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151. What is the process by which people try to manage or control the perceptions that other people have
about them?\
a. Self-presentation
b. Halo effect
c. Impression management
d. Both (a) and (c)
Ans: D
152. Demotion-preventative strategy is a prime strategy associated with
a. Impression management
b. Stereotyping
c. Halo effect
d. Both (a) and (b)
Ans: A
153. Which of the following is a characteristic of demotion-preventative strategies?
a. Entitlements
b. Enhancements
c. Obstacle disclosures
d. Disassociation
Ans: D
154. Entitlements, enhancements, obstacle disclosures, and association are all characteristics of
a. Self-presentation
b. Demotion-preventative strategy
c. Promotion-enhancing strategy
d. Personalization
Ans: C
155.Which of the following terms refers to a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs out of
experience?
a. Personality
b. Perceptions
c. Learning
d. Attitude
Ans: C
156. Reward systems, a learning principle, is derived from the
a. Cognitive theory
b. Social learning theory
c. Behavioristic theory
d. Both (a) and (c)
Ans: C
157. Which of the following theories of learning are also known as connectionist theories?
a. Cognitive theories
b. Behavioristic theories
c. Social learning theories
d. Tolmans theories
Ans: B
158. The classical conditioning process is also referred to as
a. Respondent conditioning
b. Instrumental conditioning
c. Operant conditioning
d. Both (b) and (c)
Ans: A
159. The R-S connection in learning deals with

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a. Classical conditioning
b. Respondent conditioning
c. Operant conditioning
d. Either (a) or (b)
Ans: C
160. What is instrumental condition also know as?
a). Operant conditioning
b). Social learning
c). Classical conditioning
d. Respondent condition
ans : A
161. An apparatus developed by Skinner to understand learned behavior in animals is known as the
a. Opearnt chamber
b. Skinner box
c. Reinforcement chamber
d. Both a and b
ans : D
162. In order to understand learned behavior in animals, skinner made use of __________ and______in
his experiments.
i. Rats
ii. Parrots
iii. Pigeons
IV. Squirrels
a. Only I and III
b. only I and IV
c. Only II and III
d. Only II and IV
ans : A
163. The form of leaning based on trial and error is referred to as
i. Operant conditioning
ii. Classical conditioning
iii. Respondent conditioning
iv. Instrumental conditioning.
Only I and III
Only I and IV
Only II and III
Only II and IV
Ans : B
164. Which among the following forms an essential component of the modeling process?
a. Observational learning
b. Operant conditioning
c. Classical conditioning
d. Instrumental conditioning
ans. A
165. Accoring to the Law of Effect. __________ can be defined as anything that tends to increase the
intensity of a response and also induces the person to repeat the behavior which was followed.
a. Stimulus
b.Equity
c.Reinforcement
d. Punishment.
Ans : c

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166. An employee comes late to offices continuously for several days and is warned of a two-months
suspension followed by a pay-cut. This is an examples of
a. Negative reinforcement
b. Positive reinforcement
c. Stimulus
d. Instincts
ans : a
167. Negative reinforcement is a form of
a. Punishment
b. Social blackmail
c. Reward
d. None of the above
ans : B
168. The O.B. Mod process lays emphasis on
a. The influence of the environment on employee behavior
b. The antecedent cues or conditions that precede a behavior
c. The impact of the behavior on performance effectiveness
d. All the above
ans : D
169. A-B-C model is used for
a. functional analysis of behavior
b. Punishment
c. Reinforcement
d. Motivation
170. The components of the A-B-C model are all the following except
a. Attitude
b. Consequence
c. Bheavior
d. Antecedents
171. In the OB. Mod process, a/an ____________represents the condition or cue which precedes a set of
behavior alternatives. It is a stimulus or circumstance which elicits a particular behavior from an
individual
a. Consequence
b. Instinct
c. Congnition
d. Antecedent
ans : D
172. IN the OB Mod process, the most important intervention strategies are
i. positive reinforcement
ii. punishment-positive reinforcement
iii. Negative reinforcement
iv. positive-negative reinforcement
Only I and II
Only I and Iv
Only II and III
Only II and Iv
Ans : a
173. Amon the four levels of evaluation in the OB mod process, the ___________level examines whether
there has been any change in the behavior of the users of this process
a. first level
b. Second level

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c. Third level
d. fourth level
and . c
174. The ultimate objective of the OB Mod process is
a. improving individual performance
b. Product quality assurance
c. Maintaining a peaceful work environment
d. None of the above
ans : a
175. The effectiveness of the O.B. Mod process is evaluated based on data obtained on parameters like
a. Customer complaints and number of clients served
b. Employee grievances
c. Absenteeism and turnover
d. All of the above
Ans: D
176. The performance of a data entry operator in an organization largely depends on his/her
a. Conceptual skill
b. Human skill
c. Technical skill
d. Both (a) and (c)
Ans: C
177. Analytical processing of information and idea generation relates to
a. Technical skill
b. Human skill
c. Conceptual skill
d. None of the above
Ans: C
178. Personality traits theories and contingency theories are theories of
a. Leadership
b. Learning
c. Quality management
d. Empowerment and participation
Ans: A
179. The Great person theory of leadership is a
a. Trait theory
b. Contingency theory
c. Behavioral theory
d. Social learning theory
Ans: A
180. In the two-dimensional matrix model of leadership, the rows represent the leaders concern for
a. Production
b. People
c. Promotion
d. Both (a) and (b)
Ans: A
181. The management style of leaders also exhibit high levels of concern for both people as well as
production is referred to as the
a. Authoritarian style of leadership
b. Country club style of leadership
c. Team management style of leadership
d. Impoverished style of leadership

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Ans: C
182. According to blake and mouton, in the two-dimensional matrix, managers who practice a
____________ style of leadership are most effective
a. 9,9
b. 9,1
c. 1,9
d. 5,5
Ans: A
183. In Fiedlers contingency model, this parameter refers to the power that the leader is bestowed with in
an organization.
a. The leaders position
b. Leader-member relationship
c. Degree of task structure
d. Both a and b
Ans: A
184. According to Fielder, a task-oriented, tough-natured leadership style is most appropriate in
a. Highly favorable or unfavorable situations
b. Moderately favorable situation
c. Moderately unfavorable situation
d. Both a and b
Ans: A
185. The life cycle model is also known as the
a. Situational leadership model
b. Leadership-participation model
c. Contingency model
d. Path-goal model
Ans: A
186. According to Hersey and Blanchard, leadership style can be categorized under all of the following
types expect
a. Telling
b. Participating
c. Producing
d. Delegating
Ans: C
187. According to the Life-cycle model, the telling style of leadership should be selected by a manager
if
a. The employee is both incapable and unwilling to perform
b. The employees is has limit capability to perform a task but is very willing
c. The employee is capable but not willing to perform the task
d. The employee is both capable and willing to perform the task
Ans: A
188. One of the critical factors ignored by the situational leadership model developed by Hersey and
Blanchard is
a. Capabilities of an individual
b. An individuals willingness to undertake a specific task
c. The leaders attitude
d. None of the above
Ans: C
189. The in-group and out-group concepts were used in
a. Leader-member exchange theory
b. Life-cycle model

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c. Leadership-Participation model
d. Path-goal theory
Ans: A
190. The factors taken into consideration in the leadership-participation model are
i. Level of subordinate information
ii. Time constraints
iii Commitment
iv. Geographical distance between subordinates
Only I and ii
Only I and iv
Only iii and iv
I, ii, iii, and iv
Ans: D
191. The decision tree in the revised version of the leadership-paricipation version of consisted of twelve
contingencies which were referred to as
a. Problem attributes
b. Decision-quality
c. Employee-acceptance
d. Leadership behavior
Ans: A
192. According to the path-goal theory, the behavior of a leader depends on
a. Locus of control
b. Nature of task
c. Experience and Capabilities
d. All of above
Ans: D
193. ________is a type of leadership in which the leader discusses the problems with subordinates and
seeks their suggestions before taking any decision.
a. Participative leadership
b. Supportive leadership
c. Achievement-oriented leadership
d. Directive leadership
Ans: A
194. A new dimension in leadership, identified by the Scandinavian studies, is
a. Development-oriented behavior
b. Initiating structure
c. Consideration
d. None of the above
Ans: A
195. The term self-efficacy refers to
a. The confidence that an employee has in himself about the ability to successfully perform his job and
make meaningful contributions towards the growth and success of the organization
b. The increased involvement of employees in organizational processes and decision making
c. The mental and emotional involvement of persons in group situations which motivates them to
contribute to group goals and share responsibility for them
d. Influencing people to work towards desired goals
Ans: A
196. Employees having low levels of self-efficacy
a. Lack motivation
b. Focus on their weaknesses
c. Focus on their strength

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d. Both (a) and (b)


Ans: D
197. A Person who is completely engrossed in an activity is said to be
a. Task-involved
b. Ego-involved
c. Liaison
d. Leader
Ans: B
198. Autocratic managers in an organization encourage
a. True participation
b. Pseudo-participation
c. Ego-involved participation
d. Both (a) and (c)
Ans: B
199.Which of the following is not a part of participative programs?
a. Consultative management
b. Middle-management committees
c. Suggestion programs
d. Action research
Ans: D
200. Who introduced the concept of quality circles?
a. W. Edwards Deming
b.John W.newstrom
C.keith davis
d.philip yetton
Ans:A

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