# 8-5 Rate of Change Rate of change: a change in one quantity with respect to another quantity.

(We defined it in class as slope with labels) We can use slope to describe the relationship between two values. Consider the following example: A carʼs distance was recorded after driving for 1,2,3, & 4 hours and recorded in the following table: Time (hours) 1 2 3 4 Distance (miles) 50 100 150 200

**These values were plotted in the following graph:
**

300 250

Distance (mi)

200 150 100 50 0

0

1

2

3

4

5

Time (hours)

What is the slope of the line in this graph? Recall the formula for finding the slope of the line if you know two points:

m= y 2 − y1 x 2 − x1

To find the slope of the line, we will pick any two points from our table:

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**The first two points are (1,50) & (2,100) , we will use these.
**

m= 100 − 50 50 = 2 −1 1 €

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Since the y-axis measures miles and the x-axis measures hours, our slope should have these labels too:

50 miles Therefore, the slope of the line tells us the speed of the car. 1 hour

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Direct Variation A direct variation is a special type of linear function that is always in the form:

y = mx

Consider the following direct variation equations:

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y = 2x y = −3x

5

y= 2x

y=

1 x 2

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4 3 2 1

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1/2 y=

x

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5

1

2

3

4

5

Notice that all direct variation equations pass through the origin (0,0). We can use this fact to help us find slopes and equations of direct variations.

3x y=-

Example: Suppose y varies directly with x (this means itʼs a direct variation). Write the equation that relates x and y if y = 6 when x = 2 . Based on what we are told, we can say two things:

€ € 1. This line passes through the origin (0, 0) since itʼs a direct variation. 2. This line passes through the point (2,6) . We are told that.

**We can find the slope of this line using these two facts.
**

m= y 2 − y1 6 − 0 6 3 = = = =3 x 2 − x1 2 − 0 2 1

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Since every direct variation equation looks like y = mx , we will just plug in what we calculated the slope to be:

y = 3x is the equation.

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Example: Suppose y varies directly with x. Write the equation relating x and y if y = −30 when x = 6 I know that the line passes through the points (0, 0) and (6, -30). (x Since€ 1, y1 ) is always going to be (0, 0) with a direct variation, our slope formula now becomes: y − 0 y2 m= 2 = x2 − 0 x2 Therefore, we only need one point to find the slope of a direct variation.

€ In this example, the slope of the line will be:

m= −30 −5 = = −5 6 1

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**That means our equation will be:
**

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y = −5x

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