1William Edwards Deming

William Edwards Deming
(October 14, 1900 – December 20, 1993)


2William Edwards Deming


3William Edwards Deming



Deming was

an American and Consultant.

Statistician, Professor, Author, Lecturer,

Deming is widely credited with improving production in the United States during the Cold War, although he is perhaps best known for his work in Japan. He is regarded as having had more impact upon Japanese manufacturing and business than any other individual not of Japanese heritage. There, from 1950 onward he taught top management how to Improve Design (and thus service), Product quality Testing and Sales (the last through global markets) through various methods, including the application of Statistical methods.


4William Edwards Deming

Quick History
 W. Edwards Deming was born in Sioux City, Lowa and was raised

in Polk City, Lowa.
 Deming received a BSc in electrical engineering from the University

of Wyoming at Laramie (1921), an M.S. from the University of Colorado(1925), and a Ph.D. from Yale University (1928).
 Deming was the author of Out of the Crisis (1982–1986) and The

New Economics for Industry, Government, Education (1993).
 In Japan, Deming's expertise in quality control techniques.  In 1960, the Prime Minister of Japan (Nobusuke Kishi), acting on

behalf of Emperor Hirohito, awarded Dr. Deming Japan’s Order of the Sacred Treasure, Second Class.
 Ford Motor Company was one of the first American corporations to

seek help from Deming.
 Deming offers a theory of management based on his famous 14 Points

for Management.
 In 1987 he was awarded the National Medal of Technology.  In 1988, he received the Distinguished Career in Science award from

the National Academy of Sciences.


5William Edwards Deming

 In December 1993, W. Edwards Deming died in his sleep at the age

of 93 in his Washington home at about 3 a.m. due to "natural causes."

Deming Philosophy Synopsis
 Dr. W. Edwards Deming taught that by adopting appropriate

principles of management, organizations can increase quality and simultaneously reduce costs (by reducing waste, rework, staff attrition and litigation while increasing customer loyalty).
 Dr. Deming's philosophy was summarized by some of his Japanese

proponents with the following 'a'-versus-'b' comparison: • When people and organizations focus primarily on quality, defined by the following ratio,

• Quality tends to increase and costs fall over time.

However, when people and organizations focus primarily on costs, costs tend to rise and quality declines over time.


6William Edwards Deming

Deming advocated that all managers need to have what he called a System of Profound Knowledge, consisting of four parts:

 Appreciation

of a system: Understanding the overall processes involving suppliers, producers, and customers (or recipients) of goods and services.

 Knowledge of variation: The range and causes of variation in quality,
and use of statistical sampling in measurements.

 Theory

of knowledge: The concepts explaining knowledge and the limits of what can be known.

 Knowledge of psychology: Concepts of human nature.


7William Edwards Deming

Deming believed that traditional management practices, such as the Seven Deadly Diseases listed below, significantly contributed to the American quality crisis.

Lack of constancy of purpose to plan and deliver products and services that will help a company survive in the long term.

2. Emphasis on short-term profits caused by short-term thinking (which is just the opposite of constancy of purpose), fear of takeovers, worry about quarterly dividends, and other types of reactive management. 3. Performance appraisals (i.e., annual reviews, merit ratings) that promote fear and stimulate unnecessary competition among employees. 4. Mobility of management (i.e., job hopping), which promotes shortterm thinking. 5. Management by use of visible figures without concern about other data, such as the effect of happy and unhappy customers on sales, and


8William Edwards Deming

the increase in overall quality and productivity that comes from quality improvement upstream.

6. Excessive medical costs, which now have been acknowledged as excessive by federal and state governments, as well as industries themselves. 7. Excessive costs of liability further increased by lawyers working on contingency fees.


9William Edwards Deming



10William Edwards Deming

Deming formulated the following Fourteen Points to cure (eliminate) the Seven Deadly Diseases and help organizations to survive and flourish in the long term:


11William Edwards Deming


Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service. Develop a plan to be competitive and stay in business. Everyone in the organization, from top management to shop floor workers, should learn the new philosophy. Adopt the new philosophy. Commonly accepted levels of delays, mistakes, defective materials, and defective workmanship are now intolerable. We must prevent mistakes. Cease dependence on mass inspection. Instead, design and build in quality. The purpose of inspection is not to send the product for rework because it does not add value. Instead of leaving the problems for someone else down the production line, workers must take responsibility for their work. Quality has to be designed and built into the product; it cannot be inspected into it. Inspection should be used as an information-gathering device, not as a means of "assuring" quality or blaming workers. Don't award business on price tag alone (but also on quality, value, speed and long term relationship). Minimize total cost. Many companies and organizations award contracts to the lowest bidder as long as they meet certain requirements. However, low bids do not guarantee quality; and unless the quality aspect is considered, the effective price per unit that a company pays its vendors may be understated and, in some cases, unknown. Deming urged businesses to move toward single-sourcing, to establish long-term relationships with a few suppliers (one supplier per purchased part, for example) leading to loyalty and opportunities for mutual improvement.





12William Edwards Deming

Using multiple suppliers has been long justified for reasons such as providing protection against strikes or natural disasters or making the suppliers compete against each other on cost. However, this approach has ignored "hidden" costs such as increased travel to visit suppliers, loss of volume discounts, increased set-up charges resulting in higher unit costs, and increased inventory and administrative expenses. Also constantly changing suppliers solely on the base of price increases the variation in the material supplied to production, since each supplier's process is different.

Continuously improve the system of production and service. Management's job is to continuously improve the system with input from workers and management. Deming was a disciple of Walter A. Shewhart, the developer of control charts and the continuous cycle of process improvement known as the Shewhart cycle. Deming popularized the Shewhart Cycle as the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) or Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle; therefore, it is also often referred to as the Deming cycle. In the planning stage, opportunities for improvement are recognized and operationally defined. In the doing stage, the theory and course of action developed in the previous stage is tested on a small scale through conducting trial runs in a laboratory or prototype setting. The results of the testing phase are analyzed in the check/study stage using statistical methods. In the action stage, a decision is made regarding the implementation of the proposed plan. If the results were positive in the pilot stage, then the plan will be implemented. Otherwise alternative plans are developed.

13William Edwards Deming

After full scale implementation, customer and process feedback will again be obtained and the process of continuous improvement continues.

Institute training on the job. When training is an integral part of the system, operators are better able to prevent defects. Deming understood that employees are the fundamental asset of every company, and they must know and buy into a company's goals. Training enables employees to understand their responsibilities in meeting customers' needs. Institute leadership (modern methods of supervision). The best supervisors are leaders and coaches, not dictators. Deming highlighted the key role of supervisors who serve as a vital link between managers and workers. Supervisors first have to be trained in the quality management before they can communicate management's commitment to quality improvement and serve as role models and leaders. Drive out fear. Create a fear-free environment where everyone can contribute and work effectively. There is an economic loss associated with fear in an organization. Employees try to please their superiors. Also, because they feel that they might lose their jobs, they are hesitant to ask questions about their jobs, production methods, and process parameters. If a supervisor or manager gives the impression that asking such questions is a waste of time, then employees will be more concerned about pleasing their supervisors than meeting long-




14William Edwards Deming

term goals of the organization. Therefore, creating an environment of trust is a key task of management.

Break down barriers between areas. People should work cooperatively with mutual trust, respect, and appreciation for the needs of others in their work. Internal and external organizational barriers impede the flow of information, prevent entities from perceiving organizational goals, and foster the pursuit of subunit goals that are not necessarily consistent with the organizational goals. Barriers between organizational levels and departments are internal barriers. External barriers are between the company and its suppliers, customers, investors, and community. Barriers can be eliminated through better communication, cross-functional teams, and changing attitudes and cultures.


Eliminate slogans aimed solely at the work force. Most problems are system-related and require managerial involvement to rectify or change. Slogans don't help. Deming believed that people want to do work right the first time. It is the system that 80 to 90 percent of the time prevents people from doing their work right the first time.

11. Eliminate

numerical goals, work standards, and quotas. Objectives set

for others can force sub-optimization or defective output in order to achieve them. Instead, learn the capabilities of processes and how to improve them. Numerical goals set arbitrarily by management, especially if they are not accompanied by feasible courses of action, have a demoralizing effect. Goals should be set in a participative style


15William Edwards Deming

together with methods for accomplishment. Deming argued that the quota or work standard system is a short-term solution and that quotas emphasize quantity over quality. They do not provide data about the process that can be used to meet the quota, and they fail to distinguish between special and common causes when seeking improvements to the process.
12. Remove

barriers that hinder workers (and hinder pride in

workmanship). The direct effect of pride in workmanship is increased motivation and a greater ability for employees to see themselves as part of the same team. This pride can be diminished by several factors: (1) Management may be insensitive to workers' problems. (2) They may not communicate the company's goals to all levels. (3) They may blame employees for failing to meet company goals when the real fault lies with the management.
13. Institute

a vigorous program of education and self improvement.

Deming's philosophy is based on long-term, continuous process improvement that cannot be carried out without properly trained and motivated employees. This point addresses the need for ongoing and continuous objectives: education and self-improvement for the entire organization. This educational investment serves the following


16William Edwards Deming

(1) It leads to better motivated employees. (2) It communicates the company goals to the employees. (3) It keeps the employees up-to-date on the latest techniques and promotes teamwork. (4) Training and retraining provides a mechanism to ensure adequate performance as the job responsibilities change. (5) Through increasing job loyalty, it reduces the number of people who "job-hop."

14. Take

action to accomplish the transformation. Create a structure in

top management that will promote the previous thirteen points. It is the top management's responsibility to create and maintain a structure for the dissemination of the concepts outlined in the first thirteen points. Deming felt that people at all levels in the organization should learn and apply his Fourteen Points if statistical process control is to be a successful approach to process improvement and if organizations are to be transformed. However, he encouraged top management to learn them first. He believed that these points represent an all-ornothing commitment and that they cannot be implemented selectively.

The Deming Cycle


17William Edwards Deming

W. Edwards Deming in the 1950's proposed that business processes should be analyzed and measured to identify sources of variations that cause products to deviate from customer requirements. To illustrate this continuous process, commonly known as the PDCA cycle for Plan, Do, Check, Act*:

 PLAN: Design or revise business process components to improve

results  DO: Implement the plan and measure its performance  CHECK: Assess the measurements and report the results to decision makers  ACT: Decide on changes needed to improve the process


18William Edwards Deming

This 'wheel within a wheel' describes the relationship between strategic management and business unit management in a large company. There are actually several separate business units, of course, each with its own set of metrics, goals, targets and initiatives. But this figure illustrates the idea that the business activities constitute the DO part of the overall strategic effort.



19William Edwards Deming

The Deming Prize, especially the Deming Application Prize which is given to companies, has exerted an immeasurable influence directly or indirectly on the development of quality control/management. Categories of the Deming Prize The Deming Application Prize Given to companies or divisions of companies that have achieved distinctive performance improvement through the application of TQM in a designated year. The Deming Application Prize Given to individuals who have made outstanding contributions to the study of TQM or statistical methods used for TQM, or individuals who have made The Deming Prize for Individuals outstanding contributions in the dissemination of TQM. The Quality Control Award for Operations Business Units


20William Edwards Deming

Given to operations business units of a company that have achieved distinctive performance improvement through the application of quality control/management in the pursuit of TQM in a designated year.


21William Edwards Deming

Winners Of Deming Awards
Indian manufacturing sector urged to maintain quality standards

 V. Krishnamurthy, Chairman, NMCC (centre); Arun Bewoor, MCCI president (second from left), with the Deming Awardies (from left) T.K. Balaji, Chief Executive and Managing Director, Lucas TVS; L. Lakshman, Chairman Rane Holdings and S. Viji, Managing Director, Brakes India, in Chennai.  The Deming award was given to Rane Holdings, Brakes India, Sundaram Clayton and Lucas TVS.


22William Edwards Deming

 Chennai, 9 October 2004: Lucas-TVS, a TVS group company, has bagged the prestigious Deming Application Award for the year 2004.  This was announced by the Deming Prize Committee of Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers (JUSE).  Lucas-TVS, with manufacturing facilities at Padi (Chennai), Pondicherry and Rewari (Haryana), is the first and the only Auto Electrical Company from India to receive this coveted award.  Lucas-TVS launched the Japanese Total Quality Management (TQM) movement during 1998. TQM is a vehicle to continuously improve all the Management Processes with Customer Focus in terms of Quality, Cost, Delivery and Service and the process motivates teamwork  Lucas-TVS is the largest manufacturer of Auto Electricals in India catering to all segments of Auto Industry, which includes Cars, Utility Vehicles, Commercial Vehicles, Tractors and Two wheelers.  Its focus on customer, continuous improvement and employee involvement has always been commendable. Lucas-TVS is a TS 16949 and ISO 14001 certified company.


23William Edwards Deming

Tata Steel India Receives Deming Application Prize2008

 Tata Steel India is now the first integrated steel company in the world,
outside Japan, to be awarded the Deming Application Prize for excellence in Total Quality Management.

Mr. B Muthuraman Managing Director received this coveted medal by Mr. Fujio Mitarai, Chairman Deming Prize Committee at a formal function.

 The Deming award which is the highest award for quality in the
world, was given to Tata Steel not only for what the Company has done for its customers, employees and business partners but also for its exceptional work in the area of social welfare and uplift in the areas of its operations.


24William Edwards Deming

What Deming Taught Toyota Every 21st Century Manager Needs to Know
Dr. W. Edwards Deming’s principles support the global success of Toyota, Proctor & Gamble, Ritz Carlton, Harley-Davidson, and many other leading organizations. His teachings are essential for the effective application of Six Sigma, Lean Manufacturing, Loyalty/Net Promoter and other quality improvement, customer retention and business growth methods. Dr. Deming’s profound, yet simple, success strategies offer your organization a proven system to achieve lasting growth and success. The principles apply universally to business, healthcare, education—in fact, to any enterprise—and to you personally. Ironically, this American prophet—still unknown to most of his countrymen—created the theory behind today’s successful business practices. He is a national hero in Japan. The highest award for quality in Japan—a Nobel Prize for business success—is the Deming Prize, awarded with great fanfare every year. Dr. Deming helped Toyota—and other leading Japanese exporting companies—develop the vital management philosophy and practices that enabled them to become market leaders around the world. Dr. Shoichiro Toyoda, Chairman and former President (1982-1999) of Toyota, said : Every day I think about what he meant to us. Deming is the core of our management.1 In 2005, accepting the American Society for Quality’s Deming Medal, Dr. Toyoda elaborated : Dr. Deming came to Japan following World War II in order to teach industry leaders methods of statistical quality control, as well as to impart the significance of quality control in management and his overall management philosophy. He was an invaluable teacher…, playing an


25William Edwards Deming

indispensable role in the development and revitalization of post-war Japan.

Industrialists as well as academics earnestly began to study and implement Dr. Deming's theories and philosophy. Dr. Deming soon became widely known not only as a brilliant theorist, but also as a kind and modest man. In 1951, the Deming Prize was founded in order to promote the widespread practice of quality control based on Dr. Deming's philosophy. We at Toyota Motor Corporation introduced TQC in 1961, and in 1965 were awarded the Deming Application Prize. As we continued to implement Dr. Deming's teachings, we were able to both raise the level of quality of our products as well as enhance our operations on the corporate level. I believe that TMC today is a result of our continued efforts to implement positive change in pursuit of the Deming Prize. Now, we are faced with rapid global restructuring of both society and business. In the midst of these overwhelming changes, corporations faced with the challenge of providing value to a wide range of shareholders have begun to focus on quality innovations such as completely customeroriented management practices, environmental preservation, and the upholding of corporate ethics.


26William Edwards Deming

Deming's Point #1 as It Applies to the Insurance Industry
"Create constancy of purpose for improvement of product and service." This W. Edwards Deming principle has great relevance to the insurance industry as illustrated by real-world examples. By John Pryor One outstanding example of "constancy of purpose" is William J. (Bill) O'Brien, when he was CEO of Hanover Insurance Companies in the 1970s. I first met Bill at a seminar in San Diego in the early 1990s. I subsequently had dinner with him and our wives in Boston at his favorite downtown restaurant. (It was Hungarian.) He led Hanover's history-making turnaround with "constancy of purpose" as his principle discipline. In San Diego, Bill told us that to lead any organizational transformation it's critical to:

 

move away from the usual institutional or organization design that has as its purpose "keeping people from screwing up"; think through your values and beliefs; and give all employees the same sense of purpose.

As confirmed by Larry Brandon in Pathway to Progress (CPCU—Loman Education Foundation, 2003), "Bill worked to develop a ‘values-based, vision-driven' organization well before writing values and vision statements became a corporate fad." Bill inculcated these values and vision into the culture of his organization and its people. The Hanover turnaround was nothing less than phenomenal. From stock valued at 98 cents per share, it grew to $45 on his watch. Surplus grew from $440 million to $1.7 billion—all without any acquisitions or capital infusion. If you want to read more about Bill O'Brien, all you have to do is pull out your copy of Peter Senge's management classic entitled, The Fifth Discipline. Bill is quoted on at least 52 of the 371 pages in his book.


27William Edwards Deming

Bill O'Brien passed away recently, but his principles live on. In fact, Bill is quoted in Mr. Senge's Fifth Discipline Field book (Doubleday, 1994) as follows: We began by laying out a purpose for the company. In those days, when mainstream businessmen believed the only purpose of business was making money, it was very radical . . . It was a mission statement, although nobody had heard of that word yet. As soon as we had written it down, we thought we'd solved our problem … However most purpose statements inspire the five or ten people who sit around writing them, but do nothing for the 5,000 other people in the corporation. If it is going to enlist people's spirit, a purpose must be extended into a set of values and a vision. We needed some shared sense of what we stood for as an organization … As strong as were his words, his actions spoke louder. He and his company were innovative, they emphasized education and research, and they continually improved their products and service as they practiced and demonstrated their "constancy of purpose."


28William Edwards Deming

Deming's Point #14 as Applied to the Insurance Industry
Deming's key admonitions to both leaders and managers as part of Point #14 are:    Start as soon as possible Everyone can take part (as a team) Embark on construction of organization for quality.

Hindsight is always 20:20, of course, but you have to think how different the outcome may have been in today's financial meltdown had CEOs of multiple national and international financial service companies practiced these principles and disciplines. Property-casualty insurance companies in general (so far) seem to have "dodged this bullet" unlike banks and other non-insurance financial organizations that typically are higher leveraged than is customary than for P&C insurance companies. Insurance companies typically have highly liquid investment portfolios that are more conservative—with much less volatility—than other financial organizations. Yet many insurance companies are floundering. Have those in trouble understood and practiced:       Systems thinking? Continuous performance improvement? Teamwork? Strategic planning at all levels? Listening to the "Voice of the Customer" (both internal and external)? Training, education, and self-improvement of all staff?

 Leadership—in addition to management (and understand the difference)?  Cross-functional communication and planning?


29William Edwards Deming

Put it all together in a Balanced Score Card?

These questions, and no doubt others, will perhaps provide some element of insight. Another is the Insurance Institute of America program "Delivering Insurance Services" (AIS-25). This discipline and common body of knowledge seems to have been missed by many business schools and MBA programs where many insurance executives are concerned. It's never too late to compensate for that omission! This educational foundation from the Institutes should then be followed by training of key management people as Lean Six Sigma "Green Belts"— with about 1 in 10 of the Green Belts ultimately advancing to "Black Belt" certification. That's my remedy for the CEO of every organization in our industry not already practicing these disciplines and best practices. What's your solution for them? Now let's talk more specifically about Dr. Deming's 14th Point. It is: Take action to accomplish the transformation


30William Edwards Deming

These are Dr. Deming's concluding remarks
1. Management in authority will struggle over every one of the above 13 points, the deadly diseases, the obstacles. They will agree on their meaning and on the direction to take. They will agree to carry out the new philosophy. 2. Management in authority will take pride in their adoption of the new philosophy and in their new responsibilities. They will have courage to break with tradition, even to the point of exile among their peers. 3. Management in authority will explain by seminars and other means to a critical mass of people in the company why change is necessary, and that the change will involve everybody. Enough people in the company must understand the 14 points. a. This whole movement may be instituted and carried out by middle management, speaking with one voice. Every activity, every job is a part of a process. A flow diagram of any process will divide the work into stages. The stages as a whole form a process. The stages are not individual entities, each running at maximum profit. A flow diagram, simple or complex, is an example of a theory—an idea. Work comes into any stage, changes state, and moves on into the next stage. Any stage has a customer, the next stage. The final stage will send product or service to the ultimate customer, he who buys the product or the service. At every stage there will be: . Production - change of state, input changes to output. Something happens to material or papers that come into any stage. They go out in a different state.

a. Continual improvement of methods and procedures, aimed at better satisfaction of the customer (user) at the next stage. Start as soon as possible to construct with deliberate speed an organization to guide continual improvement of quality. The Shewhart


31William Edwards Deming

cycle (see below) will be helpful as a procedure to follow for improvement of any stage; also as a procedure for finding a special cause detected by statistical signal [in a Control Chart]. The reason to study the results of a change is to try to learn how to improve tomorrow's product, or next year's crop. Planning requires prediction. The results of a change or test may enhance our degree of belief for prediction, for planning. Step 4 of the Shewhart cycle (study the results; what did we learn from the change?) will lead:  to improvement of any stage  to better satisfaction of the customer for that stage. Everyone can take part in a team. The aim of a team is to improve the input and the output of any stage. A team may well be composed of people from different staff areas. A team has a customer. Everyone on the team has a chance to contribute ideas, plans, and figures; but anyone may expect to find some of his best ideas submerged by consensus of the team. He may have a good chance on the later time around the cycle. A good team has a social memory. At successive sessions, people may tear up what they did in the previous session and make a fresh start with clearer ideas. This is a sign of advancement. Embark on construction of organization for quality. This step will require participation of knowledgeable statisticians. A group, a team, should have an aim, a job, a goal. A statement thereof must not be specific in detail, else it stifle initiative. By working in this way, everyone will see what he can do and what only top management can do. The focus is on the importance of a system and systems thinking. Dr. Deming defines a system as "a network of interdependent components that work together to try to accomplish the aim of the system." He makes some additional points about a system:  It must have an aim—for without an aim that can be no system.  The system is a "value judgment" that needs to be clear to everyone within the system including plans for the future.


32William Edwards Deming

 The system's component parts need not each be clearly defined and documented.  However, management of a system requires knowledge of these relationships between the elements of the system and of the people who work within it.  A system, of necessity, must be managed as it won't manage itself.  The secret is cross-functional and cross-discipline cooperation between the elements within a system—as opposed to each of them remaining within their own "silos"—all in support of the aim or purpose of the system. Dr. Deming quotes St. Paul as one who—2,000 years ago—understood a system when he wrote in I Corinthians 12: 12 (NIV):  The body is a unit, though it is made up of many parts; and though all its parts are many, they form one body … Now the body is not made up of one part but of many. If the foot should say, "Because I am not a hand, I do not belong to the body," it would not for that reason cease to be part of the body …  The eye cannot say to the hand, "I don't need you!" And the head cannot say to the feet, "I don't need you!" On the contrary, those parts of the body that seem to be weaker are indispensable and the parts that we think are less honorable we treat with special honor. …  But God has combined the members of the body and has given greater honor to the parts that lacked it, so that there should be no division in the body, but that its parts should have equal concern for each other.  If one part suffers, every part suffers with it; if one part is honored, every part rejoices with it. In his (now considered a classic) The Fifth Discipline, Peter Senge offers a similar yet more succinct definition of a system and how a system is "bound by invisible fabrics of interrelated actions …" and how systems thinking, his "fifth discipline" is so critical to organizational and personal success.

33William Edwards Deming

We can't leave a discussion of systems without also commenting on Deming's notion of a System of Profound Knowledge (SoPK). It's composed of four elements:   Appreciation for a System  Theory of Knowledge  Theory of Variation Understanding of Psychology

Space doesn't permit much expansion on the elements but here are some very brief explanations:  Appreciation for a system is one's understanding of the past few paragraphs and how component parts of a system are interdependent on one another.  Variation is based on appreciation of a "stable system" in which variation is limited to "common cause variation" and not indicating any "special cause variation." The latter confirms that a process or system is not stable and needs to be redesigned to restore control of the process. Control charts are used to make this determination.  Knowledge is based on theories that help managers predict the future —and skills to revise hypotheses to more accurately design processes and systems to generate predictable outcomes.  Psychology brings the human element into the data interpretation process. It's critical to temper (not tamper) data with an understanding of the fact that people are part and parcel of systems—and their presence needs to be recognized. More information on SoPK is available in Dr. Deming's books as well as in publications of the American Society for Quality. The "Shewhart Cycle for Learning and Improvement" is more commonly referred to as the PDSA cycle, i.e., Plan, Do, Check, Act. In Six Sigma, it's referred to as DMIAC:  Define the problem and what it is the customer (internal or external) expects. 

Measure the defects (variation) in each process or system.

34William Edwards Deming

 Analyze the data and discover (root) causes of the problem. Improve [emphasis bold] the process to eliminate defects (variation).  Control the process to be certain defects (variation) do not continue.

PDSA is best illustrated in a circular format, as depicted in Figure 1. Conclusion Where do we go from here with this series on continuous performance improvement? In case you're assuming Dr. Deming's 14th and last point concludes this series … wrong!


35William Edwards Deming

The W. Edwards Deming Institute® is a nonprofit organization that was founded in 1993 by noted consultant Dr. W. Edwards Deming. The aim of the Institute is to foster understanding of The Deming System of Profound Knowledge™ to advance commerce, prosperity and peace. Participation in The W. Edwards Deming Institute® means that we share Dr. Deming's vision of a better world. We participate because we strive, with joy, to carry on the work that he began. We seek to conduct ourselves in a manner consistent with his high moral and ethical standards, professional and personal integrity, and commitment to lifelong learning. We do this solely from our dedication to the philosophy and values of Dr. Deming and our belief that together, with humility, we can and will make a difference in the quality of life for everyone.


Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful