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Module No.

1
Introduction
Chemistry - science that describes matter its properties, the changes it undergoes, and the
energy changes that accompany those processes
Matter - anything that has mass and occupies space
Energy - the capacity to do work or transfer heat
Scientific (natural) law - a general statement based on the observed behavior of matter to
which no exceptions are known
1. Law of Conservation of Mass
2. Law of Conservation of Energy
3. Law of Conservation of Mass-Energy;
Einsteins Relativity
E=mc2
The Scientific Method a systematic approach to research
1. Defining a problem
2. Gathering of data
3. Making hypothesis
4. Observation or Experiment
5. Law
6. Theory
7. Conclusion
States of Matter
Matter exists in three states: Solids, Liquids and Gases. A good example of this is water
which can be found at room temperatures as liquid water. If you freeze water it solidifies to ice.
On the other hand, if you heat liquid water it eventually boils and changes to water vapor.

Illustration of changes in state requires energy

Classification of Matter

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Matter

Mixtures

Pure substance

Homogeneous
Heterogeneous
mixtures Separation by mixtures

Compounds

Separation by
chemical methods

Elements

physical method
Substance matter that has a definite or constant composition and distinct properties
Mixture - a combination of two or more substances in which the substances retain their
distinct identities
1. Homogeneous mixture
2. Heterogeneous mixture
Practice Exercise 1.1: Give an example of a
homogenous mixture and an example of a
heterogeneous mixture.
Pure Substance
1. Elements - substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances via chemical
reactions
Some Common Elements and Their Symbols
Name
Aluminum
Arsenic
Barium
Bromine
Calcium
Carbon
Chlorine
Chromium
Cobalt
Copper

Symbol
Al
AS
Ba
Br
Ca
C
Cl
Cr
Co
Cu

Name
Fluorine
Gold
Hydrogen
Iodine
Iron
Lead
Magnesium
Mercury
Nickel
Nitrogen

Symbol
F
Au
H
I
Fe
Pb
Mg
Hg
Ni
N

2. Compounds - substances composed of two or more elements in a definite ratio by mass,


can be decomposed into the constituent elements. Water is a compound that can be
decomposed into simpler substances hydrogen and oxygen.

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Practice Exercise 1.2: Classify each of these as an element or a compound:


a. Water b. Helium c. Alcohol d. Platinum
Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter
1. Chemical Properties can be measured and observed when a substance undergo chemical
change
a. rusting or oxidation
b. chemical reactions
2. Physical Properties - can be measured and observed without changing the composition or
identity of a substance
a. changes of state
b. density, color, solubility
Extensive Properties - are affected by the amount of matter measured.
Examples: mass, volume ,length
Intensive Properties - does not depend on the amount of matter measured.
Examples: density, melting point, boiling Point

Practice Exercise 1.3: Does each of these describe a physical change or a chemical
change?
a. The helium gas inside a balloon tends to
leak out after a few hours.
b. A flashlight beam slowly gets dimmer and
finally goes out.
c. Frozen orange juice is reconstituted by
adding water to it.
d. The growth of plants depends on the suns
energy in a process called photosynthesis.
e. A spoonful of table salt dissolves in a bowl of
soup.
Practice Exercise 1.4: Which of these properties are intensive?
a. Area b. Color c. Density
Homework: 1.7, 1.9, 1.11, 1.73 pages. 23 - 27, General Chemistry: The Essential Concepts,
5th edition by Raymond Chang

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