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GENDER DISCRIMINATION EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM

AN EDUCATIONAL SHORT COURSE ABOUT THE NATURE OF HOMOSEXUALS


On the Issue of Prejudice and Discrimination

A Modified Action Research Proposal


Presented to the
High School Department
Marist School IBEd

In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for English 10,
Araling Panlipunan 10 and Religion 10

Presented by
JUAN CARLOS A. HIDALGO
NINO Q. MONTERO
EISENHOWER L. QUARTE
DEAN JANSEN C. VILLANUEVA
Year 10- Venerable Brother Alfano
January 2014

GENDER DISCRIMINATION EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM


CHAPTER 1
Introduction and Statement of the Problem
Marist is an exclusive school for young men that is home to more than a thousand
students that come and go everyday every school year. What is not commonly observed,
however, is the fact that the campus also functions as a grounds for exploring sexuality, just like
any other space available to an individual. Exploration of sexuality is a process that everyone
goes through in their lives which happens during teenage years when they have gained much
wisdom after years of education and experience both in and outside the premises of the four
corners of the classroom.
The topic of sexuality, however is much more complex than it actually seems as it can go
beyond the confines of religious teachings and standards and can venture into the more academic
and scientific aspect which can be incomprehensible to young individuals without the proper
guidance of an expert on the subject matter. Hence, the understanding, views, and treatment of
people on gays and homosexuals, which is the main subject of this study, can be construed or
perverted, which commonly leads to homo-negativity. Due to such lack of understanding, many
unknowingly become discriminatory and prejudiced towards gays and homosexuals.
Sexual prejudice refers to negative attitudes toward an individual because of her or his
sexual orientation (Herek, 1999). Development of sexual prejudice, therefore, gives rise to
gender discrimination, which is the former put into action. Gender discrimination, on the other
hand, is brought about by preconceived biased judgments based on an individuals sexual
orientation that are particularly directed to gays and homosexuals who have the tendency to
direct their desires toward another of the same sex. Eventually, it will lead to stereotyping, which
is a fixed, over generalized belief about a particular group or class of people (Cardwell, 1996).

GENDER DISCRIMINATION EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM


When taken to the extremes, prejudice and discrimination can result to the afflicted individuals
emotional problems and conflicts that can lead to depression, with which, according to RivasDrake, Hughes, and Way (2009), discrimination stress is positively associated to.
In a batch of 8 homerooms with a total of three hundred students, 5-6% of the batchs
population consider themselves as homosexual. This 5-6% is exactly 15-20 students who are
separated and placed in different classes with an average of two per homeroom. Among the
reports received by the guidance department, most of the offenses done by students are against
the rule of respect and discipline. Apparently, prejudice and discrimination of gays and
homosexuals is one of the top ranking causes of the offenses, besides bullying, disrespect, vices,
and tardiness, and it is alarming that these 15-20 students are likely the subjects of the offenses.
In a short interview with select gay/homosexual individuals from the batch, the
researchers have learned that they have come to live with the peoples reactions toward them for
they have been under the same situation for many years. According to them, there are only 3
types of treatment to receive while in the school. They are either despised by their schoolmates,
treated as an equal, while there are some who do not care at all or just show neutral attitude
towards them. According to them, most of the people who bully them imply that gays and
homosexuals are different, that they are a great mistake, that they should not be in school with
them, and that they should not be treated as equals.
In this study, the attitude and behavior of 30% or 90 individuals from the batch of year 10
students towards gays and homosexuals was explored. The reactions of these students, which
includes their opinions and biases that affect their perception of gays and homosexuals were
identified and analyzed thoroughly to help the researchers in devising an appropriate solution to
the problem.

GENDER DISCRIMINATION EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM


For the Marist Community to know better about the gays and homosexuals, as well as to
address the issue regarding gender discrimination against gays inside the campus, the researchers
propose an educational course on gender studies, specifically on homosexuality, to be added to
the weekly homeroom discussions. The addition of this component to the homeroom discussions
can help promote better understanding of the topic of sexuality, particularly on gays and
homosexuals. More so, it can help promote a culture of homo-positivity among individuals
which can help empower those who are previously discriminated and prejudiced against.

GENDER DISCRIMINATION EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM


CHAPTER 2
Review of Related Literature
This section presents available literature and studies relevant to this modified
action research. The first part examines the nature of students undesirable behaviors toward
gays/homosexuals. The second part focuses on varied interventions strategies directed toward
learning to respect homosexuals.
Causes and Effects of Sexual Prejudice and Discrimination
Prejudices are negative attitudes towards groups and individuals based solely on their
group membership (Allport, 1954). It is a biased and unjustified attitude towards an
individual or a group. Allport (1954) also defines prejudice as a preconceived
judgment with the feeling of opposition brought about by over generalized
beliefs that is directed toward a group of individuals. Aboud (1988), in his research
following Allports perspective, defines prejudice as a unified, stable, and consistent tendency
to respond in a negative way toward members of a particular ethnic group (1988, 6). In short,
victims of prejudice are looked down upon not because of their personal traits, but rather,
because of their belonging to a group.
Development of sexual prejudice, therefore, gives rise to gender discrimination, which is
the former put into action. Discrimination is an unjustified or exclusionary behavior towards
members of a target group solely because they are identified as members of this group (Gaertner
and Dovidio 1986, 3). According to Zick (2011), prejudices do not lead to discrimination
instantly but may unknowingly the very reason for discrimination that may even result into
violence when put to extremes.

GENDER DISCRIMINATION EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM


According to Zick (2011), experiencing prejudice has negative effects on the
targets physical and emotional well-being as well as on their achievements and success in life
and is more harmful if felt in a daily basis. In a Research conducted by David R. Williams and
Ruth Williams-Morris (2000), it was found that experiencing prejudice and discrimination
destroys self-respect and can lead to self-stigmatization. Their research shows that black students
have developed worse opinion of their marks in school than the white students despite reaching
the same level of achievement. This simply shows that those who experience prejudice and
discrimination may they be straight or homosexual, have a tendency to lose their self-esteem.
As for gays and homosexuals, studies show that prejudice and discrimination against
them are greatly reflected in the everyday stereotypes of the members of the group and may also
render negative effects on its victims especially if the victim discriminated upon is in the process
of concealing or denying his/her sexual orientation (American Psychological Association, 2008).
According to the research, the notion that homosexuals belong to an out-group persist even
though they are not supported by proper evidence and are more often used as an excuse to the
unequal treatment of homosexuals.
According to the American Psychological Association (2008), although many
homosexuals learn to cope with the daily stigma against them, the treatment they receive still
bears an effect to their health well-being as individuals.
There is a great number of causes and effects of prejudice and discrimination and only a
portion of it was taken for study by the researchers. The present study tried to explore the reasons
and biases that affect the perception of 90 students toward homosexuals. These data gathered
from different sources not only did provide the researchers of a better understanding but also
provided a better idea to address to prejudice and discrimination against gays and homosexuals.

GENDER DISCRIMINATION EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM

Intervention Strategies to help Students Understand and Respect Homosexuals


Many experts, especially those who have previously conducted a study on this topic, have
given their suggestions on how to manage the conflict brought by prejudice and discrimination
against gays.
According to Zicks (2011) study, prejudice is built in a three stage process as told by
Zick (2011). Firstly, people learn to differentiate, categorize, and marginalize by whether they
belong to an acceptable group.
According to Zick (2011), The features by which we categorize people are essentially
those which are currently available to us, in other words those to which our attention is directed
or of which we are currently particularly aware. Secondly is stereotyping which involves overgeneralizing wrong thoughts about a group of people, attributing identical characteristics to all of
them even though they may in reality be very different. And lastly, is Judgment wherein ones
prejudice is finalized.
Zick (2011) proposes that prejudice, being a social attitude that is learned through ones
bias, can be unlearned. However, it would take a long and difficult process. But, if done so, then
discrimination against homosexuals and stereotyping will also be stopped for discrimination is
prejudice put into action and they go hand in hand.
However, Allport (1954) stated that:
The human mind must think with the aid of categories....Once formed, categories
are the basis for normal prejudgment. We cannot possibly avoid this process.
Orderly living depends upon it. (The Nature of Prejudice, p. 20)

GENDER DISCRIMINATION EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM


According to Allport (1954), separting prejudice and categorization is too difficult for the
mind. Due to the fact that prejudices also create social norms (Zick, 2011), to realize and stop
the unconscious and thoughtless prejudices that give negative effects on the victims is one of the
few ways to reduce prejudice and discrimination against gays and homosexuals.
As supposed by Pettigrew and Meertens (1995), prejudices may be expressed openly,
directly, or in a subtle, indirect and hidden way. So, prejudices can be expressed voluntarily and
may be held in oneself. Therefore, moderation of expressing discrimination towards gays and
homosexuals is a possible intervention but however, it does not fully bring back respect towards
homosexuals.
Zick (2011) proposes that prejudice, having a behavioral component, may be stopped
through a disciplinary process. Also, all prejudices, sharing an implicit assumption that all
members of the out-group are the same, and that all members are to be held responsible for the
deeds of an individual, may be stopped. Zick (2011) suggests that realizing that one member of a
certain group is not completely alike the other.
On the other hand, the American Psychological Association (2008) proposes that:
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual people who want to help reduce prejudice and
discrimination can be open about their sexual orientation, even as they take necessary
precautions to be as safe as possible. They can examine their own belief systems for the presence
of antigay stereotypes. They can make use of the lesbian, gay, and bisexual communityas well
as supportive heterosexual peoplefor support.
Lastly, the National Association of school Psychologists (2008) proposes that to lessen
prejudice and discrimination of gays/homosexuals and etc in school, the school should: (a)

GENDER DISCRIMINATION EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM


Engage in critical reflection to identify ones own biases and ensure that these biases do not
negatively affect students and families; (b) Encourage such critical reflection in others; (c)
Consult with families, community members, teachers, and staff to understand more clearly
student and population needs; (d)
Understand how dimensions of difference influence learning and behavior of students, (e)
Promote systems change and equitable alternatives when ineffective or inequitable policies,
practices, or procedures are suspected or identified by school data.