and cover plates should be designed to
consider as-constructed drainage paths for salt carrying water
on flanges. The leading edges of these plates can either act as
a dam and collection area for debris or, depending on fabrication angle, as an effective drip bar helping to move water off
of the steel. Snipes in stiffeners have the same issue. A snipe
small enough to easily become clogged with debris over time
will create a small, focused area of coating failure and eventual
corrosion. Welds should not leave small gaps between members
that may serve as moisture traps to initiate corrosion. Smaller
cross frames should also be placed in such a manner that allows
proper access for blasting, painting and inspection (at least several inches apart).
Long-term durability in modern steel bridge design requires consideration of the global or macro-environment for
the bridge location, but also important is the use of proper
selection of modern, high-durability coatings and considerate design detailing to mitigate areas and details that present
known risks for corrosion initiation. The high level of performance of modern zinc-rich coatings is significant when
compared to the older paint-over-the-mill-scale approach,
which has created the recent maintenance burden in the exist
ing bridge inventory.

STEEL

This article is a preview of Session B6 High-Performance Steel


Bridge Coating Options at NASCC: The Steel Conference, taking
place March 25-27 in Nashville. Learn more about the conference at
www.aisc.org/nascc.
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

49

conference preview
WHAT MAKES A GOOD
DESIGN DRAWING?

Clearly defining the relevant


parameters and components
is a good place to start.

BY DARREN HARTMAN AND ROB SCHOEN

THE TOPIC OF WHAT MAKES a good design drawing


has been talked about quite heavily now for a number of years.
Those of us that grew up in the business at the end of the
traditional old school mentality of steel construction have
observed the birth and accelerated growth rate of the new
school approach. And when it comes to what makes good design drawings, most people always refer their argument back
to the Code of Standard Practice. We want to rely on this code
because it is the document we all refer to and lean on as the
operating guide that we all steer our ships at sea with. It defines design responsibility, suitability, adequacy and legality. It
describes in detail what is needed in order to have adequate
and complete bids.
To quote from the code: The contract documents provide
complete structural steel design plans clearly showing the work
to be performed and giving the size, section, material grade and
the location of all members, floor levels, column centers and
offsets, camber of members, with sufficient dimensions to convey accurately the quantity and nature of the structural steel to
be furnished.
Project specifications vary greatly in complexity and completeness. There is a benefit to the owner if the specifications
leave the contractor reasonable latitude in preforming his work.
However, critical requirements affecting the integrity of the
structure necessary to protect the owners interest must be covered in the contract documents.

Rob Schoen (rob@axissteel.com) is pesident and owner of


Axis Steel Detailing, Inc., and Darren Hartman (dhartman@
thorntontomasetti.com) is with Thornton Tomasetti.

50

FEBRUARY 2015

It goes on to actually give a checklist of what the contract


documents should include.
If we were to come up with a Top 10 list of items that most
of us believe to be mission-critical, it would likely include the
following:
1. A clear definition of design codes (i.e., seismic requirements, how detailing is impacted and which version of the
AISC Manual the design is based on).
2. Provide the reactions on the design drawings, not just an
arbitrary uniform load of full capacity statements (is this
based on ASD or LRFD?). State whether connection design is a requirement of the fabricator/detailer and then
define the loads; dont just put 50% UDL.
3. Provide a clear definition of lateral system components
and the load paths (axial drag struts, transfer forces, etc.)
and define whether the moment connections are part of
the lateral system or are gravity moments.
4. Clearly define any CVN requirements.
5. Framing considerations: Avoid acute angles and weird
skewed connections and account for some erection efficiency. Shallow members should not carry deeper members, and beams and braces should go to column centers.
6. Consider tolerances (long slots at connections to embeds,
short slots at beam-to-beam connections, when to use girt
and purlin connections and when to use shims).
7. Bolt types and sizes. We should not be detailing and constructing -in., 78-in., 1-in. and 118-in. and 1-in. bolts
all on the same same job. This is not value engineering.
In addition, properly define SC connections vs. bearing
connections.
8. Properly define all edge of slab conditions, including interior and roof openings, any frames that may be required,
etc. This also means properly defining slab thicknesses
and properly denoting slab thickness changes or steps.
9. Define all painted steel, intumescent painted steel, galvanized steel and fireproofed steel. There are four AESS
classifications, not just one.
10. Properly dimension all members, with all top of steel
(TOS) notations for elevations, ridge lines, eaves, etc.
Today, the contract documents or design drawings we get
are not typically 100% issued for construction. They are more
in the range of 50% to 70% in order to try to get a jump on mill

orders. Coupled with an engineers Revit IFC or Tekla model,


this is the new school delivery method we have come to expect
and accept as the new standard.
Between 2D and 3D
The old school mentality dictated
that because we did not have 3D
models, the design team had to
communicate the design in such a
way in the 2D world so that detailers
fabricators and erectors could
accurately bid, build and perform a
job with completeness. This meant
providing accurate section cuts
and details on design documents
It meant providing all dimensions
especially edge of slab, inside faces
of walls, locating all non-grid steel
and roof opening frames, sizes and locations before the job was
detailed and fabricated and all other dimensions required to
do our job and alleviate the need to write hundredsand on
some jobs, thousandsof RFIs, ASIs, etc., that somehow have
become the norm and the accepted practice of today.
We are expected to write lots of RFIs, but we bid jobs as
though the design documents are complete. This is all done
because we have come to accept the current global market
and at the end of the day money still rules the world. Even today, you still run across people that tell you the cheapest price

does not always get the job. Quality is what they are willing to
pay for. The problem is that they have to get the job first. If
getting the job means that budgets get sliced and diced, it is
hard to stay in business if you get a job and then turn around
and sublet a portion of the job for
more than your budget dictates, for
the sake of quality.
The question, then, is where is
THE
the happy medium in terms of price
vs. quality vs. standards vs. what
CONFERENCE
makes a good design drawing?
The key is developing your system to have your pricing be competitive yet not sacrifice quality and
still get the job done in the time
frame that is wanted. We should
foster good relationships within
our community to work with others who believe in these same core principles and ideals and
team up or partner with these companies. We should not lose
our old school foundation and core beliefs or sacrifice lessons
learned for the sake of the new school mentality of cheapest

price wins regardless of quality.

STEEL

This article is a preview of Session N6 What Makes a Good Design Drawing? at NASCC: The Steel Conference, taking place
March 25-27 in Nashville. Learn more about the conference at
www.aisc.org/nascc.

Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

51

conference preview
WORKING WITH
LARGE TRUSSES

What to keep in mind from


design to erection.

BY SYLVIE BOULANGER, P.ENG., PH.D.,


AND COLLIN HUGHES

Installation of a two-story-tall transfer truss at the ground


level of a 50-story office building; the truss transfers the
loads of two 48-story-tall columns.

Sylvie Boulanger (sylvie.boulanger@supermetal.com) is


vice president of technical marketing with Supermtal and
Collin Hughes (chughes@steelfab-inc.com) is a connection
engineer and detail coordinator with SteelFab, Inc.

52

FEBRUARY 2015

LARGE STEEL TRUSSES are continually being pushed to span


further, support larger loads and be more aesthetically appealing.
The challenge is to develop efficient, cost-effective and eyecatching designs through a collaborative effort between engineers,
fabricators and erectors. To meet that challenge, four key factors
need to be addressed:
Selection and location of splices
Method of camber
Selection and orientation of members
Special assembly requirements from shop to site
Splices. Some of the most critical items to collaborate on when
working with large trusses are splice locations and types. The preferred
number of splices (field or shop) on any truss is generally going to be
zero. But as these are large trusses it is usually not feasible. With large
trusses, the length and width of the fabricated assembly will be too large
to place on a single load and then splicing will be required. However,
alternative shipping options do exist and should be explored if the conditions allow.
It is often the preference of steel fabricators to weld splices together in the shop, whereas erectors tend to prefer bolted splice

connections. However, when handling


large trusses with large loads it is often
impractical, even impossible, to transfer
the loads through a bolted connection, so
field-welded connections must be used.
Field welded splices should be avoided as
much as possible, especially when the connection is difficult to reach.
Camber. Truss camber is accounted for
in the chord members. The fabricator will
either roll the chord members or build up
the chords out of several straight-segmented members; the latter is often the more
economical method. If the required camber in a truss is not uniform or it exceeds
the limit that the chord members can be
rolled, then the chords will automatically
be made of several straight-segmented
members that are spliced together to provide the desired camber. These splices are
accounted for in the shop.
Member Types and Connections.
For large trusses, the most practical member types are WF members and HSS members. HSS members are not capable of
transferring loads that are as large as WF
members, but they are a favorite for architecturally exposed structural steel. For such
tubular trusses, splice proposals need the
architects involvement. The result may be
an all-welded splice. Alternatively, discreet
or hidden bolted connections in the field
should be considered.
Large wide-flange trusses can handle
very large loads but require more coordination and savvy design, especially at joints
where multiple chord and web members
are coming together. Deciding which way
to orient the WF chord members can impact the framing that surrounds the truss.
Deck support, in-framing connections, and
lateral bracing are all affected by the orientation chosen.
Special Assembly. Fabricators may
arrange to have the erector do a practice
assembly before the steel is shipped to the
site. As these large trusses require coordinated rigging and shoring with precise
connections, there is no room for error on
site. This will keep the erection schedule
from being affected due to fit up issues. A
large splice plate will require a long lead
time to measure, fabricate and ship. Also,
by being able to quickly assemble these
trusses, the erector is able to keep the job
site safer for all trades.
Some complex trusses, particularly 3D
trusses, can be fabricated more effectively

by assembling jigs in the shop to maneuver these frames. Being able to access
welding locations easily can make the
workers job much easier and can also allow for a cleaner weld, which is vital for
exposed truss connections.
Large steel trusses can be beastly when
their main role is transferring significant
vertical loads and beautiful when they
span notable public spaces. Either way,
the four factors described above apply.

THE

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Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

53

Setting the four-strut intermediate support for a 190-ft


triangulated HSS trussone of 17 similar trusses in the new
international check-in hall for an airport project.

The airport trusses with cladding and skylight built above


each; the bottom chord looks continuous because of the two
hidden bolted splice connections covered with a steel sleeve.

A typical bolted splice connection at the bottom chord of an


HSS truss, to be covered later with a steel sleeve, avoiding the
initially specificied all-welded connection on site.

54

Erection of a 160-ft box truss spanning over an existing building and


carrying nine stories of same-length
trusses above.

FEBRUARY 2015

A detail drawing of the bolted connection required to transfer large truss loads. All plates are
3-in. Gr-50 with 1-in.-diameter A490 X bolts.

The Beauty
For the HSS triangulated steel beauty (see of splices, the method of cambering, the
image on previous page) situated in a new member types and the assembly of the

airport facility, the 190-ft span had one inter- trusses from start to finish.
mediate support. The priority was limiting the
weight of the largest truss segment and en- This article is a preview of Session N10
couraging the use of splices that would speed Working with Large Trusses at NASCC:
up installation. The result was three segments The Steel Conference, taking place March
25-27 in Nashville. Learn more about the
(two splices) for each of the 17 trusses.
At the splice location, the top chords are conference at www.aisc.org/nascc.
hinged and the bottom chord is a hidden
multi-bolted continuous joint (see image on
previous page). The latter was initially specified as all site-welded, but the hidden ugly
bolted connection, which was covered with
a sleeve and field-finished, sped up construction and met aesthetic requirements. Initially
proposed by the fabricator, the entire team adopted the solution. It optimized mobilization
of site equipmentone tower crane and one
mobile craneand coordination with other
trades such as deck and curtain wall.
Since the truss is triangulated, special
arrangements were required to rotate the
truss segments during fabrication, transport them on their back to the site for
safety reasons and flip them back in position before erection. Two segments were
assembled on the ground and lifted into
position on a temporary tower before
erecting the last segment.

THE

STEEL
CONFERENCE

The Beast
In the two-story deep-beast (see image
on previous page) the transfer of large vertical loads resulting from the interruption
of two 45-story tall columns, drove the design. The maximum compressive and tensile forces were 8,500 kips and 3,500 kips,
respectively! Consideration for splice location was mainly determined by the weight
of the pieces for transport and erection.
The need for pre-assembly was essential.
Base plates and gussets were machine finished. Joints in contact bearing needed to
have 75% of the entire contact area in bearing and a separation of no greater than 0.02
in. To reduce the weight, high-resistance
steel and compact wide-flange sections were
used (ASTM A913 grade 65 W360421,
W360634, W3601086) along with highstrength bolts (A490 118 in). All shop welds
were complete joint penetration. Compression and tension splices were bolted.
While dealing with large trusses, collaboration between architects, engineers,
contractors, fabricators and erectors is
key to optimizing the location and types
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

55

conference preview
THE BUSINESS CASE
FOR INTEGRATED LEAN
PROJECT DELIVERY

Why and when IPD


is worth exploring.

BY HOWARD W. ASHCRAFT, JR.,


JASON COLLINS AND DAVE HAGAN

WE HAVE MET THE ENEMY and he is us.


The words of Pogos creator, Walt Kelly, eerily reflect the
day-to-day workings of the AEC industry. The authors of
The Commercial Real Estate Revolution estimate that half of all
construction activity is non-productive and discuss the ineffectiveness of many projects, and other research reveals similar findings. According to a report from Construction Industry
Institute, Lean Principles in Construction, for example, studies
of tool time (the amount of time actually spent working) have
shown efficiencies as low as 19%. And Stanford University Professor Paul Teicholz has chronicled a continued decline in labor
productivity over the last 20 yearsdespite all of the improvements in tools and construction technology and at the same
time that industrial productivity has risen sharply.
Poor Performance
The poor performance of the design and construction industry is not a uniquely American phenomenon. Studies in the
United Kingdom have reached similar conclusions regarding
construction productivity, such as Sir Michael Lathams Constructing the Team: Final Report of the Government Industry
Review of Procurement and Contractional Arrangements in
the UK Construction Industry. And in summarizing data from
the United Kingdom, the United States and Scandinavia, Sir
John Egans task force (Rethinking Construction: Report of
the Construction Task Force to the Deputy Prime Minister)
found that 30% of construction is rework, labor is only 40%

to 60% efficient, accidents absorb 3% to 6% of construction


costs and at least 10% of all materials are wasted. A more recent study of international mega-projects concluded that half
result in failure (using a very lenient measure of success) and
that failure in some industries is as high as 78% (according to
Edward Merrow in Industrial Megaprojects: Concepts, Strategies,
and Practices for Success). And Roger Miller and Donald Lessard,
in The Strategic Management of Large Engineering Projects, report
that over 40% of their studied projects performed poorly. Although infrastructure is critical to the worlds welfare, it would
seem that we are not doing very well.
These failures arent caused by a lack of trying or because
the AEC industry is inept. Much of this abysmal performance
can be explained by the very structure of traditional project delivery itself. In traditional project delivery, structural characteristics of fragmentation, misalignment and individual incentives
all conspire against project success. The traditional design-bidbuild approach to construction circumvents the optimum end
result for a project as it does not adequately address the need to
qualify its stakeholders on their competency to bring maximum
value. It does the opposite. It deems that initial price, which
may be based on substandard or incomplete design, will reflect
an accurate end result with respect to total project cost. This is
rarely the case.
A Fragmented Approach
Under a traditional construction contract model, the indi-

Howard W. Ashcraft, Jr. (hashcraft@


hansonbridgett.com) is a partner
with Hanson Bridgett, LLP, Jason
Collins (jcollins@collinssteel.com) is
president of Collins Steel and Dave
Hagan (dave.hagan@boldt.com) is
with Boldt.

56

FEBRUARY 2015

vidual stakeholders are forced to ensure that their respective


agendas take precedence over the project objectivesprimarily
because the firm, lump sum contract they are tied to is based
on their approach of executing the project at the lowest cost for
the company. The project objectives take a back seat as in most
cases, the cheapest approach for a respective contributor does
not necessarily serve these objectives.
Generally, project teams are inconsistent from job to job,
and the ability to leverage learning and gain familiarity between
stakeholders is lost once a project is complete. In team sports, if
you were to change the people in the
room from game to game, it would
be difficult to expect that consistency
in performance would be a reasonable
expectation. If you took it a step
further and you had two football teams
competing against one anotherone
with the ability to use the huddle
strategy and one withoutwouldnt
the end result be a forgone conclusion?
Success in projects and/or
corporate execution strategies relies
on the ability to effectively integrate
From a corporations perspective, if
all departments are cognizant of the needs and desires for the
downstream process, they have the ability to make decisions
that support the overall objective and not necessarily what
will make their department look good. At the end of the
day, the only thing that matters is the end result of our
collective efforts.
The integrated project delivery (IPD) process seeks to undo
damage of fragmentation and focuses on the collective effort
mindset. It is a project delivery structure designed to optimize
project outcomes. Instead of segregating parties and incentivizing individual outcomes, IPD seeks to create a virtual organization that is aligned to project goals and tied to project outcome.
Conceptually, this is accomplished through three, interrelated
pieces: a new business model, a new contract model and enabling behaviors.
A New Business Model
The IPD business model rebalances the commercial structures to create a system where the parties must cooperate to
achieve success, where project resources can be fluidly moved
to wherever needed and that automatically tends to re-center
itself if problems arise. The primary elements of the model are:
Profit is separated from units of labor, material or equipment.
Profit is an initially fixed amount adjusted based on project outcome.
Variable costs (labor, material, equipment) are not capped.
There are no change orders for team managed risks.
Together, these elements align the parties to the project
(profit based on project outcome), remove incentives to expend
excess resources and require the team to jointly manage (and be
responsible for) most project risks.
A New Contract Model
The new contract model creates the structure to bring multiple parties together, encourages communication and collabo-

ration and locks the parties to the new business model. The key
elements of the new contract model are:
Early involvement of key participants
Reduced liability among risk/reward members
Joint project management
Jointly set targets and goals
Shared risk/reward
Getting the right people involved at the right time improves
efficiency and creativity. Because liability is reduced among
them, they can readily share information and communicate
without fear of liability.
Designers considering constructability and contractors commenting
THE
on designer are no longer prohibited;
they are encouraged. Alignment is
achieved through joint target setting
CONFERENCE
and is maintained by shared risk/reward. And unlike partnering, when
the going gets tough the team has to
keep going because they are contractually bound. If a problem arises, the
teams must solve it together because
the exit door is closed.

STEEL

Enabling Behaviors
Getting the structure right sets the stage for a successful
project. Like a skeleton, the IPD project structure supports the
project and makes the muscles more efficient. But like a skeleton,
it does not move by itself. It needs enabling behaviors, such as:
Optimize the whole, not the parts
Trust
Integration of people, processes and systems
Continuous improvement/learning
Appropriate technology
Real collaboration
These enabling behaviors embrace Lean principles and procedures, are driven by high-performance teaming and are built
on earned trust. They bring the project structure to life and, if
adopted by the team, create great outcomes.
But keep in mind that not all corporations are fit to support
IPD projects. If you cannot effectively integrate within your
own four walls, you will not be able to support an IPD contract. If you cannot trust in or execute on Lean principles, you
will have less to offer in an integrated environment. Thats
why the competency-based approach to assessing stakeholders is so important. You may have the right process or contract model in place, but if you have players that are unfamiliar
with identifying and removing waste, you will very likely fall
short of your objective.
Manufacturing companies with the ability to identify and
remove waste from a process are better positioned to support an integrated approach to construction. At the same
time, construction managers and owners who recognize this
ability are more likely to identify competent contractors to
support the objective of maximizing the potential outcome
of a project. The two work hand in hand and no compromises can be made that take the focus off the best possible
project outcome.
IPD is a prescription for an ailing industry. It removes dysfunctions, breaks down silos and encourages good behavior.
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

57

Dont Leave Successful Projects to Chance


For most people, the idea of an IPD model at least sounds
like it makes sense. Whats not to like about knowledgeable people working together in a collaborative fashion
to accomplish a worthy goal?
Weve all seen it work before, even in DBB projects. We
work with people we trust. We work with people who are
experts in their field and hold each other accountable for
results. We might even like the people were working with,
which makes getting up every day and heading to the job
that much easier. The end product? A building to be proud
of and a happy repeat client. But the problem with a DBB
project is that those conditions for success only seem to
happen by accident. If the team is assembled based solely
on the criteria of lowest price, then key things like trust, accountability and expertise are left to chance.
The first step when taking the IPD approach is getting
the right people. Notice that I didnt say right companies.
The culture of a partner company is important, but even
more important is the mindset of the specific people who
It aligns the parties to the agreed goals and locks them into
achieving it together. And, because the parties are focused on
achieving the project together instead of battling each other,

it is also fun.

are going to be part of the team. Are they collaborative?


Are they capable? Are they willing to commit to learning
a new process? I like to remind our teams that companies
dont build buildings; people do.
After you assemble a great team, there is still much to
be done. Its highly likely that many of your team members
will be new to the culture required to make an IPD project
work. People in our industry are used to working in an environment that is really not all that collaborative. Changing
that mindset, one that has been decades in the making for
many, is often a difficult challenge. It requires a lot of commitment. It requires learning and adhering to new processes that at first seem awkward and chaotic. Leaders need to
commit to coaching as opposed to directing. All of this is
different, and we all know change is hard. Making change
at a cultural level is just that much harder.
The good news is that if an IPD team is set up properly
and processes are introduced and followed with rigor, a
successful project will result.
Dave Hagan
This article is a preview of Session Z2 The Business Case for Integrated Lean Project Delivery at NASCC: The Steel Conference, taking place March 25-27 in Nashville. Learn more about the conference
at www.aisc.org/nascc.

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THE STEEL
CONFERENCE
incorporating the

ANNUAL STABILITY CONFERENCE

MARCH

2527,

2015

MUSIC CITY CENTER

3,700
design and
construction
professionals
100+
educational
seminars
200+ exhibitors

Music City Center Nashville, TN


The

PREMIER EVENT
for

EVERYONE
involved
in the
Design and
Construction
of

S TEEL - F R A M E D
Buildings and
Bridges
GEN. AD.

ADVANCE PROGRAM
To view the advance program, visit

www.aisc.org/nascc
NASCC:
THE STEEL CONFERENCE

NASCC:
THE STEEL CONFERENCE

SEAT

Music City Center Nashville, TN

ROW

GA

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GE NE R AL ADMISSION

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MAR. 25 27, 2015

Music City Center Nashville, TN


NASCC:
THE STEEL CONFERENCE

news
People and Firms

NASCC

Working Across Generation Gap


Focus of NASCC Keynote
This years keynote speaker at NASCC:
The Steel Conference in Nashville
(March 25-27) is Haydn Shaw, the author
of Sticking Points: How to Get 4 Generations Working Together in the 12 Places They
Come Apart and FranklinCoveys bestselling workshops Leading Across Generations and Working Across Generations; he also writes on generations and
leadership for the Huffington Post. Shaws
keynote presentation Leading Across the
Generations will explain why generations are different and how to turn those
differences into productivity. Youll learn
the differences between Traditionalists,
Baby Boomers, Gen-Xers and Millennials and how to get through their sticking

points to get stuff done. The presentation


will also help you in gaining, training and
retraining the text message generation.
For more information on the keynote
and NASCC, including the complete
schedule, travel information, how to
register and more,
visit
www.aisc.
org/nascc. In
addition, next
months
issue of Modern
Steel will feature the full
exhibitors list.

BRIDGES

60 Minutes Reports on Americas


Neglected Infrastructure

Corroded steel, crumbling concrete and


lack of investment are hurting Americas
infrastructure, CBSs 60 Minutes reported recently in the segment Falling Apart:
Americas Neglected Infrastructure.
The feature story by CBS correspondent
Steve Kroft highlighted the crumbling
state of the nations infrastructure,
looking at the problem as it relates to
economics, Americas competitiveness in
the world and life safety.
Kroft stressed that nearly 70,000
bridges in Americaone out of every
60

FEBRUARY 2015

nineis now considered to be structurally


deficient. He also spoke with former U.S.
Department of Transportation Secretary
Ray LaHood, who stated that the nations
roads and bridges are on life support.
The report reinforces that the governments current infrastructure investments are unsustainable, as evidenced by
the Highway Trust Fund insolvency, and
questions Congress ability to come up
with a long-term fix.
To watch the segment, visit
www.cbsnews.com.

AISC member Gerdaus new


GGMULTI merchant bar product
satisfies 10 different steel grades
and standards and is offered
in varying shapes and sizes of
angles, channels and flats.
Designed for high performance
in various operations of steel
fabrication, the product is
developed with consistent
50-ksi minimum yield strength
for improved steel toughness,
ductility and weldability. For
more information, visit http://
ggmulti.com/.
Meridian Community College
recently opened a new welding
techno lo gy center on its
Workforce Education campus in
Meridian, Miss. The 11,500-sq.ft facility will have 30 welding
booths, classrooms, office
space and a 3-ton overhead
crane, reports The Meridian
Star. Tony Dean, executive
vice president and general
manager at Meridian-based
Structural Steel Services, Inc.
(an AISC Member and Certified
fabricator) helped design the
facility to give it a real-world
shop feel. For more information,
visit www.meridiancc.edu.
Tro y B ro o k s , a n 1 8 - y e a r
veteran of Nucor Corporation,
was recently named as the vice
president and general manager
of Vulcraft-Nebraska, Cold
Finish-Nebraska and Nucor
Detailing Center, which are all
located in Norfolk, Neb. Brooks
succeeds Doyle Hopper, who
had served as vice president
and general manager of the
three Norfolk-based facilities
since 2008. Hopper transferred
to Nucor Steel in Wallingford,
Conn., in September.

news
SPECIFICATIONS

New Revision to Steel Erection Specification now Available


The latest revision to the AASHTONSBA Steel Bridge Erection Guide Specification, S10.1 is now available. This document establishes and defines the basic
minimum requirements for the transportation, handling and erection of steel
bridge components.
The document has been revised based
upon input from the bridge design and
construction communities. The majority of revisions occur in Section 2, which
was expanded from four to five subsec-

tions and retitled Erection Engineering. These updates further refine the
processes that should be in place prior to
field erection to better ensure safety, reliability and economy.
The work was developed by the
AASHTO/NSBA Steel Bridge Collaboration Task Group 10, which is comprised of contributing members from the
design consulting, DOT and fabrication
communities. S10.1s revisions continue
the collaborations mission of distribut-

ing standardized best practices between


owners, designers and contractors.
The revised document is available for
free from at www.aisc.org/nsba
and AASHTOs
website,
www.
transportation.
org.

MARKET NEWS

Dodge Predicts Construction Growth this Year


Construction starts will rise in 2015 for
commercial and institutional building, according to a 2015 Construction Outlook
report released by Dodge Data and Analytics. The report predicts that total U.S.
construction starts for 2015 will rise 9%
to $612 billiona larger gain than the 5%
increase to $564 billion estimated for 2014.
The construction expansion should
become more broad-based in 2015, with
support coming from more sectors than
was often the case in recent years, said
Robert Murray, chief economist and vice
president for Dodge Data and Analytics.
The economic environment going forward carries several positives that will help
to further lift total construction starts. Financing for construction projects is becoming more available, reflecting some
easing of bank lending standards, a greater
focus on real estate development by the investment community and more construction bond measures getting passed. While
federal funding for construction programs
is still constrained, states are now picking
up some of the slack. Interest rates for
the near term should stay low, and market fundamentals (occupancies and rents)
for commercial building and multifamily
housing continue to strengthen.
This 32-page report covers the major
sectors of the U.S. construction market,
with breakouts for detailed categories
within the residential, nonresidential and
engineering sectors. In addition, it provides an outlook for the broad types of
construction within each of the five major regions of the country.

Commercial building is expected


to increase 15%slightly faster than
the 14% gain estimated for 2014. Office construction has assumed a leading role in the commercial building
upturn, aided by expanding private development as well as healthy construction activity related to technology and
finance firms. Hotel and warehouse
construction should also strengthen,
although the pickup for stores is more
tenuous.
Institutional building will advance
9%, continuing the moderate upward
trend thats been established during
2014. The educational building category
is now seeing an increasing amount of
K-12 school construction, aided by the
financing made available by the passage
of recent construction bond measures.
Healthcare facilities are expected to
show some improvement relative to diminished activity in 2014.
Multifamily housing will also increase
9% in dollars and 7% in units to 405,000
(Dodge basis). Occupancies and rent
growth continue to be supportive, although the rate of increase for construction is now decelerating as the multifamily market matures.
Copies of the report, with additional
details by building sector, can be ordered
from the Dodge Data and Analytics website, http://construction.com/dodge.
Also, see Modern Steels January Economics article, which features AISC vice
president John Cross 2015 forecast for the
steel industry (www.modernsteel.com).

CERTIFICATION

AISC Completes Bridge


Fabricator Certification
Program Conversion
All participants in AISCs certification
program for bridge fabricators have now
transitioned to a standard-based bridge
certification program, which replaces the
previous checklist criteria. The transition is part of AISCs efforts to advance the
bridge fabricator certification to best serve
both the industry (including applicants and
certified participants) and the bridge marketplace (including contracting authorities,
specifiers and general contractors), explained Jacques Cattan, AISCs vice president responsible for certification.
The transition completes a two-year
process of converting bridge participants and applicants to the AISC Bridge
Certification Requirements. In addition,
the program requirements introduce
the certification categories of Certified
Bridge Fabricator: Simple (SBR), Intermediate (IBR) and Advanced (ABR).
Certificates will temporarily continue
to include either the Intermediate/Major or Advanced/Major designations
to allow transportation departments additional time to update their standard
specifications. If you have additional
questions, please contact AISC Certification at certication@aisc.org or
312.670.7520.
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

61

news
ENGINEERING JOURNAL

Q1 EJ Now Available
The first quarter 2015 issue of Engineering
Journal is now available in PDF format at
www.aisc.org/ej. You can view, print and
share the current digital edition.
2013-14

Recommended Procedures for


Damage-Based Serviceability
Design of Steel Buildings under
Wind Loads
Kevin Aswegan, Finley A. Charney and
Jordan Jarrett
This paper provides a recommended
procedure for nonstructural damage
control of steel buildings under serviceability-level wind loads. Unlike traditional procedures that provide a single
drift limit under a given reference load,
the recommended procedure provides a
decision space that spans a range of wind
hazards and associated damage states.
Central to the procedure are the use of
shear strain in nonstructural components
as the engineering demand parameter
and the use of component fragility as a
reference for limiting damage.
Keywords: wind, drift, serviceability;
damage, fragility, performance-based
engineering
2013-17R

Panel Zone Deformation Capacity


as Affected by Weld Fracture at
Column Kinking Location
Dong-Won Kim, Colin Blaney and ChiaMing Uang
Three full-scale specimens were tested to evaluate the cyclic performance of
rehabilitated pre-Northridge steel beamto-column moment connections. A Kaiser bolted bracket (KBB) was used on the
beam bottom flange for all specimens,
but different rehabilitation schemes (another KBB, a notch-tough beam flange
replacement weld, or a double-tee welded bracket) were used to strengthen the
top flange. All specimens were able to
sustain an interstory drift angle of 0.04
radian, with large inelastic deformations in the panel zone. Two specimens
experienced fracture at the replacement
62

FEBRUARY 2015

complete-joint-penetration (CJP) welds,


mainly due to the large shear deformation in the panel zone. Because it may
not be economically feasible to mitigate
weak panel zones in seismic rehabilitation, an analytical model was developed
to predict the panel zone deformation
capacity and the associated strength. In
this model, it was postulated that the ultimate panel zone deformation capacity
corresponded to that when each column
flange was fully yielded and excessive
kinking would cause fracture of the beam
flange CJP welds. This postulation was
verified by the test data of two specimens
that experienced weld fracture due to
excessive panel zone deformation. It was
shown that the deformation capacity is a
function of db/tcf (beam depth-to-column
flange thickness ratio). The effect of column axial load was also studied.
Keywords: special moment frame,
moment connection, panel zone, shear
deformation, Kaiser bolted bracket,
rehabilitation
2013-21

Plastic Strength of Connection


Elements
Bo Dowswell
Many connection elements are modeled as rectangular members under various combinations of shear, flexural, torsional and axial loads. Strength design is
now used for steel members and connections; therefore, the traditional method
of combining loads using beam theory
needs to be updated to comply with
strength design philosophy. Due to the
extensive research available on the plastic interaction of rectangular members,
a review of existing equations forms the
basis of this paper. In cases where existing
research is unavailable, new derivations
are provided. An interaction equation is
developed for strength design of rectangular connection elements under any
possible loading combination.
Keywords: connections, plastic design,
rectangular elements

2013-28

Behavior and Response of Headed


Stud Connectors in Composite
Steel Plate Girder Bridges under
Cyclic Lateral Deformations
Hamid Bahrami, Eric V. Monzon,
Ahmad M. Itani and Ian G. Buckle
Most of the mass of steel plate girder
bridge superstructures is concentrated
in the reinforced concrete deck. During
a seismic event, the inertia force that is
generated in the reinforced concrete
deck is transferred to the support cross
frames through the headed stud connectors. Seismic analyses showed that these
connectors are subjected to combined
axial tension and shear forces. If not designed properly, these connectors may
fail prematurely during an earthquake,
altering the load path and subjecting
other bridge components to forces they
are not designed for. To verify these observations, two half-scale models of plate
girder bridge subassembly were constructed and subjected to cyclic testing.
The two specimens represented two different configurations of headed stud connectors in transferring the deck seismic
forces. The connectors in the first specimen connected the girder top flange to
the reinforced concrete deck, while the
connectors in the second specimen connected the cross-frame top chord to the
deck. These experiments showed that the
connectors were indeed vulnerable under transverse lateral loading. The failure
mode of these connectors is a combination between shear and tensile forces or
concrete breakout. Based on this investigation, design equations were proposed
and adopted in the AASHTO LRFD
Bridge Design Specifications to evaluate
the resistance of such connectors under
shear and tensile forces.
Keywords: stud connectors, seismic
design, steel plate girders, reinforced
concrete deck, steel girder bridge

www.aisc.org/nightschool
Class begins January 26, 2015

AISC

Night School
Stability Design of Steel Structures
Applying Modern Methods of Structural Analysis
Presented by Donald W. White, Ph.D. and Ronald D. Ziemian, P.E., Ph.D.
in collaboration with the
Structural Stability Research Council

Monday nights 7:00 p.m. Eastern Time


(90 minutes each)
February 2: Modern Methods of Structural
Analysis, from Linear to Nonlinear Part II
February 9: Modules for Learning
Structural Stability
February 23: Second-Order Elastic
Analysis Getting it Right

Theres always a solution in steel.


American Institute of Steel Construction
One E Wacker Drive, Suite 700
Chicago, IL 60601
www.aisc.org
312.670.2400

marketplace

Search employment ads online at www.modernsteel.com.

AISC QUALITY CERTIFICATION


IT WORKS... DONT WAIT!
For fabrication or erection help
Call Jim Mooney
your Quality Certification Connection

JAMES M. MOONEY & ASSOCIATES

941.223.4332 jmmoon94@aol.com

Contract Auditor
Quality Management Company, LLC is seeking contractors to
conduct audits for the AISC Certified Fabricator and AISC Certified
Erector Programs. Contractors must have knowledge of quality
management practices as well as knowledge of audit principles,
practices and techniques and knowledge of the steel construction
industry. If you are interested, please submit your statement of
interest contractor@qmconline.org.
Are you looking for software, products, or services for your next project?
You can find it in Modern Steel Constructions online product directory.

http://modernsteel.com/product_categories.php
If youre a provider of software, products, or services and would
like more information about being listed or enhancing your current listing,
contact Louis Gurthet at:

gurthet@modernsteel.com or 231.228.2274

Looking for something from an old issue of Modern Steel?

All of the issues from Modern Steel Constructions


first 50 years are now available as free PDF downloads
at www.modernsteel.com/backissues.

Like AISC on Facebook


facebook.com/AISCdotORG

Follow AISC on Twitter


@AISC

Looking for the latest information on


AISC Certification Programs?
Visit www.aisc.org/certification
Email certification@aisc.org
or call 312.670.7520

AISC Continuing Education Seminars


www.aisc.org/seminars.
64

FEBRUARY 2015

LATE MODEL STRUCTURAL


STEEL FABRICATING EQUIPMENT
Ficep 2004 DTT CNC Drilling & Thermal Coping Line, 78-3/4 x 24 Max.
Beam, 3-Drill, Ficep Arianna CNC Control, 2003 #20382
Controlled Automation ABL-100-B CNC Flat Bar Detail Line, 143 Ton
Punch, 400 Ton Single Cut Shear, 40 Infeed, 1999 #24216
Peddinghaus BDL1250 CNC Beam Drill, 50 Max. Beam, (3) 10 HP
Spindles, PC Ctrl (Upgrade 2005), 2000 #21739
Controlled Automation 2AT-175 CNC Plate Punch, 175 Ton, 30 x 60
Travel, 1-1/2 Max. Plate, PC CNC, 1996 #23503
Peddinghaus F1170B CNC Plate Punching Machine, 170 Ton, Fagor
CNC, 30 x 60 Trvl., Triple Gag Head, Ext. Tables, 2005 #19659
Controlled Automation BT1-1433 CNC Oxy/Plasma Cutting System,
14 x 33, (1) Oxy, (2) Hy-Def 200 Amp Plasma, 2002 #20654
Controlled Automation BFC-530 (5) Press CNC Beam Line, 36 Max.
Beam, Hem Saw, Conveyor, 1998 #24261
HEM DC-2038RB Double Column Horizontal Band Saw, 20 x 38, 45-60
Deg. Miter, 2 Blade, 15 HP, 75-400 SFPM, 2006 #22215
Visit www.PrestigeEquipment.com for our inventory & services

Phone: 631.249.5566 | Fax: 631.249.9494 | sales@prestigeequipment.com


To advertise, call 231.228.2274 or e-mail gurthet@modernsteel.com.

Search employment ads online at www.modernsteel.com.

Structural Engineers

Are you looking for a new and exciting opportunity in 2015?


We are a niche recruiter that specializes in matching great structural
engineers with unique opportunities that will help you utilize your talents
and achieve your goals.
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structural engineers find their Dream Jobs.
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information and help during the process of finding a new job.
For Current Openings, please visit our website and select Hot Jobs.
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employment
RECRUITER IN STRUCTURAL MISCELLANEOUS
STEEL FABRICATION
ProCounsel, a member of AISC, can market your skills
and achievements (without identifying you) to any city
or state in the United States. We communicate with
over 3,000 steel fabricators nationwide. The employer
pays the employment fee and the interviewing and
relocation expenses. If youve been thinking of making
a change, now is the time to do it. Our target, for you,
is the right job, in the right location, at the right money.

Buzz Taylor

PROCOUNSEL
Toll free: 866-289-7833 or 214-741-3014
Fax: 214-741-3019
mailbox@procounsel.net

PROJECT MANAGERS
International Design Services is seeking project
managers to manage all aspects of detailing & connection design, including
coordination with the fabricator, design team, and other suppliers to the
project. Project manager is responsible for maintaining drawing quality,
project schedules and costs, and overall customer satisfaction.
IDS offers benefits package, competitive salary and relocation allowance.
Please call (314) 872-1791 or email your resume to msmith@ids-inc.net.

Visit steelTOOLS.org
Join the conversation at AISCs new
file-sharing, information-sharing website.
Here are just a few of the FREE resources now available:
More than 160 steelTOOLS utilities available for downloading
Discussion blogs where your can connect and share ideas with
your peers
Files posted by your peers in special interest libraries, including:
A Pocket Reference to W Shapes by Depth,
then Flange Width
Welding Capacity Calculator
Moments, Shears and Reactions for Continuous Bridges
Video: Bridge Erection at the SeaTac Airport
Got Questions? Got Answers?
Participate with us at steelTOOLS.org.

Chicago Ornamental Iron has immediate opportunities for:

Experienced Steel Detailers,


Estimators & Project Managers
Excellent Pay and Fortune 500 type benefits
Relocation Reimbursement will be considered.
Full Service Structural and Misc. Metal Fabricator
Location: Chicago, IL
Please send Resume to jonathan@coicompany.com

www.coicompany.com

To advertise, call 231.228.2274 or e-mail gurthet@modernsteel.com.

The Berlin Steel Construction Company is a full service specialty contractor,


primarily with structural steel and miscellaneous metals. We design, fabricate, and
erect structures in the Northeast and in other parts of the country. Headquartered
in Kensington, CT, we have 2 fabrication facilities, 4 erection operations facilities,
and 6 office locations that provide engineering and management of projects.
We are a 100% employee owned company (ESOP) with a desire for growth.
We service the private commercial, public, institutional, and industrial markets.
We are an EOE looking to fill the following positions:

Engineering Manager Kensington, CT


Responsible for the leadership and development of the structural engineering and
CAD detailing needs of the company by managing the workflow with internal and
external resources to meet the needs of the production facilities and to satisfy
project schedules.
Project Manager Oxford, MA
Responsible for reviewing customer contracts to ensure proper scope and
terms, managing and monitoring costs for work while maintaining or improving
target margins, preparing change orders/invoices/Purchase Orders, and overall
management of projects from start to finish.

Chief Estimator Successor Kensington, CT


Responsible to lead, manage, plans, coordinate, and direct the estimating function.
Actively participates in the development and implementation of department
standards, procedures and process improvement. Responsible for review of all
final estimate packages to ensure accuracy and completeness. In addition to being
the chief estimator, this position will be directly involved with the improvement and
implementation of a team oriented sales strategy that meets the goals of Berlin Steel.
Estimator Positions Available in Malvern, PA and Kensington, CT
Responsible for quantity takeoff of either structural steel and/or miscellaneous
metals. Provides professionally thorough and accurate cost estimates, meeting
deadlines while maintaining highest level of accuracy and quality. Works within
a team environment that promotes efficiencies, continuous improvement and
increased profitability.

Please submit resume with salary requirements to


knemergut@berlinsteel.com.
Modern STEEL CONSTRUCTION

65

structurally
sound

CRUISING
THROUGH THE OC

Thornton Tomasetti

Thornton Tomasetti

THE GATEWAY to all transportation in Orange County,


Calif., is now open.
Designed by HOK & Parsons Brinckerhoff, the Anaheim
Regional Transportation Intermodal Center (ARTIC)
is a 68,000-sq.-ft regional transportation hub providing
multimodal transit services (rail and roadway) throughout Orange County. The project includes the Intermodal
Terminal and the Metrolink/Amtrak concourse bridge.
The terminal building houses a grand hall, ticketing and
retail space beneath a soaring open structure enclosed with
inflated ETFE cushions, the largest installation of ETFE
membrane pillows in North America. Thornton Tomasetti
served as the structural engineer for Phase 1 of the project and provided faade consulting services during the
design competition and early architectural design phases.
66

FEBRUARY 2015

Beck Steel, Inc., in Lubbock, Texas (an AISC Member and


Certified fabricator) was the projects steel contractor.
The terminal features a grid shell vault structure and a
three-story, interior terminal building that are structurally
connected. Rising from a height of 80 ft at its southern end
to 115 ft at the main entrance, the structure is 250 ft long and
180 ft wide.
Thornton Tomasettis structural design employs 14-in.diameter curved, interlocking steel tubes to form the structures highly efficient diagrid shell, which supports the ETFE
cushions. This steel shell is clearly visible through the faade,
creating a variety of impressive visual effects and contributing
to an iconic regional landmark.
The $188-million transportation center, which opened in
December, is expected to serve 10,000 commuters a day.

Be part of
the BIM
revolution.

Autodesk Advance Steel is BIM


software for steel detailing
and fabrication that integrates
with Autodesk AutoCAD
and Autodesk Revit software
products to help accelerate time
to fabrication and construction.

Visit Booth #820 to experience Advance Steel during NASCC.


Download your 30-day free* trial today: www.autodesk.com/advancesteel.

*Free Autodesk software licenses and/or cloud-based services are subject to acceptance of and compliance with the terms and
conditions of the license agreement or terms of service, as applicable, that accompany such software or cloud-based services.
Autodesk, the Autodesk logo, Revit and AutoCAD are registered trademarks or trademarks of Autodesk, Inc., and/or its subsidiaries and/
or affiliates in the USA and/or other countries. All other brand names, product names, or trademarks belong to their respective holders.
Autodesk reserves the right to alter product and services offerings, and specifications and pricing at any time without notice, and is not
responsible for typographical or graphical errors that may appear in this document. 2014 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.