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PierrePaulPrud'hon

detailAcademiedefemmedebout
Charcoal, heightened with white
chalk, on blue paper

In1997,Icameacrossavolumeof
beautifulprovocativedrawingsbyan
early19thcenturyFrenchartistin
THELANGUAGEOFTHEBODY:DRAWINGSBY
PIERREPAULPRUD'HON
TextbyJohnElderfieldDrawingsselectedbyRobertGordon
PublishedbyAbrams

...Well,Iwasseduced.Isetouttogainsome
understandingofPrud'hon'sparticularapproach.The
worksI'mreferringtoaretheblackandwhitechalkon
bluepaperacademies.Otherartistsduringhistimeused
thesecombinedmaterialstostudythefigure,but
Prud'hontooktheformtonewheights.Mostartists
abandonedacademicfiguredrawingoncetheycompleted
theirtraining,butPrud'honkeptatitthroughouthis
career.Histechniqueevolvedintoabeautifulstylethat
attractedfansfromhistime,allthewayuptopresent
day.
Admiredthoughhewas,Prud'honwouldnotinfluence
thefutureofacademictraining.Hiswillfulpreferencefor
"oldfashioned"classicalmotifsdidnotsuitthe
dominatinginterestsofFrance'sverymodernschoolof
JacquesLuisDavid,aforcewhichwouldholdswayover
thefutureof19thcenturyart.TheAcademywouldtrain
students in other techniques, thought better suited to
modern times. Although sidelined in his life, Prud'hon's
insights in drawing would beckon future generations with
their enigmatic testimony to sublime beauty.

Withareturnofinterestinclassicalartanditstraining,
studentsareopenlyasking,"Howdidhedothat?"
Beyondtheobviousneedtodrawaccurately,therestof
theanswerisnotreadilyforthcoming.Hisprocesswasnot
exactlyliketheAcademy's.Thereismuchincommon
withthestandardAcademymethod,but,notimmediately
apparent,thereareimportantdifferences.Toseeand
readmoreaboutwhatmakesPrud'hon'stechniqueboth
uniqueandobscure,seethispage.
MyinvestigationintoPrud'hon'stechniquehasledto
someobservations,postulationsanddiscoveries,whichI
shareinthepagesthatfollow.Perhapswiththismaterial,
readerscanjoinmeinmyongoingquestforblackand
whitechalkonbluepapernirvana...

Unique&Obscure
ACOMPARATIVELOOK
AT
ACADEMICTECHNIQUE

Unique
Let'stakealookatanexampleofFrenchacademicfigure
drawing.
Inthisdrawingbyananonymousartist,anditsdetail
below,wecanfindthemanysharedtraitswith
Prud'hon'sdrawings.(Ignorethefactthatthechalkisred
wecanstillfindthecommontraitsofacademies)
Thesharedtraitsare:
carefulanalysisofformswithinthebody
varietyinoutline
diagonalhatchinginbackgroundandothernon
figuresubjectmatter
stumpedtonebeneaththehatching
hatches equidistant, not crossed, generally
straight, applied in rows
hatches shift direction very slightly over deeper
form changes

Compare
tothis
drawing
by
Prud'hon:

Thedifferenceis:

whiletraditionalhatchingrunsonanobliquepath
overform,
Prud'hon'shatchingrunsparalleltoform'slength,on
thewhole.

Obscure
If it was only hatching that was employed in his
drawing, analysiswouldnotbesodifficult.However,
duetothe extensivestumpinginhisdrawings,weare
leftwith questionsaboutearlyapplicationpriortothe
final hatching.

ThepatternofhatchdirectionthatPrud'honusedisquite
sophisticated.Managingthecollidinggroupsthat
invariablyresultisverytricky.Thereisnowrittenrecord
ofthethinkingprocessthatPrud'honusedinmakinghis
applicationdecisions.Throughcloseobservation,certain
"rules"havebeguntosurface,butthereisnoassurance
thatPrud'honwouldagreewiththem.

Observations:Prud'hon'sMaterials

PierrePaulPrud'hon
detailAcademie
Charcoal,heightenedwithwhitechalk,onblue
paper

The Paper
blue, middle value, typically laid
Many of Prud'hon's drawings on blue paper have faded to
shades of tan. Various reproductions in my reference hint
at the original color, but from these, I couldn't know what
bluewasused.However,colormaybeamootpoint, given
theslimpickingsintoday'savailablepapers. Perhapsitis
enoughtoknowthatthepaperwasblue.It mustcertainly
havebeenamiddlevalue,between#'s3 and5inthescale
below.Inthecaseof#5,theartistcango equallydarker
andlighterfromthebluebase.Ifusing#3, theartistcan
usethepaperformiddleanddarkerlights.
Throughoutmybookisevidenceofalaidpapertexture,
asseeninthedetailabove.Thedegreeoftextureinthis
papermusthavebeensubtle,sinceitwaseasilyobscured
withcertaintreatments.Fromexperience,Iimaginethat
thepaperneededenoughtoothtocaptureandhold
pigment,butitalsohadtobepliableenoughforthelaid
ridgestobackoffunderthemildpressureofasharpened
chalk,allowingforuninterruptedcrisplines.

The Chalks--black and white

PierrePaulPrud'hon
detailAcademie
Charcoal,heightenedwithwhitechalk,onbluepaper

TheblacksandwhitesofPrud'hon'sdrawingscarrieda
fullrangeofdensitiesfromopaquetotransparent,from
fineandfirmtofat,intenseandfluid.Sometimesa
charcoallike"mist"wasused.Stumpedareasleavea
traceoftheoriginallaydownofcolor,readingasasubtle
vibration...
Notethesofttransparentgraysurroundingthearm,the
blendedveilofwhiteinthearm,

...andthedensewhitesandblacksinthehand...

Notethecrispopaqueblackandwhitehatchesbelow.

Discussion:ModernMaterials

PierrePaulPrud'hon
detailAcademie
Charcoal,heightenedwithwhitechalk,onbluepaper

Three ingredients:
middle value blue laid paper
white chalk
black chalk

Simple,butohsohardtogetright.
Ittooksometroubletofigureoutwhatthenecessary
traitswereforeachelement,andthentofindmodern
productsthatweresuitableandcompatiblewitheach
other.Thebottomlineis,youneedchalksthatcanfreely
smudgebutalsoholdapointforaseriesofcrisplines.
Youneedatoothyerasablepaperthatismediumvalue,
laid,withasubtlebluecolor.
ThePaper

Almostallcommerciallyavailablelaiddrawingpapers
haveoverorunderemphasizedtextures,poorchalk
receptivity,andthewrongcolorsand/orvalues.Only
threepapersIfoundwork.And,Imustsay,theywork
verywelloneisperfectforbeginners,theothertwo,
experts.

Expert/Gourmet
RuscombePaperMill'sCotswoldColours,Laid

(UPDATEDNOVEMBER2001)Ifoundthesegorgeous

handmadepapersjustayearafterImountedthisonline
Prud'hondiscussion.Thesepapersweredeveloped
especiallytoreplicate18thand19thcenturybookpapers
forrestorers,butarealsospecifiedfordrawing.Finding
themwaslikewinningatimetraveltourto19thcentury
France!
Iimmediatelywantedtotellyouaboutthispaper,but
unfortunately,bystockingmydrawerwithonly150
sheets,Iexhaustedtheknownsupplyinonefellswoop.
Thedealertoldmethatitwasdiscontinued,butspecial
ordersinlargequantitieswerepossibleattwicethe
pricethatIpaid!Theproblemseemedinsurmountable
until2001,whenIcontactedChrisBingham,themakerof
thesewonderfulpapers.AftershowingChrishowIwas
usinghispaper,heofferedtoseetoitthatartistscould
stillgettheirhandsonit.(Inlate2001,Chrisvisitedthe
LouvreinPariswherehehandinspectedseveral

Prud'hondrawings.Hepronouncedthatthematchtohis
papersisuncanny!)
So,thereIShopeforseriousbluepaperdevotees.Iamnot
partofthepapersalesbusiness,sopleasedon'taskmeto
organizeorders,butyouwon'tbesorryifyougetthis
paper.ItisTHEBEST,becauseit:
isvisuallyluxuriousabsolutelybeautifulhandmade
isaperfect,verylightdrawingweight,laid
isverytoothyveryfinesupportsveryfinelinework
takesmultipleerasingswithoutdamage
comesintwolightfastcolors:onelighter,bothinthe
middlevaluerange
ismadewithflax,cotton,abaca
replicates19thcenturypapermiracle!
Findorderingdetailsinthesupplylist.

Beginner
Hahnemuhle(German)Ingres

ThisisthefirstusablepaperthatIfound,anditremains
theidealtrainingsheet.Onceyouhavemasteredthe
basicsofthetechniqueonthispaper,andifyoucan
possiblyaffordit,switchtothegourmetversion
mentionedabove.
Thispaper'scolorisaclosematchtothebluePrud'hon
used,anditbeatsalltheothersimilarlypricedsheets,
withitsassortedcombinedattributes:
nonmechanicallookingmoldmadelaid
good,lightdrawingweight
pliableenoughtoothyenough
takesmultipleerasingswithoutdamage
middlevalue,lightfast
madewithalfacellulose
reasonableprice
Findorderingdetailsinthesupplylist.

Ifyouwon'tgetthespecifiedpapers,makesurethatthe
paperyoudogetismediumvalue,likebetween#'s3and
5,below.Youcanusegraypaperwithblackandwhite
chalks,buttheresultingartwillnotcarrythesamecool
moonlitfeelingthatPrud'hongotinhisdrawings.Heand
hiscontemporariesknewwhattheyweredoing.Correct?

Whitechalk

Thiswastheeasiesttofind.Contemakestwosticksthat
providedensesmudgeablewhitefromonestickandcrisp
linefromtheother.Ihavenotneededtolookfurtherfor
betterresults.Seesupplylist.
Blackchalk

Thishasbeentheproblem.AtfirstIusedvinecharcoal
aswellasmediumandverysoftblackContesticks.
However,theirtexturesandcolorwerenotideal
(apparentlyPrud'hondidnotevenusecharcoal).Conte
sticksaremarginallygood,butIlearnedhowtomake
betterdrawingsticks,myself.I'mincludinginstructions
formakingthem,soyoucanseewhatImean.

Commercialblacksarenotallatonceintense,firmbut
fluid,andcoldincolor.Vinecharcoalisfluid,butnot
darkenoughtostandoutagainstthemediumvalue
paper.ThesoftestConteblackisdarkenough,butfor
finelines,itistoosofttokeepsharp.Theonestepharder
Contemakescrispmarks,butit'stoohardtogodown
bothgentlyandblack.Last,thereisaveryunfortunate
redcastintherubbedouttones.Ispentmoretime
dancingaroundtheproblemswithcommercialblacks
thanIthoughtanartistshouldhaveto.Prud'hon'sline
workhasagentlefreedomthatisclearlydifferentfrom
whatispossiblewiththecommercialblacks.Prud'hon
musthaveusedlesspressuretogethisblacklines.Asfar
astheuglyredcastgoes,thishadtobepresentinthe
blacksofthe19thcentury,becauseitisthenatureofthese
pigmentstoappearasthecomplementofthisgreenish
bluepaper.However,IdecidedtofixitatthesametimeI
fixedtheconsistencyofthesticks.

HowtoMakeYourOwnBlackChalks
Thefollowingprocedurewillgiveyousomenice
blackchalks,betterinmanywaysthantheir
commercialcounterparts.Thisrecipereplaces
another(lessidealone)thatIshoweduntilearly
2002.Thebinderinthisformulais"blackRoman
earth,"oneofthedryItalianearthpigments
availableatWilliamsburgPaint.Thispigment
bindsthesamewayasthepreviously
recommendedmediumgraypencilclay,abinder
forcrayonmaking,butsinceRomanearthisblack,
itdoesn'tspoiltheintensityoftheboneblack.I
showthreehardnessesthatrepresentthefullrange.
Thesoftrecipeisverysoft,sodon'tloaditintoa
portcrayonitcouldeasilybreakunderpressure.
Eventhehardersticksaremorebreakablethan
factorymadechalks,andmustbehandledwith
care.Theyaremuchmorelikelytobreakunder
pressurefromtheportcrayon.Tohelpstabilizethe
softerchalks,Iamrollingasleeveofpaperaround
thembeforeinstallingintheportcrayon.

Inresearchingrecipes,Ifoundthatthehistorical
recordcontainsalargearrayofadditives,some
quiteexotic.Onerecurringingredientissoap.I
triedseveralrecipeswithsoapandfoundthatpure
liquiduncoloredsoapcanincreasefriabilityand
modifythespreadingandstickingactiononpaper.
Blackpigmentsarealittlebituncooperative
comparedwithothercommoncolorsusedin
crayonmaking.Blackrequiresmorebindertohold
together,so"enough"binderformakingastick
makesmarkingonpaperdifficult.Thesoftersticks
makeeasilyscuffeddrawings.Alittlesoap
encouragesthepigmenttoreleasefromthestick
whendrawing,andonceonthepaper,themark
holdsitsplaceunderlightabrasion.Iincludethe
optionalsoapformulabelow,soyoucantryit
yourself.
Thepigmentsareavailablefromdifferent
suppliers,whoseurlsarelistedinthesupplylist
below.
Important:Ifyoudonotintendtousethe
recommendedbluepaper,omitthePhthaloGreen.
Ifyouuseanotherbluepaper,youmaywishto
experimentwithotherpigmentstocancelthered
castovercoolpaper.

Materials&Tools

newspapertoabsorbmoisturewhilerollingout
chalks
2 spacer,suchasawooddowel

3 ultrafinesieve
4 broadflatbladeforrollingdough
5 BoneBlack,PBK9.Thisisanintenseblack
madeofcalciumphosphate/carbon.availableat
Sinopia(www.sinopia.com)
6 PhthaloGreen,PG7FAP.Cancelstheredcast
intheblack.AvailableatSinopia(www.sinopia.com)
7 ItalianblackRomanearthdrypowdered
pigment,availableatWilliamsburgPaints
(www.oilpaint.com)
8 mixingknife
9 distilledwateroroptionalsoapsolutionina
"dropcontrolled"dispenser.Tomakesoap
solution,mix50%waterwith50%Dr.Bronner's
PureCastilleliquidsoap(aloeveraversion),or
otherpure,uncolored,liquidtruesoap.
10 measuringspoons
11 aglassorplasticsurfaceformixingdough
Procedure

Measureingredientsintosieve.Makesuretolevelthemeasuring
spoontocontrolproportionaccurately.

Siftandmixthepowdersontoglassorplastic.
Note:Thephthalogreenissostrong,itispossibletooverdo

it.Itmightbeagoodideatoaddslightlylessgreenthanthe
amountshownabove,thentestitonthebluepaperbyfinger
rubbingasmallsampletogetherwithafewstrokesofthesoft
whiteConte.Ifyougetareddishcolorcastinthetone,sift
justalittlemoregreenontothepile,mixwell,andtestagain.
Ifmajoradjustmentsaremade,remembertokeepthebinder
proportionatetooriginalrecipe.
Addonlyenoughdistilledwaterorsoapsolutiontojustmoisten.
Ifusingthesoapsolution,keepyourfingersawayfromyoureyes!
Bettertoaddtoolittlefirst,blend,andaddgraduallyuntil
right.

Doughshouldbestiff,andjustmoistenoughtohangtogetherwithout
beingsogummythatyoucan'tsmooththesurfacewithmixingknife.

Withyourmixingknife,shapeaslabjustovertheheightthatyour
rolledchalkwillbe,andcontroltheexpectedlengthtosomething
manageablefordrawing.

Ifyouwantequalportionstomakeequalsizedsticks,premarkyour
slabwiththemixingknife.

Cutawaysectionforrollingandplaceonnewsprint.
Newsprintwillabsorbexcessmoistureandpermitfree
rolling.Glassorplasticseemstoencouragestickyresistance.
Note,thisdoughisnotsoelasticthatyoucanbeginwitha
hugechunkandrollitdownanddownintoanarrowstick.It
willresistthistreatmentbycomingapartasyouroll.Thisis
whyIrecommendthatyoumakethiscrudestickshapedcut
outbeforeyouroll.

Withalargeflatblade,rollstickofdough,controllingelevation
withwooddowel,selectedforcorrectdiameter.

Placetenderstickinopenwedge(likecreased,benttagboard)to
preventcurvingwhiledrying.

Stickshouldbeallowedtodryfortwoorthree
days. Don't put oven; stick will weaken

SupplyList

Abrushforliftingandremovalblending,tryalsoachamoiscloth
(notshown)

Largestump

Smallstump

Tortillons,afew

Erasers,blockandstylus

Twoportcrayons:oneholdingthesoftsticksandoneholdingthe
hardsticks

softsticks
black
Contebrand23409,or...
Handmadestick,"medium"recipe
white
Contebrand24562B

hardsticks
black
Contebrand24602B,or...
Handmadestick,"hard"recipe
white
Contebrand2456HB

Portcrayonshownbeforetipsareprotectedwithducttape

Sharpenerforfactorymadechalks,or(notshown)singleedge
razorbladeforeitherfactoryorhandmade

Notshown:acleanchamois

10

Paper:
Experts/Gourmet
RuscombeLaid"endpapers"or,"bookpapers."2oftheir
CotswoldColoursareperfect:BarnsleyBlue(onceknownas
QueenAnnePamphletBlue,orDeepBlue)andSelsleySugar
Bag(onceknownasQueenAnneStrongGraniteBlue,or
MidgraniteBlue).SelsleySugarBagmayonlybeavailable
inwovenow.Still,itmightbeworthgivingitatry,because
ofitsbeautifulcolorandtoughness.
AvailablefromTalas,568Broadway,NewYork,NY10012
Storephone:(212)2190770,Fax(212)2190735
email:info@talasonline.com
web:http://www.talasonline.com
Or,tryvisitingRuscombe'swebsiteinFrance.
Beginners
Hahnemuhle(German)Ingrescolor:036BlueGreen
IfyouareintheUSandhavetroublelocatingthispaper,call

AtlanticPapersat18003678547.
Theywillprovideyouwithalistofstoresthatyoucanorder
from.

Anoteabouttheportcrayon

PortcrayonswereinwideusewhenPrud'honwasmakinghis
academies.Thereislittledoubtthatheusedthem.Paintingsfromthis
timeinvariablyshowartistswieldingthesetwoheadedtools,loaded
withwhiteinoneendandblackintheother.Icanattesttothe
improvedcontrolthesehandygripsoffer.Youshouldusethem.

Thegrippingbrasstinesofcurrentlyavailableportcrayonsareburred,
andscorethechalks.Thiswillnickandbreakthehandmadesticks,so
Irecommendthatyoufindawaytopadtheinsidegrip.Ihaveused

ducttape(shownhere),butdippingrubberworksbetter.It'sbestthat
youdosomethingtocoatthetinesevenfortheContesticks.Beware
thatthe"soft"handmadestickwillalwaysbreakintheportcrayon,so
justholditwithyourtenderfingers.

Observations:ParametersofTechnique

PierrePaulPrud'hon
detailAcademiedefemmedebout
Charcoal,heightenedwithwhite
chalk on blue paper

Here,Ilistasetofobservationsthatbegintodefine
Prud'hon'scontroloverhistonallanguage.Exceptions
occur,butthereisapatternwhichisidentifiable.
TheMarks
Onbalance,whiteisusedforthelitside,blackforthe
shade
andthebluepaper,orblendsofblackandwhite,for
halftonesandlowlight.
Smudgedtones(mixturesofblackandwhite)areseen
inallareasofform,includinghalftonesandlowlight.
Sparselyusedfinewhitemarkscanbefoundinshade
andthesamecanbefoundinthelitsidewithblack.
Finalblackoutlineisusedinvaryingwidths,ornot
usedatall(seebelow).
Stumpingisextensivelyused.
Hatches
Runparalleltoeachotherandmostlyrunwith
thelengthoredgeofthemainformbut
sometimesrunobliquelytothemainform,
especiallyinshade.

Areequallyspaced
Arebothstraightandshortinlength
Areappliedinrowseriesacrosstotalform,but
are...
...organizedseparatelyoversmalleranatomical
formchanges.
Onlyslightlyinterlockcrosshatchingrarein
finalstage
Underlyingghosthatchesvaryindirectionfrom
finaltophatches
Bydirection,hatchesshowmirrorsymmetryin
conformitywithanatomicalsymmetry(seebelow)
Arecommonlydiagonalinbackground(see
below)
Manyareasofdrawingsarecoarselyrendered,and
theseareoftenstumped
Torsoisoftenmosthighlyrendered

listcontinueswithnextpicture...

Whitessometimespacked,saturatedhatchesfoundin
largehighlights
Blackssometimessolidlyblended,andobscuresignsof
hatching

Lighting
Single,artificialpointlightsourcewasaimedatthe
model,clarifyingvolumesandsimplifyingtransitions
betweenlightandshade.
Artistmusthaveworkedindarkenedroom.White
chalksparklesevenindimlightbycontrast,thepaper
andblacksabsorbdimlight.Dramaticvolumescanbe
perceivedwithdelicateadditionsofwhiteindimlylit
rooms.Butinstronglight,thiseffectisdegraded.Ifyou
drawinastronglylitroom,youwillnotperceive
impressivevariationsfromthesparklingwhites,andyour

drawingwillprobablycomeoutcrudepossiblymaking
thefleshlookoilyfromheavyhighlights.

Poses
Posesareharmoniouslyarrangedinsteppedelevations,
orsuggestiveofmotion.
Facesaremadeunselfconscious.

That'senoughtogetusstarted...

MethodStepbyStep
Disclaimer:Ididn'tseePrud'honwork,andIhave
neverseenanyartistmakeadrawingusinghis
technique.Sure,I'veoftenmadeandseenmade
hatchedandcrosshatchedblackandwhitedrawings.
Thereisnomysterytocontemporaryhatching
techniques.ButPrud'honhadaveryparticularand
differentprocedurethatwasbotheccentricinits
direction,andobscureintechnique.Thehatchesare
short,uncrossed,veryopen,equallyspaced,mostly
paralleltotheform'slengthandmostproblematic,
thehatchesaresetagainstextensivelystumped
underdrawings.Stumpingobliteratesevidenceofthe
underdrawing'sapplication.Inmanydrawings,it
appearsthatseveralhatchedlayerswereapplied,then
stumpedbeforecompletion,butbecauseofthe
extensivestumping,Ican'tdecipherhowhegotfrom
beginningtoend.SinceIfirstuploadedthis
discussion,areadersentmenewsofaquotefroman
eyewitnesstoPrud'honatwork.Itofferssome
validationtomyspeculations.Mostly,myquestions
remainunanswered,andafewnewquestionshave
arisen.

ThisiswhatIassumetobePrud'hon's
drawingstoppedinthesecondstage.(The
firststagewouldbethebasiclinesetup.)

PierrePaulPrud'hon
Blackandwhitechalkonbluepaper

Atthisstage,blackandwhitebothare
laiddown.Nostumpinghasbeendoneyet.
Itisveryimportanttoconsiderthe
reasoningsuggestedbythefirst
marks.Thesemarksplayacrucialroleinthe
potentialofthedrawing.
Thewhites,capableofsmudgingoutfreely,
alwaysridethehighlights(basedonanatomy),but
alsogodowninbig,volumefollowingtictactoe
hatchesonlargelitforms.
Theblacksoutline,runthelengthsofforms
withinshade,andsometimesgodowninregular,
coarse,diagonalhatches.Crosshatchingisfound
inthecoreofshade,andcavezones.

Iflaidoutproperly,thesecoarsemarkscanbe
preservedtothefinish(I'llcallthem"unfinished"
areas).Althoughtheartistelectstogofurther
withthedrawinginselectedareas,wellplaced
coarsemarksarecompleteintheirownright,and
contributetotheinterestoftheentiredrawing.
Oncethisstageiscomplete,thenextstepisto
stumpgenerouslyallareasthatdonotcallforthe
firstcoarsehatches...

Thenextstepistogenerouslystumpall
areasthatdonotcallforpreservingthefirst
coarsehatches

Asshownabove,muchofthedrawingremainsas
thestumpedoutfirstlayerhere,it'sthe
extremities.Notethewaythatghostsofthe
originalhatchesremain,servingasdiffused
highlightsandformdirectionfromlighttoshade.
Blackandwhiteareslurredtogethertomake
grayinthisdrawing,butinotherdrawingsthe
white,blackandbluepaperaresegregated.Since
more treatment follows for slected areas, I'll call
this stage "unfinished..."

To"finish"anarea,crisphatchesare
applied.

AsImentionedearlier,severalpassescanbe
made,stumpedover,andthenrehatchedandeven
stumpedagain,butIdon'tknowwithcertainty
whetherthereisapatternofattacktothisphase,
becausestumpingobliteratestheunder

treatments.Theaboveimageseemstosuggestthat
finalhatchescanbemadeoverthefirststumping,
orsecond,orthird,etc.
Atsomepointafreshiterationoftheoutlineis
selectivelyapplied.

10stepsademonstration

Thisdemonstrationreflects
mymid2003understanding
orlackofit

ofPrud'hon'sTechnique.
Thisdrawingwascapturedin10steps.

1
Outline

Thisdemonstrationfollowsadifferentcourse
thanthepreviousone.Mainly,youwillseenew
recommendationsforthevarioushardnessesofthe
chalks.Ihaveaddedmoreinformationonorganizing
thehatches,andIaddasuggestiontostumpwith
yourfingersoruseachamoistoremovetone.Solets
begin...

Step1istheinitialoutline.

Theoutline:
placesthefigureonthepage,
solvesshapeandproportion,and
mapstheimportanttonalboundaries.
Donotgoforwardwithanyofthesematters
unsolved.Don'tmakethedrawingbeautifulhere.
Justmakeitaccurate.Takeyourtime.
Beforegoingon,stepbackandthoroughly
consideryourdrawing.Ifanythingiswrongwith
theplacement,anglesorproportions,FIXTHESE
PROBLEMSNOW.Don'tgotothenextstep
withouttakingaviewingbreakfirst.Fixasmany
timesasittakes.Don'tgoonuntilyoutakethat
lastbreakandseethateverythingisOK.The
reasonthisisimportantisthateachstagemay
becomethelast(socalled"unfinished"part).
Rememberthough,stayniceandeasy,like
Prud'hondid.
MaterialsUseablackchalkthatfreelyreleases
thecolor,sothatyoudon'thavetobeardown.
Thereshouldbeacertaineasetoyourmarks.Use
ablackthatcaneraseandalsoleaveaghostwith
stumping.Inthehandmadechalks,the"hard"
willworknicely.UsetheharderConte.

2
BoldHatching

Asexplainedintheeyewitnessaccountof
Prud'hon'smethod,theoutlinewas
rubbedtoapalemistbeforemovingto
thisstepdescribedbelow.Itisnotclearto
methatPrud'honalwaysrubbedouthis
outlines.Ichosenottorubouttheoutline
inthisdrawing.

Step2requirescloseobservationand
foreplanning.

White
Observetheformsholdinghighlights.Useyour
softestwhitetodrawthehighlights.Youare
drawinganatomyhere,nomatterhowcoarsely.
Highlightsrunalongthepeaksofforms,andin
thetroughsbetweenthem.
Highlightsare:
linearoncylindricalandconicalforms
circularonthesphericalforms
narrowandconcentratedonsmall
turningforms
broaderandmorediffuseinlarge
turningforms
AsseenintheexamplebyPrud'hon,thisisastage
whereyourmarksshouldbegenerousandopenly
spaced.Crosshatchingisappliedmainlytoallot
enoughmaterialforeventualsmudgingand
modeling.Crosshatchingcanbedirected
obliquelyovertheforms,andistypicallydestined
tobestumpedthoroughly,whichleavesafluid
hazeandghostlyhatches.Ifallgoeswell,selected
areascanbeleft'asis'beforeorafterfirst
stumping,leavingagoodsenseofanatomyand
lighting.Agoodsetuprequiresthatyoukeepthe
coarsehatchesfirstlyonthehighlightsand
secondarilyonthemainlights.(Thelowerlegin
thisdrawingisdestinedtobestumpedonce,and
nevertouchedagain.)Ifyouplacethehatchestoo
closetogether,thestumpedoutdrawingwillbe

opaqueoverthebluepaper,whichcancelsthe
paper'spurposeasanundercurrent,anddenies
thepossibilityofelegantopenmarksinafinal
effect.
MaterialsUsethesoftestwhite.

Black
Applyblacktotheshadezoneusingparallel
diagonalopencoarsehatches.Crosshatchatthe
coreoftheshadezone,orinextradarkareaslike
caves,oratthejointsofprojecting,bentlimbs
(notanissueinthisdrawing).Aswiththewhites,
youareallottingenoughmaterialtoeventually
smudgeintothefoundationasamediumdark
tone.Atthisstage,youcanbedecidingwhether
theshadezonewillbesimpler,withless
anatomicaldescription,thanthelitside.
MaterialsUsethesoftestblackConte,orthe
"medium"handmadechalk.

3
StumpOutHatches

Step3achievesacoarsetonal
arrangement.Usingthelargestump,rubin
theseparatecolorsinaccordancewiththeir
shadeorlitcondition.

Useoneendofthestumpforblack,andtheother
forwhite.

Note,however,theeyewitnessaccountdescribesa
stagewherePrud'honsmearsblackandwhite
together,"untilasmoothandmutedvelvetgray
tonalityremains."Totalseparationofblackfrom
white,then,isnotrequired.Infact,thegraytone
seemsfairlycommoninPrud'hon'sdrawings.But
neverforget:formdependsonlightsanddarks.
Thereisabasicrulethatnopartoftheshadow
mayeverbeaslightasthelitside,andnopartof
thelitsidemayeverbeasdarkastheshadow.
Thestumpwillingrainahatchifyourubitwith
thedirectionofthehatch.Ifyourubitacrossthe
hatch,thestumpwillblendthechalkoutintothe
rawpaper.Atthisstage,itisbesttorubtonesinto
therawpaper,somakeyourstumpgo
perpendiculartothedirectionofthehatch.
Ifyouwish,youcanleavethemiddlevalueareas
asrawpaper.
Ifyourealizeyoushouldn'thavecoveredanarea
withthechalk,youcaneraseallthewaybackto
thepaper.Or,ifthefirststumpingappearstoo
opaqueoverthepaper,youcanevenlyremove
some,butnotall,ofchalkwithacleanchamois.
Thestumpmaybeusedasalinemakingtoolby
smearingwiththepoint.
Inthisdrawing,thestumpingofthelowerleg
becomesthefinaltreatment.

4
HatchWhite

Step4startswiththelights.Oncethe
smudgingstagehasbeentakentothelimit
youwishedforyoumightevenhaveleft
someareasuntouchedyoucannow
clarifyandassertthelights.

Youmightneedtodoalittlecleanup
beforeproceeding.

Whenstumping,youmayhave
oversteppedyourmark.Perhapslowlight
andhalftoneshouldbeuntoned(This
particulardemodoesnothavecleanup).
ERASE.Atthistimeyoucaneraseback
tothepaperwhereyouthinkblueonlyis
best.
REOUTLINE.Smudgingcausesthe
outlinetoloseitsclarity,soifnecessary,
gobackandclarifyimportantoutlineat
thisstage.

Detectably,Prud'hongavemostareasthat
requiredanatomicalspecificsseveralpasses.This
processhidprevioussteps,leavingmetowonder
howtheworkevolved.Mysenseisthatafterfirst
boldhatches,heproceededpurposefully,using
finehatchesthatmayormaynothavematched
thefinaldirections.
Hereishowtheabovedrawingproceeded:
First,abitofoutlinemarkedplanechangesand
consequentlighting.Forexample,seethe
horizontallinesthatmarkthefoldsinthe
abdomen.
Next,IranSHORThatcheseitherat
thesameangleastheouterform'sedge,

or
withtheform'slength,
Or,althoughnotdonehere,hatchescan
runobliquelyonform(Ihaveseentraces
ofobliquehatchesjustbelowthefinal
hatchesinPrud'hondrawings).
MaterialsUseawhitechalkthatfreelyreleases
thecolor,soyoudon'thavetobeardown.Usea
hardnessthatcaneraseandsmear,andwillleave
aghostwithstumping.UseeitheroftheContes,
dependingonhowdenseyouwantyourwhiteto
be.ThesofterContewillbethemoredense.This
drawingusestheharderwhite(HB)atthisstage.
Again,thesehatchesmaybedirectedobliqueto
theformifyouthinkthatwouldberightoryou
maydirectthemwithitslength.Moreaboutthis
later...

Moreabouthatches
ToemulatePrud'hon,applythehatches
inrows,NOTRANDOMLY.

Astherowsaddup,yougeta
continuoustone.
Thehatchesonlyslightlyinterlock:

Onanothermatter,mostofthehatches,
whetherblackorwhite,shouldbeapplied
toeachseparateform[A,below].Routine
hatchingacrossthealltheseparateforms
[B,below]willcausealossoftheforms.
Eventhoughthehatchessharethesame
direction,theyshouldstillbeseparately

appliedtoseparateforms.
Anexceptiontothisrulewouldbe
diagonalhatchinginshadows,
intentionallyappliedtoobscureform.

Yetmoreonapplyingthehatches
Prud'hon'sparticularhatchingtechnique
iseccentric.Itisinstructivetotakeaguess
athowheworked,tryitout,andseeifyou
thinkyourworkimproves.Icanattest
thatthestruggletorenderinhismanner
(whichisdifficult)hasstrengthenedmy
painting.
Herearesomewaystokeepthehatches
crispandontarget.
Keepinglinecrisp.Thisisoneofthose

thingsthatyouneedtotry.Theconceptis
sosimpleyoumightnotthinktomakeita
habit:
Whiledrawing,keepthechalkata
lowangletothepaper.
Ifyoupullorpushthechalk[in
thedirectionofitslength]and
rotatebetweenstrokestorefresh
thetip,youwillhavea
permanentlycrispline.Ifyou
don'trotate,thetipwillsoonwear
andbroaden.
Ifyouswingtheline,ratherthan
pullorpush,theresultinglinewill
bebroad.

Keepingthelineontarget.Todirect
yourlinesprecisely,addthisskilltoyour
bagoftricks:

Forbettervisibility,pushyourchalk
alongthepathyouwishtodraw.When
youdrag,thetoolhidesthedesiredpath,
soyoumightmissyourplacement.

5
HatchBlack

Step5movesontothedarks.
TheeyewitnessaccountemphasizesthatPrud'hon
focusedonthelights.Itindicatesthatthelights
camefirst,thentheshadows.Clearly,thefirst
boldhatchesofbothblackandwhitewereapplied
beforethefirststumpingoftones.Itispossible,
butnotatallcertain,thatPrud'honalsohatched
bothwhiteandblackbeforestumpingagain.

TheBlacks
First,abitof"outline"wasusedtomarkplane

changesandconsequentlighting(seethe
horizontalblacklineswiththeverticalabdomen
hatchesthisdescribesthedarksideoftheform
anditsbase).
Then,aswiththewhite,IranSHORThatches
eitherat
thesameangleastheouterform'sedge,
or
withtheform'slength,or
althoughnotdonehere,obliquetothe
form'sedge
Thehatcheswereappliedinrows,
NOTRANDOMLY.
Astherowsaddedup,Igota
continuoustone.
Imadethehatchesonlyslightly
interlock.
Iranlong'ishdiagonalhatchesinthe
shadowsandbackground.
Directioninbackgroundsand
shadows
Thebackgroundsinacademies
weretraditionallyappliedwith
diagonalblackhatches.Likewise,
itwascommontousediagonal
blackhatchesinshadezones,
whentheartistwanted
simplification.

Prud'honusedthetraditional
diagonalblackhatchbackground.
Inshadows,Prud'honsometimes
useddiagonalblack,butoften
chosetorunthehatcheswiththe
form'slength,justlikehedidwith
thewhites.

MaterialsUseablackchalkthatfreelyreleases
thecolor,soyoudon'thavetobeardown.Usea
hardnessthatcaneraseandsmear,andwillleave
aghostwithstumping.UsetheharderConte.
Again,thesehatchesmaybedirectedobliqueto
theformifyouthinkthatwouldberightoryou
maydirectthemwithform'slength.Moreabout
thiscomingup...

6
LightlyStump

Step6islightstumping
Youcanuseasmallstumporthetortillonsinthese
areas,inordernottolifttoomuchchalkaway.
Ghostlytracesofhatchdirectionarepermitted.
Thelightlystumpedwhitehatchrunningparallel
tothelengthofthethighbecamethefinal
treatment.Itremainsunchangedtotheendofthe
drawing.

ThefollowingisadiagramoftheapproachIam
leadingyouthrough:
Wehavealreadydone{A},andweare
presentlyatstage{B}.

A.

Firsthatchinonedirection

B.

Lightlystump(asdrawing

above)

C.

Rehatchinnewdirection

(obliquehere)

D.

Stumpagain

E.

Hatchagainwiththeform

direction

More...
Youcandirecthatchesacrossformoverandover,
runningthehatchesindifferentdirectionswith
eachnewpass.IsuspectthatPrud'hontypically
softenedeachdirectionalseriesbeforeaddingnew
hatchesoverthetop.Iftheareaisnotstumped
first,wecouldstraightforwardlycallthat
"crosshatching."Butsincestumpingisused
betweenhatches,thisisenoughofavariantof
crosshatchingtosayit'snotcrosshatching.
Forthemostpart,Prud'honfinalizedallhatching
byrunningthelasthatchesgenerallywiththe
form'slength,asinfigureE.

7
ApplyWhiteAgain

Step7isarehatchingofthewhites,
aimingtocloseinon"final"look.
Aswithallstages,thisoneisdoneinrowhatches.
Whitesstillmarkthehighlights,troughs,and
strongerilluminatedareas.Thepapercanbeleft
"untouched"inthehalftone,ifdesired(not
applicableinthisdemo).
Thishatchingstageisdifferentthanthefirsttwo,
becausetonesbeneatharenowmoresaturated.

Thegapbetweenhatchesshouldbeopenenough
toletthevaluebeneathplayaroleinthe
modeling.Also,thesehatchesmaybeeither
obliquetotheform,ifyouthinkthatwouldbe
rightortheymaybewithitslengthtoseeifyou
mightpossiblyfinishanareaoff.Finishingis
theoreticallypossible,ifyoudideverything
perfectlyinpreparation.Fortunately,erasable
chalksandstumpingpermitendlesslayersand
corrections,whileneverlosingthatfresh,not
overworked,appearance.
Inthisdrawing,Iappliedhatchestotheseparate
forms,lightlysofteningthestrokeswiththesideof
mylittlefinger.Finger"stumping"isthebest
methodforreducingsometimesharshhatches.
Materials.Usechalksthatfreelyreleasethe
color,soyoudon'thavetobeardown.Yourcolor
shoulderaseandsmear,butleaveaghostwith
lightfingerstumping.UsetheharderwhiteConte.

8
AddBlackAgain

Step8:Rehatchtheblacks,withthe
aimtocloseinona"final"look.
Aswithallstages,thisoneisdoneinrowhatches.
Blacksmarktheformsinshade.Inlowlightand
halftone,bothblackandwhitecanmingle(see
ribsatflank).Alternately,thepapercanbeleft
"untouched"intheseareas.
Thishatchingstageisdifferentthanthefirsttwo,
becausetonesbeneatharenowclosertothefinal

effect.Thegapbetweenhatchesshouldbeopen
enoughtoletthehazeofcolorbelowplayarolein
themodeling.Foradditionaldarkening,youcan
repeatedlystumpblackhatchesintothepaper
andreapplynewhatches.Also,thesehatchesmay
beeitheroblique,ifyouthinkthatwillberight,or
theymaybeparalleltotheedgeorlengthwhich
mightpossiblyfinishanareaoff.Finishingis
theoreticallypossibleifyoudideverything
perfectlyinpreparation.Fortunately,erasable
chalksandstumpingpermitendlesslayersand
corrections,whileneverlosingthatfresh,not
overworked,appearance.
Thedrapeisdarkenedwithdiagonalblack
hatches.InthefewexamplesthatIhaveseenfrom
Prud'hon,thiswashischoiceforblackhatch
directionindrape.
Materials.Usechalksthatfreelyreleasethe
colors,soyoudon'thavetobeardown.Your
chalksshoulderaseandsmear,butleaveaghost
withlightstumping.Inthehandmadechalks,do
notusethesofteststickforthisstage.Eitherthe
"medium"or"hard"willwork,dependingon
yourspecificneed.Thehardwillholdapointbest.
UsetheharderblackConte.

9
Hatch,Tortillon,andHatchAgain

Step9usesbothblackandwhite
hatches,andheavyand/orlightfinger
stumpingtoreachthepointwherethe
drawinghasreasonabletonalaccuracyand
balance.

Whencolorsbuildup,youcanusethestumpor tortillon
toremovetonetowardthevalueofthe paper.Thetones
shouldbesoclosetocorrectthat theformsarereading
well.Thetotalfeelofthe mainvolumesmaynotyetbein
properbalance. Usually,atthisstage,thelightsarenot
quitelight enought, and the darks not quite dark enough.
The definition and final emphasis might not be complete

10
FinishingRefinements

Step10
Afterlookingatthedrawingforagoodlong
time,
IsolvedoverallappearanceswhenI:
Usedthesoftesthandmadeblacktodarken
hairmass,armpit,andlowthigh.
Addedfinalfineblackhatchestodarkersides
ofribs,whetherinshadoworlight.
Correctedthefinaldirectionoftheform
hatches.

VisualSummary
Closeups,1through10

Outline

BoldHatching

StumpOutHatches

HatchWhite

HatchBlack

LightlyStump

ApplyWhiteAgain

AddBlackAgain

Hatch,Tortillon,andHatchAgain

10

FinishingRefinements

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