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You are on page 1of 4

to Real Analysis:

Homework #7 Solutions

Stephen G. Simpson

Wednesday, April 29, 2009

The assignment consists of Exercises 20.1, 20.18, 23.1, 23.4, 23.6, 24.1, 24.2,

24.6, 24.14, 24.17, 25.3, 25.6, 26.2, 26.6, 26.7 in the Ross textbook. Each exercise

counts 5 points.

20.1. For f (x) = x/|x| = sgn x we have

lim f (x) = lim+ f (x) = 1

x0

and

lim f (x) = lim f (x) = 1.

x0

1 + 3x2 1

20.18. For f (x) =

and x 6= 0 we have

x2

f (x) =

3

(1 + 3x2 ) 1

=

x2 ( 1 + 3x2 + 1)

1 + 3x2 + 1

hence

lim f (x) =

x0

3

.

2

(b) R = , I = (, ).

(e) R = , I = (, ).

(f) R = 2, I = [2, 2].

(h) R = 4, I = [4, 4].

23.4. Note that an = (6/5)n if n is even, (2/5)n if n is odd.

Moreover an+1 /an = 2/(5 3n ) if n is even, (2 3n )/5 if n is odd.

1/n

1/n

= 2/5,

1

P

(1)n an diverge, because an 6 0.

P

(c) For the power series

an xn we have R = 5/6 and I = (5/6, 5/6).

P

P

23.6. Suppose an 0 and x 0. If

an xn converges, then P an (x)n converges absolutely (because |an (x)n | = an xn ), hence

an (x)n converges in view of Corollary 14.7.

(b)

an and

3

1 + 2 cos2 nx

n

n

hence |fn (x)| < whenever n > 9/2 . Since 9/2 is independent of x, we

see that fn converges uniformly to 0.

x

= 0 (pointwise convergence).

n

(b) fn 0 uniformly on [0, 1]. This is because for all x [0, 1] we have

(a) f (x) = lim fn (x) = lim

|fn (x)| =

|x|

1

<

n

n

(c) fn 6 0 uniformly on [0, ). This is because for any n we can find

x [0, ) such that |fn (x)| 1. (An example of such an x is x = n.)

Thus the definition of uniform convergence fails for = 1.

2

1

and f (x) = x2 .

24.6. Let fn (x) = x

n

(a) Clearly for all x we have fn (x) f (x), i.e., pointwise convergence.

2

2x

2

1

1

1

2

x =

+ 2 + 2 0

|fn (x) f (x)| = x

n

n

n

n n

nx

24.14. Let fn (x) =

.

1 + n2 x2

(a) For x = 0 we have fn (x) = 0 for all n, hence lim fn (0) = 0. For x 6= 0

we have

1

0

fn (x) = 1

+

nx

nx

so again lim fn (x) = 0. Thus fn 0 pointwise for all x.

(b) For all n we have fn (1/n) = 1/2. Therefore, since 1/n [0, 1], we

see that fn 6 0 uniformly on [0, 1], with = 1/2.

n n3 x2

(c) The derivative of fn (x) is fn (x) =

which is clearly < 0

(1 + n2 x2 )2

for all x 1. Thus fn (x) is nonincreasing for all x 1, so in

particular fn (1) fn (x) 0 for all x 1. But fn (1) = n/(1+n2 )

0, hence fn (x) 0 uniformly for all x 1.

2

it follows that f is continuous. Assuming xn x, we are asked to prove

that lim fn (xn ) = f (x). In other words, given > 0, we must show that

|fn (xn ) f (x)| < for all sufficiently large n. By the Triangle Inequality

we have

|fn (xn ) f (x)| |fn (xn ) f (xn )| + |f (xn ) f (x)|

(1)

for all n. Since fn f uniformly, we can find N1 such that |fn (z)f (z)| <

/2 holds for all n > N1 and all z. In particular |fn (xn ) f (xn )| < /2

whenever n > N1 . On the other hand, since f is continuous and xn x,

we can find N2 such that |f (xn ) f (x)| < /2 whenever n > N2 . Letting

N = max(N1 , N2 ), we see from (1) that |fn (xn ) f (x)| < whenever

n > N . This completes the proof.

25.3. Let fn (x) =

n + cos x

.

2n + sin2 x

(a) Clearly lim fn (x) = 1/2 for all x, so the limit function is f (x) = 1/2.

Since | cos x| 1 and 0 sin2 x 1, we have

2

fn (x) 1 = n + cos x 1 = 2 cos x sin x 3 0

2 2n + sin2 x 2 2(2n + sin2 x) 4n

and this is independent of x. Thus fn 1/2 uniformly.

lim

fn (x) dx =

lim fn (x) dx =

2 n

5

1

dx = .

2

2

25.6. (a) Assume that k=0 |ak | < . Then k=0 ak xk converges uniformly

for all x [1, 1], by the Weierstrass M -test. (This isPbecause

n

|ak xk | |ak | for all x [1, 1].) Moreover, the partial sums k=0 ak xk

are polynomials, hence they

P are continuous on [1, 1], so by Theorem

24.3 the limit function k=0 ak xk is continuous on [1, 1].

P

(b) For example, we know that k=1 k12 < (this is the p-series with

p

= 2). Therefore, it follows by part (a) that the power series

P

1 k

k=1 k2 x is continuous on [1, 1].

P

xn =

n=0

1

1x

according to Theorem 26.5, we see that

nxn1 =

n=1

1

(1 x)2

nxn =

n=1

x

(1 x)2

(b) Plugging x = 1/2 into the result of part (a), we see that

1

X

X

n

1 n

2

)

=

= 2.

=

n(

2n n=1 2

(1 12 )2

n=1

(c) Plugging x = 1/3 and x = 1/3 into the result of part (a), we see

that

1

X

X

n

3

1 n

3

=

n(

)

=

3

1 2 = 4

n

3

)

(1

3

n=1

n=1

and

X

31

(1)n n X

3

=

n( 31 )n =

1 2 = 16 .

n

3

(1

(

))

3

n=1

n=1

26.6. Let

s(x) = x

x3

x5

+

3!

5!

and

x4

x2

+

2!

4!

and note that the interval of convergence for these series is (, ).

c(x) = 1

s (x) = 1

and

c (x) = 0

3x2

5x4

+

= c(x)

3!

5!

2x 4x3

6x5

+

+ = s(x).

2!

4!

6!

(b) By part (a) plus the usual laws of differentiation, we have (s2 +c2 ) =

2ss + 2cc = 2sc 2cs = 0. From this it follows that s2 + c2 is a

constant function.

(c) By part (b) s2 + c2 is a constant function, say s2 + c2 = K for some

constant K. Plugging in x = 0 we get s(0)2 + c(0)2 = 12 + 02 = 1,

hence K = 1. This proves that s(x)2 + c(x)2 = 1 for all x.

26.7. Let f (x) = |x|. This function is not differentiable at x = 0, because the

left-hand derivative is 1 and the right-hand derivative

P is 1. Therefore,

this function is not representable as a power series n=0 an xn . If it were

representable in this way, it would be be differentiable, by Theorem 26.5.

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