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Understanding Gas

Laws
CHEM 1007 Spring 2015

This report shows a working knowledge of lab


#4 Gas Wars in chemistry lab 1 at the
University of New Orleans. I certify that all works
within are original and that the bounds of the
experiment derive from the classs
corresponding workbook.
Sam Sternfield

Understanding Gas Laws:


INTRODUCTION:
In this experiment, the goal is to analyze the behavior of gaseous compounds
under varying conditions in order to see a change in the gass properties. The ideal
gas law will be used in order to determine the mathematical relationship between
different properties. The ideal gas law can be represented with the formula PV=nRT.
According to Boyles law (P1/V2 = P2/V1) and Charless law (V1/T1=V2/T2), we can show
a relationship between pressure and volume, as well as the volume and
temperature of a gas. As these constants are manipulated, a change in the other
variables will be noticed in the gas.
If the pressure of a gas is manipulated at constant temperature, then the
volume of the gas will change in an inverse relationship.
If the temperature of a gas is manipulated at constant pressure, then the
volume of the gas will change in the same way.

EXPERIMENTAL:
In the experiment, two different tests were conducted in order to see if there
is a relationship between pressure and volume as well as volume and temperature.
In order to test pressure versus volume, a known volume of oxygen in a
sealed syringe and different pressure were applied to the syringe. The pressure was
manipulated by adding weight to the top of the syringe.

The result would be a change in volume. A relationship between pressure and


volume can be determined because the amount of weight can be used to calculate
pressure with the formula P=F/A and F = mg.

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In order to test volume versus temperature, an oil bath will be used to heat
up a gas at constant pressure. The oil will be measured in length to determine the
volume of the gas. As the measuring device is removed from the oil bath, the
temperature will decrease and therefore the length of oil in the sensor will decrease
in accordance with the volume of the substance.

The result of changing the temperature of the substance will cause a change
in the length of oil in the tube. A relationship between temperature and volume can
be deduced because volume can be calculated by using the formula V=L A where L
is the length of the tube and A is the area of the tube (Essentially the formula used
to calculate the volume of a cylinder).
DATA:
*Volumes and Masses Recorded to Demonstrate Pressure V.S. Volume
Mass
(lbs)
0.0

Mass
Volume (+/- .
Force
Pressure
(g)
5mL)
(N)
(kPa)
0
53
n/a
n/a
1133.9
2.5
8
47
11
23
2267.9
5.0
6
39
22
45
3401.9
7.5
4
34
33
68
4535.9
10.0
2
30
44
91
*Procedure was replicated multiple times with no change in results*

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Force and Pressure at 2.5lbs against the system calculations:


2.5lbs X 453.592g/lbs X 1kg/1000g = 1.13398kg
Force = mg
F = 1.13398kg X 9.81 m/s2
F = 11.1243438N
Pressure = F/A
r = 12.5mm
r = 12.5mm X 1m/1000mm
r = .0125m
P = 11.1243438N / [ (.0125m)2]
P = 2.3 X 104 Pa X 1kPa/1000Pa
P = 23 kPa
Temperature and Length of Oil in Tube Used to Demonstrate Temperature V.S.
Volume
Temperature (+/- .
Length of Oil (+/- .
Volume of Oil
1C)
1mm)
(mm3)
80.4
8.0
7.6
75.3
7.0
6.7
61.2
6.0
5.7
82.1
6.2
5.9
70.7
5.3
5.0
64.4
4.5
4.3
51.3
3.2
3.0
82.4
6.0
5.7
67.7
5.1
4.8
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57.2
50.1
85.4
77.8
69.4
61.7

4.2
3.7
6.9
6.0
5.0
4.1

4.0
3.5
6.6
5.7
4.8
3.9

Volume of Oil at 80.4C:


Volume = L *
V = 8.0mm ( ) (.55mm)2
V = 7.60mm3

RESULTS:
In the first experiment demonstrating pressures effect on volume, the
pressure changes from 23 to 91kPa. As the pressure increases across this range, a
decrease in the volume of the gas in the syringe is expected to decrease. This does
correlate with the data and Boyles Law because as the pressure increases along
this range, volume decreases from 47 to 30mL. Possible sources of error include the
inaccuracies in reading the volume in the syringe and getting all of the weight to be
applied directly to the syringe.
Efforts in the second experiment to show temperatures effect on volume,
temperature readings range from 50.1 to 85.4C. As the temperature decreases
along this range while the substance is removed from the oil bath, a decrease in the
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length of oil in the tube is expected to increase. An decrease in the length of the oil
would reflect a decrease in the volume of the substance. This expectation is met
and correlates with Charless Law. As the temperature decreased in the experiment,
the length of oil did decrease from 8.0 to 3.2mm. Sources of error include
misreading the temperature due to either lack of human response time or reading
the sensor before the actual temperature at the given moment was detected.
CONCLUSIONS:
The data shows an inverse relationship between pressure and volume. As
pressure increases at constant temperature, volume will decrease by the same
factor. This correlates to Boyles law. This is seen in the data because as weight is
added to the system, the pressure increases. As more weight is added, the volume
of the gas decreases.
The data additionally shows a proportional relationship between temperature
and volume. This does correlate with Charless Law. This is seen in the data because
as the temperature decreases when the sensor is taken out of the oil bath, the
length of the oil in the sensor decreases. When the length decreases, volume
decreases according the formula indicated. Therefore as temperature decreases,
the length of oil in the sensor decreases.
The combined gas law is synthetic formula based on the ideal gas law
PV=nRT, as well as Boyles Law and Charless Law. When the same number of
gaseous moles is being examined in a system there is a relationship between
pressure, volume, and temperature.
P1V1=nRT1 after some change in the system: P2V2=nRT2
Therefore the combined gas law can be reduced as:
P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
As more complete combined gas law can be used with the inclusion of moles. This
would be:
P1V1/n1T1 = P2V2/n2T2
The data did match the hypothesis as the relationships between pressure and
volume as well as temperature and volume did match the corresponding
mathematics associated with the respective gas laws. For example, while
demonstrating Boyles law and the weight increased from 2.5 to 5.0 pounds, the
pressure increased, and the volume of the gas in the syringe decreased. This shows
the inverse relationship between pressure and volume of a gas.
REFERENCES:

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Tarr, M.A., CHEM 1007 GENREAL CHEMISTRY LAB 1 DEPARTMENT OF


CHEMISTRY UNIVERSITY OF NEW ORLEANS; University of New Orleans: New Orleans,
2010

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