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Job Analysis

Job analysis is the procedure through which you determine the duties and responsibilities of any job
position and the characteristics of people to hire the employees.
Generally, Job analysis defines the jobs within the organization and the behaviors necessary
to perform these jobs.
Mathis and Jackson (1999) view job analysis as a systematic way to gather and analyze
information about the content and human requirement of jobs, and the context in which jobs
are performed.
Dale Yoder (1983) defines job analysis as a process in which jobs are studied to
determine what tasks and responsibilities they include their relationships to other jobs, the
conditions under which work is performed, and the personnel capabilities required for
satisfactory performance.
In the opinion of Strauss and Sales, job analysis consists of two parts, a statement of work
to be don (job description) and the skills and knowledge which must be possessed by
anyone filling the job (job specification).
Job description
Job specification
Job title, location
Ability, skills, knowledge
Supervision given
Experience, training
Working condition
Physical efforts
Specific duties and responsibilities
Language efficiency, computing
Why job should be analyzed? Importance of JA

Reduce the employee turnover

Minimize the costs of training
Retained the trained and expertise
Minimize the wastages of any assets and

Improve employees motivation and morale

Performance Appraisal

Increasing job belongingness

Getting optimum productivity
Inform potential employees about their duties
Recruit and select the most suited employees
Collecting personal information
Job evaluation, compensation and

Employee Turnover: Why it occurs?

The Term employee turnover means the number of permanent employees leaving a business
enterprise within the reported period against the number of actual active Permanent employees on
the last day of the previous reported period. It occurs for the following reasons Mismatch between expectation and reality in the nature of work
Mismatch between requirements in the job and capabilities
Mismatch between responsibility and compensation
Organization terms, conditions and environment is not ok
Ambitious employee and getting better opportunity
Career paths, growth and development are not specified
What are the information are included via job analysis?
The listed information are collected through JA Basic purpose of the job
Work activities and job

Job relationships, Personal attributes

Machines and equipment used

Interaction with others, Human behavior

Performance standards, ASK needed

working condition, Work methods

Supervision given and received

Key issues of job analysis:

The job analysis information hierarchy involves eight-step process:
Elements. A job element is the smallest unit into which work can be divided.
Tasks. A task is a distinct work activity carried out for a distinct purpose. Examples are
typing a letter and preparing a lecture.
Duties. A duty is a number of tasks.
Positions. A position refers to one or more duties performed by one person in an
Job. A job is a type of position within an organization.
Job families. It is a group of essentially similar activities or tasks performed by a person r
group of persons.
Occupations. An occupation is a group of similar jobs found across organizations.
Careers. A career is sequences of position that an employee holds during his total working
Job Analysis methods: Methods of collecting JA information
The method of collecting job related information arei. Work sampling. Under this method, a manager can determine the content and pace of a
typical workday through statistical sampling of certain actions rather than through
continuous observation and timing of all actions.
ii. Observation Method. The job analyst observes the individual performing the job and takes
notes to describe the tasks and duties performed. He keenly observes the work connected
with a job. It is a direct method. Its main limitation is that when the work of employee is
being observed, the employee becomes conscious. In certain job like managerial,
observation method is impossible.
iii. Individual interview/ Questionnaire Method:
Here a manager or job analyst visits each jobsite and talk with employees performing each
job. A standardized interview form is used most often to record the information. It is a
printed form in which essential information about the job may be listed either by employee
or by his supervisor.
iv. The Questionnaire method: It is an special tool for consolidating job information. It is a
printed form in which essential information about the job may be listed either by employee
or by his supervisor.

The main advantage of this method is that information on a large number of jobs can
be collected inexpensively in a relatively short period of time. It gives each employee an
opportunity to participate and contribute by giving responses to the questionnaire.

Disadvantages of questionnaire method: Its success depend son the understanding

and writing ability of individual employees and supervisors
v. Diary method:
Employee maintains diary method.
Under this method, the employees observe their own performance by keeping a diary of
their job duties, noting how frequently they are performed and the time needed for each

The main advantage of this method is employees are the record keeper of his own duties
and responsibilities.
The main disadvantage of this method is- it may happen the employees may not provide
the proper information.
Stages of JA:
Planning the JA: Identifying objective of JA, Obtain top management support
Preparing and communicating the JA: identify jobs and methodology, review existing job
documentation, and communicate process to managers / management and employees
Conducting the JA: gathering, reviewing and compiling data
Developing job description and job specification
Maintaining and updating job description and job specification
Steps in job analysis
Step 1. Decide how you will use the information, since this will determine the data you collect and
how you collect them. Use of job analysis will determine methods of data collection. Interviewing
the employees is good for writing job description and selecting employees for the job.
Step 2. Review relevant background information such as organization charts, process charts and
job description.
Organization charts show the organization wide division of work, how the job in question
relates to other jobs and where the job fits in the overall organization. The chart shows the
titles of each position and who reports to whom and with whom the job incumbent
A process chart provides a more detailed picture of the work flow. It shows the flow of
inputs to ad outputs from the job you are analyzing.
Step 3. Select representative positions. A sample of ten to fifteen jobs should be selected to
analyze. It is unnecessary to analyze too many similar jobs.
Step 4. Actually analyze the job-by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviors,
working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to do the job.
Step 5. Verify the job analysis information with workers performing the job and with his
immediate supervisor.
Step 6. Develop a job description and job specification. A job description is a written statement of
what a jobholder does how it is done. It should accurately portray job content, environment and
conditions of employment. Job specification summarizes the personal qualities, traits, and
background required for getting the job done.
Factors affecting Job Design: Aswathapa P. 125 (Graph)
1. Organizational factors
2. Environmental factors
3. Behavioral factors
Job Design Approaches: Aswathapa P. 128 (Graph)
Job rotation
Job engineering
Job enlargement
Job enrichment
Socio-technical system
Contemporary issues in job design: Aswathapa P. 135
Alternative work pattern

Techno stress
Task revision
Knowledge work
Question: Job Analysis Format: Aswathapa, Page. 113

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