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M A N Y

V O I C E S

L A N G U A G E

The Essential Guide to

Language, Writing,
& Literature

Red Level
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Critical Readers
Lisa A. Avram
Senior Compositon
Rockford High School
Rockford, Michigan
John Cadwell
English Department Chair
New Trier High School
Winnetka, Illinois
Scott Eggerding
English Department Chair
Lyons Township High School
La Grange, Illinois
Jean B. Ellerhoff
Central Academy
Des Moines, Iowa

Victor Jaccarino
Herricks Public Schools
New Hyde Park, New York
Tunde Robinson
Plantation High School
Plantation, Florida
Anna J. Small Roseboro
Grand Valley State University
Grand Rapids, Michigan
Edie Weinthal
Pascack Valley Regional
High School
Hillsdale, New Jersey

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Contents
Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics
Grammar
Chapter 1 The Parts of a Sentence ................................
The Sentence ................................................................................................
Subjects and Predicates .............................................................................
Kinds of Sentences ......................................................................................

Chapter 2 Nouns and Pronouns ......................................
Nouns ..............................................................................................................
Pronouns and Antecendents ......................................................................
Kinds of Pronouns ........................................................................................

Chapter 3 Verbs ................................................................................
Verbs ...............................................................................................................
Action Verbs ..................................................................................................
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs ..............................................................
Linking Verbs ................................................................................................
Helping Verbs ................................................................................................

Chapter 4

Adjectives and Adverbs ...............................

Adjectives ......................................................................................................
Adverbs ..........................................................................................................

Chapter 5 Prepositions, Conjunctions,
& Interjections .................................................................................
Prepositions ..................................................................................................
Conjunctions .................................................................................................
Interjections ..................................................................................................

2
3
3
9
10
11
12
14
18
19
19
20
21
23
24
25
29
32
33
35
37

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Chapter 6

Complements .......................................................

Complements .................................................................................................
Direct Objects ...............................................................................................
Indirect Objects ............................................................................................
Predicate Nominatives ...............................................................................
Predicate Adjectives ...................................................................................

Chapter 7 Phrases ..........................................................................
Prepositional Phrases .................................................................................
Appositives and Appositive Phrases ........................................................

38
39
39
40
42
43
44
45
48

Chapter 8 Verbals and Verbal Phrases

.....................
Verbals ...........................................................................................................
Participles and Participial Phrases .........................................................
Gerunds and Gerund Phrases ....................................................................
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases ...............................................................

50
51
51
55
56

Chapter 9 Clauses ..........................................................................

58
59
59
60
66

Clauses ...........................................................................................................
Independent Clauses ...................................................................................
Subordinate Clauses ...................................................................................
Sentence Structure ......................................................................................

Chapter 10 Sentence Fragments and Run-ons ...
Sentence Fragments ....................................................................................
Run-on Sentences ........................................................................................

Usage
Chapter 11 Using Verbs .............................................................
Parts of Verbs ................................................................................................
Tenses of Verbs .............................................................................................
Verb Conjugations ........................................................................................
Active and Passive Voice ...........................................................................

68
69
71

72
73
79
82
86

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Chapter 12 Using Pronouns

.................................................
The Cases of Personal Pronouns ..............................................................
Pronouns and Their Antecedents ..............................................................

88
89
98

Chapter 13 Subject & Verb Agreement ......................

102
Subject and Verb Agreement ..................................................................... 103
Common Agreement Problems .................................................................. 105

Chapter 14 Using Adjectives and Adverbs .............

114
Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs ................................................... 115
Problems with Modifiers ............................................................................ 118

A Writer’s Glossary of Usage .......................................................................... 120

Mechanics
Chapter 15 Capitalization .....................................................

130
Basic Rules of Capitalization ..................................................................... 131
Other Uses of Capital Letters ..................................................................... 139

Chapter 16 End Marks and Commas ...........................
End Marks ......................................................................................................
Frequently Used Commas ...........................................................................
Commas That Separate ...............................................................................
Commas That Enclose .................................................................................

142
143
146
148
151

Chapter 17 Italics and Quotation Marks

................ 154
Italics and Underlining ............................................................................... 155
Quotation Marks ........................................................................................... 157

Chapter 18 Other Punctuation .........................................
Apostrophes ..................................................................................................
Semicolons ....................................................................................................
Colons .............................................................................................................
Hyphens ..........................................................................................................

162
163
168
170
171

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Six Traits and the Writing Process
Chapter 19 Introduction to the Writing Process ..
Using the Writing Process ..........................................................................
Prewriting ......................................................................................................
Drafting ...........................................................................................................
Revising ..........................................................................................................
Editing .............................................................................................................
Publishing ......................................................................................................

Chapter 20 The Six Traits of Good Writing ..........
Ideas ...............................................................................................................
Organization ..................................................................................................
Voice ...............................................................................................................
Word Choice ..................................................................................................
Sentence Fluency .........................................................................................
Conventions ...................................................................................................

Chapter 21 Developing Your Writing Style ...........
Choosing Vivid Words .................................................................................
Sentence Combining ...................................................................................
Creating Sentence Variety ..........................................................................
Writing Concise Sentences ........................................................................

174
175
176
185
188
191
193
196
197
200
203
204
204
205
206
207
211
213
216

Chapter 22 Writing Well-Structured Paragraphs .

218
Paragraph Writing ........................................................................................ 219
Building Your Paragraph ............................................................................. 221
Developing and Polishing Your Paragraph ............................................. 225

Chapter 23 Writing Effective Compositions ......
Writing an Effective Composition .............................................................
Prewriting ......................................................................................................
Drafting ...........................................................................................................
Revising ..........................................................................................................
Editing and Publishing ................................................................................

228
229
231
234
237
239

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Chapter 24 Personal Writing ............................................
The Personal Narrative ...............................................................................
Prewriting ......................................................................................................
Drafting ...........................................................................................................
Revising and Editing ....................................................................................

240
241
243
244
246

Chapter 25 Using Description

...........................................
Writing to Describe ......................................................................................
Prewriting ......................................................................................................
Drafting ...........................................................................................................
Revising ..........................................................................................................
Editing and Publishing ................................................................................

248
249
252
256
257
259

Chapter 26 Writing to Inform and Explain .........

260
261
262
271
274
275

Informative Writing ......................................................................................
Prewriting ......................................................................................................
Drafting ...........................................................................................................
Revising ..........................................................................................................
Editing and Publishing ................................................................................

Chapter 27 Writing to Persuade

276
277
280
285
288

Chapter 28

290
291
291
297
302
303
304
305
309

.....................................
Persuasive Writing ......................................................................................
Prewriting ......................................................................................................
Drafting ...........................................................................................................
Revising and Editing ....................................................................................

Creative Writing ..............................................

The Creative Work .......................................................................................
Writing a Short Story ...................................................................................
Prewriting ......................................................................................................
Drafting ...........................................................................................................
Revising ..........................................................................................................
Editing and Publishing .................................................................................
Writing a Scene for a Play ..........................................................................
Writing a Poem .............................................................................................

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Chapter 29 Writing About Literature

.......................
The Literary Essay ........................................................................................
Prewriting ......................................................................................................
Drafting ...........................................................................................................
Revising ...........................................................................................................
Editing and Publishing ................................................................................

312
313
320
327
328
329

Chapter 30 Writing Research Reports .....................

330
331
332
340
350
351

Report Writing ...............................................................................................
Prewriting ......................................................................................................
Drafting ...........................................................................................................
Revising ..........................................................................................................
Editing and Publishing .................................................................................

Chapter 31 Written Communication .........................
The Purpose of Written Communication ..................................................
Writing Informal Letters ..............................................................................
Writing Business Letters ............................................................................
Writing E-mail ...............................................................................................

352
353
353
357
365

Skill Building
Chapter 32 Critical Thinking ..............................................

370
Thinking Skills .............................................................................................. 371
Propaganda ................................................................................................... 378

Chapter 33 Critical Reading .................................................
Creating Meaning ........................................................................................
Before You Read ...........................................................................................
Skills to Use While You Read ....................................................................
Strategies to Use While You Read ............................................................
After You Read ..............................................................................................

380
381
382
386
394
398

Chapter 34 Study and Test-Taking Skills ................

400
Learning Study Skills .................................................................................. 401
Taking Standardized Tests .......................................................................... 405
Taking Essay Tests ....................................................................................... 411

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Chapter 35 Vocabulary Development ........................
Varieties of English ......................................................................................
Words That Communicate ..........................................................................
Determining Word Meaning .......................................................................
Dictionary Skills ...........................................................................................

416
417
418
420
424

Chapter 36 Spelling Strategies

........................................
Learning Spelling Strategies .....................................................................
Spelling Patterns ..........................................................................................
Plurals ............................................................................................................
Prefixes and Suffixes ...................................................................................
Words to Master ...........................................................................................

436
437
438
440
445
449

Chapter 37 Speaking and Listening ............................

450
451
453
455
456
456

Developing Your Speaking Skills ..............................................................
Preparing Your Speech ...............................................................................
Practicing Your Speech ..............................................................................
Delivering Your Speech ..............................................................................
Developing Your Listening Skills ..............................................................

Literature
A Guide to Literature ......................................................................
All About Authors .........................................................................................
Good Reading for Young Adults .................................................................
Famous Characters from Literature ..........................................................
Characters, Places, and Creatures from Mythology ..............................
Characters and Creatures from Folklore .................................................
A Guide to Literary Genres .........................................................................
A Glossary of Literary Terms ......................................................................

460
461
481
492
502
513
517
522

Glossary of Grammar, Composition,
and Thinking Terms ......................................................................

527

Index

534

..............................................................................................................

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