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Revit Thermal P

Properties & HVAC

Ab
bout Matterials
Matterials in Autodesk
A
prroducts rep
present actual materia
als such as
s concrete, wood, and
d glass. Th
hese
matterials can be applied to parts off a design to
o give the objects
o
a re
ealistic app
pearance and behavio
or. In
som
me design ccontexts, th
he appeara
ance of an object is most
m
imporrtant, so the
e materialss have deta
ailed
app
pearance p
properties such as reflectivity
r
and surfa
ace texture
e. In other contexts, the physsical
prop
perties of a material such as yield
y
streng
gth and the
ermal cond
ductivity are
e more imp
portant, ass the
matterials must support engineering
e
analysis.
The
e following figure sho
ows some of the app
pearance p
properties for
f a Bronze, Soft Tin materiall, as
disp
played in th
he Material Browser.

The
e Material B
Browser
The
e appearan
nce properrties are grrouped in one "asse
et" of the material,
m
and are ma
anaged on the
App
pearance ta
ab. Other assets
a
asssociated with the matterial are managed
m
o the corre
on
esponding tab.
Eac
ch asset ca
an be cha
anged inde
ependently when you edit a ma
aterial thatt exists in a project. For
exa
ample, if yo
ou want the
e bronze material
m
to have
h
a red color, you
u can replace the app
pearance asset
a
with
h Anodized
d Aluminum
m, an asse
et with diffferent appe
earance prroperties. For
F more information
n on
assets, see Ab
bout Materiial Properties and Ass
sets.
e Material B
Browser dia
alog is used
d to find and manage materials. Common tasks includ
de:
The
Adding ma
aterials to th
he current project.
p
aterials in a collection, known ass a material library, forr ease of acccess.
Placing ma
material tha
at is in the current
c
project.
Editing a m
Adding an asset to a material.

Thermal P
Propertie
es
The
ermal Prope
erties

Cerrtain assem
mbly types such as Wall,
W
Floorr, Ceiling, Roof and Building Pad
P
have calculated
c
and
setttable therm
mal propertie
es which are represen
nted by the
e ThermalProperties class.
c

The
e ThermalP
Properties class
c
has properties fo
or the value
es shown above.
a
Absorptance and
a Roughn
ness
are modifiable
e while He
eatTransferrCoefficientt, ThermalR
Resistance
e, and The
ermalMass are read-o
only.
e units for th
hese calculated value
es are show
wn in the table below.
The
Property

Un
nit

Hea
atTransferCo
oefficient wa
atts per metter-squared kelvin (W/(m
m^2*K)
ThermalResista
ance

meter-squared kelvin perr watt ((m^2**K)/Watt)

ThermalMass

killogram feet--squared per second squared kelvin


n (kg ft^2/(s^^2 K))

The
ermal prope
erties can be
b retrieved
d using the ThermalPrroperties prroperty on the followin
ng types:
WallType
FloorType
e
CeilingType
RoofType
e
BuildingPadType

Ad
dding Th
hermal Propertie
P
es for En
nergy An
nalysis using
u
Bu
uilding Elements
E
s
Notte: Available
e as an Autodesk Subscription
n Benefit.
Whe
en perform
ming an ana
alysis on a detailed
d
bu
uilding model, you can
n add therm
mal properties for build
ding
elem
ments such
h as floors, slabs, wallls, and rooffs.
To enable
e
therrmal properties
1. Open a vie
ew that disp
plays the de
etailed building model.
2. Click Analyyze tab

Energy
E
Analysis panel

Energ
gy Settings
s.

3. Under Deta
ailed Mode
el, select Incclude Therrmal Properrties.
Notte: If Therm
mal Properties are not included in
n material element
e
lay
yers for elem
ments in th
he model, th
he
defa
ault Conceptual Consstructions are used in the analysiis.
To add
a therma
al propertie
es to elements for ana
alysis
1. Open a vie
ew that disp
plays the de
etailed building model.
b.
2. Click Archiitecture tab
uilding elem
ment, such as a wall.
3. Select a bu
4. On the Pro
operties pallette, select

Edit Tyype.

5. For Structu
ure, select Edit.
6. In the Edit Assembly dialog, clicck
7. In the Mate
erial Browsser, click +

in the Material co
olumn.
nd edit therm
mal properties.
Thermal to view an

8. Click Applyy and OK to


o close the dialog.
9. Click OK to
o close the Edit Assem
mbly dialog
g.
10. In the Type
e Properties, under An
nalytical Prroperties no
ote that the
e thermal prroperties are populate
ed:
Heat Transsfer Coefficcient, Therm
mal Resista
ance (R), and Therma
al mass.
11. Continue ssteps 4-10 for
f each ele
ement that you want to
t include thermal pro
operties for in the enerrgy
analysis.

HV
VAC
If th
he project g
goal is a ca
arbon neutrral building, an HVAC
C system sh
hould be in
ncluded and
d/or sized for
f a
projject only a
after all oth
her featuress of the building havve been op
ptimized. Design
D
the building fo
orm,
mas
ss, and op
penings to take full advantage
a
of
o natural ventilation and daylig
ghting opportunities. Use
elec
ctric lighting
g only in spaces
s
whe
ere the nattural light is insufficie
ent and durring hours without su
un. If
pos
ssible, makke use of ceiling
c
fans--with an air movem
ment of ab
bout 150 fpm (1.7 mph),
m
a person
exp
periences th
he same le
evel of com
mfort with th
he air temp
perature 3-5F higherr than a spa
ut air
ace withou
mov
vement. In
ncorporate thermal mass
m
and evaporative
e
e cooling ifi appropria
ate for the
e weather and
building use, a
and only us
se compresssor cooling
g as a backk-up.
Und
derfloor Aiir Distributtion Syste
ems:
This is no
ot a system
m type that is
i available
e in the DO
OE-2 simula
ation engine
e used by Green
G
Building
Studio. G
Green Build
ding Studio
o assumess a very low static pressure to
t obtain a conserva
ative
estimate of actual energy savings.
s
T better simulate this
To
t
type of HVAC system, iti is
y analysis be perform
med using eQUEST o
or EnergyP
Plus.
recommended that more detailed energy
opriate eQU
UEST or EnergyPlus file can be
e obtained from
f
the Exxport and D
Download Data
D
The appro
Files pag
ge. For gu
uidance on accepted modeling workarounds for Un
nderfloor Air
A Distribu
ution
systems, review the Energy De
esign Resources Guid
delines.
Typ
pical HVAC
C Central Plant
P
or Bu
uilt-up Sys
stems:
Use chille
ed water (C
CHW) and hot
h water (H
HW) instead
d of refrige
erant to mov
ve heating and cooling to
central airr handlers which
w
conta
ain the fans
s, economiizers, cooling and hea
ating coils and
a dampe
ers.
upply the chilled
c
wate
er.
Chillers su
Cooling to
owers whic
ch supply co
ondenser water
w
(CW) to the chilller are used
d instead of
o the air
condense
ers on found
d on most Direct
D
Expa
ansion (DX
X) unitary eq
quipment.
Boilers typ
pically supp
ply the HW
W (can be stteam from d
district hea
ating).
Typically contain CH
HW, HW an
nd CW loop
ps, along with piping, pumps
p
and
d controllerss.
Typ
pical HVAC
C efficiency metrics:
EER (ene
ergy efficie
ency ratio)) -- This is a measure of how efficiently a co
ooling syste
em operate
es.
EER is most commo
only applied
d to window
w units and unitary airr conditione
ers and hea
at pumps. The
T
EER is the ratio of Btu/hr.
B
of co
ooling at 95
5F divided by the wattts used at 95F.
easonal en
nergy efficiency ratio
o) -- This measures
m
ho
ow efficienttly a smalle
er residential
SEER (se
air conditiioner or heat pump op
perates ove
er an entire
e cooling se
eason, as opposed
o
to a single
outdoor te
emperature
e. As with EER,
E
a high
her SEER reflects
r
a more
m
efficien
nt cooling system.
s
SE
EER
is the ratio
o of the tota
al amount of
o cooling Btu's
B
the syystem provides over th
he entire se
eason divid
ded
by the tota
al number of watt-hou
urs it consu
umes.
eating seas
sonal perfformance factor)
f
-- This
T
is the measureme
m
ent of how e
efficiently heat
h
HSPF (he
pumps op
perate in he
eating mode over an entire
e
heating season. The highe
er the HSPF, the more
e
efficient th
he system. HSPF is ccalculated by
b dividing tthe total nu
umber of Bttu's of heatt produced
over the h
heating sea
ason by the
e total numb
ber of watt--hours of electricity re
equired to produce
p
tha
at
heat.

AFUE (annual fuel utilization efficiency) -- This measures how efficiently a gas furnace or boiler
operates. AFUE is the percentage of energy consumed by the system that is converted to useful
heat. For example, a 90% AFUE means that for every Btu of gas used the system provides 0.9
Btu of heat. The higher the AFUE, the more efficient the system.
kW/ton -- This is most often used to determine chiller efficiency and measures the energy input in
kW over the tons of cooling provided. The lower the ratio, the more efficient the chiller. COP
(coefficient of performance) indicates how efficiently a heating or cooling system (a heat pump in
heating mode and a chiller for cooling) operates at a single outdoor temperature condition. It
measures the useful output in Btu/h, divided by the electric energy input in watts. Higher COP
values indicate a more efficient system.

HV
VAC Sysstems
The
e following sections
s
prrovide deta
ails about th
he assumpttions used during ene
ergy analysis for each
HVA
AC system.
2-Piipe Fan Coiil System, Chiller
C
5.96 COP, Boile
ers 84.5 eff

Water coolled centrifu


ugal chiller (COP 5.96)
Open, atmospheric pressure coo
oling towerr with variable speed fan
f and 5-d
degree Fah
hrenheit (2.8
degree Celsius) appro
oach
urved constant volume
e fan and premium
p
effficiency mo
otor
Forward cu
0.25 inch of
o water gauge (62.3 pascals)
p
sta
atic pressure Constan
nt Volume duct
d
system
m
Gas-fired h
hot water boiler with draft
d
fan >2500 kBtuh, 84.5% com
mbustion efficiency
e
Variable vo
olume hot water
w
pump
p
Hot water ccoil
Variable vo
olume chille
ed water pu
ump
Chilled watter coil
Variable vo
olume cond
denser wate
er pump
Domestic h
hot water unit (0.575 Energy
E
Fac
ctor)

4-Piipe Fan Coiil System, Chiller


C
5.96 COP, Boile
ers 84.5 eff

Water coolled centrifu


ugal chiller (COP 5.96)
Open, atmospheric pressure coo
oling towerr with variable speed fan
f and 5-d
degree Fah
hrenheit (2.8oach
degree Celsius) appro
urved constant volume
e fan and premium
p
effficiency mo
otor
Forward cu
0.25 inch of
o water gauge (62.3 pascals)
p
sta
atic pressure Constan
nt Volume duct
d
system
m
Gas-fired h
hot water boiler with draft
d
fan >2500 kBtuh, 84.5% com
mbustion efficiency
e
Variable vo
olume hot water
w
pump
p
Hot water ccoil
Variable vo
olume chille
ed water pu
ump
Chilled watter coil
Variable vo
olume cond
denser wate
er pump
Domestic h
hot water unit (0.575 Energy
E
Fac
ctor)

11 EER
E
Packag
ged VAV, 84
4.5% boilerr heating

Efficient 11
1 EER, >20
0-ton Packa
aged Variab
ble Air Volu
ume (VAV) Unit, Wate
er Reheat, with Variab
ble
Speed Drivve (VSD)
Forward cu
urved fan with
w VSD an
nd premium
m efficiencyy motor
3.5 inch off water gaug
ge (871.8 pascals)
p
sta
atic pressure VAV ducct system
emperature
e economizzer
Integrated differentiall dry-bulb te
hot water boiler with draft
d
fan >2500 kBtuh, 84.5% AF
FUE
Gas-fired h
Constant vvolume hot water pum
mp
Hot water ccoil

Hot water reheat boxes


Domestic hot water unit (0.575 Energy Factor)
12 SEER/0.9 AFUE Split/Packaged Gas, 5-11 Ton

Efficient 12 SEER, 90% AFUE furnace split system with gas heat
Forward curved constant volume fan and premium efficiency motor
2.0 inch of water gauge (498 pascals) static pressure Constant Volume duct system
Integrated differential dry-bulb temperature economizer
Domestic hot water unit (0.575 Energy Factor)

12 SEER/7.7 HSPF Split Packaged Heat Pump

Efficient 12 SEER/7.7 HSPF (Heating Seasonal Performance Factor) < 11.25-ton split/packaged
heat pump system
Forward curved constant volume fan and premium efficiency motor
2.0 inch of water gauge (498 pascals) static pressure Constant Volume duct system
Integrated differential dry-bulb temperature economizer
Domestic hot water unit (0.575 Energy Factor)

12 SEER/8.3 HSPF Packaged Terminal Heat Pump (PTHP)

12 SEER/8.3 HSPF (Heating Seasonal Performance Factor) packaged terminal heat pump (PTHP)
Forward curved constant volume fan and premium efficiency motor
0.25 inch of water gauge (62.3 pascals) static pressure Constant Volume duct system
Domestic hot water unit (0.575 Energy Factor)

Central VAV, Electric Resistance Heat, Chiller 5.96 COP

Water cooled centrifugal chiller (COP 5.96)


Open, atmospheric pressure cooling tower with variable speed fan and 5-degree Fahrenheit (2.8degree Celsius) approach
Forward curved fan with Variable Speed Drive (VSD) and premium efficiency motor
3.5 inch of water gauge (871.8 pascals) static pressure Variable Air Volume (VAV) duct system
Integrated differential dry-bulb temperature economizer
Resistance reheat boxes
Variable volume chilled water pump
Chilled water coil
Variable volume condenser water pump
Domestic hot water unit (0.575 Energy Factor)

Central VAV, HW Heat, Chiller 5.96 COP, Boilers 84.5 eff (default)

Water cooled centrifugal chiller (COP 5.96)


Open, atmospheric pressure cooling tower with variable speed fan and 5-degree Fahrenheit (2.8degree Celsius) approach
Forward curved fan with Variable Speed Drive (VSD) and premium efficiency motor
3.5 inch of water gauge (871.8 pascals) static pressure Variable Air Volume (VAV) duct system
Integrated differential dry-bulb temperature economizer
Gas-fired hot water boiler with draft fan >2500 kBtuh, 84.5% combustion efficiency
Variable volume hot water pump
Hot water coil
Hot water reheat boxes
Variable volume chilled water pump
Chilled water coil
Variable volume condenser water pump
Domestic hot water unit (0.575 Energy Factor)

Residential 14 SEER/0.9 AFUE Split/Packaged Gas <5.5 ton

Efficient 14 SEER/90% AFUE furnace <5.5-ton split/packaged system with gas heat
Residential constant volume cycling fan
2.0 inch of water gauge (498 pascals) static pressure Constant Volume duct system
Domestic hot water unit (0.575 Energy Factor)
Residential 14 SEER/8.3 HSPF Split/Packaged Heat Pump

Efficient 14 SEER/8.3 HSPF (Heating Seasonal Performance Factor) <5.5-ton split/packaged heat
pump system
Residential constant volume cycling fan
2.0 inch of water gauge (498 pascals) static pressure Constant Volume duct system
Integrated differential dry-bulb temperature economizer
Domestic hot water unit (0.575 Energy Factor)

Residential 17 SEER/9.6 HSPF Split HP <5.5 ton

17.4 SEER/9.6 HSPF <5.5-ton split/packaged air source heat pump, intermittent fan mode
Residential constant volume cycling fan
2.0 inch of water gauge (498 pascals) static pressure Constant Volume duct system
Premium efficiency, on-demand tankless domestic hot water heater (0.85 Energy Factor)
Underflow Air Distribution

Packaged Variable Air Volume (PVAV) system with under floor air distribution
Forward curved fan with Variable Speed Drive (VSD) and premium efficiency motor
3.5 inch of water gauge (871.8 pascals) static pressure VAV duct system
Gas-fired hot water boiler with draft fan >2500 kBtuh, 84.5% combustion efficiency
Integrated differential dry-bulb temperature economizer
Variable volume hot water pump
Hot water coil
Hot water reheat boxes
Improved efficiency domestic hot water heater (85% thermal efficiency)