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# UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

## FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA

CHEMISTRY LABORATORY
(CHE 175)

NAME

## : ABDUL HALIM BIN NORDIN

(2008293172)
(2008424824)
NOOR SYAFIQAH AMERAH BT AHMAD TARMIZI (2008293072)
SITI NOR SAMRAH BT A.RAHIM
(2008291992)
(2008292022)

GROUP :

EXPERIMENT

## : (7) 1A : ADDING FORCES RESULTANT AND EQUILIBRIUM

1B : RESOLVING FORCES COMPONENT

Remarks :
DATE PERFORMED

: 18 MARCH 2009

SEMESTER

PROGRAMME/CODE

No
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Checked by :

Title
Abstract/Summary
Introduction
Aims/Objective
Theory
Procedure
Apparatus
Results
Calculations
Discussions
Conclusions
Recommendations
References
Appendices
Total

## Allocated Marks (%)

5
5
5
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20
10
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100
Rechecked by :

Marks (%)

SUMMARY
The resultant (R) of two or more vector is the single vector which produce the same effect (in
both magnitude and direction). Consider two forces, P and Q acting at a point O. The resultant
will be vector R

R is a diagonal of the parallelogram of which P and Q are two sides. This provide a useful rule.
The parallelogram rule of vector addition. If two vectors OA and OB are represented in
magnitude and direction by the sides OA and OB of a parallelogram OABC, then OC represent
their resultant. In experiment 2, concurrent forces vector ally is added to determine the
magnitude and the direction of the combined force. In this experiment if will do the opposite; it
will find two forces which then added together have the same effect as the original force. Any
force vector in the x-y plane can be expressed as a sym of vector in the x direction and a vector
in y direction. The magnitude of the force independent of the length of the two ropes. The angle
are measure from the positive x-axis in the anti-clockwise direction, the angle have a positive
(+ve) sign. If the measurement is in the clockwise direction, the angle has a negative (-ve) sign,
the angle are measure from the (+ve) y-axis in the clockwise direction.

INTRODUCTION

The force that causes an object to fall due to gravity is called the weight of object. On the
surface of the earth, the acceleration of an object due to the gravity is about 9.8m/s. This is
usually referred to as gravity, so the equation can stated before in a little different format to
specify weight:
Fw = mg
The subscript is used to donate that is it the weight force. Notice that it also replace with y.
So when an object is placed on a table, it s not falling because the table is holding it up. The
object is said to be at equilibrium because it is not being accelerated. The net force on the table is
0 N. There is the weight force pulling the object down so something must be pushing up to make
the net force also 0 N. This force is called the normal force. The normal force (F N) is always
exerted perpendicular to the surface that is holding up the object, in this case it represent the
table.For a level surface, the magnitude of the normal force is equal to the magnitude of the
weight force, except that is acts in the opposite direction.Notice how the normal force is still
perpendicular to the slanted surface. It cancels out the component of the weight force
perpendicular to the slanted surface (shown by the dotted line perpendicular to the slanted
surface). But it does not cancel out the weight force entirely. So what is left is the component of
the weight force parallel to the slanted surface (shown by dotted line parallel to the slanted
surface).This is called the net force (F net). The net force is directed towards the bottom of the
ramp. This is why the block will slide down the ramp.The magnitude of the normal force is equal
to the magnitude of the component of the weight force perpendicular to the slanted surface.
Through simple trigonometry the magnitude of the normal force is:
FN = FW cos

## By the same reasoning the magnitude of the net force is:

F net = F sin
Notice that happen when the

## equation rarely simplify to:

F=F and Fnet=0
Addition of vector can be done graphically by placing the tail of the successive error at the tipoff
the previous one. The sum or the resultant vector is the arrow down from the tail of the first
vector to the last vector. Two vectors also can be added using parallel method. Vector can be
added more accurately by adding their component along chosen axis with the aid of trigonometry
functions. A vector of magnitude V making an angle with the axis has component :
V= V cos

V= V sin

Given the component, a vector magnitude and direction can be find from:
V=Vx + Vy

RESULTANT VECTORS

tan =Vy/Vx

The resultant is the vector sum of two or more vector. It is the result of adding two or more
vector together. If displacement vector, A,B and C is added together, the result will be vector R.
As shown in the diagram scaled vector addition diagram.

To say that vector R is the resultant displacement of displacement vector A,B and C is to says
that a person who walked with displacement by the same amount as a person who walked with
displacement R. Displacement vector R gives the same result as displacement vector A+B+C=R
that is why it can be said that
A+B+C=R
The above discussion pertains to the result of adding displacement vectors. When displacement
vector are added, the result is a resultant displacement. But any two vectors can be added as long
as they are the same vector quantity. If two or more velocity vector is added then the result is a
resultant force.
In all such cases, the resultant vector (whether a displacement vector, force vector, velocity
vector,etc) is the result of adding the individual vector. It is the same thing as adding A+B+C+...
In summary, the resultant is the vector sum the entire individual vectors together. The resultant
can be determined by adding the individual forces together by using vector addition methods.

EXPERIMENT 1A.

OBJECTIVE
To find the equilibrant by adding the forces resultant experiment
THEORY
In figure 2.1 spaceship x and y are pulling on a asteroid with forces indicated by vectors F and
F. Since these forces are acting in the same point of the asteroid, they are called current forces.
As any vector quantity, each is defined both by its magnitude, which is proportional to length of
the arrow. (The magnitude of the force is independent of the length of the rope)
The total force on the asteroid can be determined by adding vectors F and F. In the illustration,
the parallelogram method is used. The diagonal of the parallelogram defined by F and F is F
the vector indicating the magnitude and direction of the total force acting on the asteroid. F is
called the resultant of F and F.
Another useful vector is F, the equilibrant of F and F. F is the forces needed to exactly offset
the combined pull of the two ship. F has the same magnitude as F but is in the opposite
direction. It will see in the following experiment the equilibrant provides a useful experimental
method for finding the resultant of two or more forces.

APPARATUS
-Experiment board
-Degree scale

-Three pulleys
-Masses
-Spring balanced
-Force ring
-Three mass hanger
-String

PROCEDURES
The equipment was set up as shown in figure 2.2. Mass hanger and mass provide a gravitational
force of F=mg downward. However, since the force ring is not accelerated, the downward force
must be exactly balanced by an equal and opposite, or equilibrant force F is of course providing
by the spring balanced.
1. The magnitude and direction of F, the gravitational force provide by the mass and mass of
the hanger (F=mg) is
F: Magnitude = 0.49N
Direction = Downward
2. The spring balance and the degree plate was used to determine the magnitude and the
direction of Fe
F: Magnitude = 0.49N
Direction = Downward

The pulley and hanging masses was used as shown in figure 2.3 and the equipment was set up so
that two to know forces, F1 and F2 are pulling on the Force Ring. The Holding Pin was used to
prevent the ring from being accelerated. The Holding Pin was provide a force, F that is exactly
opposite to the resultant of F1 and F2.
The spring balance was adjusted to determined to magnitude of F. The spring balance was kept
vertically and a pulley was used to direct the force from the spring in the desired direction. The

spring balanced was moved towards or away from the pulley to vary the magnitude of the force.
The pulley and spring balanced was adjusted so that the holding pin is centred in the forced ring.
3. The magnitude in Newtons of F1,F2 and F3 was record the value of the hanging masses
M1,M2, and M3 (include the mass of the hanger) and also 1,2,and 3 was recorded, the
angle each vectors makes with respect to the zero-degree line on the degree scale.
4. The value that record were used to construct F 1,F2 and F on a separate sheet of paper. An
appropriate scale was chose (2.0cm/ Newton) the length of each vector was make
proportional to the magnitude of the force it represent was indicate.
5. The parallel method was used to draw the result of F 1and F2. The resultant F was
labelled. The length of F was measured to determine the magnitude of the resultant force
and this magnitude was record on the diagram.
6. The equilibrant force vector F exactly balances the resultant vector F. The magnitude
and direction of F1 and F2 was varies and the experiment was repeated.

## RESULT FOR EXPERIMENT 1 A

1

The magnitude and direction of F, the gravitational force provide by the mass and mass of
the hanger (F=mg) is
F: Magnitude = 0.49 N
Direction = Downward

The spring balance and the degree plate was used to determine the magnitude and the
direction of Fe
F: Magnitude = 0.49N
Direction =Downward

F1 : M1 = 0.050 kg
F1 : M1 = 0.070 kg

Magnitude = 0.49 N

Angle = 159

Magnitude = 0.68 N

Angle = 34

Magnitude = 0.98 N

Angle = 112

## Calculation For Experiment 1A

1. F = mg
F : magnitude = 0.050 kg (9.81 m/s2)
= 0.49 N
Direction = Downward
2.

F: Magnitude = 0.49 N
Direction = Downward

3. F1 : M1 = 0.050 kg

Magnitude = mg
= (0.050kg)(9.81 m/s2)
= 0.49N

Angle = 159

F2 : M2 = 0.070 kg

Magnitude = mg
= (0.070kg)(9.81m/s2)
= 0.68 N

Angle = 34

Fe: F = kx

Magnitude = kx
= (40.88)(0.012m)
= 0.98 N

Angle = 112

EXPERIMENT 1B
THEORY
In this experiment, concurrent forces are added vertically to determine the magnitude and
direction of the combined force. In this experiment, opposite way are using which is when two
forces are added together it will have the same effect as the original force. Any vector in x-y
plane can be expressed as the sum of a vector in the x- direction in a vector in the y- direction.
PROCEDURES FOR EXPERIMENT 1B
1. The equipment as shown in figure 3.1 was set up. A force, F as shown was determined by
hanging a mass from the force over a pulley. The holding pin was used to hold the force ring in
place.
The spring balance and a pulley were set up so the strings from the balanced run horizontally
from the bottom of the pulley to the force ring A. A second ring hanger was hanged directly from
the force ring.
Now the spring balance was pulled towards or away from the pulley to adjust the horizontal or xcomponent of the force. The mass was adjusted in this way until the holding pin is centred in the
force ring. (Notice that this x and y component are actually the x and y component of the
equilibrant of the F rather than of F itself)

1. The magnitude and angle of F were recorded. The angle as shown in figure 3.1 was measured.
Magnitude=

1.03N

angle= 53

## 2. The magnitude of the x and y component of the equilibrant of F were recorded.

X-component= 1.03cos53

F =

0.62N

F =

-0.21N

## 4.Record the angle of F, and the magnitude of F, Fx , and Fy.

F: Magnitude = 1.03N

Angle= 53

Fx= 0.62N

Fy= -0.21N

5.Record the magnitude and angle of the force vector, F , that you have constructed.
Magnitude = 1.03N

Angle= 53

## 6.Calculate Fx and Fy , the magnitude of the x and y components of

F(Fx = F cos ; Fy = F sin )
Fx= 0.62N

Fy = - 0.21N

## RESULT FOR EXPERIMENT 1B

1. The magnitude and angle of F were recorded. The angle as shown in figure 3.1 was measured.
Magnitude=

1.03 N

angle = 53

## 2. The magnitude of the x and y component of the equilibrant of F were recorded.

X-component= 1.03cos53

## 3. What are the magnitude of F and F, the x and y components of

F = 0.62N
4. F: Magnitude = 1.03N
F : 0.62N

F = -0.21N
Angle = 53
F = -0.21N

5.Record the magnitude and angle of the force vector, F , that you have constructed.
Magnitude = 1.03N

Angle= 53

## 6.Calculate Fx and Fy , the magnitude of the x and y components of

F(Fx = F cos ; Fy = F sin )
Fx= 0.62N

Fy = - 0.21N

## Calculation For Experiment 1 B

1. F = mg
F : magnitude = 0.105 kg (9.81m/s2)
= 1.030 N

Angle = 53

2. X-component= 1.03cos53

y-component= 1.03sin53-(0.105x9.81)

3. F = 1.03cos53
= 0.62N

F = 1.03sin53-(0.105x9.81)
= -0.21N

## 4. F: Magnitude = (0.105 kg)(9.81m/s2)

=1.03N
F = 1.03Ncos53
= 1.03cos 53

Angle = 53

F = 1.03Nsin53- (0.105x9.81)
= -0.21N

5.Record the magnitude and angle of the force vector, F , that you have constructed.
Magnitude = 1.03N

Angle= 53

## 6.Calculate Fx and Fy , the magnitude of the x and y components of

F(Fx = F cos ; Fy = F sin )
Fx= 0.62N

Fy = - 0.21N

DISCUSSION
In the experiment 1A, it is about adding forces resultant and it equilibrant. The magnitude of
the force is equal to mg and has the measured 0.49N and the direction is downward while the
equilibrant force is 40.88N and the direction is downward. The mass that used is constant that is
0.050 kg. This way will make the calculation be easier and more accurate. When the angle is set
up to 159 the measurement of the magnitude is 0.49N in the other hand when the angle is 34
the magnitude is 0.68N and lastly when the angle set to 112 the magnitude is 0.98 N.
The diagonal of the parallelogram defined by F and F is F the vector indicating the
magnitude and direction of the total force acting on the asteroid. F is called the resultant of F
and F.
For the experiment in 1B, the magnitude of force is also 1.030 N because has a constant mass
same with experiment 1A that 0.050 kg. The angle is set up to 53 . The x- component and F has
the same value, that is 0.62N and the y-component also has the same value with F that is
-0.21N. So this result is due to theory that said when two forces added together, they will have
the same effect as the original force.

CONCLUSION
Based on the experiment 1A, the mass that used is constant that is 0.050 kg to make
calculation more accurate. The measure of magnitude is 0.49 N and direction is downward. For
the equilibrium force the magnitude is 0.49N and the direction is opposite that is downward. F is
called the resultant of F and F.
Based on the experiment 1 B, the value of x- component and Fx is equal that is 0.62 N same
also with y-component and Fy the value is -0.21 N. It shows that when two forces added together,
they will have the same effect as the original force.
After spend a lot of time on these two experiments which is about adding forces resultant and
equilibrant and also resolving forces component, the conclusion that can be said is the
measurement of the result is totally successful because it is due to the theory given.
The total force of F and F are equal to the F.

RECOMMENDATION
1. While taking the reading it should be in the vertically to prevent parallax error.
2. Be more careful on the condition of the string could lead to an error to our reading.
3. Make sure the position of the board is on the stable position because it can cause the
force ring could not come to its true equilibrium.
4. The adjustment of pulley and spring balanced must be accurate so that the holding pin is
centre in the force ring.

REFERENCES
1. Manual lab physics book
2. Physics book by Giancoli sixth edition
3. Tom Henderson, 1996- 2007, Addition of Forces (online available: 22 Sept 2008)
http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/vectors/u3l3a.html
4. Static Equilibrium- Balancing Force (online available : 22 Sept 2008)
http://www.cdli.ca/courses/phys3204/unit01_org04_ilo01/b_activity.html

Appendices