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1.-21. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yere uygun 7.

No model is ever perfect, and scientists are ----


düşen kelime yada ifadeyi bulunuz. trying to refine their models.

1. The suggestions put forward by the research team A) uniformly B) formerly C) mentally
were immediately ---- by management and will
shortly go into effect. D) constantly E) equally

A) made out B) taken up C) ruled out

D) put off E) turned back


8. ---- what extent does this article deal ---- the
problem of water pollution?

2. Various treaties and conferences have ---- the A) To / with B) On / to C) With / about

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prohibition of chemical warfare.
D) For / in E) At / by
A) looked down B) put up with C) turned off

D) filled in E) dealt with

9. There is talk ---- sending a bacterium, genetically


engineered to digest atomic waste, ---- space
missions to Mars.
3. Over two million corn farmers in Mexico have been
---- business following the import of heavily A) about / over B) of / on C) for / with
subsidised corn from the US.
D) for / after E) over / from
A) put out of B) brought up to

C) made up for D) played down to

E) shown up to 10. The scientists endeavours ---- to produce power as


efficiently and cheaply as possible, ---- to apply it
economically.
A) even / just as B) so / unless
4. Quartz is one of the most abundant rock-forming C) not only / but also D) as much / as if
minerals and the most ---- to weathering.
E) most / that
A) resistant B) reliable C) convenient

D) reluctant E) indifferent

11. The world chemical industry developed very


rapidly from 1935 ---- particularly in the organic
5. When she referred in her paper to “bio- sector of the industry.
complexity”, many in the audience scratched their
A) onwards B) upwards C) afterwards
heads and ---- what that word meant.
A) expected B) suspected C) wondered D) outwards E) towards

D) improved E) rejected

12. ---- mechanical impact, certain impurities would


make such explosives unstable if they were stored
6. Pollution could one day endanger the world’s ---- in warm conditions.
of oxygen.
A) Involving B) Including C) In case
A) expectation B) supply C) extinction
D) Contrary to E) Even without
D) recovery E) decline

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13. ---- simply transmitting voice, the Joint Tactical 19. The Erie Canal was the first of the US artificial
Radio System (JRTS) as the Pentagon refers to it, waterways built ---- the Great Lakes with the sea.
will also simultaneously carry video and data
transmissions. A) to be connected B) connecting

A) Rather than B) According to C) Due to C) to have connected D) to connect

D) In contrast to E) In spite of E) having connected

14. Communication is perhaps the most important of

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the numerous tasks ---- engineers are responsible 20. If he had realised just how potentially dangerous
in time of war. his discovery was, he would surely have
suppressed it, ----?
A) that B) by which C) what
A) didn’t he B) wouldn’t he C) hadn’t he
D) for which E) for whom
D) wasn’t it E) wouldn’t it

15. What’s left of the world’s forest ---- at such a rate


that the remaining tropical rainforests ---- by the 21. The prohibition ---- exporting animals and plants
middle of the century. prevents workers ---- collecting any thing by any
A) has been logged / is destroyed means.
B) will be logged / would have been destroyed
C) is being logged / will have been destroyed A) over / over B) in / to C) of / by
D) was being logged / is being destroyed
D) from / through E) on / from
E) would be logged / were being destroyed

22.-31. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde


tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.
16. The controversy ---- in 1924 by Edwin P. Hubble
who ---- that the great spiral nebula in Andromeda
contained Cepheid variables.
22. The management wishes to get the solid mounted
A) was being settled / has found
engine and handlebar into production ----.
B) has been settled / finds
A) whether electronic fuel injection had proved
C) had been settled / found
efficient or not
D) was settled / found
B) thought the new braking system was still on trial
E) would be settled / will find
C) since it contributes greatly to ease of handling
D) unless the balance shaft reduced primary
vibration
E) if it were mounted with sufficient rigidity
17. If space weather forecasters ---- timely warnings of
storms, telecommunications companies ---- to take
steps to protect their satellites.
A) could have provided / had been able 23. ----, the Earth’s crust is actually in a state of
continual flux.
B) could have provided / should be able
C) can be provided / should be able
A) If only they had been better prepared
D) can provide / will have been able
B) Whenever there are sudden changes in
E) could provide / would be able temperature
C) However unreliable the method has proved
D) When such an event is least expected
18. Even now at this late date, oceanographers ---- E) Though it may not appear to be so
seafloor mountains they ---- existed.
A) were finding / don’t know
B) have found / haven’t known
C) are finding / didn’t know
D) will find / wouldn’t know
E) will have found / hadn’t known
2

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24. Unmanned planes are presently being developed 29. A chief defect of wire ropes is fatigue ----.
for missions ----.
A) that stress is set up by these vibrations
A) since they would be capable of exceedingly high- B) as if there has been a gradual development of
speed manoeuvres transverse cracks
C) which is induced by the vibrations set up in
B) if they can fly entire missions upside down hoisting or lowering loads
C) so that submarines can be used as aircraft D) even though the elastic limit of wire ropes
carriers declined with use
D) that are regarded as too dangerous for pilots to E) if the maximum load had been exceeded
be sent on
E) though the risk to civilians on the ground would
have been minimized 30. Since the bismar, which is the simplest weighing
instrument known, is not capable of accuracy ----.

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A) spring balances have been more successful
25. ---- that it will cut emissions of greenhouse gasses B) a heavy load could be weighed at a short
by about million tones per year over the next five distance from the fulcrum
years.
C) various technical improvements were soon
A) Scientist are engaged in research introduced
B) The Canadian government has announced
D) weighing continued to be a laborious operation
C) A group of scientist at the conference argued
D) The Council on Environmental Protection is afraid E) its use is illegal in England
E) The government had objected

31. Unless there is adequate foam to completely cover


26. Though Kenya had been self -sufficient until the the burning material ----.
1980s, ----. A) there is little hope of extinguishing the fire
A) the same problem faces small farmers in all parts B) the starvation principle hasn't been effective
of the world
C) an alternative method would be to demolish
B) the situation in developing countries is becoming
nearby buildings and create a fire stop
critical
C) the economic interests of small farmers have D) it is smothering that works by limiting oxygen
been disregarded
E) there is no fear of further combustion
D) wheat prices there are dropping fast
E) it now imports 80 per cent of its food
32-36. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümlenin Đngilizce
dengini bulunuz.

27. ---- if heat energy is being passed on from one


32. Birkaç ay önce Yeni Zelandalı bilim adamları,
molecule to the next.
Antarktika ozon tabakasındaki deliğin, ilk kez,
A) They decided not to use aluminium Güney Şili'nin bir bölümünü kapladığını bildirdiler.
B) Silver and copper were the metals chosen A) New Zealand scientists noticed, only a few
C) The transmission of heat by convection proved months ago, that parts of southern Chile were
equally dangerous once more affected by the hole in the Antarctic
ozone layer.
D) Conduction caused the fire to spread with
alarming speed B) Scientists in New Zealand realised a few months
ago that a hole in the Antarctic ozone layer had,
E) We say heat is transmitted by conduction
for the first time, spread over parts of southern
Chile
C) A few months ago scientists from New Zealand
28. X - rays are generated ----. reported that the hole in the Antarctic ozone layer
had, for the first time, stretched over a part of
A) if the sun is a copious source of energy southern Chile.
B) when electrical charges are accelerated or D) According to scientists in New Zealand, the hole
decelerated in the Antarctic ozone layer had, only a few
C) after the target had been bombarded by electrons months previously, stretched over parts of
southern Chile.
D) until the circuit gave off practically pure direct
E) New Zealand scientists discovered only a few
E) because the radiation was being imitated at a months ago, that the hole in the Antarctic ozone
tangent layer was affecting large parts of southern Chile.

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33. Dünya, Güneş sisteminde diğerlerine oranla küçük 35. Galilei bilime yaklaşımı bakımından, çoğu kez,
bir gezegen olmasına rağmen, çok geniş demir "çağdaş bilimin babası" olarak adlandırılmıştır.
çekirdeği nedeniyle aşırı derecede ağırdır.
A) Galilei is known as the "father of modern science"
A) Although Earth is a comparatively small planet in in spite of his approach to science.
the solar system, it is extremely heavy due to its
large iron core. B) Galilei is often called the "father of modern
science" because of his approach to science.
B) Earth is one of the smaller planets in the solar
system but, as it has a large iron core it is C) The term, "father of modern science" is used for
extremely heavy. Galilei because of his great contributions to
science.
C) Since Earth has a massive iron core, it is one of
the heaviest of the planets in the solar system but D) By his contributions to scientific method, Galilei

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one of the smallest. has earned the title of "father of modern science".

D) It is the large iron core of Earth that accounts for E) The influence of Galilei on science earned him
its weight, for it is comparatively one of the the name of "father of modern science".
smaller planets of the solar system.
E) Even if Earth is a comparatively small planet in
the solar system, It' is extremely heavy on
account of its huge iron core.

36. Hidroelektrik güç çevreyi kirletmez, fakat bu gücün


34. Küresel ısınma hızlandıkça ve enerji üretimi mevcut olan suyla sınırlıdır.
gereksinimlerimiz artmaya devam ettikçe, bizim
daha temiz ve daha sürekli enerji kaynaklarına A) As there is not an adequate supply of water,
sahip olmamız gerekir. hydroelectric power cannot be produced even
though it does not pollute the environment.
A) Cleaner and more reliable sources of energy
must be found or global warming will accelerate, B) Hydroelectric power does not pollute the
and it will be impossible to meet energy demands. environment but it can only be produced when
plenty of water is available.
B) As the process of global warming speeds up and
demands for energy rise, we need to find cleaner C) Hydroelectric power does not pollute the
and more sustainable sources of energy, environment, but the production of this power is
limited by the availability of water.
C) If global warming continues and the demands for
energy increase, we shall be forced to seek D) Even though hydroelectric power does not pollute
cleaner and more sustainable sources of energy. the environment it cannot be produced as there is
not sufficient water available.
D) The demand for cleaner and more reliable
sources of energy will increase if global warming E) As there is only a limited amount of water
continues and energy requirement increase. available, hydroelectric power, which does not
pollute the environment, cannot be produced.
E) As global warming accelerates and our energy
demands continue to rise, we have to have
cleaner and more sustainable source of energy.

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37-41. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümlenin Türkçe 39. The geological investigations of B. Pallisy,
dengini bulunuz. inspired by his work with ceramics, are one of the
best examples or art influencing science.
37. Although the Japanese Government is seeking to A) Sanatın bilim üzerindeki etkisine B. Pallisy'nin
make more efficient, much of Japanese rice- seramik çalışmalarına dayanarak yaptığı jeolojik
farming is still on a small scale. araştırmaları örnek verebiliriz.
A) Japon hükümetinin tarımı çok daha verimli hale B) B. Pallisy'nin kendi seramik çalışmalarının ilham
getirme çabalarına karşın, Japonya'daki pirinç verdiği jeolojik araştırmalar, sanatın bilimi
tarımı giderek küçülmektedir. etkilemesinin en iyi örneklerinden biridir.
B) Japonya'da pirinç tarımı çok küçük ölçekli olsa da C) B.Pallisy'nin seramik çalışmalarından ilham
Japon hükümeti pirinç tarımını verimli hale alınarak yapılan jeolojik araştırmalar, sanatın

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getirmek için büyük çaba sarf etmektedir. bilim üzerindeki etkisine iyi bir örnektir.
C) Japon hükümetinin tarımı verimli bir hale D) Seramikle ilgili çalışmalardan ilham alan B.Pallisy,
getirmesine karşın, Japonya'daki pirinç tarımı çok jeolojik araştırmalarıyla sanatın bilim üzerindeki
küçük ölçekte kalmıştır. etkisine iyi bir örnek vermiştir.
D) Japon hükümetinin tarımı daha verimli hale E) B. Pallisy'nin jeolojik araştırmaları ve seramik
getirmenin yollarını aramasına karşın, çalışmaları arasındaki ilişki, sanatla bilim
Japonya'daki pirinç tarımının çoğu hala küçük arasındaki etkileşimin iyi örneklerinden biridir.
ölçeklidir.
E) Japonya'daki çok küçük ölçekli olan pirinç tarımı,
Japon hükümetleri tarafından verimli hale
getirilmeye çalışıyor.

38. The computer age is producing robot - machines


which are directed by electronic brains and 40. The vast majority of scientists have accepted the
replace human labour in industrial operations. theory of relativity as an accurate description of
A) Bilgisayar çağı, elektronik beyinler tarafından nature.
yönlendirilen robot makinelerin endüstride insan A) Bilim adamlarının büyük çoğunluğu görecelik
gücünün yerine geçmesini sağlamıştır. kuramını, doğanın doğru bir tarifi olarak kabul
B) Bilgisayar çağında elektronik beyinlerin etmektedir.
yönlendirdiği robot makineler, endüstriyel B) Doğanın tam tarifi olan görecelik kuramı, bilim
üretimde insan gücünün yerini almaktadır. adamlarının çoğundan kabul görmektedir.
C) Bilgisayar çağı, elektronik beyinler tarafından C) Bilim adamlarının çoğu, doğanın tarifi olan
yönlendirilen ve endüstriyel işlemlerde insan görecelik kuramının büyük bir bölümünü kabul
gücünün yerini alan robot makineler üretmektedir. etmektedir.
D) Endüstriyel işlemlerde insan gücünün yerini alan D) Bilim adamlarının büyük çoğunluğunun kabul
ve bilgisayar çağının ürünü olan robot makineler, ettiği görecelik kuramı, doğayı çok doğru bir
elektronik beyinler tarafından yönlendirilmektedir. biçimde tarif etmektedir.
E) Elektronik beyinlerin yönettiği robot makineler, E) Görecelik kuramı, doğayı doğru bir biçimde tarif
bilgisayar çağında, endüstriyel işlemlerde insan ettiği için, bilim adamlarının çoğu tarafından kabul
gücünün yerini almıştır. edilmektedir.

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41. Early work in electricity that led to the discovery of 44. Researcher: We were using an instrument that
the electric battery and electric current was done measures the optical clarity of water.
by a physiologist, Luigi Galvanic in the eighteenth Interviewer: ----.
century.
Researcher: It's very simple, really, it shines a
A) Đlk olarak fizyolog Luigi Galvani tarafından light from point A to point B. And if
yapılan çalışmalar, 18. yüzyılda elektrik pilinin ve there is less light at the end, it's
elektrik akımının bulunmasını sağlamıştır. because there are particles in the
B) Elektrik pilinin ve elektrik akımının bulunmasını water.
sağlayan elektrik üzerine ilk çalışmalar, 18. A) And how does it work?
yüzyılda fizyolog Luigi Galvani tarafından
yapılmıştır. B) How long have you been using it?
C) 18. yüzyılda elektrik üzerine ilk çalışmalar C) Yes, I've heard about them. They aren't very
yapmasıyla tanınan fizyolog Luigi Galvani, accurate, are they?
elektrik pilinin ve elektrik akımının bulunmasına

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ortam hazırlamıştır. D) What were you hoping to learn?

D) Elektrik pilinin ve elektrik akımının bulunması, 18. E) How accurate can such an instrument be?
yüzyılda fizyolog Luigi Galvani'nin elektrik
üzerine yaptığı çalışmalar sayesinde
gerçekleşmiştir.
E) 18. yüzyılda elektrik üzerine yapılan ilk
çalışmalar, fizyolog Luigi Galvani'nin elektrik 45. Mark: What is traffic physics?
akımını bulmasıyla sonuçlanmıştır.
Peter: Oh, everyone is talking about it these
days in Germany.
42-46. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş Mark: ----.
bırakılan kısmında söylenmiş olabilecek sözü Peter: Yes it is. For instance one method treats
bulunuz. cars on a highway as molecules in a gas
that want to move in one direction at a
42. Jennifer : I like to buy clothes made from natural certain velocity.
fibres.
Polly: But why? Man-made fibres have certain A) Perhaps they are doing something similar on
advantages you know. Dutch roads.
Jennifer : ----. B) Well, tell me about it.
Polly: The man-made ones are usually harder
C) It sounds rather improbable to me. What do you
wearing and easier to wash and iron.
think of it?
D) Why in Germany? Has it originated there?
A) What about their disadvantages?
B) Such as what? E) But what is it? Is it really scientific?
C) No, I'm not going to change my mind!
D) And what about natural fibres?
E) But the jacket you are wearing is made from a
natural fibre. 46. Brian: The subject of whether there are any
civilisations than that of Earth seems to
be back in favour.
James : Yes. It rather got forgotten after Firmi’s
43. Andrew: Do you happen to know anything about question.
the Nye Committee? Brian: ----.
Colin: Yes, it was appointed in 1934 to
investigate the munitions industry James : He simply asked “if extraterrestrials are
following allegations that armament commonplace, where are they?”
firms were working against the cause
of peace. A) But a lot of people seem pretty sure that there are
Andrew: ----. a lot of earth-like planets.
Colin: The allegations were found to be true,
B) He was a nuclear physicist, wasn’t he?
and therefore, the industry was
nationalized. C) No one has so far managed to detect radio
transmissions from other planets.
A) What were the results of their investigations?
D) What was that? I’ve forgotten all about it.
B) What a world we live in!
E) Yes, except by the writers of science fiction.
C) How is it you know all this?
D) I wonder just how much money these people
make out of armaments.
E) How long did these investigations take them?

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47—51. sorularda, verilen cümleler sırası ile 50. (I) Leaves are the main photosynthetic organs of
okunduğunda hangi cümlenin anlam bakımından most plants. (II) Because leaves have such a large
parçaya uymadığını bulunuz surface area, water loss by evaporation is inevitable.
(III) Their structure is superbly adapted for its primary
function of photosynthesis. (IV) Most leaves are thin
and flat to allow them maximum absorption of light
47. (I) Deserts are dry areas found in both temperate and
energy. (V) Further, their ordered arrangement on the
tropical region. (II) The low water content of the desert
stem makes them efficient at catching the sun's rays.
atmosphere leads to daily temperature extremes of
heat and cold. (III) Not surprisingly, the flowers of A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
many desert plants are extremely beautiful. (IV)
Deserts vary greatly depending on the amount of
precipitation they receive. (V) Some are so dry that
virtually no plant life occurs on them.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

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48. (I) Far from being a sinister pest, bats are actually
a good friend to humankind. (II) For a start, they eat 51. (I) The terms velocity and speed are often used
huge quantities of insects. (III) They are sometimes interchangeably in ordinary language. (II) But in
described “mice with wings,” but this is totally untrue. physics we make a distinction between the two. (III)
(IV) The little brown bat, for instance, is capable of An aircraft travelling faster than the speed of sound
catching and eating 1200 small insects in an hour. (V) breaks the sound barrier. (IV) Most importantly the
They also play an important role in pollinating flowers. term velocity is used to signify both the magnitude of
movement and the direction in which an object
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V moving. (V) Speed, on the other hand, relates to
magnitude only.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

49. (I) So far, no one has managed to complete a solo


crossing of the Arctic. (II) This is primarily
because of the extremely harsh natural conditions. (III)
To start with, there are the bitterly cold temperatures to
be endured. (IV) The attempt has been made several
times, but has never met with success. (V) But that is
not all; the explorer has also to battle against the strong
tidal pull on the ice.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

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52-56. sorularda, parçada boş bırakılan yere uygun 54. The power loom was invented by Dr Edmund
düşen cümleyi bulunuz. Cartwright in the early 19 century. However, many
improvements were necessary before it came into
52. Scientists are only just beginning to explore the common use. Gradually its range was extended to
seabed. Remote-controlled submarines are include all fibres and types of cloth. ----. At the
bringing up sediment from an apparently lifeless same time, speed and precision were increased.
sea floor. ----. Indeed, so many new species are
being identified that the deep seabed may turn out A) Recently, the craft of hand-loom weaving has
to support a greater bio-diversity than the gained in popularity
rainforests.
B) The running speeds of looms vary according to
A) There are trenches in the seabed that are 11 km various factors, including width and type of cloth
deep C) In fact, by about 1850, it had superseded the
B) But under the microscope this sediment teems hand loom almost entirely

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with life D) The warp threads are kept taut by iron weights
C) By means of echo-sounding much can be learned E) Since about 1900, automatic looms have been
about the surface of the seabed progressively introduced
D) Sedimentation is a slow process of creating land
masses
E) There, ocean-floor magma vents support an
ecology independent of sunlight 55. Some years ago, measurement on ice cores
showed that the concentration of carbon dioxide
in the atmosphere was lower during ice ages than
it is today. ----. Some researchers have sought an
explanation by suggesting that the whole-ocean
reservoir of algal nutrients was larger during
glacial times than it is now. Others by proposing
that the biological pump was more efficient then.

53. The science of how fire spreads is simple enough. A) So far no one has ever tired to solve this puzzle
----. This means that in a typical house fire, the
flames and fumes move upwards until they meet B) As yet there is no broadly accepted explanation
an obstruction, such as a ceiling, where they for this difference
mushroom out laterally until they reach a wall.
C) The reason for this was soon obvious

A) The opening of a door or window requires great D) There have been large cyclic variations in climate
caution as it may cause a violent outbreak of and glaciation during the past two million years
flames
E) The experiment focuses on the open ocean
B) Today fire - fighters begin their basic training with surrounding Antarctica
physics
C) One of the most skilled techniques employed by
fire-fighters is ventilation
D) Ventilation helps to reduce the risk of explosions 56. Concrete is strong in compression but it is
resulting from the build-up of hot gases relatively weak in tension. That means it is strong
when pushed together, but continuous flat slab
E) Once air is heated, it becomes lighter, rises and will not stretch well and might crumble. ----. Steel
seeks to escape through any openings that may is generally used for this purpose as it improves
be available the elasticity of concrete.

A) To overcome this weakness and control cracking,


concrete has to he reinforced
B) The base materials of concrete are sand, cement
and aggregate
C) Different percentages of the base ingredients are
used depending on the strength required
D) Signs of corrosion and cracking sometimes
appear soon after constructing
E) Nevertheless, concrete is not as popular a
building material as previously

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57-59. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 58. We understand from the passage that one reason
cevaplayınız. why some can be particularly troublesome is ----.
A) because they produce large quantities of seeds
Weeds are plants out of place, either as the wrong several times a year
plant in cultivated ground, or as any plant where none
should be. They can cause considerable financial loss B) that they develop a resistance to chemical
through the cost of their control and the damage they do weedkillers
to crops. Plants which become really troublesome as
C) because new plants can grow out of the damaged
weeds are those which persist despite man's efforts
parts of a plant
to control them. Such persistency is due to several
factors of which perhaps the most important are D) that they can become dormant when weedkillers
prolific seed production, coupled with die often are applied
remarkably long periods of dormancy of the seed, and
the ability of vegetative parts of some plants to survive E) because it is impossible to kill them

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mechanical damage and adverse conditions and to set
up new plants. Weeds may be controlled by hand, by
cultivation and other mechanical means, by biological
means and by chemical weedkillers. Chemical
weedkillers are widely used, either to give a total kill
and suppress all vegetation or to control weeds
selectively in crops.

57. The writer points out that weeds lead to 59. It is clear from the passage that some chemical
considerable financial loss ----. weedkillers have been specially designed ----.
A) because they appear where they are not wanted A) to rid the soil of all unwanted seed
B) because very little effort is made to control them B) to prevent weeds from producing seeds
C) as all weedkillers destroy the crops as well as the C) to destroy a weed's capacity to produce seeds
weeds that can lie dormant over long periods of time
D) as they are all aggressive and able to resist D) to destroy only unwanted vegetation
man's efforts to control them
E) to sterilise the earth and prevent all forms of
E) as the control of them is expensive and if they are vegetation from appearing
left uncontrolled they harm crops

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60-62. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 61. We learn from the passage that the danger of
cevaplayınız. ignition by friction or impact is greatly increased
----.
A typical explosives factory is divided into two parts: A) while the waste products of nitration are being
the "non-danger" and "danger" areas. The main extracted
business of the non-danger area lies in the
manufacture of nitric and sulphuric acids for the B) if the explosives is contaminated with nitric acid
nitration processes, including the recovery of these
C) after the explosives have been packaged
acids from the waste products of nitration. Other raw
materials are also prepared in the non-danger area. D) if the manufacturing process is carried out in
The actual manufacture of explosives and their mixing artificial light
and packing are carried out in the danger area, subject
to rigorous safety measures. The main danger in E) if grit is present
manufacture is ignition by spark, friction or impact, the
latter two being especially hazardous if the explosive

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is allowed to become contaminated with gritty material.
Naked lights, steel tools or anything which might
produce spark or flame are therefore excluded from
the danger buildings. Each building has a "clean" floor
which may be approached only in specially cleaned
shoes, while the workers are provided with factory
clothing to ensure that grit is not carried into the
buildings.

60. We learn from the passage that, in the non-danger


zone of a typical explosives factory ----. 62. It is pointed out in the passage that one of the
safety measures taken in an explosives factory is
A) nitric and sulphuric acids are produced and
----.
various other raw materials are got ready
A) the regular washing of the factory floors to keep
B) the workers are provided with heavy factory
them sterile
clothing
B) the education of the workers in fire - fighting
C) the explosives are packaged and stored
procedures
D) nothing that might produce a spark or a flame is
C) the provision of special factory clothing for the
permitted
workers in the danger area
E) the main waste products are the nitric and
D) to keep the manufacturing processes separate
sulphuric adds
from the packaging and storing processes
E) the immediate removal of the explosives after
packaging

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63-65. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 64. The author points out that the machine tools
cevaplayınız. Joseph Whitworth produced ----.
A) were soon replaced by new and better designs
The culmination of the classic age of the machine tool
was the work of Joseph Whitworth. His pre-eminence B) were all unnecessarily complicated
lay not so much in any far-reaching innovations as in
C) were remarkable for their quality and precision
the quality and accuracy of the workmanship he was
able to obtain. It was Whitworth who introduced the D) went unappreciated
standard screw thread which was used in British
engineering until 1948, and it was he who E) have received more attention than they deserve
revolutionised standards of measurement. Indeed, the
many measuring machines of the second half of the
19th century, though increasing the facility, did not
greatly increase the accuracy Whitworth had attained.

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At the Great Exhibition of 1851 his planing, slotting,
shaking, drilling, punching and shearing machines
made him the outstanding machine-tool maker of the
age.

63. We understand from the passage that Joseph


Whitworth ----. 65. We understand from the passage that, in the field
of measurement, ----.
A) will be remembered for the improvements he
made to the first standard screw thread A) British engineers were slow to appreciate
accuracy
B) was the most versatile and gifted machine - tool
maker of his age B) Whitworth’s work was soon to be surpassed by
far better quality tools
C) had only a few machine tools ready in time for the
Great Exhibition of 1851 C) No new advances would be made until the middle
of the 20th century
D) had brilliant ideas but was not a practical person
D) Whitworth achieved a remarkable degree of
E) invented nothing of lasting importance
accuracy
E) Whitworth's innovations attracted little attention

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66-68. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 67. We can understand from the passage that, around
cevaplayınız. the beginning of the 20th century, bridge
designers ----.
Just as railway bridges were the great structural A) were equally involved in the buildings of roads
symbols of the 19th century, highway bridges became
the engineering emblems of the 20 century. The B) followed Robert Maillart's lead and concentrated
invention of the automobile created an irresistible on highway bridges
demand for paved roads and vehicular bridges
C) made highway bridges on the same design as
throughout the developed world. The type of bridge
railway bridges
needed for cars and trucks, however, is fundamentally
different from that needed for locomotives. Most D) made some of the most spectacular bridges of
highway bridges carry lighter loads than railway the modern era
bridges do, and their roadways can be sharply curved or
steeply sloping. To meet these needs, many turn-of- E) began to use a new building material, known as
reinforced concrete

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the-century bridge designers began working with a
new building material: reinforced concrete, which has
steel bars embedded in it. And the master of this new
material was Swiss structural engineer Robert Maillart,
who designed some of the most original and influential
bridges of the modern era.

66. According to the passage, one important way in 68. We understand from the passage that there was a
which highway bridges differ from railway bridges great demand for highway bridges in the 20th
is that they ----. century ----.
A) are in constant use A) as more and more cars came into use
B) can have quite a sharp incline B) so many railway bridges were turned into
C) have to carry heavier loads highway bridges

D) must be quite straight C) even though the designing and building of them
was uninteresting work
E) are comparatively short
D) but railway bridges continued to attract the best
designers
E) and structural engineers found they could not
produce enough bridges

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69-71. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 70. We learn from the passage that during an
cevaplayınız. avalanche ----.
A) pieces of rock are likely to be carried down with
Strictly speaking the term "avalanche" should be the falling snow
restricted to falls of snow and ice in mountainous
regions but popular usage has extended its meaning B) the filling snow and ice soon start to melt
to cover rock fails and landslips in all environments.
C) there is absolute silence
The period of greatest danger from avalanches proper
is during a thaw, when melt-water makes a good D) the falling snow is immediately followed by
lubricant for the snow and ice banked steeply against extensive rock falls
rock faces. The rising cloud of white dust, the vertical
grooves and patches of bare rock formed by the E) falling snow banks up steeply against the nearest
scouring action, and the dull roar of the avalanche are rock face
all common features of mountains above the
permanent snow line. Rock fragments may also be

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carried down, for the recurrent freezing and thawing of
water lodged in joints and crevices of the rock forms a
powerful agent of disintegration. The action is the
same as that which leads to burst pipes. Freezing
causes expansion of the water in the spaces of a joint
and produces a pressure sufficient to break the rock.

69. The writer points out that most true avalanches ----.
71. The writer points out that the constant freezing
A) consist of falling rock not of snow or ice and thawing of water in rock crevices ----.

B) occur when the snow has started to melt A) is what causes an avalanche

C) occur when the snow has melted a little and then B) is an unimportant detail
frozen hard again
C) produces a smooth rock surface
D) cause considerable disintegration of the rock
D) causes a build-up of snow
surfaces they come in contact with
E) will cause the rock to break up
E) rarely leave behind them a bare rock surface

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72-74. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 73. We understand from the passage that the high
cevaplayınız. landing speed of a large aircraft ----.
A) has been one of the determining factors in the
Aircraft landing-wheel brakes are fitted to all sizes of design of brakes of large craft
aircraft for arresting motion after touch-down, for
steering during taxiing by differential control of port B) is directly related to its weight
and starboard brakes, and to hold the aircraft
C) only becomes a problem on poor runways
stationary while the engine is warmed-up or tested.
Small aircraft have simple two-shoe internal D) has occasionally led to wheel-locking
expanding brakes manually operated and very similar
to the standard road-vehicle brake, but the larger E) opened the way to a more scientific study of
machines require power-operated brakes using friction
compressed air or hydraulic pressure from
compressors or pumps driven by the engine. Besides

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being as light and compact as possible, landing-wheel
brakes must remain effective and balanced during
very high rates of energy dissipation due to the great
weight of the aircraft and the very high landing
speeds.

72. It is clear from the passage that one of the 74. According to the passage, the braking system of
functions of an aircraft's landing-wheel brakes is small aircraft ----.
to ----.
A) differs little from that of larger aircraft
A) act as a substitute steering aid
B) is not very different from that of ordinary cars and
B) prevent the craft from moving during engine buses
warm-up
C) is both power - operated and manual
C) keep the aircraft steady after touch - down
D) is specially designed for coping with high - speed
D) assist in the dissipation of energy on landing landings
E) prevent the aircraft landing at very high speeds E) cannot be used to steer the craft after landing

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Meşrutiyet Caddesi No: 27 Kat: 6 Kızılay ANKARA - (312) 417 07 20 - (312) 417 07 22
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75-77. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 76. The author points out that on mountainous lines
cevaplayınız. the track capacity is improved by electrification
----.
The main advantages of electric traction on railways A) but the safety aspect is causing much concern
are that it is both pleasant and efficient. It brings the
removal of a smoke nuisance from tunnels and from B) but upkeep expenses are high
the vicinity of larger cities. Further, owing to high
C) because it enables trains to go faster both up and
acceleration, it is possible to provide a more frequent
down the line
and faster service on densely populated suburban
lines. The track capacity is improved by electrification D) though this is not the case in other locations
on mountainous lines because of increase of speed,
both up and down the gradient, generally using E) unless electric forms of braking are applied
electric forms of braking in the latter case. Some of the
major electrification schemes of the world, for

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instance, those in Switzerland and Sweden, have
been largely dictated by the desire to operate the
railway system without dependence upon imported
fuel.

75. As is pointed out in the passage, the benefits of


electric railway traction ----. 77. Sweden and Switzerland, we are told, have some
A) include a cleaner environment and an improved of the world’s major electrified railway systems ----.
performance A) since they have small populations and the
B) can best be seen in Sweden an Switzerland electrified systems seemed adequate

C) do not outweigh the problems involved B) as they were determined to keep their mountain
air unpolluted
D) have only recently become apparent
C) as other railway systems were not practical in
E) are confined to mountainous conditions high altitudes
D) because they wanted to develop a railway system
that did not rely on imported fuel
E) because the only safe braking system on a steep
gradient is electric one

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Meşrutiyet Caddesi No: 27 Kat: 6 Kızılay ANKARA - (312) 417 07 20 - (312) 417 07 22
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78-80. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 79. The author points out that there is a close link
cevaplayınız. between exploration and botanical gardens ----.
A) as few native British plants are of use medicinally
Botanic gardens may be regarded as having a and many people now prefer natural medicines to
threefold function: to please and educate the public; to chemical ones
carry out investigations regarding the economic value
of native and foreign plant products and B) as many people are curious about the medicinal
acclimatisation of plants; and to act as centres of properties of various plants
information and scientific investigation in various fields
C) because the desire to find new drugs and spices
of botany, such as anatomy, morphology and
has long been a reason behind many exploratory
physiology, for which museums, libraries and
expeditions
laboratories are also needed. The search for drugs
and spices particularly has tempted men from early D) since plants from foreign parts will only grow in
times to explore all parts of the world and this has the special conditions they are used to

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promoted a close link between exploration and botanic
gardens. One well-known botanic garden is the Royal E) though this is still a very new development
Botanic Garden at Edinburgh which was founded in
1670 by Robert Sibbald for the cultivation of medical
plants. Since that date it has been removed to several
different sites. It is now one of the major botanic
gardens in Britain with an area of over 60 acres.

80. In this passage about botanical gardens, ----.


78. We learn from the passage that one of the main
functions of botanic garden is to ----. A) they are presented as a very pleasant luxury
A) send out explorers in search of new spices B) the historical aspect is completely ignored
B) provide scientists with the means for carrying out C) the problems of financing them are carefully
investigations into botanical subjects considered
C) make more and more land suitable for cultivation D) it is the functional aspect that is emphasised
D) encourage the production of natural medicines to E) the focus is on the rarer plants of foreign origin
replace chemical ones which sometimes have
serious side-effects
E) be economically self supporting and encourage
young people to take an interest in gardens

TEST BĐTTĐ
CEVAPLARINIZI KONTROL EDĐNĐZ

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CEVAP ANAHTARI

ÜDS FEN - (MART) 2001

1. B 2. E 3. A 4. A 5. C 6. B 7. D 8. A 9. B 10. C

11. A 12. E 13. A 14. D 15. C 16. D 17. E 18. C 19. D 20. B

21. E 22. C 23. E 24. D 25. B 26. E 27. E 28. B 29. C 30. E

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31. A 32. C 33. A 34. E 35. B 36. C 37. D 38. C 39. B 40. A

41. B 42. B 43. A 44. A 45. E 46. D 47. C 48. C 49. D 50. B

51. C 52. B 53. E 54. C 55. B 56. A 57. E 58. A 59. D 60. E

61. E 62. C 63. A 64. C 65. D 66. B 67. E 68. A 69. B 70. A

71. E 72. B 73. A 74. B 75. A 76. C 77. D 78. B 79. C 80. D

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Meşrutiyet Caddesi No: 27 Kat: 6 Kızılay ANKARA - (312) 417 07 20 - (312) 417 07 22
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1.-21. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yere uygun 7. Radioactivity was discovered in 1896 by Becquerel,
düşen kelime yada ifadeyi bulunuz. who noticed that salts containing uranium
radiations.
1. Acetic acid is used as a food and flavouring
material, and also in the manufacture of white lead. A) got off B) held up C) sent off

A) preservative B) decay C) absorption D) came up with E) turned away

D) solution E) process

8. many diverse animal forms exist exceptions


can be found to almost any definition of an animal.

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2. Atoms are of electrons and a nucleus containing
protons and neutrons. A) So / as B) As / as C) Whether / so

A) joined B) linked C) composed D) So / that E) Neither / nor

D) kept E) completed

9. Products diverse rubber, tobacco, coffee,


chocolate and aromatic oils for perfumes come from
3. Visibility depends upon the concentration of flowering plants.
water or dust particles in the air.
A) as /as B) too / than C) both / and
A) rapidly B) obstinately C) instantly
D) either / or E) not only / but also
D) suitably E) chiefly

10. Heat is transferred from object by


4. This magazine is designed to help satellite conduction, convection and radiation.
equipment buyers make more purchasing
decisions and keep ahead of new developments. A) either / to other B) each / from the rest

A) representative B) obscure C) foreseen C) any / with another D) some / through others

D) informed E) indifferent E) one / to another

5. Science requires the testing of its ideas or theories 11. Pile foundations are costly and normally economic
to see if its predictions are by experiment. only commercial structures on valuable sites.
A) made up B) borne out C) closed in A) in the manner of B) in the case of

D) put off E) sorted out C) in place of D) in fulfilment of

E) in accordance with

6. The subject of the statistics is the calculation of


the forces acting on and within structures that are in
equilibrium. 12. The South African government has committed a
A) taken care of B) turned up C) kept off further sum of money to the Southern African Large
Telescope (SLT), enables the construction of this
giant telescope to commence next year.
D) given rise to E) concerned with
A) which B) thus C) by which

D) whose E) for whom

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13. The writers of this article seem to assume that 18. The advent of nuclear power the trend to use
nuclear plants conform with safety requirements water-power on a large scale, and hydroelectric
the fact that violations are constantly being reported. installations in all industrial countries with power
potential.
A) in case B) although C) against
A) has not halted / are being built
D) concerning E) despite
B) did not halt / are built
C) would not halt / will be built
D) will not halt / were being built
14. Some scientists us that the thermal blanket E) had not halted / would be built
around the globe the average temperature of the

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earth to rise.
A) were warning / has caused
B) have been warning / was causing 19. Researchers disagree whether a large ocean
ever existed on Mars, but one thing is certain:
C) have warned / may cause Martian geology is turning to be strange and
complex.
D) had warned / caused
A) of / round B) in / over C) for / up
E) warn / will have caused
D) on / out E) about / in

15. A theory only when a hypothesis by


consistent results from many observations or 20. Species become endangered and even extinct a
experiment. variety of reasons, many of which are related
human activities.
A) may have been developed / was being supported
A) within / of B) for / to C) with / for
B) can be developed / has been supported
D) in / with E) over / through
C) will be developed / was supported
D) has been developed / had been supported
E) had been developed / might have been supported
21. The advance of the steel industry has been marked
a progressive increase in the size and
complexity of the plant used and a fall labour
costs.
16. If transport costs into consideration at the
outset, the plant far from its present site! A) off / through B) with / from C) up / with

A) will have taken / are being built D) by / in E) in / of

B) were taken / had been built


C) have been taken / have been built
D) were being taken / will be built
E) had been taken / would have been built

17. The first laser in 1960 by Maiman almost half a


century after the publication in 1916 of Einstein’s
theory of radiation which the possibility of laser
operation.
A) has been demonstrated / had shown
B) had been demonstrated / showed
C) was demonstrated / showed
D) demonstrates / was shown
E) was being demonstrated / shows

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22.-31. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde 26. Helium, the lightest of the inert gases, was
tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz. discovered in 1868 .
A) until its importance was recognised in scientific
22. In many industrial processes, human operators can
research at low temperature
be replaced by control systems .
B) as liquid helium has many remarkable qualities
A) which can be used, for instance, to monitor and
which are only imperfectly understood
control pressure, temperature and motor speed
C) when spectrographic investigations disclosed an
B) that the error sensor is a basic component
unknown yellow line in the chromospheres of the
C) that they have the ability to control physical sun
variables
D) before studies into atomic structure would be
D) by whom the difference between the actual and realised

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desired value can be reduced to zero
E) tough two of its stable isotopes exist as liquids right
E) which had been capable of fulfilling a number of down to the absolute zero
functions

27. As soon as slender steel column began to replace


23. The old system of flood irrigation has fallen into massive piers in building construction .
disrepute _.
A) inflammable materials would not be used again in
A) unless short canals could have enabled the high-rise buildings
compartments to be filled in an orderly fashion
B) a new school of architecture could never have
B) though the flood waters has been controlled to cover developed without the challenge of these and other
so much land new building materials
C) as the height of the flood was variable so was the C) this new group of promising architects had as yet
area flooded attracted very little attention
D) after several weeks the water would be drained back D) new conceptions of both the practical and aesthetic
into the river use of space came into being
E) because it only produces one crop a year E) their ideas indicated a rejection of machine
production

24. Insect-eating plants have devices .


28. , where the gas is ionize and, in consequence,
A) from which stickiness an insect can never make its electrically conducting.
escape
A) In 1924, direct measurements of the height and
B) so that they are able to live in most parts of the density of the ionosphere were first made in Britain
world but chiefly in warm regions
B) The ionization is almost entirely produced by ultra-
C) if their prey is to be enticed into a trap violet light and X-radiation
D) which enable them to catch insects and digest them C) The ionization density had already increased to
with the aid of enzymes maximum at a height of around 150 miles
E) of which the pitcher plant that produces pepsin is an D) In 1880, the existence of a conducting layer in the
example high atmosphere had not been postulated
E) The ionosphere is the upper region of the earth’s
atmosphere

25. For a small planet, the Earth is extremely heavy .


A) whether the liquid iron creates a powerful magnetic
field
B) that two-thirds of it are covered with ocean
C) since its iron core is very large
D) that the atmosphere screens the sun’s radiation
E) if the atmosphere were not rich with oxygen

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29. , we cannot infer from this that extraterrestrial 32.-36. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümlenin Türkçe
civilisations do not exist. dengini bulunuz.
A) Though researches have made no positive
detections of extraterrestrial signals
32. Asteroids are relatively small objects, which move in
B) Until radio transmissions from other civilisations orbits mainly between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
were picked up
A) Asteroitler, yörüngeleri genellikle Mars ve Jüpiter’in
C) Since a number of sophisticated searches are yörüngeleri arasına sığacak kadar küçük olan
presently underway at the Radio Astronomy nesnelerdir.
Observatory
B) Asteroitler, genellikle Mars ve Jüpiter’in yörüngeleri
D) Whenever the possibility of extraterrestrial arasında yer alan yörüngelerde hareket eden
civilisations comes to the fore nispeten küçük nesnelerdir.

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E) After they began to search for extraterrestrial C) Oldukça küçük nesneler olan asteroitler, çoğunlukla
civilisations by means of radio astronomy Mars ve Jüpiter arasındaki yörüngelerde hareket
ederler.
D) Nispeten küçük nesneler olan asteroitlerin çoğunun
yörüngesi Mars ve Jüpiter’in yörüngeleri arasındadır.
30. Until science develops ways of predicting natural
disasters earlier and more accurately, . E) Sürekli olarak Mars ve Jüpiter’in yörüngeleri
arasındaki boşlukta hareket eden asteroitler, aslında
A) prevention, unfortunately, usually eludes us son derece küçük nesnelerdir.
B) flooding regularly takes a heavy toll of human life
C) modern technology cannot shield us from the
destructive force of a hurricane
D) they will continue to cause untold suffering 33. One of the important consequences of the theory of
throughout the world relativity is that time is no longer regarded as an
absolute quantity.
E) the lethal release of natural carbon dioxide is
entirely preventable A) Görecelik kuramı, zamanın artık mutlak bir nicelik
olarak kabul edilmemesi gerektiğini kesin olarak
göstermektedir.
B) Görecelik kuramının en önemli iddiası, zamanın
31. when heat resistant materials are required. tartışmasız bir nicelik olma özelliğini kaybetmesidir.

A) Engineers often use ceramics C) Görecelik kuramının önemli sonuçlarından biri,


zamanın artık mutlak bir nicelik olarak
B) There are two main types of metal; ferrous and non- görülmemesidir.
ferrous
D) Zamanın artık mutlak niceliklerden biri olarak kabul
C) With the addition of chromium, the steel’s ability to edilmemesi görecelik kuramıyla ortaya çıkan önemli
resist corrosion was increased gelişmeler arasındadır.
D) Both bronze and brass have been used E) Görecelik kuramının önemli sonuçları, zamanın
ornamentally tartışmasız bir nicelik sayılmamasını
E) Cutting tools are made from high-speed steels gerektirmektedir.

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34. Acid rain can mark fruit and leaves, and adversely 36. Many plants, particularly those in arid regions,
affect soil, but its main effect is on the ecosystems possess storage roots adapted to store water.
especially in regions with thin soils and granite
rocks. A) Birçok bitki özellikle de kurak bölgelerdekiler, su
depolamaya uyum sağlamış depo köklere sahiptir.
A) Asit yağmuru meyve ve yapraklarda leke yapabilir
ve toprağa çok zarar verebilir, ancak asıl etkisi, ince B) Özellikle kurak bölgelerde bulunan pek çok bitkinin,
toprak ve granit kayalardan oluşan bölgelerin su depolamaya uygun kökleri vardır.
ekosistemleri üzerinde gözlemlenebilir. C) Su depolamaya uygun köklere sahip olan bitkilerin
B) Meyve ve yapraklarda leke yapan asit yağmuru, asıl çoğu kurak bölgelerde bulunur.
etkisini toprakta, özellikle de ince toprak ve granit D) Kurak bölgelerdeki bitkilerin çoğu, su depolamaya
kaya tabakalar ile kaplı bölgelerin ekosistemleri uyum sağlamış yapılara, özellikle de depo köklere
üzerinde gösterir. sahiptir.

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C) Toprakta önemli tahribat yapan ve meyvelerle E) Birçok bitkinin, özellikle de kurak bölgedekilerin
yapraklar üzerinde leke bırakan asit yağmuru, kökleri, aynı zamanda birer su deposu görevi
özellikle, ince toprak ve granit kayalarla kaplı görebilir.
bölgelerin ekosistemlerini etkiler.
D) Asıl etkisini ince topraklı ve granit kayalı bölgelerin
ekosistemleri üzerinde gösteren asit yağmuru,
meyve ve yapraklarda leke yapmakla kalmaz,
toprakta da büyük tahribata yol açar.
E) Asit yağmuru meyve ve yapraklarda leke yapabilir 37. - 41. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümlenin anlamına
ve toprağı olumsuz olarak etkileyebilir, ancak asıl en yakın Đngilizce cümleyi bulunuz.
etkisi, özellikle ince topraklı ve granit kayalı
bölgelerdeki ekosistemler üzerindedir.
37. Birinci Dünya Savaşının sonlarına doğru,
bombardıman uçakları daha ihtisaslaşmış duruma
gelmekteydi ve hafif ve ağır olmak üzere iki alt sınıfa
ayrılmıştı.
A) The subclasses, heavy and light, were only
introduced for bombing aircraft towards the end of
World War I when they had become more
35. The diagnostic use of ultrasound in medicine is a
specialized.
complicated and very interesting application of
physical principles. B) As World War I was drawing to a close, bombing
aircraft had become so specialized that they had to
A) Fizik ilkelerinin oldukça karmaşık ve çok ilginç bir
be divided into two new subclasses, heavy and light.
uygulaması olan ültrason, tıpta tanı amacıyla
kullanılmaktadır. C) Bombing aircraft had become so much more
specialized by the end of World War I that two new
B) Ültrasonun tıpta tanı için kullanımı, fizik ilkelerinin
subclasses were recognized, light and heavy.
karmaşık ve çok ilginç bir uygulamasıdır.
D) Towards the end of World War I, bombing aircraft
C) Tıpta tanı amacıyla kullanılan ültrason, karmaşık
were becoming more specialized and were divided
fizik ilkelerinin oldukça ilginç bir uygulamasıdır.
into two subclasses, light and heavy.
D) Karmaşık fizik ilkelerinin tıptaki ilginç
E) As bombing aircraft were becoming more
uygulamalarından biri de tanı için kullanılan
specialized towards the end of World War I, they
ültrasondur.
had to be divided into two subclasses, heavy and
E) Oldukça karmaşık ve son derece ilginç fizik ilkelerini light.
uygulayan ültrason, tıpta teşhis aracı olarak
kullanılır.

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38. Kuş davranışının en büyüleyici yanlarından biri, pek 41. Çöl toprağı, bitki örtüsünün seyrek oluşunun bir
çok türün yaptığı yıllık göçtür. sonucu olarak organik madde bakımından fakirdir;
fakat buna kaşın, çoğu kez mineral bakımından
A) Bird behaviour is quite fascinating, especially the zengindir.
annual migration of many of the species.
A) The lack of humus in desert soil, which is the result
B) One of the most fascinating aspects of bird of the meagre vegetation, is offset by the rich
behaviour is the annual migration made by many mineral deposits.
species.
B) Desert soil is poor in organic material because there
C) The annual migration of many species of birds is just is little vegetation, but there is usually an abundance
ore of the fascinating aspects of their behaviour. of minerals.
D) Many species of birds have fascinating behaviour C) Owing to the lack of vegetation, desert soil has
patterns, particularly as regards annual migration. virtually no humus, but it does have vast mineral
deposits.

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E) In relation to their annual migration, the behaviour
patterns of many bird species are quite fascinating. D) As a result of sparse vegetation, desert soil is poor
in organic material but, nevertheless, it is often rich
in minerals.
E) Though desert soil has rich mineral deposits, the
meagre vegetation means it is completely
39. Sünger çok hücreli olmasına karşın, hücreleri lacking in organic material.
birbirine gevşek bir şekilde bağlıdır ve belirgin doku
oluşturmaz.
A) The cells of the multicellular sponge are so loosely
connected that they do not form definite tissues.
B) The sponge is obviously multicellular, but the cells
42.-46. sorularda karşılıklı konuşmanın boş bırakılan
are clearly too loosely connected to form tissues.
kısmında söylenmiş olabilecek sözü bulunuz.
C) Although the sponge is multicellular, its cells are
loosely connected and do not form specific tissues.
D) Because the cells of the multicellular sponge are 42. Mark:
loosely connected, they do not form specific tissues. - The new developments in advertising techniques
E) The tissues of the multicellular sponge definitely are really very interesting.
evolve from the loosely connected cells. Peter:
- ----
Mark:
- Well, here's one of the big petrol companies
40. Hava taşımacılığı, temelde ulusal itibar, ticaret ve flaunting its commitment to environmental
savunma nedenleriyle, ilk günlerinden beri considerations.
hükümetler için yakın ilgi konusu olmuştur.
Peter:
A) Since its earliest days, air transport has been a
matter of close concern to governments, primarily - Yes, that certainly is a new approach.
for reasons of national prestige trade and defence.
A) Give me an example.
B) Right from the beginning, governments have
recognized the importance of air transport largely for B) I make a point of never believing an
reasons of national prestige, trade and defence. advertisement.
C) Even at the start, air transport has been closely C) The techniques may have changed, but have the
supported by governments as it affects a country's aims?
prestige, trade and defence.
D) The aim of every advertisement is to deceive!
D) Governments were immediately aware of the
importance of air transport largely on account of its E) Perhaps. But how much are they costing us?
affect on a country's prestige trade and security.
E) It is primarily because air transport can affect a
country's prestige, trade and security that
governments everywhere have started to treat it
seriously.

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43. Chris: 45. Peter:
- You know I'd love to spend a holiday in - I can't understand why aluminium is so important
the Arctic. in industry. It's so light.
Robert:
Brian:
- But that's one of its great advantages.
- ---
Peter:

Chris: - ---

- No, certainly not I'd go in the summer season. And Robert:


I'm sure there would be lots to see. - It's resistant to corrosion by, among other things,

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Brian: chemicals and foodstuffs.

- True. But I prefer to see it all on the TV. A) What are some of its uses?

A) Actually. I would, too. If only to see the flora. B) But why is it an advantage?

B) Whatever for? Just to be doing something C) But is it strong enough?


different? D) Really? What's another?
C) So would I. We see the polar bears and the seals E) Costwise, is it economical?
on TV, but it would be marvellous to see them in
reality.
D) Well, yes if it weren't for the cold!
E) I couldn't afford it, And I'll be surprised if you can

44. James: 46. Mrs Fenton:


- What do you know about the uses of hydrogen - The sewing machine needs oiling. Will any oil do?
peroxide?
Mr Fenton:
Gary:
- No. Any oil will not do.
- It’s a bleach, isn't it? And rather a harsh one at
Mrs Fenton:
that.
- ---
James:
Mr Fenton:
- ---
- You are quite wrong. The selection of the correct
Gary:
lubricant is extremely important and depends on
- Oh! I certainly didn't know all that! many factors.

A) That's right. It is incompatible with most common A) I used the baby's oil last time, too.
metals and so is usually stored in aluminium
B) Well, you’d better do the job yourself.
containers.
C) People are always talking about them, but do they
B) But it has a great many other uses. Would you like
do any good?
me to list them all for you?
D) So what oil will do?
C) Some say the Germans used it in the jet propulsion
unit of the M.E. 163 plane. E) But why not? Surely oil is oil!
D) Strengths higher than 90% are obtained by
refrigeration techniques.
E) Yes. But it has a lot more uses. For instance, it's
used in anti-shrink treatments in textiles and as a
germicide in cosmetic preparations.

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ÜDS FEN – (ARALIK) 2001

47.-51. sorularda, parçada boş bırakılan yere uygun 49. Thermal insulation is concerned with the problem of
düşen ifadeyi bulunuz. reducing the transfer of heat from one place to
another and depends upon the thermal resistance of
the insulating medium. . However, this is not very
satisfactory in an ordinary air space because
47. The object of the air traffic control officers is to radiation is also involved in the transfer of heat
achieve the highest densities in all parts of the
controlled air space that is consistent with safety
and the elimination of collision risk . The A) Since air is a very poor conductor, an air gap,
amounts of the separation are partly dependent upon narrow enough to minimize convection, may be
the means available for determining accurately the used for insulation
position and course of the various aircraft. B) Thermal conductivity is a term that is only strictly
applicable to homogeneous materials
A) For purposes of air traffic control, air space is

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divided and then subdivided C) In general, the lighter the material per unit volume,
the greater its insulating value per unit thickness
B) Military aviation originally held itself outside any air
traffic control but for a long time now this has not D) The vertical air spaces used in insulating buildings
been practicable are actually only about one third as thick

C) They, therefore. direct the captains of aircraft so as E) The optimum thickness must also be chosen to
to maintain adequate vertical and horizontal avoid condensation of moisture inside the walls
separation between aircraft
D) As these are within controlled air space a pilot
intending to fly along them must file a flight plan.
E) The “flight progress strip" gives an indication of what
is happening to any aircraft in the area 50. Germination is the initiation of growth in a newly
formed plant-structure, or the resumption of growth
after a period of rest, as in fungus and bacterial
spores, but exemplified most vividly in seeds. .
Growth is stopped and respiration is extremely slow.
At germination, development is resumed and
there is a spectacular acceleration of function.

48. The Wankel engine has many advantages over the A) The essential point about germination is the sudden
reciprocating piston engine. Fewer moving parts are change from a resting state to one of intense activity
necessary because it produces a rotary movement
without using a connecting rod and a crankshaft. B) The development of the new plant starts at
. In addition, it has no valves and it is smaller and fertilization
lighter than conventional engines of the same power. C) Before full physiological activity can be resumed, the
dehydrated tissues must become fully turgid with
A) Though there are advantages, there are also water
disadvantages
D) As the embryo swells it ruptures the seed coat
B) Because of this rotary, movement it has no vibration E) In the resting condition, the life processes are
slowed down to a minimum
C) A fresh charge is then induced into the cylinder

D) The Wankel piston is triangular with curved sides

E) Fuel enters the cylinder through the inlet port


51. Improved efficiency of the use of fuel is a theme to
which more attention has been given as the cost of
fuel has increased. . The processing of raw fuel
into the form in which it is to be used is another.

A) The efficient and economical use of fuels is indeed


one of the chief aspects of the work of the fuel
technologist
B) Each type of fuel and each process naturally has its
own problems
C) There is a staff to advise on methods of increasing
the efficiency of the use of fuel in industry
D) It is well known that the probable resources of coal
are very extensive
E) Fuel technology is now a recognized and even an
essential profession

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52.-56. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla okunduğunda, 55. (I) Most of our knowledge regarding the structure of
anlam bütünlüğünü bozan cümleyi bulunuz. the earth has been from the study of rocks. (II)
Nevertheless, the deeper parts of the earth's crust
have a higher temperature than the surface. (Ill)
Surface rocks have been studied as have those
52. (I) Industrialization came late to Italy. (II) Most of the
which can be reached in mines and through borings.
industry is in the north along the Po Valley and (IV) Recent techniques have made it possible to carry
particularly around Turin, Genoa and Milan. (Ill) This
bore-holes down to depths of several miles. (V) In
was partly due to political reasons and partly to the general, however, these borings only reveal rocks
lack of basic raw materials. (IV) It was the availability
comparable in age and character to those found at
of hydroelectric power and a labour force capable of the surface of the ground.
acquiring the necessary skills, which together
brought about the rapid development in the 20th
century. (V) Indeed, the industrial progress in Italy A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
during the 1950s has been described as

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“miraculous”

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

53. (I) The simplest type of engine classification is 56. (I) It is hard to imagine a better means of
doubtless by reference to the kind of fuel used. (II) preservation than entombment in amber (II) Indeed,
Nevertheless, reciprocating engines may be divided amber or hardened tree resin has preserved
more fundamentally into those running on the Otto organisms ranging from bacteria to mammals for
cycle (spark ignition) and those running on Akrody's millions of years. (Ill) It is clear that spiders, for
and Diesel's cycles (compression ignition). (Ill) The instance, had their fair share of specialized enemies
former are usually used for small scale power then as now. (IV) It surpassed even the finest grain
generation. (IV) The latter, which burn heavy oil are sediments in its ability to retain details. (V) Deposits
of two types, slow speed for ships and high speed are found round the world, but amber from
for motor vehicles. (V) Subsequently, improvements Hispaniola is especially fossil-rich.
in engine design appeared at an amazing speed.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

54. (I) The industrial revolution should be seen as a still


continuing process. (II) It has now, however, taken a
new turn. (Ill) It used to be concerned largely with the
making of machines to replace human labour. (IV)
The underlying mathematical theory for the handling
of information is “information theory.” (V) The
emphasis now is on developing machines and
instruments to take over certain mental tasks, in
particular, the handling of all forms of data.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

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57.-59. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre 58. It is clear from the passage that, as in the case of
cevaplayınız. "the problem of longitude", the Royal Society .

A) was obliged to advise the admiralty on procedures


The Royal Society is the national academy of science for for the tests it was making
Great Britain and Northern Ireland but, unlike other
national academies, is and always has been independent B) can command specific knowledge from a variety of
of state control; it is not maintained by grants from public fields to assist in the solution of multidisciplinary
funds and manages its own affairs. Since its foundation, problems
however, kings, statesmen and government departments
have regularly sought its advice on scientific matters; it C) often failed to come up with a solution to a specific
has never hesitated to assist governments when problem
convinced that the national interest called for scientific
action. Within ten years of its foundation the society, at D) would only accept short-term commissions as it felt

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the invitation of Charles II and his ministers, grappled that long-term ones threatened its independence
with problems of national food supply, arboriculture,
naval architecture and navigation. Throughout the 18th
century it worked with the admiralty on what was then E) avoided, whenever it was at all possible to do so
called “the problem of the longitude” in the solution of involvement in schemes of national importance
which are associated the names of the astronomers
Edmond Halley and Nevil Maskelyne, the chronometer
maker John Harrison and the navigator James Cook. It
found a cure for jail-fever and advised on the protection
of ships of war against lightning; it organized a geodetic
survey of the British Isles and appointed scientific
personnel to several Arctic and Antarctic expedition.

57. According to the passage the Royal Society, though


it is a national academy, . 59. We understand from the passage that a great many
of the activities of the Royal Society .
A) is not dependent on the state for funds and so is A) are money-making schemes so that it can maintain
free to act independently its independence
B) are purely theoretical and have no practical
B) is only partly financed by grants from public funds application

C) has never worked directly for kings or government C) are actually forced upon it by king or parliament
departments though the members themselves do not like to admit
this
D) is mainly concerned with navigation and indeed all D) are truly national in character, being designed to
naval matters benefit the people whether directly or indirectly

E) has often refused to act for the government in an E) amount to nothing more than recommending
advisory capacity suitable people for specific situations

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60. - 62. sorulan, aşağıdaki parçaya göre 61. It's clear from the passage that one reason why
cevaplayınız. Britain grew so competent in anti-aircraft tactics was
.
A) the fact that, prior to the war, she already had the
The first flight by a power driven manned aeroplane took ascendancy in this field
place in 1903 and its subsequent development as a
military weapon was so rapid that all the belligerents B) the absolute necessity of defending herself from
entered World War I totally unprepared to defend bombing raids
themselves against it. The first bombing raids, however, C) because scientists realized that they had to keep
compelled the consideration of anti-aircraft measures, ahead in this field or the country's moral would drop
and Britain, in particular, attacked by Zeppelin airships
and Gotha aircraft was forced to develop a range of D) that a great deal of research into predictors had
specialized anti-aircraft equipment which came to include already been carried out
guns, searchlights, sound-locators and predictors, giving

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E) that the noise made by the German Zeppelins was
it a qualitative ascendancy in this field retained until the
easy to recognize and locate
end of World War II. Indeed the first night attack on
London caused such public consternation that its gun
defences had to be doubled within forty-eight hours and,
though they hit few planes, their presence was of great
psychological value.

60. We understand from the passage that the 62. The passage emphasizes that, after the first night
development of aircraft as a weapon of war was so attack on London, .
rapid that at the start of World War I .
A) enemy aircraft were continually being shot down
A) most cities had already been equipped with
searchlights B) the moral of the people there remained high
B) anti-aircraft procedures had already been formulated C) the value of manned aircraft in time of war was
finally admitted
C) no country had prepared itself to combat an air
attack D) the city's defence system was increased twofold
within a couple of days
D) Britain had enough specialized anti-aircraft
equipment to see her through to the end of the war E) it became increasingly difficult for enemy bombers to
reach their targets
E) it was only in Germany that measures had been
taken to combat air attacks

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63.- 65. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre 64. We understand from the passage that biotechnology
cevaplayınız. has produced a tomato that stays fresh and firm
much longer than the normal tomato, .
A) and can be left on the vine almost indefinitely
Scientists can now speed up the process of genetic
change through biotechnology. Farmers need no longer B) but is far more expensive to produce
wait patiently for breeding to yield improved crops and C) because the "softening" enzyme of the normal
animals, nor must they even respect natural lines of tomato has been removed by genetic engineering
reproduction among species. Laboratory scientists can
now select desirable traits from any of a number of D) especially if it is harvested when it is green
species and insert those traits into the genetic material of
E) by introducing a special gene that prevent the
crops and animals. Among the new products of
"softening" enzyme from functioning
biotechnology are tomatoes that stay fresh much longer

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than the usual ones and so promise less waste and
higher profits. Normally, tomatoes produce a protein that
softens them after they have been picked. Scientists
introduce into a tomato plant a gene that is a mirror
image of the one that codes for the "softening" enzyme.
This gene fastens itself to the RNA of the native gene
and blocks its action. A vine-ripe tomato with this special
gene rots more slowly than a normal tomato, allowing
growers to harvest at the most flavourful and nutritious
red stage. The tomatoes will still last much longer during
shipping and marketing than regular tomatoes harvested
when green.

63. As the passage points out, genetic change is not a


65. One of the important advantages of the genetically
new phenomenon, but .
engineered tomatoes as described in the passage Is
A) formerly it was only achieved by careful breeding that .
and was a long, slow process
A) they contain a larger proportion of protein than the
B) it has only recently been applied to plants usual tomato

C) farmers have only just started to take an interest in it B) they are far more nutritious than the normal ones
even when picked at the green stage
D) its advantages have only just become obvious to
farmers C) they can be picked when ripe and at their tastiest,
and won't spoil in transport
E) the success-rate of inserting a desired trait is not
very high D) the gene used to prevent rotting is perfectly stable

E) their appearance is far more attractive than that of


other tomatoes

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66 - 68. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre 67. According to the passage, solar energy is not
cevaplayınız. presently used on a large scale .
A) since it could constitute a threat to the environment

To obtain power from the sun's rays is to use nuclear B) as even on cloudless days it cannot be made to
power developed at no expense in a laboratory 93 million yield a great deal of power
miles away, for the radiant energy of the sun is C) even though it can be harnessed with 100 per cent
maintained by nuclear transformation of chemical efficiency
elements occurring in the sun's interior at temperatures
of many million degrees, and at pressures of many D) since the harnessing of thermonuclear power from
million atmospheres. The resources of solar power are the oceans is felt to be more profitable
enormous. If 100 per cent efficiency could be secured in
E) because the expense of harnessing it is not
the transformation of radiant solar energy into
economically viable
mechanical work, a horsepower per square yard of

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ground surface would be available under cloudless skies.
The expense of collecting solar energy still prevents its
competition with the usual power sources .Yet, unless
the vague promise of safe thermonuclear power from
oceans becomes realized, solar power must supply the
enormous and growing requirements of posterity within
two centuries. Because the ground sources (coal, oil and
uranium) as they near exhaustion will become more
costly than solar power.

66. The writer of the passage regards the sun . 68. The passage contains a warning that .
A) as both the largest and the cheapest source of A) such ground sources of energy as coal and oil will
power be used up by the next generation
B) as an inefficient source of energy as cloud prevents B) solar energy could prove dangerous as it is a form of
it from being effective nuclear energy
C) as offering little more in the way of energy for the C) future ages may have no option but the sun's rays to
future than thermonuclear power meet their energy requirements
D) as a far distant laboratory that produces nuclear D) thermonuclear power from oceans could prove even
power more costly than solar power
E) as a source of power too vast and dangerous to be E) the costs of harnessing solar power are not likely to
tampered with or used be reduced

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69. - 71. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre 70. It is clear from the passage that, when a ship is being
cevaplayınız. ordered the designer is often given a lot of freedom
in the type of design, but he will expect to be told
.
The design of ships is governed by scientific principles A) something about what it is to carry and how fast it is
and economic considerations but in practice it has many to travel
of the qualities of an art. The designer may be supplied
with the precise and detailed requirements of an owner B) the type of loading and unloading apparatus to
or he may receive only the barest outline of requirements install
such as the weight of cargo to be carried and the speed. C) something about the route it will normally follow
The dimensions chosen and the main characteristics of
the ship are governed by the trade in which the vessel is D) the exact dimensions that are required
to compete. High-density cargoes such as iron ore
E) exactly how big the cargo holds should be
require little cubic capacity; low-density cargoes such as

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bananas require vast cubic capacity. The ports which the
vessel must enter may impose restrictions on length and
draught. Passage through canals may restrict both
draught and breadth. The nature of the cargo may
determine the size of cargo holds and of the hatchways
through which the cargo is loaded and unloaded.
Available facilities at the ports to be entered affect the
loading and unloading apparatus to be installed in the
vessel.

69. We understand from the passage that the size of a 71. According to the passage, a great many factors have
ship . to be considered in the design of a ship .
A) needs to be large if it is to have high-density A) of which economic matters are the least important
cargoes
B) and no designer is prepared to accept just a simple
B) will reflect the type of goods to be carried outline of requirements
C) is unimportant so long as it does not have to pass C) but one of the least important is the cubic capacity
through canals needed for the cargo
D) has relatively little bearing upon its cost D) including regulations and conditions in the ports it
will call in at
E) affects the system of loading and unloading of the
cargo E) in particular the relationship between length and
breadth

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72. - 74. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre 73. The definition of erosion given in this passage .
cevaplayınız.
A) is a strictly regional one
B) disregards man's role in it
Erosion is regarded not merely as the physical removal C) concentrates on flooding
of soil by water and wind, but rather as the deterioration
of all the component parts of the habitat in which man D) assumes that the process is inevitable
and his crops and livestock have to exist. Since there is
E) is a broad one
no conclusive evidence for any major climatic change in
historic times to explain this deterioration, we must
conclude that the eroding of the total environment has
been due primarily to thoughtless destruction of the
vegetative cover. This has led to deterioration of the

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microclimate above and below the surface, generally in
the direction of a general drying out of the soil which has
exposed it to erosive action of wind and rainfall of high
intensity or frequency, and to the loss of organic matter in
the soil, thus reducing its capacity to resist erosion by
conserving the water that falls on the surface. If
everything possible is done within the total environment
to conserve the naturally planted or cultivated vegetation,
this will also ensure optimal conservation of soil and
water.

72. It is argued in the passage that the impoverishment


of the world's habitat . 74. It is pointed out in the passage that the loss of
organic matter in the soil .
A) It is first and foremost due to man's irresponsible
abuse of the vegetable cover of the earth A) led to the destruction of the world's vegetative cover

B) is largely due to gradual changes in climate over B) is a direct result of insufficient rain
long years C) is an irreversible process
C) became inevitable as soon as agricultural and D) has made the soil more susceptible to erosion
animal husbandry developed
E) came about through over-planting which robbed the
D) cannot be remedied soil of nutrients
E) has been needlessly exaggerated

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75. - 77. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre 76. As it is pointed out in the passage, many exports are
cevaplayınız. of the opinion that radioactive waste ----.
A) should never be stored underground as it can not
then be monitored
The world's nuclear plants have accumulated vast stocks
of highly radioactive waste. Worldwide, high-level waste is B) should not be stored underground while the
currently stored above ground, and no government has radioactive isotopes continue to let off
a clear policy on its eventual disposal. While most substantial amounts of heat
experts believe that burying the waste is the safest bet in C) does not require to be cooled when stored above
the long term, the problem is finding sites that everyone ground
can agree are geologically stable. Decaying radioactive
isotopes release heat. As a result, high-level waste must D) cannot be safely disposed of anywhere and the
be constantly cooled; otherwise, it becomes dangerously problem of what to do with it intensifies as the

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hot. This is why many experts want to store waste above amount increases
ground until it has decayed and is cool enough to be
E) can be safely left to cool down underground in
stored safely in sealed repositories several hundreds of
sealed repositories
metres below ground. According to one recent theory,
however, waste should be lowered down boreholes
drilled to 4 kilometres. The trick is to exploit heat
generated by the waste to fuse the surrounding rock and
contain any leaking radioactivity.

77. The passage describes a new method, still only a


75. It is clear from the passage that the safe disposal of theoretical one, for the disposal of radioactive waste,
radioactive waste ----. ----.
A) has been satisfactorily dealt with by scientists in A) which uses bore holes so that all sites are suitable
conjunction with governments
B) at a depth considerably less than that normally
B) is a problem that each government must decide on recommended but the chosen site must meet certain
for its own country geological requirements
C) remains a global problem of great magnitude C) which, unfortunately, increases the time needed for
D) is a problem that has not attracted enough attention cooling the waste before final disposal

E) will in all likelihood soon be resolved, and a clear D) in which the radioactive isotopes are prevented from
policy agreed on by concerned governments releasing heat
E) whereby the heat produced by that waste will serve
to seal it safely into the rock under which it
has been buried

16

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78. - 80. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre 79. It is emphasized if the passage that, until the 20th
cevaplayınız. century ----.
A) the sounds produced by musical instruments could
not be properly controlled
Sounds produced by continuous vibration tones are
spreads waves of compression through the air. Where B) there was among scientists, a great deal of
there is a solid boundary such as the walls of a room the controversy as regards the importance of
sound waves are reflected so that the sounds within the reverberation
room are prolonged beyond what they would be in the C) there was an unaccountable deficiency of
open. The sounds produced by the voice or by a musical reverberation in ever major building
instrument then reverberate through the room after the
actual tone production has ceased. When the sound D) good acoustics were absent in the majority of
waves strike the walls some of the sound energy travels buildings
on and is either absorbed in the material or may

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E) acoustics were a primary concern in the design of all
penetrate to the other side; but with the usual hard,
buildings
unyielding walls of which most buildings are made, more
than 90% of the sound energy is reflected back into the
room at each impact, so that some time must elapse
before all is spent. It is this reverberation which, in its
excess, is the prime cause of the faulty acoustics of
many pre 20th century buildings.

80. It is explained in the passage that only a very small


78. We understand from the passage that reverberation percentage of the sound waves ----.
----.
A) can pass through a wall made of firm and resistant
A) is never taken into account in questions of acoustics material
B) is less obvious in an enclosed space B) does actually travel back towards its source at each
C) occurs within an enclosed space such as a room impact

D) is of equally short duration both indoors and C) can be accurately measured for acoustic purposes
outdoors D) has a damaging effect upon the acoustics of a room
E) has duration equal to that of the tone production E) can last longer than the actual tone-production itself

TEST BĐTTĐ
YANITLARINIZI KONTROL EDĐNĐZ

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CEVAP ANAHTARI

ÜDS FEN - (ARALIK) 2001

1. A 2. C 3. E 4. D 5. B 6. E 7. C 8. D 9. A 10. E

11. B 12. A 13. D 14. C 15. B 16. E 17. C 18. A 19. D 20. B

21. D 22. A 23. E 24. D 25. C 26. C 27. D 28. E 29. A 30. D

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31. A 32. B 33. C 34. E 35. B 36. A 37. D 38. B 39. C 40. A

41. D 42. A 43. B 44. E 45. D 46. E 47. C 48. B 49. D 50. E

51. E 52. B 53. E 54. D 55. B 56. C 57. A 58. B 59. D 60. C

61. B 62. D 63. D 64. E 65. D 66. A 67. E 68. C 69. E 70. A

71. D 72. C 73. D 74. A 75. C 76. B 77. E 78. C 79. D 80. A

18

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Meşrutiyet Caddesi No: 27 Kat: 6 Kızılay ANKARA - (312) 417 07 20 - (312) 417 07 22
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1. - 21. sorularda cümlede boş bırakılan yere 7. The probable resources of petroleum cannot be
uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. estimated as ---- as can those of coal.
A) considerably B) ultimately C) essentially
1 A motion study of assembly procedures ---- the
design and disposition of the bench, tools, D) suitably E) accurately
containers and materials used.
A) gets on with B) makes up for 8. In studying protein-coding sequences, the
initiation and the termination codons are usually
C) puts pressure on D) takes into account excluded ---- these two codons almost never
E) cuts free from change with time.
A) whereas B) in case C) but
D) instead of E) since

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2. In an effort to ---- air-pollution levels in busy
cities, driving is banned in 150 cities in Italy for
10 hours every Sunday.
9. The environment in which we live changes
A) put up with B) force out continuously ---- "natural causes" over which we
C) cut back on D) move off with have little control.

E) bring off A) in spite of B) due to C) thus


D) hence E) however

3. All science is ---- the fact that every natural event


has a natural cause. 10. Farmers depend on meteorologists ---- accurate
A) come across B) put through forecasts assist in successful agricultural
planning.
C) carried on D) based on
A) who B) in which C) that
E) set off
D) what E) whose

4. The practical ---- of soil mechanics includes the


design of foundations and earth-retaining 11. ---- astronomers have so far found no Earth-like
structures. planets, this does not mean that there are none.

A) application B) appreciation A) While B) As C) Even though

C) reference D) detention D) As if E) Unless

E) elimination

12. Irrigation is the art of using water, ---- direct


rainfall, for crop cultivation.
5. A detailed understanding of why the World Trade
Center towers collapsed will mean that engineers A) in case of B) besides C) compared with
can ---- the lessons learned into future designs. D) other than E) ranging from
A) participate B) reproduce
C) incorporate D) reinstate
E) demonstrate 13. In statistics, random samples are obtained ---- by
sampling replacement from a finite population ----
by sampling without replacement from an infinite
population.
6. It was through the research of Sabine at Harvard A) either / or B) whether / and C) just / as
at the end of the 19th century that the subject of
acoustics was put on a ---- scientific footing. D) as / as E) so / that

A) random B) quantitative C) constructive


D) selective E) competitive
14. So far, ---- £ 24 million have been invested in this
relatively new Building Society because it cares
for the environment.
A) more of B) so much C) much as
D) the most E) more than

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15. Adhesives are now frequently being used where 19. Currently, a greet deal of attention ---- to the
previously mechanical methods of fastening ---- phenomenon known as acid rain, the incidence of
essential. which appears to be growing in developed
countries.
A) would be considered
B) have been considered A) had been paid B) was paid C) is being paid
C) are being considered
D) has been paid E) will be paid
D) were to be considered
E) were considered

20. A chemistry journal plans to publish this hotly


disputed article ---- an addendum that questions
16. All the speculations of engineers about the some of its conclusions.
mechanism of the collapse of the World Trade

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Center towers ----, in fact, hypotheses, theories of A) over against B) along with
what ----. C) from under D) up against
A) were / might happen E) out of
B) are / might have happened
C) will be / has happened
D) would have been / might happen 21. Superconductivity occurs only ---- certain
materials, for example lead, and only, then ----
E) have been / may happen very low temperatures.
A) with / at B) at / in C) in / by
D) for / from E) by / for
17. For four decades, researchers ---- the heavens for
radio signals that an advanced civilization ---- into
the vastness of the galaxy.
A) have been scanning / may have emitted
B) scanned / will have emitted
C) had scanned / could have been emitted
D) scan / would have emitted
E) are being scanned / could have emitted

18. Satellite observations ---- that space ---- in a sea


of X- rays.
A) had shown / has been bathed
B) showed / has bathed
C) will show / would have bathed
D) have shown / is bathed
E) would show / would be bathed

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22. - 31. sorularda verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde 26. ---- which are invisible in ordinary telescopes.
tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.
A) It is now possible to design and plan
experiments concerning space
22. ---- because there was a shortage of coal for
smelting. B) Radio astronomers are able to study the more
distant parts of the Milky Way
A) In Japan, steel expansion has been subsidized
for several years C) Since then it has been possible to observe
celestial bodies on radio wavelengths
B) Italy has only very limited supplies of iron ore
D) Following this work on Cepheid variables, our
C) In Sweden, steel- making on a large scale knowledge of the universe
developed late
E) Conclusive evidence has been put forward about

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D) French reserves are among the best in Europe the Milky Way
as regards quantity
E) Stimulated by the rapid growth of the railways,
the iron and steel industry expanded rapidly in
Russia 27. There are seasons of plentiful water and others of
scarcity ----.
A) when water has to be used sparingly

23. ---- if nuclear energy is to supplant conventional B) though irrigation schemes were introduced
methods of generating electricity. C) since these outlets are designed to deliver
A) There will be further increases in the total energy supplies of water automatically
consumption D) where traditional methods of irrigation still
B) The National Industrial Fuel Efficiency Service is remain in use
prepared to advise E) so flow irrigation is best suited to a flat
C) Oil and natural gas are in competition with the countryside
older fuels
D) Mechanical methods of mining will increase the
competitive power of coal
28. More attention is being given to improved
E) A great many difficulties will have to be efficiency in the use of fuel ----.
overcome
A) because they cause environmental pollution
B) if prices continue to rise at this rate
C) as the cost of fuel increases
24. ---- why no one warned him to check the pressure
in the tank constantly. D) whether cleaner methods are forthcoming
A) Surely someone could have thought of it E) which should have been discovered earlier
B) I simply cannot comprehend
C) It's just another example of irresponsibility
29. After take-off, the pilot of an aircraft is often given
D) The instructions state expressly a course to steer ----.
E) It should have been a matter of common sense A) though the air traffic control officer will still be
using field glasses
B) whether the weather conditions were suitable or
not
25. ---- as it contains salt.
C) since he will be watched by direct visual means
A) The sea freezes at temperatures below the from the control tower unless there is fog
normal freezing point of water
D) until a specific reporting point or height is
B) She tries to avoid such types of food reached
C) In polar regions glaciers frequently flow down E) so long as the landing gear retracts correctly
into the sea
D) The warmer the air the more moisture it can
carry
E) Snowflakes, like other from of water vapour,
nearly always possess a crystal structure

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30. Why didn't you remind him ----? 32. - 36. sorularda verilen Türkçe cümlenin
anlamına en yakın Đngilizce cümleyi bulunuz.
A) not to have overlooked the possibility of a
breakdown in the electric circuit
32. Sadece demir ve kobalt ile nikel gibi diğer birkaç
B) having stabilized the pressure to reasonable madde güçlü manyetik etkiler gösterir.
extent
A) Iron and a few other materials including cobalt
C) to check the temperature of the solution at and nickel have a strong magnetic force.
regular intervals
B) Only iron and a few other materials such as
D) the printer will be checked for compatibility with cobalt and nickel show strong magnetic effects.
the microcomputer
C) It is only iron and a few other materials like
E) to have got rid of all the outdated equipment cobalt and nickel that exert a strong magnetic

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force.
D) The magnetic force of iron and a few other
metals such as cobalt and nickel are the only
strong ones.

31. The collapse of a British company developing E) The only metals, other than iron, to show a
genetically engineered vaccines in plants has strong magnetic force are cobalt and nickel.
raised fears ----.
A) why the public has shown so much hostility to
genetically modified plants
B) that medical biotechnology may also be
adversely affected
C) if industry analysts had been intimidated by rival
companies
D) unless all such plants are grown in glass houses
33. Son araştırmalar, canlılarda oluşan kimyasal
and not in open fields
tepkimelerin hemen hemen tümünün, protein
E) though it failed to raise adequate funds to molekülleri tarafından katalizlediğini göstermiştir.
finance the next stage of' vaccine development
A) Recent studies have shown that almost all
programme
chemical reactions that take place in living
organisms are catalysed by protein molecules.
B) It seems from recent studies, that the majority of
chemical reactions that occur in living organisms
are catalysed by proteins molecules.
C) Recent studies suggest that the chemical
reactions that take place in all living organisms
are catalysed by protein molecules.
D) Recent studies have established that in the
chemical reactions that take place in living
organisms, the catalyst is almost always proteins
molecules.
E) The result of recent studies into the chemical
reactions that occur in living organisms has been
to establish that protein molecules are almost
invariably the catalyst.

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34. Bir hipotez, genellikle, bir soruna olası bir çözüm 36. Satürn buz kaplı sayısız parçacıktan oluşan
getiren birbiriyi bağlantılı bir ifadeler grubundan muhteşem halka sistemi ile tanınır.
oluşur.
A) What makes Saturn remarkable is its superb ring
A) On the whole, by a hypothesis is meant a group system composed of countless-ice-covered
of interrelated statements that together suggest particles.
a solution to a problem.
B) Saturn has a magnificent ring system, composed
B) In general, a hypothesis means a collection of of innumerable ice covered particles.
related statements that suggest a plausible
solution to a problem. C) The special characteristic of Saturn is its
fantastic ring system made up of millions of ice-
C) A hypothesis usually consists of a group of covered particles
interconnected statements that give a possible
solution to a problem. D) The incredible ring system of Saturn is made up

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of ice-covered particles
D) A hypothesis suggests a likely solution to a
problem based on a set of interrelated E) Saturn is noted for its magnificent ring system,
statements. which is composed of myriads of ice-covered
particles.
E) A set of interconnected statements that offer a
possible solution to a problem is known as a
hypothesis.

35. Alman gökbilimci Kepler, gezegenlerin güneş


çevresindeki hareketlerinin ayrıntılı bir
betimlemesi olan önemli gökbilimi eserleri
yazmıştır.
A) In his works on astronomy, the German
astronomer Kepler describes, in great detail, the
movement of the planets around the sun.
B) The German astronomer Kepler described in
detail the motions of the planets around the sun
in his important works on astronomy.
C) Kepler is an important German astronomer who
described in detail the movement of the planets
around the sun in his famous works on
astronomy.
D) The German astronomer Kepler wrote important
astronomical works which are a detailed
description of the motions of the planets around
the sun.
E) Kepler, the German astronomer, whose works
on astronomy are we' known gives an elaborate
description of the planets that move around the
sun.

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37. - 41. sorularda verilen Đngilizce cümlenin 39. The British aircraft industry, first established in
anlamına en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz. 1909, initially supported only a few pioneer
aviators, but World War I greatly accelerated the
technology and led to mass production.
37 Electricity can be generated far more cheaply in
nuclear reactors in which the uranium atoms are A) Đlk kez 1909'da kurulmuş olan, başlangıçta bazı
split. maceraperest havacılara destek veren Đngiliz
uçak sanayi, I. Dünya Savaşı ile teknolojiyi çok
A) Nükleer reaktörlerde, uranyum atomlarının hızla ilerletmiş ve seri üretime geçmiştir.
parçalanmasıyla oldukça ucuz elektrik elde
etmek mümkündür. B) Đngiliz uçak sanayi, 1909'da kurulmuş ve
öncelikle bir avuç maceracı havacıya destek
B) Nükleer reaktörlerde, oldukça ucuz bir şekilde
sağlamıştır, ancak I. Dünya Savaşı ile teknoloji
üretilebilen elektrik, uranyum atomlarının çok hızlanmış ve seri üretime geçilmiştir.
parçalanmasıyla elde edilir.
C) Başlangıçta sadece bir kısım amatör havacıya

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C) Uranyum atomlarının parçalandığı nükleer destek olan Đngiliz uçak sanayi 1909'da
reaktörler, olabildiğince ucuz elektrik üretmek kurulmuştur, ancak teknoloji I. Dünya Savaşı
için kullanılmaktadır.
nedeniyle çok hızlı ilerlemiş ve seri üretime
D) Uranyum atomlarının parçalanması sonucu başlanmıştır.
nükleer reaktörlerde üretilen elektrik, çok daha
D) Đlk kez 1909'da kurulmuş olan Đngiliz uçak
ucuza mal olabilir.
sanayi, başlangıçta sadece birkaç öncü
E) Elektrik, uranyum atomlarının parçalandığı havacıya destek vermiştir, ancak I. Dünya
nükleer reaktörlerde çok daha ucuz olarak Savaşı teknolojiyi çok hızlandırmış ve seri
üretilebilir. üretime yol açmıştır.
E) Đngiliz uçak sanayi ilk kez 1909'da kurulunca
öncelikle gönüllü birkaç havacıya destek olmuş
ve I. Dünya Savaşı'nda teknolojiyi hızla
geliştirerek seri üretime başlamıştır.

38. It has been estimated that 35 to 45 per cent of all


the energy used in developed countries is
consumed by industry.
A) Gelişmiş ülkelerde kullanılan tüm enerjinin yüzde
35 ile 45’inin sanayi tarafından tüketildiği tahmin 40. Since the late 1950s, various techniques have
edilmektedir. been developed in molecular biology, and this
has generated much interest in the study of
B) Yapılan hesaplamalara göre, gelişmiş ülkeler, evolutionary relationships.
ürettikleri tüm enerjinin yüzde 35 ile 45'ini
sanayide tüketmektedir. A) Moleküler biyolojide çeşitli teknikler 1950'lerin
sonlarından itibaren geliştirilmiş ve bunun
C) Gelişmiş ülkelerde sanayinin tükettiği tüm sonucu olarak evrim ilişkilerinin araştırılmasına
enerjinin, yüzde 35 ile 45 civarında olduğu ilgi duyulmaya başlanmıştır.
hesaplanmaktadır.
B) Moleküler biyolojide farklı tekniklerin
D) Gelişmiş ülkelerde tüketilen tüm enerjinin yüzde geliştirilmesi 1950'lerin sonlarında olmuştur ve
35 ile 45'inin sanayide kullanıldığı bunun sonucu olarak evrim ilişkilerinin
hesaplanmaktadır. araştırılmasına yoğun ilgi duyulmuştur.
E) Tahminlere göre, gelişmiş ülkelerde sanayide C) 1950'lerin sonlarında, moleküler biyolojide pek
kullanılan enerji üretilen tüm enerjinin yüzde 35 çok teknik geliştirilmiştir ve evrim ilişkilerinin
ile 45'ini oluşturmaktadır. araştırılmasına yönelik aşırı ilgi bunun
sonucunda olmuştur
D) 1950'lerin sonlarından beri moleküler biyolojide
geliştirilen değişik teknikler, evrim Đlişkilerinin
araştırılmasına olan ilgiyi çok artırmıştır.
E) 1950'lerin sonlarından bu yana moleküler
biyolojide çeşitli teknikler geliştirilmiş ve bu evrim
ilişkilerinin araştırılmasına büyük ilgi yaratmıştır.

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41. Nucleic acids were first isolated from white blood 42. - 46. sorularda karşılıklı konuşmanın boş
corpuscles and fish sperm by the Swiss bırakılan kısmında söylenmiş olabilecek sözü
biochemist Miescher in a remarkable series of bulunuz.
investigations which began in 1869.
42. Paul:
A) 1869'da başlayan bir dizi mükemmel araştırma It says here that workers in the poorer
sonucunda, Đsviçreli biyokimyacı Miescher, countries are less productive than those in
nükleik asitleri akyuvarlardan ve balık the richer ones.
sperminden izole edebilmiştir.
Colin:
B) Nükleik asitlerin ilk kez 1869'da akyuvarlardan ----
ve balık sperminden izole edilmesi, Đsviçreli
biyokimyacı Miescher tarafından başlatılan bir Paul:
dizi ciddi araştırma sonucunda gerçekleştirmiştir. But why?
C) Đsviçreli biyokimyacı Miescher, 1869'da başladığı Colin:

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bir dizi önemli araştırma sayesinde, nükleik Because, among other things, their machinery
asitleri ilk kez akyuvarlardan ve balık is less advanced.
sperminden izole edebilmiştir.
A) That used to be the case, but it isn't any longer.
D) Nükleik asitler, ilk kez, 1869'da başlayan dikkate
değer bir dizi araştırmada, Đsviçreli biyokimyacı B) I find that hard to believe.
Miescher tarafından akyuvarlardan ve balık
C) I don't think it's been proved.
sperminden izole edilmiştir.
D) Yes, that's true.
E) Đsviçreli biyokimyacı Miescher, nükleik asitleri
akyuvarlardan ve balık sperminden izole etmek E) One shouldn't generalize like that.
için ilk kez 1869'de bir dizi dikkate değer
araştırma gerçekleştirmiştir.

43. Andy:
Did you know that, by flying in formation,
aircraft can reduce consumption by up to
25%?
David:
----
Andy:
Really? How interesting.
David:
Yes. The leader has to work hardest; so on
long flights, the stronger birds take it in turn
to lead.

A) Well I'm not surprised. It's a question of air


displacement. And it's why birds fly in formation.
B) Is that so? Personally, I find it hard to believe!
C) I wonder why! I wonder if that's why birds like to
fly in formation.
D) I don't think they often achieve a 25 % reduction
in fuel consumption. I think it rather depends on
how fast they are flying.
E) Yes, that's right. Have you never wondered why
birds so often fly in formation?

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44. Alec:
46. David:
Have you been following this debate about
how far the industrial scientist is free? Do you think there are significant differences
between organic and non- organic foods?
Peter:
Bob:
----
----
Alec:
David:
You clearly have been following the debate.
Yes, that's what it says here. There are
Peter: apparently a great many extraneous variables.
Yes, I have; and it's all very disturbing. Bob:
Exactly. In my opinion, though, the organic

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tastes better.
A) No I haven't. What's been happening?
B) I think you mean not free. He's hired for a A) Probably not; but I'm not a fan of the organic.
particular job and the data obtained becomes B) Well, certainly not as regards the flavour.
the properly of the company that pays for the
research. C) It's hard to say. And it's not easy to research the
subject.
C) I read something about in the newspaper last
week, and then forgot all about it. D) It stands to reason that there are.
D) There's been a lot about it on the TV recently, E) Frankly, I don't take the debate seriously.
but as it doesn't concern us, I've rather ignored
it.
E) A good scientist is always free. It is only the
second-rate ones who complain and feel they
are being ill-treated. I'm quite out of sympathy
with the whole issue.

45. Pat:
Listen to this! In Australia, they are starting to
recycle mobile phones.
Stan:
----
Pat:
The old phones are being melted down and
the harmful gases extracted for commercial
re-use.
Stan:
Good for them, I hope other countries follow
suit.

A) Well, that is interesting! Tell me more.


B) Yes, I read about that. I'm not convinced.
C) Yes I know. I reckon it could be dangerous.
D) That's just a newspaper article. Don't take it
seriously.
E) The next article on dormant seeds is much more
interesting.

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47. - 51. sorularda cümleler sırasıyla 50. (I) An important secondary effect of noise is
okunduğunda, anlam bütünlüğünü bozan cümleyi noise-induced vibrations. (II) For example, certain
bulunuz. construction operations in urban areas may be
prohibited during specified hours. (Ill) Sound of
sufficient intensity may cause buildings to vibrate and
47. (I) A series of birth defects among frogs in windows to break. (IV) This is most likely to happen in
Canada caused great consternation. (II) Most of construction areas where explosives
the defects concern the legs. (Ill) The deformity is are used or where blasting operations are
indeed widespread and the cause has not as yet been conducted. (V) In such circumstances, it is
identified. (IV) Some have extra legs, some legs that important that precautions are taken to protect
are webbed together and some with paralysed legs. nearby structures.
(V) In some, missing eyes have also been noticed.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

48.

all-chemical launchers. (II) The nuclear- assisted


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(I) NASA is considering using nuclear boosters to lift
spacecraft into orbit at a fraction of the cost of today's
51. (I) Lubrication reduces friction and, because the
surfaces do not scrape against each other, it reduces
rocket produced far more thrust than
any of the conventional ones which meant the time wear on the material. (II) Although dry friction can be
required for the launching was still further reduced. eliminated in this way, some power will still be lost
(Ill) But anti-nuclear protesters claim nuclear depending on the thickness of the lubricant seed. (Ill)
launchers would make accidents much more If the lubricant is too thick, the lubricant itself will offer
dangerous and accuse NASA of "playing Russian some resistance to motion. (IV) A greater force is
Roulette". (IV) NASA, however, disregards all this required to start surfaces moving than to keep them
and remains keen to move away from conventional in motion. (V) The selection of the correct lubricant
chemical rockets to lighter, more powerful depends on many factors, chief among them being
propulsion systems. (V) “Nuclear systems give you the operating speed of the machinery.
a chance to reduce your mass and so your overall A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
costs to orbit" says R. Adams, of NASA's Marshall
of Space Flight Center in Alabama.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

49. (I) When a tunnel is to go through rock, holes are


drilled and charged with explosives. (II) The pattern of
the holes and the timing of the explosives are worked
out carefully. (Ill) The aim is to get as clean a cut as
possible. (IV) But the problems of removing the soil
have also to be taken into consideration. (V) If the
rock is solid, huge chambers can be cut out cheaply.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

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52. - 56. sorularda parçaya boş bırakılan yere 54. The drag of an airship is made up of two parts ---.
uygun düşen ifadeyi bulunuz. The latter include an often important increase of
the former due to disturbance of flow, and may
52. Space research is the scientific study of the approach 50 % of the former.
universe by means of vehicles in space. ----. A) The maximum cross-sectional area is about one-
Unlike other scientific disciplines, space research seventh of the "wetted surface"
is thus distinguished by technical means not by
field of study. B) Hulls are usually given a fineness ratio of about
6, which means the length is six times the
A) The long life of satellites makes possible the maximum diameter.
observation of occasional phenomena such as
the effects of solar flares C) There is the drag of the bare hull and the
effective drag of all appendages
B) Geophysics and astrophysics are also subjects

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for space research but are not completely D) As a result, model experiment is quite unsuitable
comprehended in it E) One stroke horse-power for each 100 Ib gross
C) This is why space vehicles can make direct weight may be expected to give speed of about
studies of phenomena of interest above the 75 miles per hour
dense atmosphere
D) Experiments involving the artificial creation of
new condition in space have also been
conducted
E) Space, in this connection, means regions
beyond the earth which cannot be reached by
airborne vehicles such as balloons or
aeroplanes

53. Food industrialists hail biotechnology as a


miracle, but there are many people who feel
distinctly uneasy about this new development. ---.
They wonder what unknown changes take place
when the genes of living things are manipulated
and what the long-term consequences might be.
A) One of the most exiting and fearful areas in
genetic research today is the cloning of animals
B) These people feel that tampering with genetics
may change organisms in ways not yet fully
understood, even by the scientists who
developed the techniques.
C) Indeed it is now possible to select desirable
traits from a number or species and insert them
into the genetic material of crops and animals.
D) Biotechnology means the use of biological
systems or organisms to create or modify
products.
E) Biotechnology promises to produce greater
crops yields, leaner meats and better nutrient
composition.

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55. When an aircraft collides with a bird, the result 56. Dust devils, which look like miniature tornadoes,
can be a potentially catastrophic damage. ----. form when sunlight warms air just above the
This is why a team at Britain's Defence Evaluation ground ---. Once it has started spinning, it can
and Research Agency plants to use crystals that draw in more air, forming a whirlwind that picks
glow when fractured to warn of such unseen up dust from the ground.
damage.
A) This is why there is always a dusty haze to be
A) In this instance, the impact damage resulted in seen around Mars
60 per cent of the material's compressive
B) Dust devils often develop in dry areas on Earth
strength being lost
too
B) This makes visual inspections for damage
C) A few much larger ones have been spotted on
unreliable
Mars
C) Getting an aircraft back into the air quickly can
D) These small whirlwinds load the Martian

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be vital
atmosphere with dust
D) But, if planes are made of carbon composites,
E) Small breezes can then give a twist the rising
one cannot see the damage.
warm air.
E) Ultrasound and X- ray techniques have both
been used, but these are slow and costly

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57.- 59. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 58. It is clear from the passage that the immense coal
cevaplayınız. deposits of the Ruhr ----.
A) have had adverse effect upon the older towns of
The Rhine - Ruhr area became the greatest industrial the area.
region of Germany, because it had at its heart the
great coal field of the Ruhr. Mining is now almost B) have been almost completely used up by the
entirely northeast and westwards across the Rhine. iron and steel industry
The region contains the greater part of the German C) turned the Rhine - Rohr into Germany's major
iron, steel and heavy engineering industries. The industrial area.
great integrated iron and steel plants mostly cluster
on the Rhine waterway. Specialized steel plants and D) were once regarded as inexhaustible even in the
engineering works are more widespread. With a face of such intense mining.
decline in coalmining and the dismantling after World

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E) have no equal anywhere else in Europe 174
War II of certain steel plants, some of the older Ruhr
towns have diversified their industries considerably:
vehicles, electrical goods and clothing are now being
produced.

57. It is pointed out in the passage that, following


World War II ----.
A) the increase in coal production gave a new
impetus to the steel industry in the towns of the
Ruhr area
59. The writer of the passage makes the point that
B) new types of industry , such as textiles and car the major part of the iron and steel industry of
manufacturing, replaced the former steel Germany ----.
industry in certain parts of the Ruhr area
A) has basically remained unchanged during the
C) the electrical industry throughout the Ruhr area last hundred years
of German became economically as important
B) has come into being since World War II
as the steel industry itself
C) is the major source of the country's prosperity
D) the towns in the Ruhr area rapidly achieved a
high level of prosperity through improvements in D) no longer depends on coal as its main source of
the steel industry power
E) all the steel plants in the Ruhr area had to be E) is located on either side of the Rhine
closed down to avoid the pollution of the towns

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60. - 62. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 63. - 65. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre
cevaplayınız. cevaplayınız.

Post war radar has been developed for an enormous A contraption that automatically fits deer with a
range of uses from police radar speed traps to the pesticide impregnated collar is helping to tackle the
ballistic missile early warning systems. At sea it is menace of Lyme disease, which is usually spread
used on ships of all sizes from the super tankers among people by ticks that live on the deer. This
down to pleasure craft, and the air it guards military disease is now one of the fastest spreading infectious
and civilian aircraft against collisions. It is even used diseases in the US and can be fatal. Trapping and
to keep track of the orbital junkyard created by treating every deer in a forest with pesticides isn't
innumerable space launches. Radar found an easy, so a machine has been designed to do it. The
unexpected use in astronomy and space navigation. animals are lured to a feeding tray where have to
Radar signals were bounced off the moon in 1946 place their heads in a V-shaped through to get to the
and reflections were obtained from Venus and the food. The machine keeps an open pesticide
sun in the late 1950s. Subsequently, radar maps impregnated collar at the ready, drooping next to the

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were made of the moon and Venus - not that such trough where the deer will put its neck. As the animal
long ranges are essential for radar maps to prove takes the food, its neck presses down on a switch
themselves useful. For example, satellite-borne radar that triggers a spring- loaded arm. This propels one
aimed at the earth has actually led to the discovery of end of the open collar over the neck where it meets
previously unknown remnants of a Mayan canal the other end. The two ends join using Velcro, so
drainage system in Central America. within seconds of the animal's arrival the collar is
complete.
60. It is clear from the passage that following World
War II ----. 63. The passage is about a special collar for deer
which ----.
A) the uses of radar in many fields have expanded
vastly
A) keeps them tick-free and safe from Lyme
B) space exploration has been one of the few areas disease
of technology not to benefit from radar
B) is impregnated with a poison that kills the ticks
C) the exploration of space has been made
on the deer
possible through the use of radar
D) the construction of super tankers has increased C) replaces the older system of spraying them with
considerably pesticides
E) radar has been replaced by other navigational D) is part of a research project to keep track of their
devices movements

E) has been designed to keep a check on their


eating habits.
61. According to the passage, one of the interesting
uses of radar ----. 64. We understand from the passage that Lyme
disease ----.
A) was the early warning against ballistic missiles in
World War II
A) is carried and spread by ticks which live on deer
B) has been to locate and demolish the orbital
junkyard B) is one of the rarer of the infectious diseases
C) has been its contribution towards archaeological
finds
C) has killed a great many deer in the US

D) has been to determine speed ranges for various D) is rapidly on the decline in the US
vehicles
E) affects deer more than any other animal
E) was to guide combat aircraft towards their
targets during World War II
65. We understand from the passage that the collars
are fitted to the deer

A) while their heads are firmly held in a V- shaped


62. We understand from the passage that radar trough
signals ----.
A) cannot provide accurate maps of the terrain of B) as fast as possible because the deer dislike the
the earth process

B) have sometimes proved unreliable C) while they feed and the process only lasts
C) can control the movements of satellites seconds

D) are adversely affected by space launches D) with a mechanism that has to be man-operated
E) can travel enormous distances through space
E) before they are allowed near the food

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66.- 68. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 67. It is pointed out in the passage that energy
cevaplayınız. consumption in industrial countries would be
reduced ----.
Transport represents 22 per cent of total energy
consumption in industrialized countries, mainly in the A) to the level of that in the developing countries if
form of automobiles. Although this is the fastest the number of cars per household were reduced
growth sector in such countries, the rate of increase
in road transport energy demand has slowed in most B) if alternative energy sources could be found for
developed countries since the late 1960s. This has buses and cars
reflected both improved vehicle efficiency and a
slowing down in the level of acquisition of C) if the governments took appropriate action
automobiles by households. These developments
have encouraged hopes that saturation levels may
operate at lower levels than sometimes projected. In D) if more people were to make use of public

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developing countries, transport represents 14 per transport
cent of total energy consumption but the number of
automobiles is approximately 20/1000 people, E) significantly, if certain simple measures were put
compared to 600/1000 people industrialized into effect
countries. In attention to strictly technical
improvements that can be made to automobiles and
trucks, there is another important area of action
which could help in the solution of the problems,
namely, system operation. In this category, there is a
variety of actions that could be performed more
efficiently such as transporting passengers and
freight by other means, such as bus and rail that
would result in lower energy consumption and
therefore, lower emissions.

66. It is clear from the passage that transport


requirements in the industrial countries ----. 68. The writer of the passage feels that one hopeful
sign relating to the energy consumption factor is
A) are increasing faster than ever before ----.

B) account for a large proportion the energy A) the growing concern about the pollution caused
consumed by car emissions

C) will be easier to meet as vehicle efficiency B) that the technical improvements introduced by
improves the car industry have led to cleaner emissions

D) are being reviewed with the aim of meeting them C) the unexpected drop in car sales
with greater efficiency
D) the trend to send goods by train not by lorry
E) will continue to rise at roughly the same rate
E) that the number of cars per household is not
increasing as fast as formerly

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69. - 71. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 70. It's clear from the passage that the scheme to
cevaplayınız. produce more electrical power from renewable
resources ----.
Britain has a target to deliver 10 per cent of its
electrical power from renewable resources by 2010. A) has aroused very little interest among scientists
And despite what one might hear from some and economists
quarters, superb natural and technical resources
already exist that could make this possible. All that is B) gives priority to the use of landfill gas rather than
lacking is the political will; but at present, the to any of the natural elements
government seems reluctant to take any positive
action. At present "new" renewables, such as landfill C) is regarded, by the British public as technically
gas, wind, solar, wave power and small-scale and economically unsuitable
hydropower contribute around one per cent to the
UK's electrical generating capacity. Generating power

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from landfill gas is already fully economic; but has
D) will probably never even reach its interim target
on account of the expenses involved
limited scope for growth as the country moves away
from land filling waste. Energy recovery from waste is
highly controversial and also limited in capacity. So, if E) needs government support if it is to be
Britain is to meet her interim target of five per cent by implemented
2003 and 10 per cent by 2010, she must look to other
renewables for growth.

69. The passage contains a warning for Britain that 71. We understand from the passage that at present,
----. almost all of Britain's electricity ----.

A) if she is to produce more electricity, she has to A) is generated from non-renewable resources
make huge investments in renewable resources
B) is targeted to be produced from various
B) if she fails to meet her 2003 interim target for renewable resources
electrical power production, industry could come
to a standstill. C) could be provided through natural renewable
resources
C) in order to reach her electricity target, she will
have to find other renewable resources D) is being economically produced from landfill gas

D) since renewable resources are never cost- E) is being produced uneconomically, and this has
effective, she must develop new technologies aroused the concern of the government

E) although land filling is a feasible technology, it is


highly likely to arouse a great deal of public
opposition

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72. - 74. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 73. We understand from the passage that ----.
cevaplayınız.
A) the snowline is only apparent after a heavy fall
Glaciers originate in areas that lie above the limit of of snow
prominent snow. Thus in tropical climates glaciers
are only to be found at very great heights, whereas in B) the size of a glacier is, in part, dependent on the
polar regions they flow into the sea. The largest amount of snowfall in a region
glaciers are found in regions receiving the heaviest
snowfall. The great glaciers of the Himalayas lie in C) glaciers cannot be found in tropical regions
the path of the monsoon, which deposits on them the
full measure of its vast water vapour content. The
largest glacierized areas after Antarctica are in D) the monsoon has no effect at all in the formation
Greenland, North America, and in central and south of glaciers in the Himalayas

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central Asia. It has been estimated that the volume of
the world's glaciers and ice sheets exceeds E) the volume of glaciers in the world is rapidly
11,000,000 cubic miles which, if returned to the decreasing
oceans, would raise the sea - level by some 200 ft,
submerging all existing seaports and much land
besides.

72. In the passage the contrast is made between ----.


74. From the figures given in the last part of the
A) the benefits and the dangers of glaciers passage we can infer that ----.

B) the size of glaciers in the Himalayas and in A) the glaciers around the world are rapidly melting
Antarctica
B) all towns close to the sea are under immediate
C) the glaciers on the snowline and those at great threat
heights
C) the amount of water held by the glaciers really is
D) the location of glaciers in the tropics and in arctic enormous
regions
D) the oceans around the world have been rising
E) the climatic effects of glaciers in different parts steadily for some time
of the world
E) it will be impossible to prevent flooding if the
glaciers continue to meet at this rate

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75. - 77. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 76. According to the passage, the construction of the
cevaplayınız. world's large dams ----.

The report, Dams and Development, which has been A) has been indirectly responsible for the pollution
recently published, provides stark evidence that the of rivers
world's 45,000 large dams which block over half of
the world's rivers, have been failed experiments. B) has led to a huge increase in electrical
They have failed to produce as much electricity and production
water, or control as much flood damage, as their
backers claim. They regularly suffer huge cost- C) has been to the advantage of rural communities
overruns and time delays. They have made up to 80 rather than urban ones
million people homeless, and their benefits have
largely gone to the urban well-off not the rural poor
they displace. Moreover, their effects on ecosystems D) has forced millions of people to abandon their

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have been disastrous. homes

E) has often caused fierce controversy between the


backers and opponents.

75. It is pointed out in the passage that the large


dams of the world today ----. 77. It is clear that the facts given in this passage
about dams ----.
A) have not given the benefits expected of them
A) relate to only a small proportion of the world's
dams
B) were primarily built to prevent flooding
B) give a balanced picture of their success and
C) have proved more cost-effective than originally failures
anticipated
C) make no reference at all to their impact upon the
D) have contributed greatly to environmental environment
improvement
D) overlook the huge expense that was entailed in
E) play a major part in the economic success of constructing them
individual countries.
E) are derived from a recent report on the subject

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78. - 80. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 79. According to the passage, with the aid of
cevaplayınız. instruments placed on the ocean floor, ----.

Our understanding of submarine volcanic eruptions A) a great deal of information correcting the
has improved substantially in the past decade owing eruption of the Axial volcano was obtained
to the recent ability to remotely detect such events
and to respond rabidly with brief surveys and B) a lot of data have been collected concerning
sampling at the eruption site. But these data are oceanic eruptions throughout the world
necessarily limited to observations after the event. In
contrast, the 1998 eruption of the Axial volcano on C) it is now possible to anticipate when volcanic
the Juan de Fuce ridge was monitored by on site eruptions are going to take place
sea-floor instruments. One of these instruments,
which measured bottom pressure, was overrun and
entrapped by the 1998 lava flow. The data recorded D) scientists can now watch the volcanic activities

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by this discovered. The data recorded by this at an eruption site while they are actually
instrument reveal the duration, character and effusion happening
rate of an eruption on a mid-ocean ridge.
E) we have come to understand the part played by
bottom pressure during a volcanic eruption

78. According to the passage, it is only within the


last ten years or so that
80. We can conclude from the passage that the study
of submarine volcanic activity ----.
A) the studies made of the Axial volcano have
given rise to a great deal of controversy
A) is concerned more with the duration of an
B) scientists have realized how important under eruption than with its other aspects
ocean volcanic activity is
B) has so far made very likely progress
C) it has been possible to monitor volcanic
eruptions under the sea C) has focused primarily upon the Axial volcano
ever since 1998
D) the effusions rate of the Axial volcano has
increased noticeably D) has been greatly improved by early detection of
such activity
E) the geological causes of volcanic activity under
the sea have been major scientific concern. E) is frequently made more difficult due to the
sudden uncontrolled flow/ of lava.

18

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CEVAP ANAHTARI

ÜDS FEN - (MART) 2002

1. D 2. C 3. D 4. A 5. C 6. C 7. E 8. E 9. B 10. E

11. C 12. D 13. A 14. E 15. E 16. B 17. A 18. D 19. C 20. B

21. A 22. A 23. E 24. B 25. A 26. B 27. A 28. C 29. D 30. C

31. B 32. B 33. A 34. C 35. D 36. E 37. E 38. A 39. D 40. E

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41. D 42. D 43. A 44. E 45. A 46. D 47. C 48. E 49. C 50. B

51. E 52. B 53. B 54. C 55. D 56. E 57. B 58. C 59. D 60. A

61. D 62. E 63. B 64. A 65. C 66. C 67. D 68. E 69. C 70. E

71. A 72. D 73. B 74. C 75. A 76. D 77. E 78. C 79. D 80. B

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1. - 18. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yere 4. During the past 40 years, hydroponic farming ----
uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. considerably in a number of areas where
temperatures are too extreme for ordinary
1. We read continually about global warming ---- to agriculture.
virtually every significant weather event that ----
these days. A) had progressed

A) having been linked / is occurring B) has progressed

B) being linked / occurs C) progresses

C) to be linked / occurred D) would have progressed

D) linking / would occur E) is progressing

E) to have been linked / had occurred

2. If the discovery ----, it ---- speculation that the


Galaxy is teeming with life.
A) had been confirmed / would fuel
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atmosphere come in a bewildering range of
sizes, ---- minuscule particles of partially burned
B) will be confirmed / will have fuelled fuel ---- relatively massive grains of pollen.
C) is confirmed / will fuel A) with / from B) of / over C) from / to
D) has been confirmed / has fuelled D) at / by E) into / of
E) was confirmed / would have fuelled

3. Often the need to clean up the atmosphere ----


through major environmental disasters, of which
the London smog of 1952 still ---- a prime 6. Once chemists had developed techniques to
example. peer ---- the heart of chemical reactions, they
opened ---- a whole new world for study.
A) was realised / remains
A) for / on B) up / in C) at / with
B) has been realised / remained
D) into / up E) in / for
C) would be realised / would remain
D) was being realised / will remain
E) had been realised / has remained

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7. ---- photographers require short exposures to 10. The research team was relieved to learn that the
capture fast moving objects, chemists need results of the experiment were in ---- their
short laser pulses to study rapid reactions. expectations.
A) In contrast B) In spite of C) In case A) competition with B) place of
D) Since E) Just as C) favour of D) excess of
E) accord with

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8. According to neo-Darwinism, ---- mutation is
recognised as the ultimate source of genetic
11. Any magnet, whether it is in the shape of a bar
variation, natural selection is given the dominant
or a horseshoe, has two ends, called poles, ----
role in shaping the genetic make-up of
the magnetic effect is strongest.
populations.
A) which B) what C) how
A) however B) although C) whether
D) where E) that
D) before E) unless

9. Networks without controlled access can ----


ensure the security or privacy of stored data, ---- 12. ---- what is generally assumed, the number of
keep network resources from being exploited by animals remaining in a threatened species may
“hackers”. actually rise as it approaches the brink of
extinction.
A) neither / nor B) so / as C) only / but
A) In view of B) Contrary to
D) rather / than E) also / but
C) Surprisingly enough D) Needless to say
E) Due to

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13. The ---- of bromine in the Dead Sea water is 100 16. In the steel industry there has been a
times that in the ocean. progressive increase in capital outlay; but
fortunately this has been ---- by a fall in labour
A) extraction B) concentration C) composition costs.
D) complexity E) sufficiency
A) accompanied B) conducted
C) reinforced D) rejected
E) engaged

14. With a gestation period of six months, bats are


the slowest reproducing mammal for their size
and therefore especially ---- to extinction.
A) applicable B) reliable
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C) variable
17. The fuel used by ships and aircraft to bring food
and drink to Britain ---- 4 million tonnes of CO
emissions.
2

A) bangs out B) deals with


D) sizeable E) vulnerable C) accounts for D) gets through
E) spends up

15. Iodine remains a mysterious substance; and ----, 18. Ideally, the production of any given commodity
the iodine in the sea is in a constant state of will be ---- at the point of minimum costs.
chemical change.
A) found out B) brought up
A) comprehensively B) comparably
C) conditionally D) apparently C) made over D) carried on
E) excessively E) looked for

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19. - 23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada 24. - 35. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde
numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.
ifadeyi bulunuz.
24 Even if it is not the job of scientists to make
Computers are now part of our everyday lives and ethical decisions about their work, ----.
there seems to be nothing out of the ordinary about
them. However, the computers of the (19) ---- are a A) they have always treated humans as if they
were machines
different proposition. They are already beginning to
sound (20) ---- science fiction. Supercomputers, B) the results of the work could be used in other
many (21) ---- more powerful than today’s fastest entirely unhealthy ways
machines, could be contained in a tiny drop of liquid.
(22) ---- would not be built of silicon, (23) ---- DNA, C) future drugs will be better targeted and more
the stuff of life itself. effective

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19. D) I can see how far we have moved forward, and
the direction we are taking
A) future B) current C) present
E) it is certainly their job to tell others where it is
D) recent E) next leading

20.
A) according to B) along with C) like
25 ---- that the waste problems are much less
D) close by E) up to severe than with conventional nuclear energy.
A) All atoms have a central nucleus
B) Fusion could provide a major contribution to the
energy mix of the future

21. C) Fusion research drains resources away from


renewable energy
A) conditions B) ways C) times
D) Advocates of fusion power claim
D) degrees E) tests
E) Nuclear fusion seems the perfect answer

22.
A) Theirs B) These C) Any of them
D) The latter E) Which 26. Unless we step up our efforts to protect the
environment, ----.
A) there would probably have been no future at all
to look forward to
B) we cannot look forward to a healthy and
23. prosperous future
A) but of B) rather than C) instead of C) which is a vast and unexplored storehouse of
D) though E) except biological treasures
D) man is undoubtedly the planet’s most
successful predator
E) we are under an obligation to do so as soon as
possible

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27. Though the strategic value of submarines was 30. ---- , researchers hope to improve the quality and
demonstrated in World War I, ----. safety of meat and dairy produce.
A) a submarine cannot stay submerged indefinitely A) Once they have unravelled the genome of the
cow
B) the success of the German submarines
prompted America to enter the war B) Even though dogs and cows are next in line to
have their genetic codes sequenced
C) it was only in World War II that they played a
really key military role C) If European farmers had their livestock
vaccinated to prevent any future outbreak of
D) the first nuclear-powered submarine was foot and mouth disease
named “USS Nautilus”
D) Since vaccination is ruled out as a prevention

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E) conditions on a submarine even in peace time strategy for foot and mouth disease
are enough to crush most people
E) Unless the projects for genome research are
supported by the government

28. ---- if tests in the Australian desert prove


successful.
31. A discarded rocket from the Apollo 12 Moon
A) A new species of marine reptile has been Mission had been orbiting the sun for many
identified from a 70 million-year old fossil years, ----.
B) Japanese researchers have begun testing a A) while several large optical surveys continue to
scale model of a future supersonic passenger scan the skies for asteroids
plane
B) since any asteroid coming our way would either
C) Salyut I, the world’s first space station, was sent hit us or miss us completely
into orbit in 1970
C) so that the scientists at the Planet Centre may
D) Scientists have identified the part of the brain work out a plan to capture it
that helps us remember events from sounds
and smells D) before it changed course and started to orbit
the Earth
E) A new supersonic aircraft could take to the
skies E) although it is the first man-made object known
to have orbited the Sun

29 ---- before the technology has been shown to


work in animals. 32. The sudden collapse of the concrete slab roof of
a multi-storey car park led to fears ----.
A) Laws governing stem cell research remain
uncertain throughout the world A) even if the event caused no serious injuries
B) Australia is home to some of the world’s top B) that the lives of thousands of people were at
stem cell researchers risk from a similar incident
C) In Britain, researchers could already harvest C) why concrete has constantly received a
stem cells from surplus embryos created from negative press
IVF
D) though, with the introduction of reinforced
D) Some scientists believe it would be premature concrete, problems of this nature have been
to study human embryonic stem cells overcome
E) Embryonic stem cell research didn’t lead to E) why a chunk of concrete wall fell in a rail tunnel
cures for diseases like Parkinson’s recently in Japan

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33. ---- extra dimensions will have to be accepted as 36. - 38. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümlenin
fact, not conjecture. anlamına en yakın Đngilizce cümleyi bulunuz.
A) If future experiments confirm these predictions 36. Bazı yerbilimciler, 65 milyon yıl önce büyük bir
B) Once the theory had been conclusively proved meteor çarpmasını izleyen nitrik asit
correct yağmurunun, dinozorların yok olmasına yol açan
bir faktör olduğunu ileri sürmüşlerdir.
C) Though certain aspects of the theory weren’t
fully developed A) Some geologists have argued that a rain of
nitric acid, following a massive meteor impact
D) As measurements of the strength of gravity will 65 million years ago, was one factor leading to
be taken at different locations the extinction of the dinosaurs.

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E) Whether gravity appears to be so much weaker B) According to some geologists, a rain of nitric
than electromagnetism acid, caused by a massive meteor impact some
65 million years ago, was the major factor in the
extinction of the dinosaurs.
C) The extinction of the dinosaurs was almost
certainly, in the opinion of geologists, caused by
a massive meteor impact some 65 million years
ago and the rain of nitric acid that followed it.
34. Scientists believe that elephants have sensitive D) A rain of nitric acid some 65 million years ago
cells in their feet ----. and the massive meteor impact that preceded
A) while their habitat gives them an even keener it, are generally held by geologists to have
sense of security caused the extinction of the dinosaurs.

B) even though they were to carry such an E) According to certain geologists, the extinction of
enormous weight the dinosaurs occurred about 65 million years
ago when there was a massive meteor impact
C) which enable them to pick up low frequency followed by a rain of nitric acid.
vibrations from the ground
D) as their way of life was naturally a nomadic one
37. Bir fırtına, Kuzel Đtalya üzerinden Adriyatik’e
E) that had helped them to survive in changing but geçerken, bununla gelen alçak atmosfer basıncı,
usually hostile environments yerel deniz seviyesini yarım metre kadar
yükseltir.
A) The sea level is likely to rise by about half a
metre when a storm crosses northern Italy and
comes to the Adriatic, bringing a low
atmospheric pressure.
B) A storm passing over northern Italy and into the
35. ----, there is still a slight chance that a rogue
Adriatic brings with it a low atmospheric
black hole could come out of the depths of
pressure that causes the sea level there to rise
interstellar space and catch us unawares.
by at least half a metre.
A) If only an early warning system could be
C) The sea level in the Adriatic can rise by nearly
devised
half a metre whenever a storm coming via
B) Because black holes would fling light at us in a northern Italy arrives bringing low atmosphere
pattern of concentric rings pressure.
C) Whether a black hole is presently within the D) When a storm passes over northern Italy into
range of our telescopes the Adriatic, the low atmospheric pressure that
comes with it raises the local sea level by up to
D) The scientists working on black holes were half a metre.
concerned
E) The low atmospheric pressure brought to the
E) Although black holes are rare in our Galaxy Adriatic by storms that have come across
northern Italy can cause sea levels there to rise
by up to half a metre.

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38. Organik çiftçiler kimyasal gübre kullanmazlar; 40. Some ecologists believe that species diversity
ancak, toprağın verimliliğini ürün artıklarını ve will not be reduced significantly as the natural
doğal gübreyi toprağa karıştırarak artırırlar. environment becomes permanently
impoverished.
A) Though organic farmers use no chemical
fertilisers, they successfully create a fertile soil A) Doğal çevre tamamen fakirleşmiş olduğu için,
by working into it crop residues and manure. bazı çevrebilimciler, tür çeşitliliğinin hiçbir
zaman düzelemeyeceğine inanmaktadırlar.
B) Organic farmers don’t use chemical fertilisers;
however, they build up soil fertility by working B) Tür çeşitliliğinin hiçbir zaman artmayacağına
into it crop residues and manure. inanan bazı çevrebilimciler, doğal çevrenin
tamamen fakirleştiğini ileri sürmektedirler.
C) Organic farmers manage to build up soil fertility
very successfully by working in crop residues C) Bazı çevrebilimciler, doğal çevre kalıcı olarak

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and manure, but no chemical fertilisers. fakirleşirken, tür çeşitliliğinin önemli ölçüde
azalmayacağına inanmaktadırlar.
D) Because organic farmers avoid chemical
fertilisers, they use crop residues and manure D) Bazı çevrebilimcilerinin inandığı gibi, tür
to build up high levels of fertility in the soil. çeşitliliği hiçbir zaman eski durumuna
gelemeyecek, çünkü doğal çevre sürekli bir
E) Even though organic farmers don’t use şekilde yıkıma uğramaktadır.
chemical fertilisers, they build up soil fertility by
working crop residues and manure into the soil. E) Doğal çevrenin tamamen fakirleştiğini ileri süren
bazı çevrebilimciler, tür çeşitliliğinin hiçbir
zaman artmayacağına inanmaktadırlar.

39. - 41. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümlenin


anlamına en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz.

39. We know that, unless we take action right away,


certain marine species will start to become 41. Agricultural researchers in developed countries
extinct due to the alarming decline of are working to develop strains of rice that
biodiversity. produce high yields with less water.

A) Biyolojik çeşitliliğin korkunç bir şekilde azalması A) Gelişmiş ülkelerdeki zirai araştırmacılar, çeşitli
sonucu bazı deniz canlılarının yok olacağını ve pirinç türleri geliştirerek, az su ile yüksek verim
hemen harekete geçmemiz gerektiğini biliyoruz. elde etmeye çalışmaktadır.

B) Hemen eyleme geçmediğimiz takdirde, biyolojik B) Zirai araştırmacılar, gelişmiş ülkelerde, az su ile
çeşitliliğin azalması sonucu, bazı deniz yüksek verim elde edebilmek amacıyla, çeşitli
canlılarının yok olmaya başlamasının endişe pirinç türleri üzerinde çalışmaktadır.
verici olduğunu biliyoruz. C) Gelişmiş ülkelerin zirai araştırmacıları, az suya
C) Bildiğimiz kadarıyla, derhal harekete rağmen çok verim sağlayan pirinç türlerini
geçmezsek, bazı deniz canlıları yok olmaya geliştirmeye çalışmaktadır.
başlayacak, çünkü biyolojik çeşitlilik endişe D) Gelişmiş ülkelerdeki zirai araştırmacılar, az su
verici bir hızla azalıyor. kullanarak çok verim elde edebilmek için,
D) Biliyoruz ki hemen eyleme geçmezsek, bazı değişik pirinç türlerine ilişkin çalışmalar
deniz canlıları, biyolojik çeşitliliğin endişe verici yapmaktadır.
azalması nedeniyle yok olmaya başlayacak. E) Gelişmiş ülkelerdeki zirai araştırmacılar, az su
E) Biliyoruz ki hızla eyleme geçmediğimiz takdirde, ile yüksek verim sağlayan pirinç türleri
biyolojik çeşitliliğin azalması sonucu bazı deniz geliştirmek için çalışmaktadır.
canlılarının yok olması endişe vericidir.

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42. - 46. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla okundu- 45. (I) The origin of the asteroids is uncertain. (II) An
ğunda, anlam bütünlüğünü bozan cümleyi asteroid would then remain in the same relative
bulunuz. position, provided the initial velocity were suitably
chosen. (III) It has been supposed that they are
42. (I) A committee of prominent physicists, chemists fragments of a former planet which has broken up.
and others was appointed to investigate the (IV) An alternative view is that they represent
properties of TEL (tetraethyl lead). (II) The material, which did not coalesce to form a single
committee presently reported mild health effects body at the time the other planets were formed. (V)
from the use of lead but nothing drastic enough to If so, this was possibly the result of the disturbing
justify a ban. (III) Increased ventilation and other action of Jupiter.
plant improvements reduced the workplace hazard
to an acceptable level. (IV) In their opinion, TEL was A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
dangerous only in concentrated form, not when

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diluted in gasoline. (V) If reasonable precautions
were taken and mixing was performed at distribution
centres instead of at the point of purchase, there
would be no cause for concern.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

46. (I) One main challenge in the production of ready-


43. (I) Of all the legacies of the ancient seas the most mixed paints was the achievement of complete
valuable is petroleum. (II) No one knows exactly dispersion of the pigment in the vehicle. (II) All the
what geologic processes have created these
early patent paints had a poor reputation because
precious pools of liquid deep within the earth. (III)
they were thin and lacked opacity. (III) The
But one thing seems certain. (IV) On the other hand,
widespread use of lime and calcium carbonate instead
few geologists believe that petroleum formation is of the more expensive white lead produced paint that
linked with volcanic action. (V) Petroleum is a result
streaked. (IV) Some manufacturers diluted their paints
of fundamental earth processes that have been with too much water. (V) Others added crushed
operating at least since the beginning of Palaeozoic
pebbles to make the cans heavier.
time.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

44. (I) Geologists are presently seeking ways of


detecting earthquakes before they strike. (II) If they
are successful, then people may be evacuated from
a danger area before the earthquake happens. (III)
Geologists are also carrying out experiments in
earthquake control. (IV) It is calculated that there
are as many as 500,000 earthquakes in a single
year. (V) If these experiments are successful, it may
be possible, in the future, to minimize the
destructive force of earthquakes.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

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47. - 51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş 49. Andy :
bırakılan kısmında söylenmiş olabilecek sözü - I hear they are trying to improve the design of
bulunuz. stadiums for the World Cup.

47. Mel : Mike :


- Funny how one always focuses on the nearest - ----
and most immediate danger and not on the Andy :
more remote and longer lasting one! - What use will they be?
Frank : Mike :
- ---- - They’ll enable sufficient sunlight to get through
Mel : to enable the grass to grow.

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- Volcanoes. Did you know that among other
things, the ash from them contaminates water,
destroys crops and clogs the engines of A) The main problem is keeping the playing
aircraft? surface in perfect condition.

Frank : B) Yes; and at huge expense, too, I believe.


- No I didn’t; but I can believe it.
C) I’m not sure that all these technical innovations
really are necessary.

A) I think you’re exaggerating the situation. D) That’s right; they are experimenting with
semitransparent fabric roofs over the side
B) Why do you say that? stands.
C) Today we face all sorts of dangers, don’t we? E) In Sapporo they came up with something quite
D) I suppose the remote one is so easy to exotic, with two arenas.
recognise.
E) What have you been reading about?

48. Reg : 50. Peter :


- Why are people so excited about the discovery - We had double-glazing installed throughout the
of vast quantities of ice on Mars? house last year and are immensely pleased
with it.
Jim :
- ---- Colin :
- ----
Reg :
- Then it is a lucky find. Is there a large quantity Peter :
of it? - As far as I’m concerned, the main one is a
reduction in fuel costs due to efficient
Jim : insulation.
- Enough to fill Lake Michigan twice over if it
were melted! Colin :
- Yes, that is important. Presumably, it also cuts
down on noise.
A) Because one of the problems of a manned
expedition to Mars has always been the
carrying of enough water to support the crew. A) That must have cost you quite a lot!

B) Because most of the ice is situated around the B) Is it really worthwhile?


south pole though there may also be some in
C) Just what are the benefits?
the north.
D) My wife’s keen on it, but I’m not so sure.
C) Because, as spring approaches, the glaciers
are slowly receding. E) Does it really achieve all they promise?
D) That’s why the Mars Express mission will use
radar to search down several kilometres.
E) The crucial question, of course, is still “What
are the implications for life?” and until we send
a manned expedition there we can’t know for
certain.

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51. Interviewer : 52. - 56. sorularda, parçada boş bırakılan yere
- What advice do you have for people wishing to uygun düşen ifadeyi bulunuz.
go on a space trip?
52. The world’s ten most important coral reef
Space tourist :
hotspots have been identified. The sites, which
- ----
are all over the world, have one thing in
Interviewer : common: ----. The findings contradict a long-
- Why do you say that? held contention that marine species are unlikely
to become extinct because of their vast
Space tourist :
geographic ranges in the oceans.
- Well, I had to train for seven months, but the
training period will gradually be reduced, and A) they are all rich in marine species found only in
so will the costs. small areas and therefore highly vulnerable to

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extinction
A) Ask me that when I get back.
B) habitat destruction leads to loss of biodiversity
B) I’d say wait a while. It’s going to get far more
accessible quite soon. C) most of the world’s coral reefs are under threat
from human activities, in particular from
C) Make sure that you really want to! There’s more pollution
hard work involved and less fun than most
people imagine. D) the advantages of an integrated land and sea
conservation strategy are suggested by at least
D) Make sure you are physically very fit indeed! eight of them
E) Well, I wished to; I worked hard at it; and now E) the ten hotspots account for a tiny 0,017 per
I’m going! cent of the oceans, but 34 per cent of restricted
range coral reef species

53. The training for tourists travelling into space is


tough; the journey itself is even tougher. ---- .
Moreover, the G-forces push their organs and
blood to the back of their body. Eight minutes
later they should be 805 km above Earth,
travelling at speeds of more than 40,234 km/h.
A) Besides the vigorous training programme, there
are stringent medical and fitness tests
B) The view and the experience, however, more
than compensate for any unpleasantness
C) After ignition the force of acceleration drags on
the tourists with the weight of eight men
D) Would-be travellers to space have also to
complete a 22-month training programme
E) The G-force exercises are perhaps the most
demanding part of the training

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54. One important aim of this “Scientific 56. Acid rain not only kills fish, it also erodes
Opportunities” organisation is to create a more buildings. Airborne urban pollution, including
2
welcoming environment for creative, inventive SO , nitric acid and carbon particles (soot) is
thinkers. ----; but they are tools that aren’t used deposited on the wet surfaces of stonework to
nearly enough. Too many young people become form unsightly black crusts. ---- . Porous stones
bored with science and maths education, and and sandstone are especially vulnerable.
they learn far too little about what the great
inventors have done to create the world we live A) To make matters worse, the features of many of
in. these statues have also been eroded away

A) Other skills are naturally required if the job is to B) Air pollution was much worse in Western cities
be done properly 30 years ago than it is today
C) The crust is essentially soot, mixed with

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B) No cause is more important than cultivating the
potential of the human mind gypsum - the soft mineral calcium sulphate
which forms when stone reacts with sulphuric
C) Every trade has its own tools and special acid
equipment
D) Another problem that used to be associated
D) Invention and creativity are humanity’s most with acid rain was lead poisoning, but plastic
powerful tools for making the world a better pipe work has more or less eliminated this risk
place
E) Rural sources of acidity from industrial sites
E) This is its long-standing mission and to achieve have similarly been increasing at an alarming
it every available tool is being used rate

55. There is very little similarity between the


chemical composition of river water and that of
sea water. The various elements are present in
entirely different proportions. ----. An important
reason for the difference is that immense
amounts of calcium salts are constantly being
withdrawn from sea water by marine animals for
the making of shells and skeletons.
A) The ocean is the earth’s greatest storehouse of
minerals
B) The rivers bring in four times as much calcium
as chloride, for example; yet in the ocean the
proportions are reversed; there is 46 times as
much chloride as calcium
C) Although the earth is constantly shifting her
component materials from place to place, the
heaviest movements are always from land to
sea, not from sea to land
D) The annual flow of water seaward is believed to
be about 5,500 cubic miles, and this inflow of
river water gives the ocean several billion
tonnes of salts
E) In a single cubic mile of sea water there are, on
the average, 166 million tons of dissolved salts

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57. - 59. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya gore 58. It is clear from the passage that William
cevaplayınız. Willcocks was upset ----.

William Willcocks was born 150 years ago in a tent A) to find out that the ancient irrigation systems of
beside a canal in northern India, where his father Mesopotamia were inadequate
worked for the colonial government. He learnt his B) because the first Aswan dam was needlessly
engineering in India before heading for Egypt in large and costly
1883. There he rose to become director-general of
reservoirs, and a legend on the banks of the Nile. C) when he realised the work of his fellow water
He built the first Aswan dam, then the largest in the engineers in the colonies was utterly ineffective
world, went on to revive the ancient irrigation D) to discover that the water resources of south
systems of Mesopotamia, and watered deserts from
Africa were not sufficient to irrigate the desert
south Africa to India. But he was deeply troubled by

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the discovery that much of what his fellow water E) because the whole responsibility for the
engineers did in their colonial playgrounds was construction of the Aswan dam was on his
worse than useless. shoulders

57. We gather from the passage that William 59. As it is stated in the passage, Willcocks’s work
Willcocks ----. in Egypt ----.
A) travelled all over India in search of fresh water A) brought about a rapid change in the economic
resources life of the country
B) devoted his engineering skills to the B) earned him fame, power and prestige
improvement of agriculture in India alone
C) was of secondary importance compared with
C) was inspired by his father in choosing what he was to do in India
engineering as a profession
D) was confined to the construction of the Aswan
D) came from a wealthy and influential English dam
family in India
E) has always been underestimated
E) was an extremely talented irrigation specialist of
the late 19th century

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60. - 62. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya gore 61. According to the passage, one fact that opened
cevaplayınız. the way to the development of radar was ----.

The acronym ‘radar’, for radio detection and A) the use of electromagnetic waves by the US
ranging, has been credited to the US Navy, which Navy
used it officially towards the end of 1940, but the B) the pressing need for the prevention of
concept of radar is somewhat older. Hertz showed collisions on land and sea
that metals would reflect electromagnetic waves and
Tesla is said to have suggested using this C) the interference in radio experiments when
phenomenon in a radar-like manner in 1899. A few ships or aircraft passed by
years later a German, Christian Hulsmeyer,
D) the growing hostilities between East and West
received patents for a ship’s anticollision device.
Also many radio engineers and experimenters E) America’s entry into World War II

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observed that passing aircraft or ships interfered
with their experiments. Although these features are
all suggestive of radar, none was actually radar
unless the term is very loosely defined. In the
1930s, however, several of the major powers
became aware of the military possibilities of radar
and work on it started immediately in the USA,
Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the
Soviet Union. By the end of World War II, military
radar, and military radio navigation aids too, were
well developed.

60. We understand from the passage that the work 62. It is clear from the passage that many of the
on radar ----. world’s leading countries ----.
A) was begun by Hertz and completed by A) were keen to develop radar because of its
Hulsmeyer military advantages
B) only began upon the outbreak of World War II B) had been involved in the development of radar
from 1899 onwards
C) received almost no scientific attention until the
end of 1940 C) were worried about the sharp increase in
collisions at sea
D) was originally undertaken by the US Navy
D) decided to pool their resources so as to develop
E) developed very fast during World War II
radar at a faster rate
E) were investing large sums of money to improve
the navigational techniques of their military
aircraft

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63. - 65. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya gore 64. As it is clear from the passage, the “wing
cevaplayınız. warping” technique that is presently being
tested ----.
Aviation is about to go back to its roots. Nearly 100
years after the Wright brothers’ first heavier-than-air A) is a brand new technique especially developed
powered flight, the US Air Force is testing an for supersonic aviation
experimental plane that uses “wing warping”, which B) in fact dates back to the early history of aviation
is the steering and control technique that kept
Orville Wright aloft in 1903. But this time round, it C) is being sharply contested by the USAF
will be at supersonic speeds. Unlike conventional D) is unlikely to prove effective in supersonic
aircraft wings, which use movable surfaces like flaps
aircraft
on the wings and the tail, wing warping bends the
entire wing. The USAF call it “active aeroelastic E) will probably have no noticeable effect on an

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wing” technology, and is investing $41 million in the aircraft’s performance
project in the hope that it will lead to lighter, more
manoeuvrable supersonic planes.

63. We understand from the passage that the reason 65. The phrase “kept Orville Wright aloft” in lines 5-
why the USAF is giving so much importance to 6 means ----.
the “wing warping” technique is ----. A) gave Orville Wright an easy control
A) because they believe it may help them to B) helped Orville Wright to fly faster
produce supersonic planes that are easier to
control and less heavy C) lifted Orville Wright into the air

B) because it will improve the performance of D) enabled Orville Wright to stay in the air
conventional aircraft by increasing their weight E) made Orville Wright fly more safely
C) because it will help them to cut down on
production costs of supersonic aircraft
D) to enable combat aircraft to develop a more
effective defence system
E) to ensure that the wings can withstand
supersonic speeds over long periods of time

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66. - 68. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya gore 67. According to the passage, the Conowingo dam
cevaplayınız. holds back large quantities of sediment ----.

Like so many American waterways, the Chesapeake A) so the water going into the bay is lacking in
Bay, an enormous, semi-saline body of water that is nutrients
treasured for its aquatic life, became badly polluted B) which means that the water flowing into the
th
during the 20 century. But it has regained much of Chesapeake Bay is almost salt free
its biological vitality since the early 1970s, thanks to
concerted ecological stewardship. In this effort, the C) and has to be constantly cleaned
Conowingo dam has provided valuable assistance.
D) though this was not thought of when the dam
Environmentalists are not often fond of dams, which
was designed
have a habit of trapping migratory fish and
disrupting sensitive water ecosystems - not to

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E) as well as a great many migratory fish
mention looking ugly. But the Conowingo dam on
the Susquehanna river in eastern Maryland is an
exception. Since its construction in 1928, the
Conowingo dam has not only generated electricity
but also trapped vast amounts of sediment behind
its imposing walls. This was not a function the
builders had planned for, but in recent years its
value has become clear. The water flowing past the
Conowingo dam is much cleaner than it would
otherwise be. Even America’s onceendangered
national symbol, the bald eagle, can be seen
perching near the dam, waiting to swoop down and
seize a meal of fish by its talons.

66. As it is pointed out in the passage, dams are not 68. We learn from the passage that one gratifying
usually popular among environmentalists ----. sign that the Chesapeake Bay is no longer
seriously polluted is the fact that ---- .
A) but the Conowingo dam has their approval
A) the bald eagle is now no longer an endangered
B) unless they disrupt sensitive water ecosystems species
C) and especially all those on the Susquehanna B) America has made the bald eagle her natural
river symbol
D) but the Conowingo dam, because of its C) the bald eagle that feeds on fish has returned to
imposing appearance, is generally admired the region
E) although they acknowledge that most are D) its biological variety has remained unchanged
environmentally friendly
E) the water is so clear one can see the aquatic
life there

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69. - 71. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya gore 70. One interesting point made in the passage is
cevaplayınız. that ----.

More than half of astronauts suffer from space A) astronauts get used to zero gravity before
sickness, also known as Space Adaptation setting off on a space mission
Syndrome. Symptoms include headaches, nausea, B) the structure of the inner ear is more
vomiting and poor concentration. The main cause of complicated than that of other organs
space sickness is disorientation caused by exposure
to zero gravity conditions. The human body is used C) the earth’s gravitational field has, in the long
to a much stronger gravitational field on Earth and run, an adverse effect upon the human body
organs in the inner ear, along with canals that sense D) astronauts learn to maintain their balance in
motion, tell the brain about the location of the limbs space by ignoring visual signals
relative to the ground. In other words, they’re

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responsible for balance. Unfortunately, the signals E) the human brain can, after a certain length of
from these organs in the inner ear go wrong in zero time, learn to adapt to zero gravity
gravity, leading to space sickness. Over time
though, the brain learns to ignore them and relies
instead on visual clues, such as the position of the
feet, to determine balance. Astronauts quickly re-
adapt to Earth’s gravity within a few days and there
are probably no long-term effects from this strange
affliction.

71. We learn from the passage that within the


69. As we understand from the passage, the “Space Earth’s gravitational field ----.
Adaptation Syndrome” ----.
A) the space adaptation syndrome of astronauts
A) brings about serious damage to the inner immediately disappears
organs of the astronauts
B) we maintain our balance through the organs of
B) persists for a very long time after the astronauts the inner ear
return to earth
C) the symptoms of space sickness continue to
C) means the physical disorientation experienced increase noticeably
by a majority of astronauts in space
D) symptoms similar to those of space sickness
D) is in no way related to zero gravity are quite unknown
E) has only been observed in recent space E) astronauts who have experienced zero gravity
missions never again feel quite comfortable

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72. - 74. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya gore 73. We understand from the passage that the
cevaplayınız. question “Why do transformers hum?” ---- .

Why do transformers hum? This is one of those A) has never been adequately answered
questions which seems easy but has surprising B) appears straightforward but the answer is
hidden depths. The simple explanation is that extremely complicated
electric currents create magnetic fields, and the
alternating current of mains electricity used by C) has been under discussion from the time
transformers creates a magnetic field that changes transformers were first made
at 50 cycles a second. This in turn triggers a regular
D) has raised doubts concerning the safety of
motion of the metal molecules inside the
mains electricity
transformer, known as magnetostriction. It’s this
motion that makes the surrounding air vibrate,

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E) has opened the way to the manufacture of
creating the hum. But why does the metal respond quieter transformers
in this way? The answer lies in a property of the
electrons in the metal known as ‘spin’ - a property
which can only be explained by reference to
Einstein’s theory of relativity, which is beyond the
understanding of most of us.

72. It is pointed out in the passage that the sound 74. In the passage, the question “Why does the
produced by a transformer ----. metal respond in this way?” ----.

A) is actually the vibration of the air caused by the A) bears no relationship with the phenomenon
movement of the metal molecules within the known as “magnetostriction”
transformer B) refers to the creation of magnetic fields by
B) is only noticeable when it occurs in an enclosed mains electricity
space C) can be fully answered without reference to the
C) varies according to the type of magnetic field theory of relativity
created D) can be answered far more easily than can the
D) can easily be eliminated opening question

E) varies according to the size of the magnetic E) is not answered in a clear and detailed manner
field in which it occurs

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75. - 77. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya gore 76. It is pointed out in the passage that “The Time
cevaplayınız. Machine” by H.G. Wells ----.

Time travel has been a favourite science fiction A) was to a large extent inspired by Einstein’s
theme ever since it was first used in H.G. Wells’s theory of relativity
trailblazing novel “The Time Machine”. But not B) was the first novel to deal with the idea of time
everything it describes is science fiction: travelling travel
forward in time, for example, is a proven fact.
Einstein’s theory of relativity predicts that an C) is the only early work of science fiction that still
observer moving relative to Earth can leap into remains popular
Earth’s future, and the effect has been confirmed
D) is still regarded as a standard reference for time
using atomic clocks. Dramatic time warps require
travel studies
speeds close to that of light, which is possible in

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principle but would take a major feat of engineering, E) focuses on travel into the past rather than into
not to mention a lot of money. Going back in time is the future
far more problematic. Relativity does not rule out an
observer being able to make a journey through
space-time and return to the past. But all scenarios
so far discussed require exotic circumstances.

77. The passage makes the point that it is possible


75. According to the passage, going back in time to travel into Earth’s future ----.
----.
A) and indeed this has already been achieved
A) may not be impossible but presents a great
many difficulties B) though this has not been verified by atomic
clocks
B) has been feasible ever since Einstein
formulated the theory of relativity C) if Einstein’s theory of relativity is found to be
true
C) is completely contradicted by the theory of
relativity D) at reasonably attainable speeds

D) requires speeds that are greater than the speed E) but technically and financially it is still not
of light possible

E) was an idea originally put forward by Einstein

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78. - 80. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya gore 79. As we understand from the passage, Bardeen
cevaplayınız. ----.

In a biography of Bardeen, recently published, he A) showed very little interest in his students and
does not fit the popular stereotype of scientific their work
genius, for he is surprisingly sane and ordinary. As B) was generally regarded as having several
far as character goes, he had several assets. To shortcomings
start with he was a notable team builder. Tenacious
when it came to attacking problems, he had the gift of C) really disliked attending scientific conferences
breaking a large problem down into smaller, more and giving papers
soluble parts and then reassembling the whole. As a
D) was by nature a modest person who preferred
teacher, his habit of stopping to think allowed his to keep a low profile
students to do so too. Government and industry

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valued his advice - according to one commentator, E) achieved nothing of any scientific importance
he helped Xerox to build one of the finest industrial prior to the 1970s
laboratories in the world in the fields of organic and
disordered solids during the late 1970s. But,
perhaps, the most telling aspect of Bardeen’s
character was his willingness to share the credit with
others. For example, he deliberately stayed away
from the meeting of the American Physical Society
in March 1957, at which his theory of
superconductivity was first presented, so that the
contribution of his young co-researchers would be
recognised.

80. It is clear from the passage that, unlike many


78. It is emphasised in the passage that Bardeen’s
really great scientists, Bardeen had the gift of
ideas ----.
----.
A) almost invariably centred on the study of
A) getting the utmost benefit out of his co-
organic solids
researchers work
B) frequently had a practical application
B) persuading governments to support his
C) received very little recognition in his own research projects
lifetime
C) choosing the right problems to work on, that is,
D) had no direct bearing on industrial practices the ones that could be solved
E) were in the opinion of other scientists rather D) writing biographical works as well as scientific
stereotyped ones
E) working effectively with other people and
sharing his ideas with them

TEST BĐTTĐ !
CEVAPLARINIZI KONTROL
EDĐNĐZ.

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CEVAP ANAHTARI

ÜDS FEN - (ARALIIK) 2002

1. B 2. C 3. A 4. B 5. C 6. D 7. E 8. B 9. A 10. E

11. D 12. B 13. B 14. E 15. D 16. A 17. C 18. D 19. A 20. C

21. C 22. B 23. A 24. E 25. D 26. B 27. C 28. E 29. D 30. A

31. D 32. B 33. A 34. C 35. E 36. A 37. D 38. B 39. D 40. C

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41. E 42. C 43. D 44. D 45. B 46. C 47. E 48. A 49. D 50. C

51. B 52. A 53. A 54. E 55. B 56. C 57. E 58. C 59. B 60. E

61. C 62. A 63. A 64. B 65. C 66. A 67. D 68. C 69. C 70. E

71. B 72. A 73. B 74. E 75. B 76. B 77. A 78. B 79. D 80. E

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1.-18. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere 6. I couldn't follow the section on quantum
uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. computers, but the rest is ---- easy to
understand.
1. In 1838, the area around the base of the Leaning A) comparatively B) permanently
Tower of Pisa was excavated to ---- columns that
had sunk underground. C) consequently D) sensibly
E) comprehensibly
A) descend B) complete
C) enforce D) establish
E) expose

7. This comprehensive Encyclopedia of Antarctica


spans subjects ranging ---- the history of
exploration ---- glaciology, geology and biology.

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A) through / in B) of / with
2. In the first half of the 20th century many
C) in / of D) from / to
scientists ---- liquid crystals as chemical
impurities with no scientific or practical merit. E) over / for
A) put down B) wrote off
C) let go of D) took care of
E) left out
8. ---- industry is concerned, money spent on
research is money well spent.
A) According to B) As much as
C) As far as D) Even so
3. I hope predictions that we'll begin to ---- oil E) With regard to
around the year 2015 will convince people to use
this precious resource more sparingly.
A) run out of B) bring about
C) slow down D) make do with
9. Laser beams, ---- are useful in both medicine and
E) send out for industry, were first predicted in science fiction
some fifty years ago.
A) which B) what C)
whatever D) where
E) whose
4. It is now realized that forest sizes have a ----
influence on the climate.
A) reliable B) compulsive
10. Traffic congestion is frequently not caused by
C) significant D) controversial
overloading ---- by small disturbances in the
E) sensitive flow.
A) as B) but
C) as well as D) more
E) than

5. Animal ---- that live in large communities are


much more dependent on each other than was
previously believed.
A) instincts B) patterns
C) relatives D) species
E) habitats

11. Physicists certainly know more about the


universe now than ----, but if anything they are
---- puzzled.
A) once more / so B) once before / too

C) ever before / even more


D) at such times / as much
E) ever since / the more
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12. The texture of the rock suggested it came from 15. Soon, a revolutionary new steam engine ----
an asteroid and not from a loose, sooty ice ball speedboats more safely and efficiently than a
---- a comet. conventional outboard motor.
A) including B) like A) has been powering
C) as D) as well as B) would have powered
E) such C) may be powering
D) might have powered
E) can have powered

13. In order to establish the date of these footprints


he ---- a technique that ---- when the sand grains
were last exposed to light.

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16. He assures me that the Department of Marine
A) uses / measured Biogeochemistry, which ---- up in the 1970s, ----
B) will use / has measured ever since.
C) has used / will measure A) was set/ has been expanding
D) had used / would measure B) had been set / was expanding
E) used / measures C) would be set / will expand
D) has been set / is expanding
E) would have been set / will be expanding

14. In his report he ---- that the scanning technology


---- with novel textile manufacturing techniques.
A) may recommend / has been combined 17. To protect yourself from computer viruses, start
B) recommends / was combined by not opening attachments you ----, and ----
suspicious mail immediately.
C) has recommended / had been combined
A) haven't expected / to delete
D) recommended / should be combined
B) are not expecting / deleting
E) had recommended / would have been
C) were not expecting / to be deleted
combined
D) didn't expect / having deleted
E) won't expect / to have deleted

18. To underline its confidence ---- the venture, one


space company is already developing a US-
based space port to be ready ---- the first flights
in 2005.
A) with / against B) of / with C) for / by
D) at / into E) in / for

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19. - 23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada 24. - 35. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde
numaralandırılmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.
ya da ifadeyi bulunuz.
24. ---- that is open to the amateur as well as the
The more technologically enhanced we become, the professional.
more we are going to (19) — from people in the
developing world who have never (20) — made a A) Today we know a lot about meteor showers and
phone call. As scientists we must think of planetary weather
imaginative ways (21) — the developing world can B) Astronomy is one of the few sciences
leap forward from the 19th century into the 21st
century. (22) — the gap never will be bridged and C) The mapping of solar, lunar and planetary
we (23) — ourselves in a world that really is surfaces has been accurately carried out
unsustainable.
D) Thanks to advances in modem astronomy,

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more discoveries have been made about
19. asteroids, comets, novae and supernovae
A) exceed B) distinguish
E) Through the use of computers and electronic
C) distract D) diverge imaging devices, our knowledge of the celestial
constellations has grown rapidly
E) proceed

20.
A) even B) but 25. ---- how acid rain would affect trees.
C) still D)just A) The decrease in sulphur deposition has been so
E) enough marked
B) The death of forests became a major concern in
the 1980s and led to dire predictions

21. C) There were many erroneous ideas about


A) whether B) in which D) In the 1980s and 1990s, there were concerns in
the West
C) as if D) surely
E) since E) Some geologists have argued

22.
A) Similarly B) Whatever 26. Just as railway bridges were the great structural
C) Accordingly D) Therefore symbols of the 19th century, ----.
E) Otherwise A) highway bridges became the engineering
emblems of the 20th century
B) the invention of the automobile created an
irresistible demand for better roads
23.
C) most highway bridges carry lighter loads than
A) would find B) have found railway bridges do
C) are going to find D) were finding
D) the type of bridge needed for cars and trucks is
E) had to find fundamentally different from that needed for
trains
E) an arch bridge curves upwards to support the
roadway

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27. ---- what everybody assumed to be true. 30. The new sports car has a glass windbreaker ----.
A) The truly outstanding achievement of the A) as if acceleration were its best feature
principle of natural selection had been
B) since driver and passenger could talk without
B) Many biological ideas proposed during the past shouting
150 years stood in stark conflict with
C) if this weren't one of the standard features
C) The theory of evolution by natural selection is
thought to explain D) which keeps cabin wind to a minimum

D) Another aspect of the new philosophy of biology E) once it goes into production in the autumn
concerns
E) The scientific foundation created by Darwin has
been

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31. Even today, few people outside the scientific
world know the name of the Scottish physicist
28. ---- because each type behaves differently and ----.
has a different effect on human health.
A) who discovered the physics of radio, TV and
A) On a global scale, most particulates come from light itself
natural sources
B) whose research into the nature of light had still
B) Solid particulates include grit from building sites to be confirmed
and soot from industrial chimneys
C) since he never lived to see the triumphant
C) Fortunately larger particles do not pose a health vindication of his work
risk
D) though a law governing the behavior of atoms
D) Field experiments on wind-borne sand and dust would be called Maxwellian Distribution
had already been carried out
E) if he were one of the greatest scientists of the
E) The study of particulates is an arduous one 19th century

29. As space shuttles are designed to work in a 32. The Earth is thought to be 4.6 billion years old
vacuum, ----. ----.
A) NASA engineers are hoping to cut take off A) because rocks dating back to the early
weights by half geological ages have been discovered in some
B) about 85 per cent of its weight is fuel parts of California

C) the method is obviously inefficient but better B) even though almost half the Earth is still
ones have yet to be found wilderness

D) they have to carry not only fuel but the oxygen C) so that astronomical observations and
to burn it measurements could be made far more
accurately
E) such craft could accelerate to about ten times
the speed of sound D) though until recently few geological traces have
been found that date back further than 3.6
billion years
E) since at the beginning it was a lifeless planet
still being bombarded by asteroids and comets

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33. Atomic clocks keep time by tracking the waves 36.-38. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümleye
which atoms emit ----. anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz.
A) as they oscillate between different energy levels
36. Some American organizations are supporting
B) though there are other viable ways to improve it Russian research efforts to upgrade the
C) because they lose only 1 second in 150 million country's technology, but this is a slow and
years agonizing process.

D) before they can replace the clocks which are A) Birtakım Amerikan kuruluşları, yavaş ve eziyetli
currently in use bir yöntem olsa da, Rus araştırma çabalarını
destekleyerek ülkenin teknolojisini ilerletiyor.
E) while researchers have been working on an
alternative B) Bazı Amerikan kuruluşları, Rus araştırma
çabalarını ülkenin teknolojisini ilerletmek için
destekliyor, ancak bu, yavaş ve eziyetli bir

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süreç.
C) Rus araştırma çabalarını ülkenin teknolojisini
ilerletmek işin destekleyen bazı Amerikan
Örgütleri yavaş ve zor bir süreç geçiriyor.
D) Amerikan kuruluşları, ülkenin teknolojisini
34. ----, it might be able to perform far more complex ilerletmek Đçin Rus araştırma çabalarının bir
tasks than today's machines. kısmına destek veriyor, ama bu yavaş olduğu
kadar zor bir süreç.
A) As the device is still in the early stages of
development E) Bazı Amerikan kuruluşları, hem yavaş hem de
eziyetli bir süreçte, Rus araştırma çabalarını
B) Even though no such computer as yet exists ülkenin teknolojisini ilerletmek için destekliyor.
C) Once the theory has been adequately tested
D) Unless there is fresh evidence to the contrary
E) If such a computer could be made

37. With a population of roughly 10 billion people in


2050, some experts predict that the world will
need five times more power than we generate
today.
A) Bazı uzmanlara göre, bugün ürettiğimizden beş
kat daha fazla elektriğe gereksinim duyacak
35. By the early 1960s, geologists were discovering olan dünyamızın 2050'deki tahmin edilen
----. nüfusu 10 milyardır.

A) according to which theory the continents of the B) Dünya nüfusunun 2050'de 10 milyar olacağını
Earth had once all been joined together düşünen bazı uzmanlar, bugün üretilenden beş
kat fazla elektriğe gereksinim duyulacağını
B) since continental drift actually meant the tahmin etmektedir.
continents were moving further away from each
other C) Bazı uzmanlara göre, 2050'de dünya nüfusu 10
milyar olacak, fakat elektrik gereksinimi artarak
C) that hot molten rock was seeping up from inside bugün ürettiğimizin beş katına çıkacaktır.
the Earth in giant cracks under the oceans
D) Bazı uzmanların öngördüğü gibi, 2050'de dünya
D) so that continental drift is now regarded as nüfusu 10 milyara çıkmakla kalmayacak,
absolute fact elektrik gereksinimi de bugünkünün beş katına
çıkacaktır.
E) if the shapes of South America and Africa do
indeed fit like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle E) Bazı uzmanlar, 2050'de yaklaşık 10 milyar
nüfusu ile dünyanın, bugün ürettiğimizden beş
kat daha fazla elektriğe gereksinimi olacağını
tahmin etmektedir.

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38. Scientists have come up with a type of computer 40. Pek çok kişi, tepkime odasında karbonu hidrojen
memory that uses atoms to store information. gazıyla çok yüksek sıcaklıkta karıştırarak
hidrokarbon oluşturmaya çalışmış, ancak hiçbir
A) Bilim adamları, bilgi depolamak için atomları zaman başarılı olamamıştır.
kullanan bir bilgisayar bellek türü buldular.
A) Though scientists have tried to combine carbon
B) Bir tür bilgisayar belleği geliştiren bilim adamları, and hydrogen gas in reaction chambers at very
bilgi saklamak Đçin atomları kullanıyorlar. high temperatures, they now admit that it is
C) Bilginin saklanmasında atomları kullanan bilim impossible to produce hydrocarbons.
adamları, bir tür bilgisayar belleği geliştirdiler. B) There have been many attempts to produce
D) Bilim adamları, atomları kullanarak bilgi saklayan hydrocarbons through the combination of
bilgisayar belleğinin bir türünün geliştirilmesini carbon with hydrogen gas in a reaction chamber
öneriyorlar. at reasonably high temperatures, but without
success.

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E) Atomları kullanarak bilgi depolayan bilim
adamları, bunu bilgisayar belleği geliştirmede C) Efforts to produce hydrocarbons by combining
kullandılar. carbon with hydrogen gas at high temperatures
in reaction chambers have never been
successful.
D) Many people have tried to produce
hydrocarbons by combining carbon with
hydrogen gas in a reaction chamber at very
high temperatures, but they have never been
successful.
E) Scientists have never managed to produce
hydrocarbons in spite of their efforts to combine
carbon and hydrogen gas at extremely high
temperatures in reaction chambers.

39.-41. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye


anlamca en yakın Đngilizce cümleyi bulunuz.
41. Elmaslar yerkürenin derinliklerinde oluşur ve
39. Kimyacılar, fırın sıcaklığında şekerlerin ve amino sadece güçlü yanardağ patlamaları ile yüzeye
asitlerin sıkı kimyasal bağlar oluşturduğunu taşınabilir.
1912'den beri bilmektedirler.
A) The diamonds which form well below the
A) It was realized in 1912 that, at oven Earth's surface only emerge after powerful
temperatures, sugars and amino acids volcanic eruptions.
combined to form tight chemical bonds.
B) Diamonds form deep within the Earth and can
B) In 1912, chemists discovered that sugars and only be brought to the surface by powerful
amino acids formed tight chemical bonds at volcanic eruptions.
oven temperatures.
C) Powerful volcanic eruptions are needed to bring
C) Since 1912, chemists have known that, at oven to the surface diamonds which have formed
temperatures, sugars and amino acids form deep below the Earth's crust.
tight chemical bonds.
D) Violent volcanic eruptions have forced
D) Chemists first realized in 1912 that tight diamonds buried deep within the Earth to
chemical bonds could be produced between surface.
sugars and amino acids at oven temperatures.
E) Diamonds have been brought to the surface of
E) It was noted in 1912 that oven temperatures the Earth by violent volcanic activity, but they
were sufficient to cause tight chemical bonds are formed deep within the Earth.
between sugars and amino acids.

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42.- 46. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçanın 44. On the whole, only one-third of the oil in an oil
anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek field can be brought to the surface. Some is
cümleyi bulunuz. forced out by gas pressure when a well is drilled,
and engineers can sometimes pump water to
drive out more. ----. And although plastics can be
42. Some people believe that solar power stations
used to block stringers or even to increase the
on the moon could provide enough electricity to
viscosity of the water, they are very expensive. It
power the Earth by the year 2050. ----. This would
has been suggested that the problem can be
be sent to Earth-based receivers using a
solved effectively with the help of tiny bacteria
microwave beam, and converted back into
that form biofilms to block fissures.
electricity.
A) When oil companies want to squeeze more
A) There would be no need to ship raw materials to crude oil out of an oil well, they usually turn to
the moon because they are already present in experts in physics, chemistry or engineering

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the moon's dusty surface
B) But if the water escapes through layers of
B) As the population of Earth increases, more and
permeable rock called stringers, this strategy
more power is required
will fail
C) The moon has no weather, so a lunar power
C) When an oil well shows signs of running dry, it
station there would not be affected by clouds or
is time to call in experts to stop it leaking away
rain
D) Biofilms grow on every surface where there are
D) To achieve this, large banks of solar panels
bacteria
would be built on the moon to collect sunlight
and turn it into electricity E) Biofilms can make oil wells up to 20 per cent
more productive
E) In fact, just one per cent of the solar power
received by the moon would meet man's needs

45. The simplest way to measure gravity is with a


gravimeter, basically an extremely sensitive
43. A volcano in Papua New Guinea is threatening to
weighing device comprising a mass hanging on
erupt and put thousands of lives at risk. ----.
a spring. ----. But gravimeters are sensitive to
Fifteen thousand people have already been
movement, so it takes time to set up the
evacuated, and scientists fear the worst may be
equipment, and this makes surveys expensive.
yet to come.
A) Gravity surveys are also used to detect ore
A) As a precaution, the Papuan government is
bodies of minerals
considering increasing food supplies to the area
B) It is simple to use and get results quickly
B) For almost 500 years now there has been
virtually no action C) The stronger the gravity field, the further the
spring extends
C) The mission is proving to be one of the team's
most difficult so far D) However, magnetic storms can interfere with
the measurements
D) In fact, some areas are only accessible by
helicopter E) Small variations in the Earth's gravitational pull
show up well in such cases
E) For two months now it has been slowly pumping
out lava, and occasionally rocks and ash

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46. Smoke is a mixture of gases and particles. It is 47. -51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş
usually the product of a combustion process bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi
and, in this case, its composition depends on bulunuz.
the fuel and the technology used. The main gas
involved in smoke processes is carbon dioxide.
----. 47. Malcolm :
Do rocket launches damage the ozone layer?
A) But other gases such as carbon monoxide,
nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and sulphur Jude :
dioxide might also be present At present, no. The emission of ozone-
B) The warm air is higher than the cold air so there damaging nitrogen compounds is negligible.
is little vertical turbulence to carry smoke
upwards Malcolm :
----
C) Smoke rises because it is part of a stream of

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hot gases that are normally warmer than the Jude:
surrounding air That would be a different story. Dangerous
emissions would soar.
D) The vertical and straight nature of the smoke
plume depends very much on the wind A) Are all rockets launched by means of the same
conditions solid fuels?
E) Wood smoke is often seen in a layer above B) And also, of course, there aren't many space
houses where it is burnt and sometimes it launches happening.
subsequently descends to street level
C) But what if they start to launch rockets with
hydrazine?
D) I thought hydrazine was a nitrogen-based fuel.
E) But can we be sure of that? New studies keep
revealing new facts!

48. David :
Have you had a good look at the new seismic
hazard map yet?

Adam :
----

David :
But it makes one very important point: the
greatest hazard areas contain half the world's
largest cities.

Adam :
Is that so? That's pretty scary, isn't it?

A) No, I haven't. It looks pretty informative, though.


B) Yes, I have. It's been well-compiled and well-
annotated, hasn't it?
C) Why do you say that? Did you find something
interesting in it?
D) No, I haven't. Just a quick glance. It didn't seem
to say much.
E) Yes. It's good. You ought to take a look at it
yourself.

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49. Louis : 51. Gerald :
Have you considered getting a handheld My son seems to be set on getting a job in air
computer instead of a desktop? traffic control.

Merve : Roger :
---- ----

Louis : Gerald :
That's not true at all. The handheld is a Oh yes. Academically he's fully up to the job. But
miracle of miniaturization. And they can the strain must be terrible! Think of the
exchange information with desktop PCs. responsibility!

Merve : Roger :

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I didn't realize that. I must look into the Some people like it!
matter further.
A) All I know is that current networks won't be able
to cope with the increasing amount of aircraft in
A) No, I haven't. They do little more than store your Europe.
diary and address book.
B) I tried it once; but, it wasn't the right sort of job
B) No. I couldn't possibly afford one of them! for me!
C) Well, what do you think? I really don't know C) It's a job that attracts a lot of young people. Let
anything about them. him try it.
D) Except for size, I suppose they are not very D) Don't you agree that the monitoring of traffic
different from desktop PCs. Are there any other through our airports mustn't be taken lightly?
big differences?
E) And presumably you're not too keen on the
E) I always assumed that recharging them would idea? Has he got the right qualifications?
be a problem. Is it?

50. Harry :
Have you read that article on global warming
that I put on your desk?

Clive :
Yes I have. I was rather impressed by the
assertion that changes in land use aren't
being sufficiently taken into consideration.

Harry :
----

Clive:
It does indeed.

A) So was I. It stands to reason that forests help to


cool the atmosphere as water evaporating from
leaves absorbs heat.
B) In fact the planting of forests to absorb carbon
dioxide can actually lead to warming in areas of
heavy snowfall.
C) The subject is far more complex than I had
realized.
D) Obviously a great deal more research into the
subject is required.
E) Among the factors they included were estimated
changes in forest sizes and areas of farmland.

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52. -56. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla 55. (I) Wind power is gaining in favor all across
okunduğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü Europe. (II) Indeed, it is only the building of a wind-
bozan cümleyi bulunuz. farm that is expensive, running costs are low. (Ill)
There are several reasons for this. (IV) One is that
52. (I) Gravity has always been regarded by all the technical obstacles that previously existed
scientists as the most important force in the have been overcome. (V) Another is the increase in
universe. (II) Cosmic expansion was triggered by the efficiency, which means that wind can now compete
Big Bang 15 billion years ago. (Ill) They also directly with traditional power-generation methods.
believed that gravity was gradually slowing
down cosmic expansion. (IV) Recently, however, A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
there is evidence to suggest that the universal
expansion is actually accelerating. (V) If this is
so, then it would seem that gravity is actually
being opposed by an even more powerful cosmic
force.

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A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

56. (I) Water filters are particularly useful if you live in a


hard water area. (II) Hard water contains a higher
53. (I) A new kind of cat's- eye is now being tried out on
concentration of calcium than soft water. (III) It is this
some UK roads. (II) These new road studs flash
that causes lime scale in kettles, irons and other
without a headlight beam passing over them. (Ill)
electrical appliances. (IV) The main function of a filter
However, they just might be useful for attracting the
is to improve the appearance and the taste of water.
driver's attention for a pedestrian crossing. (IV) They
(V) It also means that you have to use more soap
include high-intensity light- emitting diodes (LEDs) to
than you would in soft water areas.
provide illumination. (V) The studs are solar-powered
and contain rechargeable batteries to store energy
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
over long periods of bad weather.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

54. (I) The use of radio waves as a medium for making


interstellar contact is discouraging. (II) The galaxy's
enormous distances inevitably require fantastic
measures such as stunningly high transmitter
power or huge antennas and impractically narrow
beams. (Ill) Certainly the kinds of systems that
would be needed to mount a realistic project to
beam a signal to a group of stars are probably
beyond the resources of the world. (IV)
Furthermore, even if contact could somehow be
made, the time delay before a response to a
message could be received might very well stretch
into many centuries. (V) For four decades,
researchers have sporadically scanned the
heavens for any radio signals.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

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57. - 60. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 59. According to the passage, there is a difference
cevaplayınız. of opinion as to ----.

It seems that a programme designed to destroy A) how genuine the complaints being made by
Columbia's huge illegal drugs business could be farmers actually arc
poisoning farmers and damaging the environment. B) the methodology to be used in the effective
Backed by 1.3 billion of US government funds, drug spraying of glyphosphate
enforcers routinely identify fields of coca plants and
opium poppies, and spray them from the air with C) whether glyphosphate actually can cause
herbicide. Around 120,000 hectares have been stomach upsets
sprayed with the herbicide "glyphosphate". But
although glyphosphate is considered to be relatively D) whether it is the glyphosphate itself, or the
safe for humans and the environment, the additives used with it, that have been causing
Colombian government has received over a health problems
thousand complaints from people who claim to have E) the extent to which eye and skin irritations

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suffered ill effects after coming into contact with the maybe due to glyphosphate
chemical. Reported symptoms range from skin and
eye irritations to coughing and vomiting. Some critics
suspect additives to the spray are responsible.
Others on the ground complained that the spray had
killed food crops when it drifted onto them from
nearby fields.

57 According to the passage, the herbicide


"glyphosphate" ----. 60. As it is clear from the passage, one of the
drawbacks of spraying opium and coca fields
with herbicide is that ----.
A) seems not to be as harmless as it was thought to
be A) it is so expensive that it can only be carried out
through the American funding
B) has turned out to be an agent of fatal disorders
B) the chemical may be spreading to neighboring
C) works most effectively when sprayed from the air
fields and damaging the crops
D) is rarely effective except on coca plants and
C) nearly the whole country is being adversely
opium poppies
affected by it
E) has been developed, at great expense, with the
D) thousands of people have been exposed to
support of the US government
deadly poisoning
E) it has a particularly damaging effect upon the
whole respiratory system
58. We learn from the passage that, though the
Columbian government is trying to destroy
opium and coca fields by using herbicide, it ----.
A) is nevertheless seriously concerned about the
health of its people
B) actually realizes that a certain amount of illegal
drug- trafficking cannot be prevented
C) may, in fact, be endangering human health and
the environment at the same time
D) has remained indifferent to the health hazards of
its people
E) refuses to recognize the widespread ill effects of
this practice

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61.-64. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 63. It is emphasized in the passage that —.
cevaplayınız.
A) the progress of studies in physics has been
To understand topics such as the origin of the hampered by the desire to unify the quantum
universe, the ultimate fate of black holes and the and relativity theories
possibility of time travel, we need to understand how B) the origin of the universe has been satisfactorily
the universe works. We now have a good idea about explained by the quantum theory
what the basic building blocks of matter might be.
Physics in the 20th century was built on the twin C) the best physicists of our time have all devoted
revolutions of quantum mechanics (a theory of themselves to gaining an understanding of the
matter) and Einstein's theory of space, time and universe
gravitation known as relativity. But it's extremely
unsatisfying to find two ultimate descriptions of D) the nature of matter has been fully explored with
reality when you're looking for just one. Trying to the help of the quantum and relativity theories
unify the two theories presents formidable technical

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E) there is a lot we don't know about the way the
and conceptual obstacles that have challenged universe works
some of the finest theoretical physicists for decades.

61. According to the passage, the quantum theory of 64. According to the passage, there is little chance
matter and Einstein's theory of relativity —. of getting to understand various subjects such
as how the universe came into being —.
A) present two separate views of reality
A) unless the theory of quantum mechanics and
B) together present a coherent description of the theory of relativity can be reconciled
reality
B) until we have a surer knowledge of the way the
C) enable us to have a comprehensive perception universe works
of reality
C) until time travel has been realized
D) made physics a popular subject in the 20
century D) unless there are further great technological
advances
E) have contributed equally to the possibility of
time travel E) as there are so many conceptual obstacles in
the way of such knowledge

62. It is pointed out in the passage that those


physicists who have tried to combine the
theories of matter and relativity —.
A) have finally admitted that it cannot be done
B) have come up with several proposals
C) have pioneered a new understanding of physics
D) have faced insurmountable challenges
E) suspect that there may be other concepts of
reality yet unformulated

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65.-68. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 67. According to the passage, scientists involved in
cevaplayınız. the study of the universe —.

In terms of pure science, the discovery that the A) were eager to establish the existence of an anti-
universe is in the grip of a strange "anti-gravity" force gravity force
that is making it expand ever faster, is the most
B) have, for many decades, focused on the effects
significant of the last decade. The possibility that
of the anti-gravity force
such a force might exist has been known for years,
with theorists finding that it kept reappearing out of C) are the only ones to be interested in an anti-
Einstein's theory of gravity. For years they tried to gravity force
avoid it coming up with all sorts of arguments for
why the force couldn't really exist. Now they're being D) have now come to question the validity of
forced to face it, and to face the embarrassing fact Einstein's theory of gravity
that they can't explain the single most important E) attempted, for a considerable time, to
force in the universe. demonstrate that there was no anti-gravity force

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65. According to the passage, the expansion of the
universe —.
A) is now slowly losing speed
B) has been explained with reference to the anti-
gravity force
C) seems to contradict the existence of an anti-
gravity force
D) cannot continue indefinitely
E) will result, in the end, in the elimination of the
anti-gravity force

66. As it is pointed out in the passage, the idea that 68. As we learn from this passage, it is scientifically
there might be an anti- gravity force in the discomforting that the anti-gravity force —.
universe —.
A) seems to be gaining in strength
A) is by no means a recent one
B) seems to refute Einstein's theory of gravity
B) was pioneered by Einstein
C) threatens the very existence of the universe
C) has hardly ever received any serious scientific
D) has as yet not been explained convincingly
interest
E) is only recognized by a small number of
D) has little connection with any serious scientific
theorists
theory
E) is now completely outdated

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69.-72. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 71. We learn from the passage that power stations
cevaplayınız. using coal ----.

Can coal ever become a friend of the environment? A) provide over three-quarters of the electricity
Coal-fired power stations supply half the electricity needed in America
used in America, and a similar amount in many other B) have been shut down due to the Clean Air Act
industrial countries, but are responsible for 80% of
the power industry's emissions of carbon dioxide the C) account for an extremely high percentage of
most worrisome of the so-called "greenhouse carbon dioxide emissions
gases". Because of special exemptions, much of the
country's coal-derived electricity comes from plants D) have a commercial life-span of under 30 years
that are more than 30 years old. Many of these E) are rapidly being replaced by other systems of
plants are approaching the end of their commercial energy production
lives, and the thought of having to replace a lot of
dirty old power stations, with new ones that will have

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to comply with the Clean Air Act, is causing a
nightmare in the power industry. Suddenly, energy
engineers are talking about "clean coal" technology.
That message has been heard before. There was
similar excitement over clean coal in the mid-1980s
and early 1990s. Large sums of taxpayers' money
were handed out to firms developing clean coal. The
difference this time, say energy engineers, is that a
number of electricity suppliers have actually started
building facilities that use clean coal.

69. We understand from the passage that, since


many of the coal-fired power stations in the US
have almost completed their economic lives, 72. As it is pointed out in the passage, "clean coal"
they ----. technology ----.
A) have all been transformed into clean coal A) may not be, according to energy engineers, as
facilities beneficial to the environment as was at first
B) are being renovated to extend their usefulness expected

C) can no longer produce as much electricity as B) was developed well before the Clean Air Act
formerly went into effect

D) have now become an economic nightmare for C) has been widely practiced throughout the world
the government for over three decades

E) need to be pulled down and new ones built in D) was first introduced in America some thirty
their place years ago
E) has only recently been recognized as feasible

70. It is clear from the passage that the new coal-


fired power stations ----.
A) seem to have no beneficial effect as regards the
reduction of greenhouse gases
B) were first introduced in the mid-1980s
C) are proving exceedingly costly to build
D) must be built and operated in accordance with
the Clean Air Act
E) have not received any popular support outside
the US

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73.- 76. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 75. According to the passage, the usual precast
cevaplayınız. concrete building ----.

When it is completed late next year, a 39-storey A) is specially designed to withstand seismic
apartment building under construction in San activity
Francisco will be the tallest precast concrete B) can disperse seismic energy through its parts
structure ever built in an area of high seismic but is itself damaged as it does so
activity. Its builders are using an innovative new
structural connection that could revolutionize the C) has now given way to a new type using "mild"
way buildings are built in seismic zones. steel bars
Conventional cast-in-place and precast systems
survive earthquakes by dissipating the energy D) can be reinforced through the addition of high-
through the structure, often doing irreparable strength steel cables
damage to themselves in the process. The new E) is capable of stretching somewhat in the event
connection, developed with help from the University of an earthquake

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of Washington, consists of high-strength steel
reinforcing cables and "mild" steel bars that stretch
slightly during an earthquake, then pull the building
back into place. The steel components also
considerably reduce seismic energy before it can
attack the structure. This means less damage to
beams, walls and ceilings.

73. As we understand from the passage, a new


building technique presently being used in San
Francisco ----.
A) is recommended only for structures in
earthquake regions 76. It is pointed out in the passage that the city of
B) has already been adopted by many construction San Francisco ----.
firms elsewhere in America
A) is situated in a region where earthquakes
C) is expected to bring about radical changes in frequently occur
construction methods in earthquake areas
B) has always been well-known for its earthquake-
D) is effective because it holds the whole structure proof skyscrapers
rigidly in place
C) has constantly come up with revolutionary
E) is the first effort to make a building with stand building techniques
intense seismic activity
D) has few tall buildings using precast concrete
systems
E) has frequently encouraged builders to
experiment with radical building techniques

74. As it is explained in the passage, with the new


construction
technique, ----.
A) the use of high-strength steel cables has finally
become standardized
B) the walls and the beams of a building are never
damaged in an earthquake
C) San Francisco has gained recognition as the
leading city in earthquake-safe buildings
D) the cost of high rise buildings has been reduced
remarkably
E) a building is better able to cope with the force of
an earthquake

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77.- 80. sorulan aşağıdaki parçaya göre 79. It is clear from the passage that soil that
cevaplayınız. produces berthierine ----.

Air-starved soil could have been a key player in the A) always contains high levels of oxygen
largest extinction ever to strike Earth. The claim B) has for many centuries intrigued scientists and
follows the discovery of a rare mineral in ancient soil been thoroughly researched
collected from Antarctica. The extinction, at the end
of the Permian period 250 million years ago, wiped C) cannot possibly provide the conditions essential
out virtually all marine life and some 70 per cent of for plant and animal life
land animals. But the reason for the extinction,
which preceded the rise of the dinosaurs, has been D) characterizes many hostile environments in
a longstanding puzzle. Now a team of geologists various parts of the world
think they have found what could be a major factor E) can only be found in Antarctica
in the extinction. They collected fossilized soil
samples that formed in Antarctica just after the

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Permian period ended. The soil contained nodule-
shaped minerals that have been identified as
berthierine. This iron-rich mineral forms only in
environments where oxygen is scarce. So, if the
oxygen levels in the soil were low enough to allow
berthierine to form, then it follows that the soil would
not have been able to support plant life. Such
intolerably low levels of oxygen would be enough to
kill the plants off completely.

77. We learn from the passage that berthierine ----.


80. One understands from the passage that the
A) has never been discovered in places other than great extinction that occurred at the end of the
Antarctica Permianperiod ----.
B) can only develop in soils that are virtually A) has been explained by scientists in several
lacking in oxygen
different ways
C) seems to have no practical use whatsoever B) must have first taken place in Antarctica
D) prevents the depletion of oxygen in the soil C) was only one of a series of similar disasters
E) only forms in soil which is devoid of iron D) was followed by the period of the dinosaurs
E) brought about a hostile environment in all parts
of Earth

78. According to the passage, the mystery


surrounding the massive destruction of life on
Earth at the end of the Permian period ----.
A) seems to have been solved by the discovery of
berthierine-rich fossilized soil in Antarctica
B) has been stimulating current geological
research projects
C) has come to the attention of geologists through
recent environmental studies
TEST BĐTTĐ
D) is likely to be solved through more detailed
studies of the dinosaurs CEVAPLARINIZI KONTROL EDĐNĐZ.

E) has aroused a great deal of controversy among


scientists in different fields

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CEVAP ANAHTARI

ÜDS FEN - (MART) 2003

1. C 2. E 3. A 4. C 5. D 6. A 7. D 8. C 9. A 10. B

11. C 12. B 13. D 14. D 15. C 16. A 17. B 18. E 19. B 20. A

21. B 22. E 23. C 24. B 25. C 26. A 27. B 28. E 29. D 30. D

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31. A 32. A 33. A 34. E 35. C 36. B 37. E 38. A 39. C 40. D

41. B 42. D 43. E 44. B 45. B 46. A 47. C 48. D 49. D 50. D

51. E 52. B 53. C 54. E 55. B 56. D 57. A 58. C 59. D 60. B

61. A 62. D 63. A 64. B 65. B 66. A 67. D 68. D 69. E 70. D

71. C 72. E 73. C 74. E 75. B 76. A 77. B 78. A 79. C 80. D

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01.-18. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere 8. The first European mission to another planet is
uygun düşen kelime veya ifadeyi bulunuz. ---- its way, ---- the delight and relief of all
involved.
1. The Abel Prize in mathematics is intended to A) about / by B) off / for C) in / over
finally ---- the gap left by Alfred Nobel, who chose
to ignore mathematics when he established the D) through / with E) on / to
Nobel prizes.
A) fill B) link C) avoid
D) refuse E) exceed 9. Recent claims that the African elephant is
actually two species ----, but the debate still ----.
A) were contradicted / was continuing
B) have been contradicted / continues

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2. Reef scientists have compiled, what could be the
most compelling ---- yet, that farming is harming C) would have been contradicted / is continuing
the Great Barrier Reef.
D) will be contradicted / will be continuing
A) circumstance B) proposal C) evidence
E) are being contradicted / has continued
D) discussion E) controversy

10. The first of the great steel arch bridges ---- by


3. In many parts of the world mains electricity is James Eads ---- the Mississippi at St Louis.
still ---- or even nonexistent.
A) designed / to be spanning
A) convenient B) aggressive C) deliberate
B) had been designed / spanning
D) unreliable E) impressive
C) has been designed / having spanned
D) was designed / to span
E) was being designed / to have spanned
4. During the 1960s the agronomist and food
technologist Norman Borlaug launched what was
called "the Green Revolution", which ---- reduced
hunger in underdeveloped countries, by creating
11. Precast construction, in which parts of the
high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice.
building ---- on the ground, then lifted into place,
A) diversely B) plausibly C) currently ---- less expensive than cast-in-place methods.
D) adversely E) greatly A) will be finished / would be
B) were finished / would be
C) are being finished / will be
5. ---- by data from the Galileo mission to Jupiter, D) used to be finished / had been
scientists think a 40,000 km-thick molten layer of
metallic hydrogen lurks below Jupiter's clouds. E) are finished / is

A) Got over B) Carried away


C) Put off D) Played out
12. The mummified remains of Oetzi the Iceman
E) Backed up seem to suggest that this famous Stone Age man
---- from an attacker before ---- to death.
A) had fled / to bleed
6. When World War I began, one military item that B) may have fled / bleeding
no nation ---- in large numbers was the helmet.
C) fled / having bled
A) took over B) had on hand
D) was fleeing / having had to bleed
C) made up D) kept on
E) has fled / to be bleeding
E) put up with

7. Waste heat can be turned ---- electricity using a


type of solar cell powered ---- heat rather than
light.
A) from / with B) on / to C) by / from
D) into / by E) off / through

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13. ---- I investigated and studied my scientist 19.-23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada
colleague's account of an environmental numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da
experiment, ---- thoroughly convinced I have Đfadeyi bulunuz.
become that it has no value whatsoever.
A) So far as / most The design and construction of foundations are
largely controlled by the contours or falls of the site
B) The more / the more and the type of subsoil. Site falls (19) ---- 1 in 20
C) Just as / more usually require special methods of foundation
construction. Gravel or chalk are good subsoils
D) Neither / nor
(20) ---- they do not hold moisture, and (21) ----
E) So long as / ever heavy loads. They are, (22) ----, economical and do
not vary in bulk with the vagaries of the weather and
temperature. Most rocks are eminently (23) ---- but

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usually expensive to work.
14. Physicists certainly know ---- about the universe
now ---- ever before. 19.

A) so much / that B) enough / just as A) replacing B) completing


C) both / and D) more / than C) exceeding D) reducing
E) as well / as E) surviving

15. For a domestic staircase, an additional form of 20.


support, ---- a "carriage", that is a beam under the A) just B) or C) unless
centre of the stairs, is not usually necessary.
D) since E) besides
A) in case of B) so that C) such as
D) according to E) either

21.
A) can support
16. Coral reefs are home to ---- of the most beautiful
and unusual forms of marine life, ---- of which are B) have supported
found in only 18 places in the world.
C) would support
A) few / much B) many / none D) supported
C) much / few D) a lot / any E) could support
E) some / many

22.
17. ---- the span of a suspension bridge increases,
A) on the other hand B) moreover
the structure develops a "gravity" stiffness due
to its own weight. C) in contrast D) occasionally
A) As B) However C) Whereas E) regrettably
D) While E) In case

23.
18. Dinosaurs may have terrorized other creatures A) incapable B) comparable C) suitable
during their time on Earth, ---- now it has
D) disruptive E) conditional
emerged that some species had a taste for the
flesh of their own kind.
A) unless B) whether C) because
D) even if E) so that

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24.-35. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde 27. Scientists have long wondered ----.
tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.
A) in case the reliability of long-range weather fore-
casts could be improved by studying the climate
24. Life on Earth is believed to have evolved about over the North Atlantic Ocean
3.7 billion years ago, ----.
B) unless fresh orange juice has the same
A) when there was no protective ozone layer nutritional value as the pasteurized variety
surrounding the planet
C) why sharks swim faster than their bodies should
B) although scientists thought ultraviolet radiation allow
was an obstacle to emerging life
D) since hydrogen-powered cars will not benefit the
C) even if the earliest life is widely thought to have environment
been based on RNA, the chemical cousin of

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DNA E) as the prehistoric inhabitants of Ireland had a
more advanced knowledge of the Sun's move-
D) while scientists are doubtful whether intense
ultraviolet light from the sun may have spurred ments than previously believed
on the evolution of life
E) just as RNA was actually much more likely than
other molecules to form long chains in intense
ultraviolet radiation 28. ----, nuclear fusion can be created by passing
pulses of electricity through a high-density
plasma of hot gas.
A) Even though the dream of an unlimited supply of
energy from nuclear fusion is one step closer
B) As a team of researchers at a California labora-
25. The north of China, ----, needs 28 cubic kilome- tory has shown
ters more water each year.
C) Although electrical systems could deliver a lot of
A) so long as the Three Gorges dam project is energy
feasible
D) Since scientists are trying hard to get over the
B) however the water table beneath Beijing has increasing energy shortage
fallen 59 meters in the past 40 years
E) While we need efficient energy sources that
C) as the country is suffering a hydrological crisis could power cities
that leaves it no choice but to embark on
superdam projects
D) in case the shortfall would be made up with
more efficient irrigation 29. The principles of gunnery at sea are the same as
on land, ----.
E) which has two-thirds of the crop land but only
one-fifth of the nation's water A) since the influence of radar on naval gunnery
has been very great
B) so naval gunnery had its own special problems
C) although to produce accurate, flexible and
steady fire, in all circumstances of terrain and
26. Within the next decade, the European Union will weather, is the aim of gunnery
decide ----. D) but they are modified by the fact that both the
A) whether to allocate as much as 8 billion US gun-platform and the target are in rapid motion
dollars to help fulfill Spain's 24 billion National E) because all naval guns have become fully auto-
Hydro-logical Plan matic and produce a very high rate of fire
B) so that a common consensus will be reached on
farming subsidies
C) as far as governments are willing to cooperate
30. ---- that much of the coal that is mined today is of
on mega projects for irrigation
biological origin.
D) if the investment for the irrigation of southern
A) In just a few paragraphs the author manages to
Spain had been supported by other international
direct readers
agencies
B) The purpose of the article is unclear
E) because the Spanish government had promised
its support for more institutional efficiency C) Fossil fuels overwhelmingly occur in relatively
young rocks
D) Everything points to the fact
E) His insight into the problem is unbelievable

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31. ---- because they mark important milestones in 35. ---- how genes make it possible to track animals'
the search for planets orbiting other stars. movements and breeding patterns.

A) At present the number of known exoplanets A) As a new field of study, biotechnology has
exceeds 100 contributed a great deal

B) One of the newly-discovered exoplanets is B) Genetic studies arouse the public interest
similar to Jupiter in mass and orbit
C) As the book makes it clear, genetics is
C) The recent discovery of two new exoplanets has concerned
attracted a great deal of attention from
D) Geneticists also focus on conservation
astronomers
E) A recently-published book, entitled "Introduction
D) One of these exoplanets has a mass of about 40
to Conservation Genetics", shows
times that of Earth
E) The two exoplanets recently discovered are the

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lightest yet found orbiting a solar-type star
36.-38. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümleye
anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz.

32. If roof insulation is to be truly effective ----. 36. If Earth's temperature were to increase or
decrease by just a few degrees, many marine
A) this would not make cavity-wall insulation species would probably perish.
unnecessary
A) Yeryüzünün sıcaklığı birkaç derece artmış veya
B) heating bills are being reduced dramatically azalmış olsaydı, birçok deniz canlısının soyunun
tükenmesi kaçınılmaz olacaktı.
C) insulation materials and levels are constantly im-
proving B) Yeryüzünün sıcaklığı sadece birkaç derece
artsa veya azalsa, pek çok deniz canlısı
D) it needs to be at least 200 mm-thick
muhtemelen yok olur.
E) the reduction in energy consumption has been
C) Yeryüzünün sıcaklığının sadece birkaç derece
remarkable
artması değil azalması da denizdeki canlı
türlerinin birçoğunun yok olmasına yol açabilir.
D) Yeryüzünün sıcaklığının sadece birkaç derece
33. Though humanoids are the most appealing artması bile, tıpkı azalması gibi, deniz
robots under development, ----. canlılarının birçoğunun yok olması olasılığım
doğurabilir.
A) the term "robot" first entered the English
language from the Czech word for "slave" or E) Yeryüzünün sıcaklığı birkaç derece artsa da
"forced laborer" artmasa da, birçok deniz canlısı zaten yok olup
gidecek.
B) the majority of existing robots do not look even
remotely human
C) in the early 1980s dozens of robotics firms were
founded and quickly went bust 37. Australia is an ancient continent that has been
unchanged by seismic activity for thousands of
D) robots need to have a human form and interact years.
benignly with humans
A) Binlerce yıl devam eden sismik faaliyetlerden hiç
E) fire fighting is an exciting new area for robotics etkilenmemiş olan Avustralya, en eski kıtalardan
biridir.
B) Avustralya, hiçbir sismik faaliyetin
değiştiremediği, binlerce yıllık eski bir kıtadır.
34. When it comes to pulling in Nobel prizes in
physics or chemistry, ----. C) Eski bir kıta olan Avustralya, binlerce yıldır
devam eden sismik faaliyetlere rağmen hiç
A) most of Europe has been losing out in recent
değişmemiştir.
years
D) Avustralya, binlerce yıldır sismik faaliyetle
B) Cambridge University has a long tradition of
değişmemiş olan eski bir kıtadır.
interdisciplinary research
E) Eski kıtalardan biri olan Avustralya'yı, binlerce
C) the National Science Centre has an extremely
yıldır hiçbir sismik faaliyet değiştirememiştir.
flexible approach to research
D) the scientists at this institute are given total
freedom to explore
E) universities and research institutes must have
freedom to choose what they work on

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40. Kaliforniya ve Nevada'nın "Ölüm Vadisi" bölge-
38. An underground physics laboratory in Italy has sinde, son buzul çağının bitiminde buzullar eri-
shut down all but one of its experiments yince birbirleriyle bağlantılı büyük göller
following concerns that it is polluting the local oluşmuştur.
water supply.
A) The large interconnected lakes of the "Death
A) Đtalya'da yerel su kaynaklarının kirlenmesinden Valley" part of California and Nevada were
kaygılanılması üzerine, yeraltı fizik laboratuar- glaciers before the ice melted at the end of the
larından biri dışında tümünün deneyleri last ice age.
durdurulmuştur.
B) Towards the end of the last ice age, when the
B) Đtalya'da bir yeraltı fizik laboratuarı, yerel su kay- glaciers were melting, the large interconnected
nağını kirlettiği için, sürdürdüğü kaygı verici lakes of the "Death Valley" region of California
deneylerin biri dışında tümünü durdurmuştur. and Nevada came into being.

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C) Đtalya’da bir yeraltı fizik laboratuarı, yerel su kay- C) In the "Death Valley" region of California and
nağını kirlettiği yolundaki kaygılar üzerine, Nevada, large interconnected lakes formed, as
deneylerinin biri dışında tümünü durdurmuştur. glaciers melted at the end of the last ice age.
D) Đtalya'da yerel su kaynağını kirlettiği için D) The great interconnected lakes, situated in the
kaygılara yol açan bir yeraltı fizik laboratuarı, "Death Valley" area of California and Nevada
sürdürmekte olduğu deneyleri birer birer were formed at the end of the last ice age when
durduruyor. the glaciers melted.
E) Đtalya'da yerel su kaynaklarını kirleten yeraltı E) The interconnected lakes in the "Death Valley"
fizik laboratuarından biri, oluşan kaygılar section of California and Nevada came into
yüzünden, tüm deneylerini durdurmuştur. being towards the end of the last ice age when
the great glaciers started to melt.

39.-41. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye


anlamca en yakın Đngilizce cümleyi bulunuz.

39. Son yıllarda biyoloji alanında yapılan 41. Bir bileşiğin atomları, "kimyasal bağlar" adı veri-
araştırmalar, insan türüne ve diğer binlerce farklı len çekim güçlerince bir arada tutulur.
yaşam biçimine ilişkin şaşırtıcı bilgiler ortaya A) The atoms of a compound are held together by
koymuştur. forces of attraction called "chemical bonds"
A) The knowledge arising out of biological research B) It is the "chemical bonds" that provide the forces
during recent years, which concerns mankind of attraction that hold the atoms of a compound
and thousands of other various forms of life, is together.
absolutely astounding.
C) The atoms of a compound can only be held in
B) In recent years, research in the field of biology place by a force of attraction like "chemical
has produced a startling amount of knowledge bonds".
concerning not only the human species but also
countless other forms of life. D) "Chemical bonds" have the ability to keep the at-
oms of a compound unified.
C) In recent times an amazing amount of facts
about the natural world have come to light E) Forces of attraction, otherwise known as
through research and relate to mankind and "chemical bonds", are what hold the atoms of a
countless other varied forms of life. compound together.
D) Biological research has, in recent times, brought
to light a vast amount of knowledge concerning
thousands of different forms of life including the
human species.
E) Research carried out in the field of biology in re-
cent years has yielded amazing knowledge
about the human species and about thousands
of other diverse life forms.

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42.-46. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçanın 44. In World War II, the demands for bombs of
anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek increasing size and disruptive power were
cümleyi bulunuz. incessant. So a great deal of research was
carried out. ----. Blast bombs were produced of
up to a 12,000 pound capacity.
42. The so-called "One Time System" is the name of
a cipher proven to be unbreakable. In this A) Fortunately, these gas-filled bombs were never
system, the text of messages is turned into used
numbers, and then random numbers are added.
The security of the system rests on the fact that it B) Blast effect in particular was studied when the
is impossible to work out what random numbers effectiveness of the landmines dropped by the
were used to encrypt the message, as they do Luftwaffe on Britain was observed
not follow any predictable pattern. ---- . C) Most Royal Air Force high-explosive bombs
were filled with a combination of pistol and

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A) Moreover, computers can provide reasonable
imitations of randomness, which is more than separate detonator
humans can do D) Usually some form of safety device, actuated on
B) Consequently, the creation of randomness is the release of the bomb, is felt to be necessary
extremely difficult in an age of very advanced E) A bomb weighing 3,000 pounds was developed
computers during World War I, but it was never used
C) As its name suggests, however, the "One Time
System" demands that the random number
sequence is used only once for each message
45. In the modern mass-production furniture factory,
D) The ability of randomness thus to produce
machines and processes reproduce the parts
meaningless clusters is all too familiar to
once laboriously turned out by hand. ---- .
scientists
Endless conveyors maintain a constant feed of
E) Many calculators and computers have so-called parts along the production lines.
random number generators, but all of them use
A) Well-organized factories operate "flow-line" pro-
fixed mathematical formulas
duction
B) This particular factory is designed to meet the
demands of high-speed production
43. Oxygen gas has a very interesting property: it A) All waste is continuously sucked away from each
absorbs ultraviolet light. On absorbing ultraviolet machine and conveyed through pipes to storage
light, an oxygen molecule breaks down into two bins for disposal
oxygen atoms. ----. Oxygen in this form is called
ozone, which is a blue gas with a sharp odour. C) It is particularly significant that solid wood is
rarely used except for legs and frames
A) The ozone layer rests about 48 kilometers
above the surface of the Earth D) With mass-production better quality goods are
produced at lower costs
B) The ozone layer in the atmosphere absorbs al-
most all the ultraviolet radiation that could
destroy life on Earth
C) The formation of the ozone layer had a tremen- 46. "Liquid metal" is an alloy developed by the
dous effect on the spread of living organisms on researchers at the California Institute of
Earth Technology. ---- . Its properties allow for more
sophisticated designs, while helping to keep
D) Oxygen atoms produced in this way combine to
manufacturing costs down. Once cast, the alloy
give a new kind of gas that has molecules made
is non-corrosive, more than twice as strong as
of three atoms of oxygen
titanium and four times as elastic.
E) The presence of oxygen in the atmosphere has
A) However, some firms have already blended tita-
also made possible the development of respira-
nium and carbon fiber to produce stronger and
tion
lighter alloys
B) Its elasticity is one of the qualities that makes it
ideal for sports equipment
C) The US army is already developing liquid metal
weapons that are far more effective than
conventional ones
D) It is also likely to prove useful in the
manufacture of sporting products
E) It has a different atomic structure from other
metals and is pourable, like plastic, during the
production process

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47.-51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş 49. Andy :
bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi - There are several posts advertised here for
bulunuz. Marine Biogeochemists. You might take a look
at them.
47. Patrick :
- It seems that physicists are better at Roger :
predicting trends on the stock markets than - I certainly will. Are they offering research
economists are. opportunities?

Larry : Andy :
- ---- - ----

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Patrick : Roger :
- I don't. They are much better grounded in - Thanks. I do so want to get back into a
mathematics. laboratory again.

Larry : A) What's wrong with the research we're doing


here?
- That could be so.
B) I expect so. I haven't read them very carefully,
A) Rubbish! That can't possibly be true. you know.
B) I find that hard to believe! C) Why do you ask that? Are you interested in re-
search?
C) That's pretty controversial statement!
D) Why are you so interested in research? There's
D) How ridiculous! Where did you read that? no money in it.
E) That's not likely! What do you think? E) Yes, they are. That's why I'm drawing your
attention to them.

48. Mary :
- Did you know that octopuses are good at 50. James :
camouflage? - You'd never go to see a film like "Spider Man",
so why are you reading about it?
Emma :
- ---- Ann :
- I'm fascinated by all the special effects and
Mary : how they were achieved.
- Not in the first year or two of life. Then they
need it for protection. The big ones use it James :
more for catching unwary prey. - ----

Emma : Ann :
- That's very clever of them. - Yes, to some extent; but not entirely. The
A) No, I didn't. But what do they need camouflage webs, for instance, are real materials like
for? They're so big and strong! fishing line and computer generated
animation.
B) Do you mean they change color or something
like that? A) I understand New York plays quite an important
role in the film.
C) What color are they? The color of rock, I
suppose, so they can look like a rock. B) Certain techniques were in an effort to
overcome these problems.
D) No, that's news to me. Why do they need to use
camouflage? C) I suppose it's all done by high technology, isn't
it?
E) No, I didn't. What else have you learned about
them? D) I thought their main aim was to tell a great story.
E) No. The effects team did most of the hard work.

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51. Reg : 54. (I) Pergamum is an ancient city in western Asia
Minor. (II) It achieved great political importance in the
- I want to go to the Earth Sciences Museum in second century B.C. (Ill) At that time it also became a
Cambridge. Would you care to come with me? centre of art and culture. (IV) Archeologists are still
working to restore this ancient city. (V) Its library was
Neil : particularly famous, but the contents were given by
Mark Antony to Cleopatra and transported to
- ---- Alexandria.

Reg : A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

- Rocks and fossils mostly. There are even


some of the fossils Darwin collected on his
Beagle voyage.

Neil :

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- Good. Then let's go. It sounds interesting.
A) I'd love to. Some Saturday, perhaps?
B) I'm not going if all we're going to see is rocks
and fossils!
C) Yes, I've heard of it. They've got a remarkable 55. (I) The aberration of starlight is an optical illusion
collection of rocks and fossils there. caused by the motion of the Earth. (II) Rain falling
appears vertical when seen from the window of a
D) I was there last year but it's worth a second visit. stationary train; when seen from the window of a
E) Well, what will we be able to see if we go there? moving train, the rain appears to follow a sloping
path. (Ill) In the same way light from a star
"falling" down a telescope seems to follow a sloping
path because the Earth is moving. (IV) Optical
52.-56. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla aberration is one of a number of defects that impair
okunduğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü the image in an optical instrument. (V) Thus, an
bozan cümleyi bulunuz. apparent displacement or aberration in the position of
the star takes place.
52. (I) Apart from hydroelectricity, there are several other
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
non-depletable energy sources in use such as wind
turbines and solar heating. (II) However,
it is only in relatively few circumstances that any of
them prove to be economic. (Ill) In fact, the
developing countries account for one-fourth of the
world's production and one-fifth of the
world's consumption of commercial energy. (IV) Even
where they appear to be operating as ordinary
commercial ventures, they are usually heavily
subsidized. (V) So, at present, oil, natural gas and
coal are still the major suppliers of energy in the world
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

56. (I) Adding sugar to a drink taken straight from a


microwave can trigger an eruption of boiling liq uid. (II)
53. (I) Photosynthesis today is the largest single Heat may be transferred from one place to another by
chemical process on Earth. (II) When molecules conduction. (Ill) The cause of such in- cidents is
absorb light energy, they become "excited" and uneven heating by microwaves, which leads to some
transfer the gain in energy to their electrons. (Ill) It parts of the liquid being super- heated beyond their
has been estimated that each year about boiling point. (IV) If just a few grains of sugar are then
150,000 million tons of carbon dioxide and added to this unstable mix, they act as nucleation sites
120,000 million tons of water are used to produce for bubbles. (V) It is these bubbles that form with
100,000 million tons of organic matter and about explosive violence.
110,000 million tons of oxygen gas by the process
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
of photosynthesis. (IV) Moreover, It is assumed
that the oxygen in our atmosphere is
replaced by the process of photosynthesis every
2000 years. (V) Also, interestingly, the
photosynthesis of ages past is responsible for the
fossil fuels that have made our industrial civilization
possible.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

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57.-60. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 59. It's clear from the passage that the company
cevaplayınız. aims to ----.

The Michigan factory of a leading car manufacturing A) stay in the limelight whatever the cost may be
company already has its place in industrial history. It B) increase its car sales which, over recent years,
is famous primarily on account of record-breaking have been rapidly declining, by attracting notice
models produced there between 1927 and 1931. through its "living roof"
Now the refitted factory is back in the limelight as one
of the world's most architecturally advanced C) branch out into architectural activities and
buildings. The height of new technology will be its reduce its car production
42,000 square meter roof. Dubbed a "living roof by
D) get rid of the chemical by-products that have ac-
the company, it consists of a ground-hugging plant
cumulated around the factory, and make a
called sedum which is growing in a 7.6 cm-thick mat-
garden there

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like material. The sedum insulates the roof, reducing
heating bills by as much as five per cent and saving E) go on producing record-breaking cars
on replacement costs. It lasts twice as long as a
standard roof because it doesn't shrink or expand
when the temperature varies. It is also expected to
become a habitat for butterflies and birds. Embedded
in the roof are 36 skylights that let in natural light. On
sunny days the factory will operate with up to half of
its lights switched off. The company also intends to
clear the soil around the factory to remove the
chemical by-products of years of steel
manufacturing. The car company will plant native
bushes, flowers and trees that will break down 60. The factory which is the subject of the passage
polyaromatic hydrocarbons. ----.
A) is in the news now on account of its ultra-
modern architectural features
57. The root of the factory which is described in the
passage is labeled "living" ---- . B) has been constantly in the limelight ever since
1927
A) because it provides no insulation from the
weather C) is far more cost-conscious than environmentally
conscious
B) since the mat-like material from which it is made
is actually comprised of living plants D) has a remarkable roof that will never need
replacing
C) because it is partly composed of growing plants
E) produces high-quality cars that have repeatedly
D) since it attracts large numbers of butterflies and broken automobile speed records
birds
E) as it lets in the sunlight

58. We learn from the passage that the new-style


roof ----.
A) is one of the less unusual features of the new
style factory
B) will enable the company to cut down on its heat-
ing bills
C) consists largely of skylights because these are
an aid to insulation
D) has as many drawbacks as it has advantages
E) is the company's way of apologizing for the
harm cars cause to the environment

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61.-64. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 63. We understand from the passage that, in the -
cevaplayınız. writings of various ancient and early civilizations,
there are accounts of ----.
Ancient Babylonian manuscripts, Dark Age
chronicles and New Age prophecies, all speak of A) the problems facing those who survived a catas-
catastrophes striking the Earth with devastating trophe
consequences; and all regard these disasters as B) many purely imaginary disasters
instances of divine punishment. Many describe
global inundations - floods that engulf continents, C) possible punishments that will have to be
wiping out entire civilizations. Others describe fires endured on Earth
that rain down from the skies. Until recently few
D) floods that have destroyed whole civilizations
scientists took these tales of catastrophe seriously,
regarding them as hangovers from a superstitious E) catastrophes that occurred 4.5 million years ago
age. But today these ancient accounts are regarded

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as potentially valuable evidence for events that have
played a key role in the history of our planet, from its
very formation 4.5 million years ago. These events
are every bit as catastrophic as the legends claimed:
cosmic impacts that have dealt severe blows to life
many times in the past - and will do so again. The 64. According to the passage, accounts of fires
dramatic view of Earth history now emerging could raining down from the skies have only recently
hardly be more different from that held by many ----.
scientists even as recently as the 1980s. A) been found in ancient Babylonian manuscripts
B) attracted any serious scientific attention

61. The main point made in the passage is that ----. C) been regarded as the imaginings of
superstitious people
A) the ancients misunderstood why there was
flooding and great fires D) come to the attention of the general public

B) the great catastrophic events of the past are E) been compared to the stories of the great floods
unlikely to be repeated in the future
C) flooding and fire have always been the major
cause of disaster
D) very early stories about great catastrophes
occurring on Earth could be graphic accounts of
cosmic impacts
E) accounts of, for instance, fire raining down from
the skies, are so detailed that they must be true

62. According to the passage, over the past twenty


years or so, scientists have begun to realize ----.
A) that there have been instances of truly massive
destruction during the course of Earth history
B) that ancient accounts of disaster can all be
related to a specific cosmic event that actually
happened
C) that the disasters described by the ancients are
not of scientific importance
D) that in the past people were more superstitious
than they are now
E) that legends of global inundations have no
foundation in truth

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65.-68. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 67. It is pointed out in the passage that since most of
cevaplayınız. the natural gas consumed in the US is either
home-produced or comes from Canada ----.
Central heating, available in the US since the early
19th century, became popular only after the Civil A) the price is pleasingly low
War. Typically, coal-burning furnaces fuelled the B) its supply is not endangered by war or embargo
early systems. The furnaces warped and cracked,
causing gases to escape, and had to be stoked C) people feel they should prefer it to imported
frequently. It took years and countless small fuels
improvements, but by the mid-1920s the systems
D) people worry that the supplies might run out
had become reliable and, with the emergence of oil-
fired furnaces, more convenient. Natural gas, which E) the system of pipelines to carry it has been easy
became widely available with the building of a to develop

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pipeline infrastructure after World War II, had
developed into the leading fuel by 1960. Its
acceptance resulted in part from its versatility - unlike
oil, it can power appliances such as clothes washers
and dryers, ovens, ranges and outdoor grills.
Because it comes primarily from US and Canadian
fields, natural gas is also less vulnerable than oil is,
to war and embargo. Oil remains the predominant
fuel in a few areas, such as New England, where
natural gas pipelines have not yet thoroughly
penetrated. Oil users in many regions have the
advantage of being able to buy a season's supply in
advance at favorable rates and, in contrast to most
gas users, can easily change their supplier.

65. According to the passage, the coal-burning 68. The passage makes the point that oil continues
furnaces of the early days of central heating in to be the chief fuel in certain areas ----.
the US, ----.
A) as it is believed to be less dangerous than
A) gave the people who used them many problems natural gas
B) seldom needed any maintenance B) although it has no advantages over natural gas
C) were soon improved and became quite C) and this annoys a lot of people
convenient to use
D) but it is rapidly falling into disfavor
D) remained exceedingly popular even after oil-
fired furnaces were introduced E) where natural gas is unavailable

E) had only one minor fault: they had to be stoked


several times a day

66. We understand from the passage that, once natu-


ral gas became available, it rapidly became the
favorite form of fuel ----.
A) though electricity is required to work most
household appliances
B) largely because there are plenty of suppliers to
choose from
C) so pipelines were rapidly extended to all parts of
the country in a very short period of time
D) as it is obviously much safer and less costly
than oil
E) because it could power many different
appliances as well as the central heating system

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69.-72. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 71. It is clear from the passage that at least one of
cevaplayınız. the messages Stafford sent to the ground crew
----.
The amount of engineering and exertion required to
do work in space came as a surprise in the early A) concerning Ceman's condition, caused the
days of the manned space program. For instance, medical staff a great deal of anxiety
when the astronauts Eugene Ceman and Thomas B) caused them a great deal of concern
Stafford launched into space aboard Gemini 9 on
June 3rd, 1966, they had no way of knowing that a C) was untrue but his aim was to keep them from
nightmare would begin as soon as Ceman began a worrying
space walk. From the moment he emerged from the
D) complained that they had not been adequately
capsule, everything Ceman did was much harder
prepared for such an experience
than he had expected. Every weightless movement

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triggered an equal opposite reaction, and he found E) admitted that they were exceedingly alarmed by
himself repeatedly flying out to the end of the what was happening to them
umbilical cord connecting him to the Gemini capsule
and then rebounding in an unexpected direction.
Stafford finally ordered Ceman to forget about the
10-million-dollar backpack and return to the capsule.
Doing so turned out to be the most alarming part of
the space walk, as Ceman discovered, that his
pressurized suit wouldn't flex enough to allow him
back inside so that operation alone took him thirty
laborious minutes. Then the struggle to close the
hatch was so prolonged and difficult that Stafford
decided he needed to lie, so the ground crew would
not panic. "Coming in, no problem" he fibbed as he
and Ceman improvised a lever to force the latch into
position. It finally closed.

69. It is clear from the passage that the walk in space 72. We understand from the passage that in a state
described here ----. of weightlessness ----.
A) was very different from what had been A) one loses confidence in one's ability to come to
anticipated the right decision
B) was controlled by the ground crew, and very B) physical tasks are easier to perform
little rested with the astronauts
C) it is surprisingly difficult to get into a pressurized
C) had been carefully planned down to the last suit
detail
D) one has virtually no control over one's
D) went astray because the connection with the movements
ground crew was interrupted
E) people do not realize how slowly they are doing
E) never endangered the lives of the astronauts everything

70. As we understand from the passage, one of the


problems encountered by the astronauts that had
not been foreseen ----.
A) was the difficulty of opening the hatch
B) was the difficulty of getting back into the capsule
in a rigid, pressurized space suit
C) involved opening the hatch in readiness for the
walk in space
D) was how to get in and out of the backpack
E) occurred before they had even entered space

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73.-76. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 75. We understand from the passage that in World
cevaplayınız. War II the Allies ----.

From its birth during World War II, there is one task A) managed to track down many enemy spies with
to which cutting-edge computer technology has the aid of Colossus
always been applied: code-breaking. In 1943, B) were rarely able to break the codes used by
mathematicians and engineers at Bletchley Park, Hitler and his generals even after they had
Buckinghamshire, built Colossus, the forerunner of acquired Colossus
the modern electronic computer. Its task was to
break the Lorentz ciphers, used by Hitler and his C) were in possession of better electrical
generals for their most secret communications. computers than Hitler was
Consisting of thousands of valves, optical devices
D) developed codes that Hitler was unable to break
and pulleys, Colossus looked ungainly but worked
brilliantly. One of its major triumphs was to reveal E) tricked Hitler into believing that the D-Day inva-

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that Hitler had been taken in by Allied deception sion would happen earlier than actually planned
tactics leading up to D-Day, thus clearing the way for
the real invasion in 1944. Ever since, government
code-breaking centers have bought the fastest
supercomputers the moment they emerge, During
the Cold War, the key challenge was to find and
exploit the slightest weakness in the cipher systems
used by the Soviet Union, acknowledged to be the
most secure in the world. Their efforts ultimately led
to the downfall of all of the Soviet's "Magnificent Five"
British spies.

73. The passage is mainly about ----. 76. We learn from the passage that many of the new-
est and fastest supercomputers ----.
A) the deception the Allies practiced on Hitler
regarding the date of D-Day A) are largely used for destructive purposes

B) the success of computers in code-breaking B) are especially designed to break codes

C) the success of Colossus in breaking the Soviet C) are still unable to break the world's most secure
Union's code systems cipher systems

D) the unbreakable cipher systems used by Hitler D) are being used by government code-breaking
and the Soviet Union centers

E) events leading up to the exposure of the Soviets E) can be programmed to deceive


Magnificent Five British spies

74. It is clear from the passage that Colossus, ----.


A) which was built in 1943, was a disappointment
to the mathematicians who designed it
B) an early computer, managed to deceive Hitler
concerning the dates of D-Day
C) which was clumsy and complicated to look at,
was nevertheless extremely efficient
D) though it was designed as a code-breaker, was
also of great assistance when tactics were being
planned
E) a product of World War II, was not used once
the war was over

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77.-80. sorulan aşağıdaki parçaya göre 79. It's pointed out in the passage that the new
cevaplayınız. acoustic systems developed for the US military

The US company, "Scientific Applications and A) sometimes produce high-intensity vibrations that
Research Associates" (SARA) Inc, has developed cause widespread damage to buildings ----.
crowd-dispersal weapons for the US military that B) should only be used in cases of extreme
generate high-intensity sound waves. Sound levels of emergency
120 to 130 decibels cause pain and blurred vision;
above 140 decibels, sound produces profound C) can cause permanent damage to the eye
discomfort throughout the body. Ear plugs are no
D) were primarily designed for use in wartime
protection. These acoustic systems have a directed
beam, projecting the sound in a narrow fan. They E) were primarily designed to break up crowds
include high-intensity sound generators with power

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levels of up to 60 kilowatts and are combustion
driven, using a series of small explosions to create a
noise or drive a siren or whistle.

77. One important point made in the passage is that


high decibel levels of sound ----. 80. It is pointed out in the passage that if the level of
sound exceeds 140 decibels ----.
A) are only harmful when they are continuous
A) the sound produced is something between a
B) can only be resisted by means of earplugs siren and a whistle
C) result in bodily pain and upset the eyesight B) a great deal of damage will be caused in the
area
D) are something that people can gradually get
used to C) earplugs are required for protection
E) impair the nervous system permanently D) there will be pain in all parts of the body
E) then the crowds are readily dispersed

78. According to the passage, the acoustic systems


developed by SARA, ----.
A) use high-intensity sound generators and are
combustion driven
B) use sound levels which range from 120 to 140
decibels
C) did not meet the requirements of the US military
D) do not, unlike other similar systems, cause any
permanent damage whatsoever
E) cannot be operated below a 120 decibel sound
level

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CEVAP ANAHTARI

ÜDS FEN - (ARALIIK) 2003

1. A 2. C 3. D 4. E 5. E 6. B 7. D 8. E 9. B 10. D

11. E 12. B 13. B 14. D 15. C 16. E 17. A 18. D 19. C 20. D

21. A 22. B 23. C 24. A 25. E 26. A 27. C 28. B 29. D 30. D

31. C 32. D 33. B 34. A 35. E 36. B 37. D 38. C 39. E 40. C

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41. A 42. C 43. D 44. B 45. A 46. E 47. B 48. A 49. E 50. C

51. E 52. C 53. B 54. D 55. D 56. B 57. B 58. B 59. D 60. A

61. D 62. B 63. D 64. B 65. A 66. E 67. B 68. E 69. A 70. B

71. C 72. D 73. B 74. C 75. E 76. D 77. C 78. A 79. E 80. D

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7. In calculators, calculations — entirely with
1.-18. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan integers yield exact results as long as the
yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi numbers — too big for the space allotted.
bulunuz.
A) doing / were not
1. In 1994, seven countries signed an accord, B) having done / have not been
agreeing to guidelines designed to minimize the
C) to have been done / would not have been
— of salmon farming on wild fish in the north
Atlantic. D) done /are not
A) relevance B) establishment C) impact E) to be done / will not be
D) perception E) improvement

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8. Twenty years ago the study of aging — as
somewhat misdirected, but now it — into an
2. Had this 70m-long asteroid entered the Earth's important science.
atmosphere, it could have — a large city.
A) was regarded / has developed
A) reconciled B) inflated C) captured
B) had been regarded / would develop
D) destroyed E) erupted
C) has been regarded / would be developing
D) would have been regarded / had developed
E) was being regarded / has been developing

3. India has dozens of half-completed water


projects, not to mention a —, centuries-old
infrastructure of forgotten local water-supply
systems.
9. In some ways, we know little more about the
A) perishable B) stable C) vast planets than — the ancients who worshipped
D) predominant E) sensitive them.
A) had done B) have done C) do
D) would do E) did

4. Researchers attending the World Water Forum in


Kyoto last year argued that collecting and using
water more — would lessen the need for more
dams. 10. The first stage of the new factory project — last
year, and work on the second phase — well now.
A) efficiently B) plentifully C) wastefully
A) had been completed / would progress
D) remarkably E) speedily
B) was completed / is progressing
C) would have been completed / was progressing
D) has been completed / will progress
E) was being completed / has progressed
5. Apparently the drop in farm incomes had
nothing to — the introduction of modern farming
methods.
A) close down B) make out C) sort out
D) force out E) do with 11. While the battle — out in the open, the
technological capability of the coalition forces —
them the lead.
A) had been fought / was giving
B) was fought / would give
6. Most of our exposure to organic mercury — C) was being fought / gave
eating oily fish such as tuna.
D) would have been fought / will give
A) plays up B) turns into C) comes from
E) is being fought / has given
D) finds out E) puts up with

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12. Dwindling oil reserves and concerns — exhaust 19. - 23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada
emissions have heightened the search — more numaralandırılmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük
sustainable sources. ya da ifadeyi bulunuz.
A) into / with B) through / into C) about / at
Nuclear energy is now making a serious comeback. The
D) over / for E) for / by
design (19) — of the new nuclear reactors have taken a
huge step forward. (20) — being safer and less (21) —
to terrorism than current nuclear plants, the new reactor
(22) — double duty; it has to generate electricity and
produce hydrogen which is the probable automobile fuel
(23) — the future.
13. The World Commission on Dams found that, —
average, large dams exceed their budget — 56%.
A) of / up B) in / off C) for / under
19.

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D) by / from E) on / by
A) delays B) complexities
C) facilities D) requirements
E) replacements

14. The interiors of planets are totally inaccessible,


— what we know about them comes from
indirect measurements and analysis. 20.

A) so B) whereas C) even though A) Even so B) On the other hand

D) since E) so as C) As regards D) In contrast


E) Besides

21.
15. It was not long — the design deficiencies of the
A) vulnerable B) impulsive
room became apparent.
C) conducive D) compulsive
A) as if B) before C) until
E) disruptive
D) wherever E) unless

22.
A) had to do B) must have done
16. In every forensic laboratory there should be — C) must be done D) must do
with the basic training to make sense of
botanical evidence. E) would have to do

A) each B) anyone C) someone


D) one another E) them
23.
A) at B) to C) with
D) over E) of

17. The Centre conducted the study — identify


priority areas for conservation.
A) in order to B) as well as C) with respect to
D) due to E) with reference to

18. The next model the company produced was well


engineered and finely built but, —, it never
became popular and sales were poor.
A) on the contrary B) even so C) just as
D) such as E) in accordance with

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24. - 35. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde 27. — which helps it to grip the ice.
tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.
A) This new-style yacht is capable of speeds in
excess of 300 km per hour
24. Even though the water around coral reefs
sometimes looks clear, —. B) Such an aerodynamic shape would assist
speed
A) wave-exposed waters differ in this respect from
more sheltered areas C) The new yacht is expected to break speed
levels on land and water as well as on ice
B) it can contain a variety of suspended matter
D) The new design of the sail enabled the craft to
C) in fact corals themselves secrete mucus to move forward even faster
cleanse their colony surfaces
E) The side wings of the ice yacht provide a
D) these aggregates often resemble snowflakes downward force

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E) large quantities of inorganic particles were also
present

28. As the canal bed slopes downward by just 8 cm


each kilometer ----.
A) the cracks in the concrete were the result of the
heat
25. — where rain will form.
B) there might have been a build-up of water
A) This technique should make it possible to target
C) it didn’t need to be frequently cleaned
more precisely
D) the water flows slowly but consistently
B) This method of rain-making overlooks the
problem E) everything was done to prevent the concrete
from drying too fast
C) Neighbouring countries are protesting against
the project
D) There have been dramatic changes in the
climate worldwide
E) The incidence of flooding had already increased
noticeably 29. — when NASA astronauts were installing the
new cooling system.
A) An infrared camera on board the Hubble Space
Telescope got damaged
B) The Nubble's infrared camera had taken
stunning space pictures
26. — so that it can get close to hostile forces
without being detected. C) The Hubble Space Telescope is expected to
relay to NASA spectacular images of some
A) The precision navigation systems are what
distant galaxies
impressed most of us
D) There appears to be plenty of water in the outer
B) Ideally the periscope would have been
Solar System in the form of ice
eliminated
E) The new space shuttle, designed by a
C) The new-style submarine has been specifically
consortium of aircraft companies, will have two
designed
rockets to launch it
D) This is just one of a number of smaller, smarter,
stealthier submarines
E) Previously submarines were not expected to
work in shallow, coastal waters

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30. Satellite pictures suggest that Saharan dust can 34. The findings contradict a long-held contention
be blown as far as the Gulf of Mexico, —. —.
A) while it caused increased snowfall over Turkey A) whether biodiversity is lost as a consequence
of habitat destruction
B) that is the cause of the red tides there
B) if marine conservation areas are absolutely
C) where it fertilizes the water with iron essential
D) that it is situated almost 10 thousand kilometers C) because marine species have vast geographic
away ranges
E) since dust can be washed out of the air by rain D) why such marine species are highly vulnerable
falling to extinction
E) that marine species are unlikely to become

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extinct due to human activities

31. Soldiers will continue to be killed in "friendly


fire" incidents —.
A) unless a better and more reliable 35. Statistics show that the risk of a fatality, —, is
communications technology is developed proportional to the distance covered.
B) if acts of terrorism are not included A) while driving on rural interstate highways
C) that fighting on foot is still the only way to B) that did not include intermediate take-offs and
occupy an unfriendly town or city landings
D) as the infantry man had most to gain from new C) until a natural disaster has occurred
advances in military technology
D) so long as the driver was experienced
E) which demonstrates the need for yet more
improvements E) which could have been prevented

32. The "giant squid" may need to change its name


----.
A) that the nickname for the new specimen is the
"colossal squid"
B) since a bigger and meaner relative has been
discovered near Antarctica
C) if it has hooks at the ends of its tentacles
D) so it could maul sperm whales
E) though it had grown to a length of 4 metres

33. —, its true potential has barely been explored.


A) If new information continues to increase at this
rate
B) Since these memory systems are due for
overhaul
C) Though technology has given us massive
memory storage
D) Unless there are some more creative entries
E) When a number of problems suddenly came to
the fore

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36.-38. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümleye 38. Debate has been raging for years among the
anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz. experts over just how risky radon really is.
A) Radonun gerçekten ne denli tehlikeli olduğuna
36. As the universe expands and objects move ilişkin tartışma, uzmanlar arasında yıllardan beri
further away from each other, gravity gets şiddetle devam etmektedir.
weaker.
B) Uzmanlar arasında yıllarca devam eden şiddetli
A) Evren ne kadar genişler ve nesneler birbirinden tartışmalardan biri de radonun gerçekten ne
ne kadar uzaklaşırsa, yerçekimi o ölçüde denli tehlikeli olduğuna ilişkindir.
zayıflar.
C) Uzmanlar, radonun gerçekten tehlikeli olup
B) Yerçekiminin giderek zayıflaması, evrenin olmadığını yıllardan beri şiddetle tartışıyor.
genişlemesine ve nesnelerin birbirinden
uzaklaşmasına bağlıdır. D) Radonun gerçekte nasıl bir tehlike

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oluşturduğuna ilişkin şiddetli tartışmalar
C) Evrenin genişlemesi sonucu nesneler uzmanlar arasında yıllarca sürmüştür.
birbirinden giderek uzaklaştığı için yerçekimi
zayıflar. E) Uzmanların yıllardan beri şiddetle sürdürdüğü
tartışma, radonun gerçekten nasıl bir tehlike
D) Evren genişledikçe ve nesneler birbirinden daha oluşturduğuna ilişkindir.
da uzaklaştıkça yerçekimi zayıflar.
E) Evren genişlediği için hem nesneler birbirinden
uzaklaşır hem de yerçekimi daha da zayıflar.

37. Whales have a clever way of distinguishing their


own sounds from other sounds in order to
navigate and locate their prey.
A) Balinalar kendi seslerini diğer seslerden
ayırarak yollarını bulabilirler ve akıllıca bir
yöntem uygulayarak avlarının yerini büyük
ölçüde belirleyebilirler.
B) Balinalar kendi seslerini diğer seslerden
ayırmada kurnazca bir yol izlerler ve böylece
hem yollarını bulurlar hem de avlarının yerini
belirlerler.
C) Balinaların, yollarını bulabilmek ve avlarının
yerini belirleyebilmek için kendi seslerini diğer
seslerden ayırmada zekice bir yöntemi vardır.
D) Balinalar kendi seslerini diğer seslerden akıllıca
ayırabildikleri için hem yollarını bulurlar hem de
avlarının yerini belirlerler.
E) Balinalar kendi seslerini diğer seslerden ayırma
yöntemini zekice kullanarak yollarını bulabilirler
ve avlarının yerini belirleyebilirler.

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39.-41. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye 41. Avustralya'da sismik olay kayıtları sadece 150 yıl
anlamca en yakın Đngilizce cümleyi bulunuz. geriye gittiğinden, daha önce neler olduğunu
anlamak için günümüzde çeşitli yeni teknikler
kullanılmaktadır.
39. Avrupa'nın bir uydu ağı olan Galileo sistemi,
Avrupa Birliği'ne üye devletler ve Avrupa Uzay A) Over the past 150 years, and particularly
Kurumu tarafından finanse edilmektedir. recently with the advent of so many new
technologies, great efforts have been made to
A) The Galileo system forms part of Europe's find out what seismic activity has created in
network of satellites and is paid for by the
Australia.
member states of the European Union and the
European Space Agency. B) Since Australia has only been keeping records
of seismic activity over the past 150 years, there
B) Europe's network of satellites, still known as the is a need to use these new techniques to find
Galileo system, is paid for by the member states

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out what happened before.
of the European Union and the European
Space Agency, C) A variety of new techniques will help to
establish what happened in Australia as regards
C) The Galileo system, which receives some seismic activity before records were kept which
financial support from the member states of the
has only been during the last 150 years.
European Union and the European Space
Agency, is a European network of satellites. D) Records of seismic activity in Australia have
only been kept for 150 years but various new
D) The European Union and the European Space technologies have established what happened
Agency jointly finance Europe's satellite network
before that time.
known as the Galileo system.
E) Since records of seismic activity in Australia
E) The Galileo system, which is a satellite network only go back 150 years, a variety of new
of Europe, is financed by the member states of techniques are presently being used to find out
the European Union and the European space what had happened before then.
Agency.

40. Çeşitli supernovalarla ilgili 1998'deki gözlemler,


bunlardan en uzak olanların beklendiği kadar
parlak olmadığını göstermiştir.
A) The most remote of the various supernovae
observed in 1998 were scarcely any brighter
than had been expected.
B) Various supernovae that were observed in 1998
turned out to be less bright than had been
expected and even more remote.
C) Observations, carried out in 1998 on the distant
supernovae, showed that they were not nearly
as bright as had been predicted.
D) Observations in 1998 relating to various
supernovae showed that the most distant ones
were not as bright as had been expected.
E) Even the most remote of the supernovae
chosen for observation in 1998 turned out to be
less bright than anyone had expected.

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42.- 46. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçanın 44. Future computer chips may not have wires, but
anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek miniature radio transmitters and receivers. —.
cümleyi bulunuz. Here a team of scientists has demonstrated a
wireless communication system built on a chip.
The discovery could lead to earthquake
42. The health of the wildlife around us can be seen detectors and listening devices for the military.
as an indicator of how we are managing the Also it could usher En a new generation of faster
world's resources. There is much concern about computers.
the fact that some species are disappearing. — .
For instance, some species once thought to be A) That's the promise of research at the University
extinct have been rediscovered as scientists of Florida
have gone deeper into the surviving wild areas.
B) This has been hailed as the most radical
A) Their aim is to help poor, local communities to advance in information technology

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protect their food sources and local wildlife at
the same time C) The result will be a worldwide network of
computers
B) An increasing number of today's conservation
projects involve sustainable development D) So the network of information can be accessed
programmes by anyone

C) Habitat restoration and captive breeding E) Indeed, it soon became obvious that they
programmes have already brought several offered many advantages over existing systems
species back from the brink of extinction
D) Although certain species are indeed
endangered, the overall picture is not as gloomy
45. Water filters are particularly useful if you live in a
as is sometimes suggested
hard water area. Hard water contains a greater
E) In Britain, with the restoration of river habitats concentration of calcium than soft water. —. It
and a reduction in pollution, the otter is another also means that you won't get many suds from
genus that has made an impressive recovery your soap. As well as softening the water, a filter
removes other chemicals to improve its look and
taste.
A) There are many other chemicals which pollute
water

43. The emergence of the World Wide Web has been


B) Today a water filter is a common sight in many
kitchens
the most important technological development
of the last decade as regards the spread of C) Indeed, there's more to the household water
information. —. As such, the web is the biggest filter than meets the eye
advance in information technology since the
invention of the printing press in 1450. D) A water filter is equipped with a cartridge which
contains ion exchange resin and activated
A) To start with, the web was simply a handy aid carbon
for academics
E) In fact, it is this that causes lime scale in kettles,
B) It was conceived as a means of giving everyone irons and other electrical appliances
access to information anywhere and at any time
C) A British scientist, Berners-Lee, was the
visionary behind the web
46. Otto Lehmann observed that liquid crystals are
D) These early browsers only worked on academic remarkably sensitive. —. Further, they can
computers register the minutest fluctuations in temperature
E) With the launch of the Mosaic web browser, the by a change in colour.
numbers of people using the web grew at a A) Liquid crystals in thermometers, thermographs,
phenomenal rate computers, TVs and solid-state devices were
too far in the future for him to imagine
B) Lehmann dedicated 25 years of work to
studying these strange chemicals
C) In his last book he suggested many
applications, mostly in power generation and
transformation, but none of them proved
practical
D) They respond to heat, light, sound, mechanical
pressure, electromagnetic fields and radiation
and even some chemical vapours
E) Many of them wrote off liquid crystals as
chemical impurities with no scientific or practical
merit
7

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47. -51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş 49. Craig :
bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi This is interesting. Eighteen new fish species
bulunuz. have been caught off the coast of the
southwestern tip of England in recent years.

47. Mary: Sam:


What's special about digital radio? What's the explanation? Have all their natural
enemies been killed off?
Jude :
Well, to start with, the quality of the sound is Craig :
excellent. ----

Mary : Sam :
---- Well, that sounds plausible. After all, fish are
cold-blooded creatures and need suitable

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Jude: surroundings.
Yes; it has a display that tells you what you
are listening to. A) They don't offer any explanation. Your guess is
as good as mine.
A) And that makes it a lot more expensive, doesn't
it? B) That's one possible explanation, but it's
certainly not the most likely.
B) Oh, that's good. And has it any other
advantages? C) No. Apparently it's the result of global warming.
They are moving north to cooler waters.
C) But isn't the quality of the sound pretty good on
all radios now? D) Possibly. But what I want to know is, where
have they come from?
D) Well, I would expect it to be so, considering the
price! E) No. I don't think so, anyway. Why do you ask?

E) Right. What about its drawbacks?

50. Alec :
If they can predict when one particular
48. Phil: volcano will erupt, why can't they predict
The Natural History Museum is really making when any volcano will erupt?
a break with tradition with its Darwin Centre.
James:
Jane: Because no two volcanoes are alike. Each
---- needs to be studied so that its warning signal
can be recognized.
Phil:
Visitors can now watch the Museum's Alec :
scientists as they carry out the research ----
that's essential when identifying new species
for instance. James :
Yes. But it will take time, of course. And there
Jane: are only two volcano-watching satellites
I think that's a splendid idea. orbiting Earth and these aren't enough.

A) Really? What's it doing? A) Why is that? Surely one volcano is very like
another?
B) Good. Are you thinking of applying?
B) That sounds reasonable enough. Is this being
C) That's a surprise! It won't last long! D) done?
Who says so? I'm sure you're wrong!
C) Well, what are they doing about it?
E) Well; it shouldn't be allowed to happen!
D) Isn't volcanic activity related to earthquakes?
E) But they've been carrying out research on
volcanoes for years! How is it we know so little
about them?

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51. Chris: 52. -56. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla okunduğunda
Have you read this article about the aerotrain parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan cümleyi
they are working on? bulunuz.

Tony: 52. (I) The remotely operated vehicle (ROV), Jason II,
Do you mean the train that will ride on a resembles its predecessor, but nearly every
cushion of air 2 to 4 inches above the component has been much improved. (II) To
ground? start with, it is bigger, so it can retrieve more material
from the ocean floor. (Ill) Further, a second
Chris : manipulator arm has been added which has increased
---- maneuverability and power. (IV) Another advantage is
the fact that it can function at greater depths. (V)
Tony: Indeed, a lot of people feel that the costs of ROV
technology are in excess

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I really don't know. But if they do succeed, it
will be an important breakthrough. of its usefulness.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
A) Yes, that's the one. Do you think the project is
realistic?
B) Yes, of course. And it would have propeller
engines.
C) Right. It would cut back on energy consumption
too.
D) I suppose so. I don't think they are taking safety
into consideration.
E) Yes. It's a Japanese firm that's developing it,
you know. 53. (I) Tides are the result of the gravitational pull of both
the Moon and the Sun which cause a swell of water to
sweep across the oceans twice a day. (II) Even so, in
some parts of the world one is hardly aware of high
tide and low tide. (Ill) This swell is only about 1 metre
high, but it contains a huge volume of water. (IV) As it
tries to squeeze into a tight inlet, the result can be a
substantial rise in sea level at high tide and a huge
tidal range. (V) The world's largest tidal range is
thought to be in the Bay of Fundy in Nova Scotia.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

54. (I) The California condor is a critically endangered


bird. (II) It has, fortunately, been saved from
extinction by a captive breeding programme. (Ill)
Young condors are now being successfully
reintroduced into the wild. (IV) This underlines the
urgency with which protective action is needed. (V)
The situation, however, still remains precarious, as
there are presently no reproductive condors in the
wild.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

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55. (I) The speeds of Saturn's equatorial jet winds 56. (I) Industrial robots are now in great demand. (II)
have dropped noticeably over the last two decades. The variety in shape and size of these particular
(II) The slowdown is probably part of the long "task-specific" robots is one reason why they
seasonal cycle on Saturn, which takes thirty years to are so expensive to produce. (Ill) At least 750,000
orbit the Sun. (III) For the last five years, the robots are currently engaged in global industry. (IV)
research team has been comparing cloud features As regards production, Japan is in the lead, producing
and storm systems on Saturn. (IV) It may also be twice as many industrial robots as the rest of the world
due in part to extreme differences between the combined. (V) It is followed by the EU, where
seasons. (V) This occurs because the rotational axis Germany is the leader.
of the planet is highly tilted.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

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10

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57. - 60. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 59. According to the passage, work is underway to
cevaplayınız. —.

A curious form of renewable-energy generation may A) prevent the inundation of land resulting from
be on the horizon - with underwater turbines. These dams
units harness the power of tidally driven currents, B) make more use of underwater turbines to
which flow back and forth like clockwork, making it generate electricity
possible to generate electricity on a predictable
schedule. In this respect, underwater turbines are C) step up the efficiency of underwater turbines
more attractive than their wind-driven counterparts,
which are now employed widely to help power D) identify various sources of renewable energy
electric grids. Underwater structures are also less E) enlarge and renovate existing electric grids
likely to be damaged by violent storms which have
little effect on submerged objects. And using
underwater turbines sidesteps the common

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objections to conventional hydropower - that
damming a river stops migrating fish and inundates
land upstream. Underwater turbines have long been
used on a small scale. But soon now they will be
used on a large scale to produce megawatts of
electric power.

57. We understand from the passage that


underwater turbines —. 60. According to the passage, underwater turbines
A) disrupt the migration of fish in coastal water are particularly useful because —.

B) are not as efficient as wind-driven ones in the A) they are unaffected by storms
generation of electricity B) they produce more energy than dams
C) have for many years been the main means of C) they are more economical to run than wind-
obtaining renewable energy driven turbines
D) are not dependent on tidal currents in order to D) they reduce environmental risks caused by tidal
function waters
E) existed in the past but were not widely used E) their underwater structures are easily renewable

58. It is pointed out in the passage that one


advantage of harnessing the tidal flow to
generate electricity is that —.
A) it is far more cost-effective than conventional
hydropower
B) it has a positive effect on the environment
C) we know how much power can be produced at
any given time
D) there is little in the system that can go wrong
except for the turbines
E) the same design of underwater turbines can be
used in all seas

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61.-64. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 63. The point is made in the passage that, although
cevaplayınız. architects ought to be concerned with how
buildings will be used, —.
Architects and engineers engage in design quite
explicitly, and they typically do so with distinct A) they usually come to an agreement with the
objectives. Architects tend to focus on form over engineers about who is responsible for such
function, whereas engineers tend to do the opposite. matters
For most architects, the design of a building has B) this is clearly a requirement which they often
firstly to do with how it looks, both inside and out, overlook
and how it fits in with nearby buildings. Architects
are also expected to give considerable thought to C) their main objective is usually to ensure that all
how the building will be used, how people will move fitting and appliances work efficiently.
through it, how it will feel, although such
considerations do not always seem to be foremost in D) most concentrate on the outside appearance of
their minds judging by results, indeed, if architectural a building since more people see it

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criticism is taken at face value, architects do seem to E) they are often criticized for doing so at the
be principally concerned with the texture of a expense of appearances
building's facade, the appearance of its public
spaces, the furniture with which it is filled. Architects
seem to pay close attention to details, even down to
the nature of the lighting fixtures and the hardware
on doors and windows, but not always to how they
will be operated or how they will fulfill their purpose.
Nevertheless, such considerations collectively
constitute architectural and interior design.

61. According to the passage, one point that an 64. From the passage we understand that by interior
architect has to take into consideration is —. design what is meant is —.

A) the structural features of his design in relation to A) the choice and placing of the accessories and
the facade furniture inside a building

B) the costs that will be incurred by his design B) the design of the facade of a building

C) the way the new building will look in its C) only the lighting project and the appliances to
surroundings be used

D) how the new building will be ventilated D) the use of space both inside and outside the
building
E) how crowds of people can be managed inside a
building E) the operational systems and requirements of a
building

62. We understand from the passage that function


rather than form —.
A) is the main requirement in the design of pubic
buildings
B) as often been the distinctive interest of an-
architect
C) should be given priority by architects and
engineers alike
D) is what engineers are primarily concerned with
E) is what frequently causes a controversy among
architects and engineers

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65.-68. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 67. It is pointed out in the passage that, in certain
cevaplayınız. rural parts of the US, —.

Electric heating, which appeared in less than 1 per A) the consumption of electricity dropped
cent of homes in the United States in 1950, now dramatically after the construction of gas
dominates most areas with mild winters and cheap pipelines
electricity, including the South and the Northwest. Its B) the costs of home heating and air-conditioning
popularity, at least in the South, was spurred by the have risen sharply over recent years
low cost of adding electric heating to new houses
built with air-conditioning. In the Northeast and C) air-conditioning is far more important than home
Midwest, electricity has not been a popular fuel heating
because of its high cost for cold-weather heating
and because it delivers heat at 90 to 95°F, D) a surprising number of people have gone back
compared with 120 to 140°F for gas and oil, which to wood as the fuel for home heating
many in cold climates find preferable. In some

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E) there are no pipelines to provide gas for home
areas, such as California, electric heating has not heating
progressed because of building code restrictions.
Bottled gas, which is somewhat more expensive
than utility gas, is the fuel of choice in rural areas not
served by utility pipelines. Wood, the dominant fuel
throughout the US economy until the 1880s, is the
leading heating fuel in just a few rural counties.
Home heating, which accounts for less than 7 per
cent of all energy consumed in the US, has had a
commendable efficiency record: from 1978 to 1997,
the amount of fuel consumed for this purpose
declined 44 per cent despite a 33 per cent increase
in the number of housing units and an increase in
house size. This improvement came about thanks to
better insulation and more efficient equipment
following the energy crisis of the 1970s.

65. The point is made in the passage that the


efficiency of home heating in the US —.
A) is more remarkable in the colder areas than in
the warmer
B) has improved remarkably in the Northeast and 68. We learn from the passage that, in the colder
Midwest areas of the US, electric heating —.
C) has run parallel with modem building techniques A) spread rapidly especially in the larger rural
houses
D) has maintained a constant level since the 1950s
B) was first introduced during the 1950s for a
E) has improved greatly in recent decades due to limited number of homes
better methods of insulation
C) is not common both because of its high cost
and low efficiency
D) was soon replaced by bottled gas if pipelines
were not available
66. It is clear from the passage that, in the temperate E) has been restricted due to building code
zones of the US, —. requirements
A) heating by means of electricity is widespread
B) electric heating is discouraged by local
authorities
C) electric heating constitutes 7 per cent of the
total consumption of electricity
D) electric heating and air-conditioning are
invariably run off the same system
E) no special type of fuel is regarded as preferable
for heating purposes

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69.-72. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 71. According to the passage, one advantage of
cevaplayınız. studying marine organisms is that, —.
A) as is the case with mammals, they are subject
Biologists value marine organisms because their to the same diseases as humans
primitive systems are good models for more B) though they are very diverse, they include all
complex organisms, such as humans- Despite being the primitive systems in nature
genetically further from us than more common
research mammals, we share a surprising number of C) on account of their complex structures, they
evolutionary links with these basic animals. By offer scientists many opportunities for research
understanding their life processes and the way their
systems react when things go wrong, scientists hope D) since their systems are so similar to human
to continue making important discoveries that could systems, their genetic history tells us a lot about
help increase the chances of finding cures for our own
serious diseases such as cancer and AIDS. As

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E) through their primitive systems, more
research continues, understanding increases about complicated ones can be understood
how our bodies and minds work, but there is still a
lot to learn. Obviously it takes a long time to work
out all the mechanisms, and there are still many new
bioactive compounds to be found in marine
organisms. But by using sea creatures to better
understand human characteristics and disorders,
progress is being made.

69. It is pointed out in the passage that it seems


likely that remedies for certain human diseases
—. 72. It Is clear from the passage that the study of
A) can be learned from a closer study of the marine organisms —.
evolutionary processes of mammals A) is only likely to be useful in finding a cure for
B) can be obtained from their bioactive compounds cancer and AIDS

C) will be suggested by other mammals, not by B) is still in its early stages but already yielding
marine organisms results

D) may result from a close study of marine C) began as an aid to understanding evolution
organisms D) is not expected to throw much light on human
E) cannot be discovered except with the aid of biology
marine organisms E) has already revealed all their bioactive
compounds

70. We learn from the passage that, even though


human beings and marine organisms are
genetically very different from each other, —.
A) both groups are equally likely to develop cancer
B) they share the same bioactive compounds
C) there are, from an evolutionary point of view,
considerable connections
D) their systems, in adverse circumstances,
function in similar ways
E) their life processes are of equal complexity

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73.-76. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 75. We understand from the passage that many
cevaplayınız. people —.

Many people who are perfectly relaxed driving along A) in the world were, throughout the 1990s,
the highways become nervous when they get on an prejudiced against flying
airliner, although most know full well that flying is B) stopped travelling altogether after the September
safer than driving. The statistics are indeed clear on 11 hijacking incident
this point. For example, a paper published in 1991
documented the substantially lower risk of flying C) in the US do not trust the statistical data
compared with driving in the United States. Some of concerning the respective dangers of flying and
the many millions of Americans who flew over the driving
next few years probably derived comfort from such
hard facts. But now, a decade later, things have D) really enjoy driving despite the dangers on
changed. The hijacking of four large jets on highways

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September 11, 2001, and the disastrous events that E) become uneasy when they board an aircraft
ensued led many to avoid flying in the United States
during the following months. For example, in the
fourth quarter of 2001, there was a drop of 18 per
cent in the number of passengers compared with the
same time period in 2000. Many still avoid air-travel.
Accordingly, it would be appropriate to again
calculate the risks involved in flying and driving,
taking into account the latest statistics, including the
tragic deaths of the passengers on those four
hijacked planes.

76. We learn from the passage that the events of


73. The writer of the passage —. September 11, 2001, —.
A) does not feel that September 11 has had any A) have discouraged a substantial percentage of air-
adverse effect on passenger flights travellers from flying
B) is extremely critical of the latest statistical B) proved that flying is far more dangerous than any
studies concerning the dangers of flying other form of travel
C) suggests that it is time for a new statistical study C) should not be included in statistics relating to the
to be made of the dangers related to flying and dangers of air-travel
driving
D) have had surprisingly little impact on air-travel in
D) is biased against flying and is trying to the US
encourage people to go back to driving
E) coincided with a rapid decrease in the amount of
E) is confident that air-travel will soon return to its air-travel in the world
pre-September 11 efficiency

74. It is pointed out in the passage that, in the 1990s


in the US, —.
A) regular statistical studies were carried out
concerning the relative dangers of flying and
driving
B) the number of hijackings decreased noticeably
due to stringent security measures
C) flying became even more popular as the
number of road accidents increased
D) statistics assured people of the safety of flying
compared with driving
E) many more highways were constructed to ease
congestion in air-travel

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77.-80. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 79. As we learn from the passage, the fungus that
cevaplayınız. destroyed the centuries-old American chestnut,
—.
The American chestnut was once the most common
canopy tree in the deciduous (non-evergreen) A) has an allelopathic effect on the environment
forests of the eastern United States. It shaded areas B) is now preventing its return
from New England to Georgia until the fungus
Cryphonectria parasitica wiped out the species in C) has finally been eradicated
the terrible forest disaster of the early 20th century.
The fungus continues to kill chestnuts before they D) has been a recurrent subject for scientific
can mature. The vacuum left by the chestnut's research
destruction is now filled with other species. E) prevents the germination process of allelopathic
Considerable research has gone into understanding plants
what happened to the American chestnut. But some

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scientists remain interested in getting to the root not
of its destruction, but rather of the centuries of
dominance enjoyed by the massive, fragrant and
economically important tree. A team of scientists
recently put forward the idea that the American
chestnut may have been engaged in the chemically
charged competition known as allelopathy. An
allelopathic plant releases potentially toxic
substances into the environment through its roots,
its leaves or processes such as evaporation. Black
walnut, sycamore and sassafras trees are just a few
known allelopaths that limit the germination of
competitor. It's likely that the list will soon branch out
to include chestnut.

80. According to the passage, allelopathic plants —.


77. As we understand front the passage, the
American chestnut was for centuries the single A) have caused the destruction of the American
chestnut
dominant tree in the eastern US —.
A) because people liked its scent and benefited B) can only be found in the eastern US
from its timber C) have many ways of poisoning the environment
B) even though several other tree species grew up D) are presently being destroyed in the eastern US
alongside it
E) are not affected by fungi due to their toxic
C) but now it is slowly becoming less common properties
D) while the rest of the country had extensive
evergreen forests
E) since it is probably an allelopathic plant that kills
other trees

78. According to the passage, the question that


scientists were most interested in, concerning
the American chestnut, was —.
A) how to prevent it from developing into
anallelopathic plant
B) why this tree rarely grew in other parts of the US TEST BĐTTĐ
C) how to use to the full its economic potential CEVAPLARINIZI KONTROL EDĐNĐZ.

D) how this tree maintained its superiority in the


eastern US for so long
E) why it was the only tree to be affected by the
fungus Cryphonectria parasitica

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CEVAP ANAHTARI

ÜDS FEN - (MART) 2004

1. C 2. D 3. C 4. A 5. E 6. C 7. D 8. A 9. E 10. B

11. C 12. D 13. E 14. A 15. B 16. C 17. A 18. B 19. D 20. E

21. A 22. D 23. E 24. B 25. A 26. C 27. E 28. D 29. A 30. C

31. A 32. B 33. C 34. E 35. A 36. D 37. C 38. E 39. E 40. D

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41. E 42. D 43. B 44. A 45. E 46. D 47. B 48. A 49. C 50. B

51. A 52. E 53. B 54. D 55. C 56. B 57. E 58. C 59. B 60. A

61. C 62. D 63. B 64. A 65. E 66. A 67. E 68. C 69. D 70. C

71. E 72. B 73. C 74. D 75. E 76. A 77. E 78. D 79. B 80. C

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1.-18. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere 4. If the permafrost ----, it ---- huge amounts of
uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. methane.

1. This particular rocket motor ---- to burn out after A) melted / can release
about 65 seconds, after which the craft ---- to B) had melted / had released
coast upward for about 20 seconds.
C) were to melt / released
A) was being designed / has continued
D) melts / could release
B) had been designed / will continue
E) is melting / would release
C) was designed / had continued
D) would be designed / continued
E) has been designed / continues

2. The company’s involvement in refrigeration ----


as early as 1918, but more than a decade sale ----
poor.
WWW.KPDS.ORG 5. With the help of two earth-orbiting infrared
cameras, scientists ---- eleven active volcanoes
for the past two years.
A) began / remained A) are observing
B) had begun / have remained B) will have observed
C) was beginning / are remaining C) have been observing
D) has begun / would remain D) were observing
E) would begin / had remained E) had observed

3. Programmes of this type ---- electricity, gas and


water supply networks ---- from a central control
point.
A) allowed / managing 6. He believes that the best scientists are curious
---- everything, and not solely focused ---- a
B) allow / to be managed single discipline.
C) would allow / to have been managed A) about / on B) for / at C) of / by
D) have allowed / to have managed D) over / through E) into / over
E) will allow / having been managed

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7. They suspect that those ---- charge of the nuclear 10. Questions about global warming are obviously of
energy plant may be using security concern to the general public, ---- to governments
considerations as a way ---- concealing a serious and their scientific advisors.
environmental risk.
A) except B) so as
A) under / for B) at / to C) for / over
C) on the whole D) as well as
D) over / into E) in / of
E) less than

8. They were immensely pleased with their find, ----,


although the crater’s size is not particularly
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noteworthy, its structure is unique. 11. Actually, though he and I are both hydrologist,
---- duties and responsibilities are rather
A) nevertheless B) but
different; he is more concerned with flood
C) however D) for defense activities, whereas ---- field is strategic
planning.
E) unless
A) their / his B) our / my C) your / our
D) his / mine E) my / your

9. Many of the most important developments in


absolute dating ---- World War II have come from 12. Such an investment would save many times ----
the use of “radioactive clocks”. water as could ever be supplied by draining the
Ebro river.
A) since B) during C) until
D) before E) up to A) the more B) more C) as much
D) as more E) the most

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13. Acid rain now presents scientists in Asia with ---- 16. Maillart’s graphical analysis of this particular
every bit as demanding as those faced in Europe engineering problem ---- mathematical
at the end of the 20th century. complexity but could be applied to any
cylindrical water container.
A) contradictions B) intentions
A) avoided B) deterred C) abused
C) challenges D) responses
D) negotiated E) released
E) deceptions

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17. Couldn’t we ensure that all critical networks are
14. The majority of obsolete pesticide stocks in
kept securely ---- from the rest of the world?
Africa originate from local producers, or have
been the result of ---- purchasing policies. A) taken away B) left out C) put down
A) impressive B) conspicuous D) made over E) cut off
C) repulsive D) inappropriate
E) influential

18. A great many so-called useful gadgets sound


15. The local officials had ---- wanted a steel bridge great in theory but ---- in practice, don’t you
to span the river, but finally agreed to a agree?
reinforced concrete one. A) make do B) pull down C) turn over
A) nearly B) initially C) fairly D) fall short E) keep up
D) fully E) completely

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19. – 23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada 24. – 36. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun
numaralandırılmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük şekilde tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.
ya da ifadeyi bulunuz.
24. ---- when we interfere with planetary processes
Towards the end of the 19th century the typewriter on a large scale.
was already becoming popular, and new models
rapidly followed (19) —. In particular, designers A) Climate change would almost certainly be
(20) — ways of making them smaller and lighter. accelerated
Aluminum came to their aid. Up to that time B) We were extremely lucky that industrialists
aluminum had been (21) — expensive for use in chose to use chlorine compounds not bromine
anything except luxury items. But, following the
discovery in 1886 of an electrolytic refining method C) The polar regions were adversely affected too
the (22) — had increased and the price had
accordingly (23) —. D) We know surprisingly little about the risks we are
running

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E) Aerosol emissions stay in the atmosphere for
19. only a few days
A) one another B) each one C) the next
D) another E) the other one

20. 25. ---- whether or not life is an accident unique to


A) are seeking B) would seek our planet.
C) have sought D) sought A) We cannot be sure
E) would be seeking B) It is hardly surprising
C) The evidence clearly suggests
D) The chances are
E) The risks cannot be calculated

21.
A) such B) too C) more
D) as E) so

26. In photography, when it comes to fixing mistakes


22. such as overexposure, ----.
A) supply B) excess C) cost A) you should have opened each print and resized
D) amount E) process it
B) digital cameras and printers have come a long
way in quality and usability
C) this method had turned out to be useless
D) digital cameras actually drain batteries very
quickly
23.
A) risen B) fallen C) exchanged E) the resulting prints were certainly impressive
D) ceased E) delayed

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27. Since we cannot eliminate natural hazards such 30. Europeans, apparently, feel it is their duty to tell
as earthquakes, ----. Australians ----.
A) we should certainly make ourselves better A) whether any damage will have occurred
prepared to deal with them
B) if clinical trials were not permissible
B) some companies would claim to have found
tailored solutions to them C) so that they designate special areas of
conservation
C) such a natural catastrophe was quite
unexpected D) how they should protect their coral reefs

D) it is rarely covered by an insurance policy E) until the committee can safely discuss the
findings
E) on this occasion financial losses were enormous

28. Obviously, unless precautionary measures were


taken, ----.
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A) the airborne dust was a major health hazard for
the nearby town
B) on-site speed limits will have to be set
C) reclaimed areas were immediately planted with 31. The court case comes up at a crucial time, ----.
trees and grass
A) just as there is growing evidence of the
D) during the entire mining project, no complaints ecological benefits of GM crops
were made to the local authority
B) if an even greater environmental catastrophe
E) the air in the town was going to be thick with could be averted
dust
C) which has led to a 25% reduction in pesticide
use
D) as activists had been acquitted of similar
charges in England
E) when they were charged with destroying a GM
crop trial in the south of the country

29. ---- that theories do need to be subjected to


reality checks.
A) Experimental data played only a minimal role in
the contention
B) Some theorists disregarded the disparities
C) At least the conference highlighted the fact
D) Their arguments have yet to be refuted
E) There is insufficient communication

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32. To prevent a repeat of the Columbia catastrophe, 34. ----, life as we know it could not exist.
NASA requires all shuttles to dock with the space
station, ----. A) As far as they had penetrated

A) in case continued exploration of the moon could B) Since the ozone layer had been irreparably
reveal much about the evolution of the solar damaged
system C) If the Earth were directly exposed to solar wind
B) even if ground telescopes equipped with D) Until considerably more knowledge is
adaptive optics can be as efficient as the Hubble accumulated
Space Telescope
E) That everything points to the contrary in these
C) since the orbiters sent to Mars in the past few arctic regions
years have thoroughly mapped its topography

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and mineralogy
D) just as the fundamental goal of missions has
been to expand the human presence in space
E) where astronauts can inspect and repair
damage to the vehicles or, if necessary, await a
rescue effort

33. In science, great thinkers produce mathematical 35. The most responsible and cost-effective way to
formulas to explain ----. manage our wastewater is through treatment
systems ----.
A) why a significant number of mathematicians do
not agree A) unless it is disposed of
B) since their formulas have grown increasingly B) that utilize it
complicated
C) which have been purified
C) whether a new scientific renaissance was in the D) before operations began
making
E) if they were efficient
D) although this has always been explained in a
very matter-of-fact manner
E) how things like the pull of gravity work

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36. - 38. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye 38. Hücrenin metabolik tepkimeleri de dahil,
anlamca en yakınĐngilizce cümleyi bulunuz. herhangi bir kimyasal tepkime sürecinde,
kimyasal bağlar kırılır ve yeni ve farklı bağlar
36. Diğer birçok galakside olduğu gibi, M64 oluşabilir.
galaksisinin bütün yıldızlan galakside saat
yönünde dönerken, galaksinin dış kısımlarındaki A) Whenever a chemical reaction occurs, as in the
gaz ters yönde dönmektedir. metabolic reactions of a cell, chemical bonds
break, and new and different ones may form.
A) The stars of the M64 galaxy and the gases in its
outer regions, rotate in opposite directions B) In the course of any chemical reaction, including
though in most galaxies the movement is always the metabolic reactions of a cell, chemical bonds
clockwise. break, and new and different bonds may form.

B) Just as in some other galaxies, M64's stars C) In the metabolic reactions of a cell and, indeed,
always orbit the galaxy in a clockwise direction in any chemical reaction, certain chemical bonds

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causing the gas in its outer regions to rotate in break, and new and different bonds can form.
the opposite direction. D) When a chemical reaction occurs, such as the
C) Most of M64's stars orbit the galaxy in a metabolic reaction of a cell, chemical bonds
clockwise direction as is the case in a few break and are replaced by new and different
galaxies, but the gas in the outer regions circles ones.
in the opposite direction. E) The metabolic reactions that take place in a cell,
D) As in the other galaxies, the gas in the outer resemble all other chemical reactions in which
regions of M64 circles the galaxy in a clockwise certain chemical bonds are broken, and new and
direction while the stars rotate in the opposite different bonds are made.
direction.
E) As in many other galaxies, all of M64's stars
orbit the galaxy in a clockwise direction while the
gas in its outer regions rotates in the opposite
direction.

39. - 41. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümleye


anlamca en yakınTürkçe cümleyi bulunuz.
37. Tipik bir uydu, her biri 2 dakikada bir milyon say- 39. As some scientists have pointed out, billions of
falık bir dokümanı iletebilen 20 veya 30 tane rad- years ago the expansion of the universe slowed
yo vericisine sahiptir. down before it began to speed up.
A) A typical satellite has 20 or 30 transponders, A) Bazı bilim adamları, evrenin genişlemesinin
each capable of transmitting a one-million-page önce yavaşlayıp sonra hızını artırarak
document in 2 minutes. milyarlarca yıldır sürdüğünü belirtmektedirler.
B) There are 20 to 30 transponders on each of B) Bazı bilim adamlarının açıklamalarına göre, ev-
these typical satellites; each of which is capable renin milyarlarca yıldır süren genişlemesi önce
of transmitting a one-million-page document yavaşlamış fakat sonra hızlanmaya başlamıştır.
every 2 minutes.
C) Bazı bilim adamlarının belirttiğine göre evrenin
C) Each of the 20 or 30 transponders on a typical ilkin daha yavaş olan genişlemesi milyarlarca yıl
satellite is capable of transmitting documents of önce hızlanmıştır.
up to one million pages in 2 minutes.
D) Bazı bilim adamlarının belirttiği gibi, milyarlarca
D) Since a typical satellite has 20 to 30 yıl önce, evrenin genişlemesi hızlanmaya başla-
transponders, it is able to transmit a one-million- madan önce yavaşlamıştır.
page document every 2 minutes.
E) Bazı bilim adamları, milyarlarca yıl önce evrenin
E) The 20 to 30 transponders found on a typical genişlemesinin yavaşladığını fakat yeniden hızı-
satellite enable it to transmit documents of up to nı artırmaya başladığını ileri sürmektedirler.
one million pages every 2 minutes.

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40. The root cells of plants have structures and 42. — 46. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla okun-
functions very different from those of the various duğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan
types of cells located in plant leaves. cümleyi bulunuz.
A) Bitkilerde, çok çeşitli yapılara ve işlevlere sahip
olan kök hücreleri, yapraklarda bulunan 42. (I) Neutrinos have been eluding physicists ever
hücrelerden oldukça farklıdır. since Pauli first hypothesized their existence in
1930. (II) In the physical universe, what goes in,
B) Bitkilerin kök hücreleri, bitki yapraklarında bulu-
equals what comes out, in one form or another.
nan çeşitli tipteki hücrelerdekinden çok farklı ya- (Ill) So there will be no need to postulate a
pılara ve işlevlere sahiptir. particle that cannot be detected. (IV) But
C) Bitki yapraklarında bulunan çeşitli hücre tipleri, physicists had noticed that when radioactive
hem yapı hem de işlev bakımından, bitkilerin kök atoms spat out electrons and transformed into
other kinds of atoms, some of the original energy

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hücrelerinden çok farklıdır.
appeared to be missing. (V) Pauli proposed that
D) Bitkiler, kök hücreleri ve yaprak hücreleri gibi it had been carried away by a virtually invisible
farklı yapıları ve işlevleri olan çeşitli tipte hücre- particle.
lere sahiptir.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
E) Bitkilerin köklerinde ve yapraklarında yapıları ve
işlevleri birbirinden oldukça farklı olan çeşitli tipte
hücreler vardır.

41. Today most seismologists assume that, once a


major earthquake has occurred, the fault will
remain quiet until stresses in the earth's crust
rebuild.
A) Günümüzde pek çok deprembilimci, büyük bir
deprem meydana geldikten sonra, yer kabuğun-
daki gerilmeler tekrar oluşuncaya kadar fayın
sakin kalacağını varsaymaktadırlar. 43. (I) Extinction, the end of a lineage, occurs when
the last individual of a species dies. (II) The loss
B) Günümüzde deprem bilimcilerin çoğu, iki büyük is permanent, for once a species is extinct it can
deprem arasındaki sürede yer kabuğundaki ge- never reappear. (Ill) Extinctions have occurred
rilmelerin fayı tekrar harekete geçirecek ölçüde- continually since the origin of life. (IV) The
arttığını kabul etmektedir. habitats of many animal and plant species have
C) Günümüz deprem bilimcileri, büyük bir deprem been altered or destroyed by human activities. (V)
meydana geldikten sonra yer kabuğundaki ge- By one estimate, only one species is alive today
rilmeler belirli bir düzeye ulaşmadıkça fayın sa- for every 2,000 that have become extinct.
kin kalacağını varsaymaktadırlar.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
D) Büyük bir deprem meydana geldikten sonra,
fayın, yer kabuğunda yeni gerilmelerin oluşması
süresince sakin kalacağı görüşünü, günümüzde
pek çok deprembilimci kabul etmektedir.
E) Günümüzde pek çok deprembilimcinin ileri
sürdüğüne göre, meydana gelen güçlü bir
depremden sonra, fay, yer kabuğunda yeni
gerilmelerin oluşması için uzun süre sakin
kalacaktır.

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44. (I) The century that has just ended saw many new 47. - 51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş
materials adapted for battery use. (II) These include bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi
mercury, silver oxide and nickel-cadmium. (Ill) At first, bulunuz.
little thought was given to what would happen when
millions of tons of these substances were discarded 47. Patrick :
into the environment. (IV) But recently mercury has - What sort of a career can you embark on as a
been eliminated from batteries because of its toxicity, metallurgist?
and cadmium may follow. (V) For devices used only
occasionally, the zinc-carbon battery can be more cost- Brian :
effective than other types.
- Oh, there are plenty of openings in industry.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V Some people go into aircraft manufacture for
instance.

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Patrick :
- ----

Brian :
- There certainly is. There is so much more to
discover about the properties and potential of
metals.

A) And what about research? Is there much scope


45. (I) During the 1960s and 1970s, the decision was for that?
made to send humans into space, instead of just
shipping machines. (II) There were two main reasons B) Metals are being used more and more as a
for this. (Ill) One was the ability of humans to respond building material, aren't they?
to unexpected situations; the other was curiosity and C) The advantage of metals is that they can be
the thirst for excitement. (IV) Long-term journeys into decorative as well as functional.
space are particularly stressful. (V) There are,
however, major problems to be overcome by the D) A career in research wouldn't suit me!
human astronauts; these are medical, physiological,
psychological and psycho-sociological in nature. E) There must be a lot of openings for metallurgists
in civil engineering projects.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

48. Mr Jones :
- Well, what did you think of that candidate?

Mr Curtis :
- ----

Mr Jones :
- Yes; you're right about that. But he has no
46. (I) Tides on Jupiter's satellite, Europa, are different experience at all in environmental issues like
from those on the Earth in important ways. (II) The water and air contamination. And that's
length of Europa's day matches its orbital period of 85 important.
hours. (Ill) For one thing, Jupiter is huge, and it
produces enormous tides on Europa. (IV) In fact, the
height of the tide is about 500 meters at its peak. (V) Mr Curtis:
The daily tidal change, however, is much smaller. - True. So let's call in the next applicant.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V A) Thinks he knows everything; but knows nothing.
B) Plenty of theoretical knowledge but that's not
what we are looking for.
C) He's very unsure of himself. I can't see him
coordinating a project efficiently.
D) Hopeless. Can't think why he applied.
E) I liked him. He'd be able to fit into the team,
which is one quality we want.

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49. Peter: 51. Bob :
- Do you know anything about the Forest - I haven't been following the investigation
Stewardship Council? closely, but I thought they had established that
excessive precipitation in the spring caused the
bursting of the dams.
Reg :
- Yes; it investigates the claims of logging Harry :
companies that their operations are sustainable. - ----
Peter: Bob:
- ---- - And what had they failed to do?
Harry:
Reg : - Instead of replacing a badly damaged drain
- It is indeed. Public response is so favourable pipe, they'd done a poor repair job on it.

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that the demand for certified timber products
exceeds the supply.
That must have contributed something. But further
investigations revealed there had been gross
Are they also concerned with the maintenance of negligence.
watershed stability?
Yes. The snow had melted very fast and this had
Is this what is meant by eco-forestry? been immediately followed by heavy rain.
Does this mean that they harvest trees no faster than Mud and water rushed down the mountainside and
new ones can grow to replace them? reached a speed of 90 kilometers an hour.
That sounds good. But is this having any effect upon Within a space of three and a half minutes 285
the sale of timber products? people had been killed.
The rainforests of the world are rapidly being People are slow to learn. Since then there have been
destroyed. 33 similar cases of dams bursting, and all for
different reasons.

50. David : 52. - 56. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçanın


- Wouldn't it be wonderful if there were no flies or anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek
insects in the world? cümleyi bulunuz.
Mark : 52. When nuclear power was first proposed in the
- ---- 1940s, it seemed like a gift from heaven, for it
David: seemed to offer a cheap, clean and inexhaustible
- Really? Why not? source of electricity. ----. These new advantages
include the fact that nuclear power generates no
Mark : greenhouse gases and it does not come from
- Because, for one thing, insect pollination plays countries of doubtful stability. But, in the popular
a role in producing about one-third of a human's imagination, it is still associated with a host of
diet. problems.

A) The question of waste disposal, however, is


A) I'm not sure that it would. Some of them are fun
another problem that has yet to be solved
to watch.
B) Indeed, no new American nuclear plant has been
B) Well, it may sound like a fine idea; but actually
ordered in nearly 25 years
we couldn't go on living without them.
C) Scientific research and political developments
C) Those that bite and sting can go. But it would be
have since brought new advantages to the fore
wrong to get rid of them all.
D) Fear of terrorist bombing is the latest source of
D) Bees make honey so you'd keep them, wouldn't
anxiety
you?
E) As was expected, the cost of nuclear fuel proved
E) What's the matter? Have you just been bitten by
to be very low
one?

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53. Governments are beginning to realize just how 55. The problem of the Moon's origin has perplexed
hard it is going to be to meet the goals they set astronomers for a great many years. All of the
themselves at various conferences in numerous theories proposed have been found to
Johannesburg and at a world water forum in have shortcomings. —. It is then supposed that
Kyoto. —. The problems they face spring from the debris from the collision went into orbit
neither a lack of money nor a scarcity of water. around the Earth and formed the Moon. This is
The real problem is that a huge amount of water is called "the giant impact theory".
wasted in subsidized irrigation by farmers.
A) To solve the problem, further explorations of the
A) However, there are claims that the wars of the Moon's surface have to be carried out
future could be fought over water, not oil
B) Some astronomers in the past believed that the
B) As for farmers, proper pricing of water would Moon had simply been thrown off from a rapidly
create new incentives to conserve supplies rotating Earth

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C) Actually, chronic underpricing of water does not C) In the nineteenth century, it was proposed that
help the poor the Earth and the Moon had been born together
from the same material surrounding the youthful
D) The main goal is to cut by half, by 2015, the Sun
number of people without clean water
D) According to some astronomers, the Moon was
E) There are certain cheaper and better ways of once a completely independent body, but was
storing water and providing protection against captured by the Earth and is now a satellite of
floods Earth
E) According to one theory, the Moon was created
following a collision between the Earth and an
unknown planetary body perhaps the size of
Mars

56. Pouring water into the sea sounds like a harmless


54. In 1992, the United States declared that it would scheme. But as regards Florida Bay, it is proving
no longer carry out nuclear weapons tests. ----. highly controversial. —. If increased salinity is the
The reality was rather different, however, for by main problem there, the bay's ecology will benefit
the early 1990s, the power of supercomputers had from the project. If, however, nitrogen is the
reached such a point that for the first time, problem, increasing the flow of fresh water could
weapons could be designed, tested and make matters worse.
maintained in secrecy.
This has had a damaging effect upon the animals that
A) Supercomputers are now the workhouses of depend on the reef including nearly 600 species
scientists tackling big questions of fish
B) On the face of it, this was a historic move by the Moreover, economic problems are also at stake, not
world's only remaining superpower merely ecological ones
C) The first-ever atomic bomb was tested in the New What is causing such an ecological change is a
Mexico desert in 1945 matter of much debate
D) In fact, the talks with the Russians on limiting This is because researchers are divided over whether
nuclear weapons had started back in the 1960s it will help or hinder the plants and animals that
live in the bay
E) National Laboratories in New Mexico took
delivery of the world's first teraflop But the bay's once crystal-clear waters often resemble
supercomputer capable of over a million million a dense fog
operations a second

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57. - 60. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 58. We learn from the passage that, in the
cevaplayınız. construction of a fixed high span bridge, ----.

Florida's more than 1,000 miles of coastline contain A) the approaches to the bridge require a
about 150 drawbridges, more than are found in any considerable amount of land
other state. As these bridges age and Florida grows
B) the height must be sufficient to enable all ships to
and changes, many of them now have to be
pass under it
replaced. But replaced with what? Recently there
have been very many controversies over C) its appearance must receive a great deal of
drawbridges. One involved the Belleair Beach attention
Causeway, which was built in 1950. When it
approached the end of its 50-year lifespan, the D) every effort is taken to avoid spoiling the view of
choice for a replacement came down to three local residents

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options: a drawbridge the same height as the
existing span (21 feet above high tide) but wider, to E) an increase in width presents few problems
accommodate modern traffic levels; a drawbridge
with a height of 45 feet; and a fixed span 65 feet tall.
Each choice had its advantages and disadvantages.
The two drawbridges would have created the least
disruption in nearby communities. Opening a
drawbridge inconveniences motorists, however, and
can cause a dangerous delay for ambulances or in
other emergencies. A drawbridge also costs more to
build and maintain. A high fixed span would be
cheaper and eliminate the delays, but it would
require extensive property acquisition to 59. It's clear from the passage that when a new bridge
accommodate its approaches. It would also tower at Belleair Beach was under consideration ----.
over the area and block the views of many residents,
and some tall boats would be unable to fit A) the width of the bridge caused more controversy
underneath. However after much debate and many than its height
hearings, the country board settled on a high fixed
span. B) there was much discussion concerning the
advantages and disadvantages of the options
C) financial matters were of first importance
D) people wanted the new bridge to have a longer
lifespan than any earlier one
E) drawbridges were already beginning to lose their
appeal

57. According to the passage, one disadvantage of


----.

A) drawbridges and fixed span bridges alike, is that


their lifespans are short
B) a fixed high span bridge, is that it cannot be
readily replaced by a drawbridge 60. We learn from the passage that a bridge with a
high fixed span ----.
C) a drawbridge is that traffic is frequently held up by
it A) was what local residents were asking for
D) all bridges is that they attract more traffic and so B) takes longer to construct than a drawbridge
create more noise
C) has high maintenance costs in comparison with a
E) bridges of all shapes and sizes, is that they are drawbridge
resented by local communities
D) was the type finally chosen for Belleair Beach
E) gained approval for aesthetic reasons

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61. - 64. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 62. According to the passage, scientists claim that the
cevaplayınız. projectile they are developing ----.

A new and quicker method to check or prove the A) can be employed even in the absence of consent
existence of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) is and assistance
being developed. First, one needs to know where
B) can detect WMDs within a wide radius
they may be hidden and then a high-velocity
projectile can be fired at the target. High-tech C) can be used with the same precision on many
sensors packed into the projectile will then instantly occasions
beam back confirmation that the weapons are there if
indeed they are. It's a high-risk concept that raises D) is able to penetrate concrete bunkers but its
many questions, not least its technological feasibility sensors are destroyed in the process
and the political protests that would follow if such a
E) has a wide variety of uses

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device were ever built or used. But the US military is
taking the idea seriously. Last year, in a two-page
research paper commissioned by the army, experts
from the Institute for Advanced Technology detailed
real test results of a prototype projectile designed to
verify the existence of WMDs. They say such a
device offers a way to inspect for weapons without
permission or cooperation. To inspect reinforced
concrete bunkers or factory buildings suspected of
housing WMDs, the researchers designed a
projectile that can penetrate several meters of
hardened concrete, without damaging its load of
sensors. Its casing is built from AerMet 100, a nickel- 63. The passage makes the point that, if such a
cobalt steel with traces of molybdenum and projectile were ever used ----.
chromium. Heat-treating the casing after it is made
gives it an extremely hard surface. The tapering A) those who had developed it would be made to
projectile is 230 millimeters long, with a maximum regret the fact
calibre of 45 millimeters.
B) no one would dare to make any WMDs
C) new ways to hide WMDs would immediately be
sought
D) there would be many objections made at a
political level
E) its technological precision would be admired

61. It is clear from the passage that the projectile


described in the passage ----.

A) was not originally designed to detect WMDs


64. The passage describes a projectile ----.
B) is certainly feasible from a technical point of view
A) without alluding to any of its technical properties
C) is of little interest to the US army
B) in considerable detail
D) will never be used in unfriendly countries
C) but avoids all mention of measurements
E) has already been made in an undeveloped form
and tested D) but gives no account of what it can do
E) that is causing much concern among government
members

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65. - 68. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 66. It is clear from the passage that the architectural
cevaplayınız. design of a building ----.

To engineers, design typically has less to do with A) is its least important aspect
aesthetics and appearance and more to do with B) is confined to the façade
fabrication and performance. Engineers tend to focus
on the structure behind the façade. They worry about C) is largely concerned with the way the building will
how the building will be built, how it will stand, be used and by whom
whether it will sway too much in the wind, whether it
will survive an earthquake, whether it will crack or D) serves to correct the too functional engineering
leak. Engineers designing the structural frame of design
hotel buildings take into account the strength and
stiffness of ballroom floors, where large crowds will
E) normally receives far more attention than does
the engineering design

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gather and rhythmic dancing will occur. Engineers
are expected to think about how a building will be
heated and cooled, how air will circulate among its
spaces, how energy efficient it will be. In the ideal
world, the design efforts of architects and engineers
complement each other, resulting in a building that is
both a joy to look at and a pleasure to use. But all too
often in practice, things do not work out like that, and
the users of the building pay the price. In most
buildings, the work of the architect masks, cloaks
and hides the work of the engineer. Engineering
criticism is almost unheard of in public discussions of 67. It is clear from the passage that, when engineers
building design, although it does sometimes come to design a building, they —.
the fore when buildings fall down, as in the case of
the collapse of the World Trade Center towers. A) take into consideration what it will be used for
B) make sure that the site is suitable
C) completely ignore aesthetic aspects
D) aim to make it multi-functional
E) are very much limited by the amount of money
that is allocated

65. One point made in the passage is that in the


perfect building —.

A) expense cannot be taken into consideration


B) the appearance is more important than either
fabrication or performance
C) the architectural design enriches the engineering
design and vice versa 68. According to the passage, the structural design of
a building rarely attracts any public attention
D) such functional aspects as cooling and cleaning
are of primary importance
A) even when the architectural design is poor
E) the design makes allowance for all possible uses
B) even if it is destroyed in an earthquake
and abuses
C) unless a building, for some reason or another,
falls down
D) unless it is to house a ballroom
E) so long as there is a good heating system and
good air circulation

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69. -72. sorulan aşağıdaki parçaya göre 70. We learn from the passage that the Panama Canal
cevaplayınız. is unlike the majority of canals —.

At one point, during what was still a time of hopeful A) because it takes a ship several days to pass
experimentation with nuclear technology, the US through
considered using atomic bombs to blow a trench
B) since little traffic passes through it
through the isthmus of Panama. The idea was to
replace the 50-year-old Panama Canal, whose locks C) since, during the 50 years of its existence, it has
were too narrow for the world's growing fleet of presented no serious problems whatsoever
super-tankers and aircraft carriers, with one that
would be more suited to modern conditions. The D) because the level of the water has to be
problem was not just the size of the locks but their manipulated to a huge extent to allow ships to
very existence. Ships don't simply sail through the sail through

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Panama Canal; they have to be lifted 85 feet to the
elevation of the highest point along the way and then E) largely because the locks are so much shorter
brought down to sea level again. Each ship's trip and narrower than is normal
through requires 52 million gallons of fresh water,
more than most American cities use in a day, all of it
flowing through huge gravity-fed tubes. The source
of this water supply is a vast artificial lake whose
dam also provides the electrical power for the whole
operation. To fill up and empty a single lock takes 40
minutes on average, and when any one of the 12
locks shuts down for maintenance, ship traffic can
back up for days. Finally, with all that complicated
machinery, if the canal were to be sabotaged (as had 71. It is clear from the passage that, in the early years
happened to the lockless Suez Canal in 1956), of nuclear technology, —.
correcting the damage might take years.
A) atomic bombs were the major concern for the US
government
B) the Americans had already started to worry in
case it would prove extremely dangerous
C) the Americans wondered about using it to open a
new canal across the Panama isthmus
D) nuclear power was being used to operate aircraft
carriers
69. According to the passage, the artificial lake, built E) it was hoped that it would prove a source for
for the Panama Canal, ----. unending electrical power

A) is the only way in which it differs from the Suez


Canal
B) is particularly vulnerable to an act of sabotage
C) serves two basic functions
D) was constructed over a period of very many
years
E) has always been regarded as a feat of American 72. We understand from the passage that the Panama
civil engineering Canal presently being used —.
A) is one of the shortest and busiest in the world
B) can no longer cope with the demands of modern
shipping
C) was constructed by and for the Americans
D) is still modem in its design although it was built
50 years ago
E) functions very efficiently and without waste

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73. - 76. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 74. The writer of the passage points out that the cost
cevaplayınız. of installing solar cells for the home ----.

If the solar company's claims are borne out, its high- A) is low considering how complicated it is to install
efficiency cells will bring solar power closer to B) is surprisingly inexpensive
becoming a practical option for home owners. The
average power demand of a household is 2,000 to C) varies from supplier to supplier
3,000 watts. With solar cells around 20 per cent
efficient, this demand can be met with about 15 D) is what deters people from using solar power
square meters of solar panels, which is compact
E) is likely to drop in the not too distant future
enough to fit on a rooftop. It has been estimated that
ready-to-install arrays will sell for around $10 per
watt. That cost may eventually fall further. For, as

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one spokesman for the company said: “The trend is
towards higher efficiency". Others agree, but say
silicon may not be the material that ultimately
delivers it. Thin films of cadmium telluride, for
instance, are showing promise in the lab. One
London-based solar energy systems supplier is very
impressed with some new solar cells that have just
come on the market, both on account of their
efficiency and also because they are practical. They
are very easy to connect together," he points out,
you can just put tabs on the sides of the back 75. It is emphasized in the passage that the
contacts and connect one cell to another without installation of the new-style solar cells ----.
wires."
A) depends largely on the materials to be used
B) requires professional expertise
C) is very simple and practical
D) completely covers the whole of a roof top
E) is a service freely offered by the solar company

76. We understand from the passage that the material


best suited for the efficiency of solar cells ----.
73. The passage makes the point that, eventually,
solar power will probably ----. A) has as yet aroused no interest whatsoever
B) is almost certainly silicon
A) come into domestic use on a large scale
C) has finally been identified in laboratory
B) be the major source of energy throughout the experiments
world
D) is still under debate
C) be replaced by other energy options
E) may be determined by its cost-effectiveness
D) double its current efficiency
E) be produced with far fewer solar panels

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77. — 80. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 78. According to the passage, greenhouse gases ----.
cevaplayınız.
A) have aroused concern in only a handful of
Smoke is clouding our view of global warming, scientists
protecting the planet from perhaps three-quarters of
the greenhouse effect. That might sound like good B) have turned out to be less dangerous than
news, but experts say that, as the cover diminishes expected
in coming decades, we're in for a dramatic escalation
C) have a variable effect throughout the world
of warming that could be two or even three times as
great as official best guesses. This was the dramatic D) have had a particularly damaging effect on rain
conclusion reached last week at a workshop in forests
Berlin. Scientists have suspected for a decade that
aerosols of smoke and other particles from burning E) are very effective on the world climate
rainforest, crop waste and fossil fuels are blocking

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sunlight and counteracting the warming effect of
carbon dioxide emissions. Until now, they reckoned
that aerosols reduced greenhouse warming by
perhaps a quarter, cutting increases by 0.2°C. So the
0.6°C of warming over the past century would have
been 0.8°C without aerosols. But the Berlin
workshop concluded that the real figure is even
higher -aerosols may have reduced global warming
by as much as three-quarters cutting increases by
1.8°C. If so, the good news is that aerosols have
79. We can infer from the passage that the cooling
prevented the world getting almost two degrees
effect of aerosols ----.
warmer than it is now. But the bad news is that the
climate system is much more sensitive to
greenhouse gases than previously guessed. In fact, A) is not sufficient to prevent an increase in global
warming could go up by 7 to10°C. warming
B) was first recognized at the Berlin workshop
C) has finally been measured with great precision
D) is the only way to counteract global warming
E) has been disappointingly low

80. It is clear from the passage that global warming,


caused by carbon dioxide emissions, ----.
77. We understand from the passage that the
conclusions of the Berlin workshop ----. A) is expected to drop dramatically in the near future

A) confirm official guesses as regards global B) has been continually on the increase for over a
warning decade

B) are pessimistic about the possibility of controlling C) is unaffected by forest fires and fossil fuels
global warming D) has been over-exaggerated by the findings of the
C) have divided the scientific world Berlin workshop

D) have not been treated seriously by the scientific E) is partially held in check by aerosols
world
E) are biased, and therefore contribute very little to
a better understanding of global warming

TEST BĐTTĐ
CEVAPLARINIZI KONTROL EDĐNĐZ.

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CEVAP ANAHTARI

ÜDS FEN - (ARALIIK) 2004

1. E 2. A 3. B 4. D 5. C 6. A 7. E 8. D 9. A 10. D

11. B 12. C 13. C 14. D 15. B 16. A 17. E 18. D 19. A 20. D

21. B 22. A 23. B 24. D 25. A 26. B 27. A 28. E 29. C 30. D

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31. A 32. E 33. E 34. C 35. B 36. E 37. A 38. B 39. D 40. B

41. A 42. C 43. D 44. E 45. D 46. B 47. A 48. E 49. D 50. B

51. A 52. C 53. D 54. B 55. E 56. D 57. C 58. A 59. B 60. D

61. E 62. A 63. D 64. B 65. C 66. E 67. A 68. C 69. C 70. D

71. C 72. B 73. A 74. E 75. C 76. D 77. B 78. E 79. A 80. E

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1.-18. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere 4. Past research ---- running as a factor in human
uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. evolution because humans ---- poor at fast
running compared to other mammals.
1. Astronomers ---- that huge star explosions could
create carbon, oxygen and other elements, then A) dismissed / would be
---- them into nearby interstellar space. B) has dismissed / are
A) are theorizing / are ejecting C) had dismissed / have been
B) have theorized / eject D) would dismiss / were
C) theorized / will eject E) was dismissing / were being
D) theorize / would have ejected
E) will theorize / ejected

2. Apparently there is a great deal of unused energy


---- around in our local environment that we ---- to
tap into.
WWW.KPDS.ORG 5. The details ---- yet, but the company ---- the
results of the trials as soon as possible.
A) aren't being revealed / has published
A) having flowed / may be able B) hadn't been revealed / published
B) to flow / had been able C) won't be revealed / would have published
C) to be flowing / were able D) can't be revealed / would publish
D) flowing / might be able E) haven't been revealed / will publish
E) to have flowed / might have been able

3. According to statistics ---- by the UN Food and 6. Each of these mini antennas is capable ----
Agriculture Organization, global banana absorbing energy ---- short-wavelength
production ---- steadily over the past 40 years. electromagnetic radiation.
A) having been published / was rising A) of/from B) to/off C) for/out of
B) to be published / would rise D) in / with E) at / through
C) published / has been rising
D) to publish / rose
E) being published / had been rising

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7. The strategy for dealing ---- a fire in a tunnel used 10. Scientists at the US Geological Survey Center
to be ---- the train to continue until it had left the found that the Canadian quake, ---- measured 7.9
tunnel. on the Richter scale, triggered off several smaller
ones as far as Nevada and Utah.
A) from / through B) at / by C) to / with
A) in which B) which C) where
D) over / to E)with / for
D) what E) who

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8. Silicon-on-insulator technology, which has
helped improve chip performance considerably, 11. Chip-making is very competitive, so ----
has become cheaper and easier to adopt, ---- a opportunity to cut costs and improve yields is
technology called Smart Cut highly prized.

A) apart from B) as regards C) according to A) all B) certain C) some


D) thanks to E) with respect to D) any E) such

9. Unified field theory in physics is the theory that 12. The nucleus is surrounded by a number of
attempts to explain the four fundamental forces, moving electrons, ---- of which has a negative
which are strong nuclear, weak nuclear, charge equal to the positive charge on a proton.
electromagnetic and gravity, ---- a single unified
force. A) both B) much C) less
D) more E) each
A) so as to B) ahead of
C) in terms of D) with a view to
E) on behalf of

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13. When considering eye colour in birds, it is 16. The idea of changing CO2 into petrol was
important to make a ---- between the eye wattle, certainly an attractive one, but it was soon ----.
which is the coloured skin around the eye, and
the iris colour. A) repeated B) discredited C) deceived

A) consideration B) contribution D) implied E) inferred

C) replacement D) distinction
E) significance

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14. The US government demands ---- exemptions 17. By one account, the team ---- the desired
from a worldwide ban on the use of methyl compound in just three days.
bromide, a pesticide that damages the ozone A) drove through B) turned over
layer.
C) came up with D) put up with
A) responsive B) eager
E) made up for
C) indefinite D) susceptible
E) major

18. The government's nuclear adviser ---- that so far


15. Africa's deserts are spreading ---- owing to cycles no radioactive contamination has been found
of drought together with over-farming and outside the test site.
overgrazing.
A) points out B) puts out C) sets up
A) influentially B) successfully
D) takes over E) gets in
C) fundamentally D) continuously
E) conveniently

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19. – 23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada numa- 24. – 36. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun
ralandırılmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da şekilde tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.
ifadeyi bulunuz.
24. ---- as water evaporating from leaves absorbs
In the past a significant amount of the acid in rainfall heat.
was neutralized by alkaline materials, notably the
calcium-rich minerals in windblown dusts. But A) Some forests could promote warming
recently there has been a slow (19) ---- in levels of B) Global warming predictions could be wildly
alkaline materials in the air; this is partly because inaccurate
there are fewer unpaved roads which were an
important (20) ---- of dust in the past. Recently, C) Turning more land over to farming could have a
ammonia emissions (21) ---- on the increase in many great effect on global warming
parts of the world. One might presume that this is a
good thing because ammonia is alkaline. D) Forests help to cool the atmosphere
Unfortunately, however, it (22) ---- with SO2 to E) Planting forests to absorb carbon dioxide can

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produce ammonium sulphate, which is converted actually lead to warming
(23) ---- nitric acid in soil.

19.
A) replacement B) discrepancy C) prevention
D) decline E) relief

25. ---- how heavy elements produced only in stars


end up in the space between galaxies.
A) It seemed more than unlikely
B) Astronomers have long wondered
20.
C) The argument is hardly convincing
A) delivery B) improvement C) source
D) The explanation has yet to be tested
D) action E) expression
E) The reason turned out to be simple

21.
A) would be B) have been
C) would have been D) had been
E) are being
26. ---- if they had not been able to exploit their oil
and mineral reserves.
A) Indeed, the study was denounced as "deeply
flawed"
B) Waste dumps and worker camps constitute a
22. further threat

A) impairs B) accumulates C) relates C) The benefits from oil and mining industries
would also be reinforced
D) exchanges E) reacts
D) Environmental groups were quick to condemn
the conclusions drawn
E) Actually, these countries might have lost even
more forest land

23.
A) through B) from C) of
D) to E) out of

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27. Just before a flash of lightning lights the sky, ----. 30. Alternative agriculture has some apparent
disadvantages, ----.
A) the phenomenon means physicists may have to
rethink how lightning is made A) so that most farmers have little or no control
over what products they produce
B) past studies have seen occasional hints of X-ray
bursts B) just as the increasing uniformity of global eating
habits had become popular
C) a mysterious property of lightning has been
confirmed C) because they were being replaced by huge
corporation-owned farms
D) an electromagnetic noise accompanies lightning
D) while, as is the case with plant crops, herds of
E) a huge blast of X-rays or other energy particles livestock damage land
is released

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E) but there are real advantages to offset them

28. ---- because they don't encounter really strong


atmospheric resistance.
A) The storms on Uranus survive
B) The Keck Telescope has captured the weather
on Uranus
C) The phenomena include a 29,000 km long cloud 31. Brazilian scientists have cracked the genetic
complex
code of a parasite ----.
D) Images showed a giant storm oscillating A) whereby it caused a series of diseases in a
backwards and forwards
range of crops, including grapes, almonds and
E) Uranus receives less solar energy than the Sun coffee
B) that is menacing the country's vineyards
C) so that it destroyed citrus groves
D) although farmers refused to use pesticide
E) so long as it can have a devastating effect on
the rain forests of the country

29. ----, largely because the city's boundaries have


been extended to include scores of smaller cities
in the surrounding region.
A) A megacity such as Tokyo invariably causes
much pollution
B) Shanghai and Beijing are rivals
C) Pollution is a major problem in many cities in
China
D) Half the world's population live in urban areas
E) In recent decades, Tokyo has grown at a
remarkable rate

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32. ----, it stays liquid but starts to follow quantum 34. Experienced civil engineers know ----.
rather than classical rules.
A) as the foundations of a building are particularly
A) While helium can help explain the nature of important
gravity and the intimate workings of black holes
B) since they have to stick to the rules of physics,
B) Since a droplet of helium could hold the secrets chemistry and the other sciences
of the universe
C) so that they have to exert considerable control
C) When helium is cooled to near absolute zero over the workmen
D) As superfluid helium has profound mathematical D) which kind of bridge works best in any given
links with the cosmos conditions
E) Because helium can reveal the origin of physical E) while the separate parts are being assembled

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laws and elementary particles

35. ----, some people regard their local dams as


33. Manufacturers must demonstrate that their beautiful.
aircraft are capable of flying safely in cold, wet
conditions ----. A) Because dams incontestably destroy
ecosystems
A) as they went into a steep dive
B) Just as a bridge or canal or industrial building
B) unless they are below 0°C can become a valued part of the scenery
C) in which they might ice up C) Since many past dam projects would never have
been started in today's more ecologically aware
D) as soon as the wings began to ice up conditions
E) that they should have been able to handle D) Even though dams embodied the American ideal
of progress in the past
E) So long as communities have grown up around
the slack water that dams create

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36. - 38. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye 38. Atmosfer, yoğunluğunun her 100 metre yüksek-
anlamca en yakınĐngilizce cümleyi bulunuz. likte yaklaşık % 1 oranında azalmasıyla, şaşırtıcı
bir hızla incelir.
36. Đnsan vücudunun pek çok hücresi bazı açılardan A) At this altitude, the atmosphere starts to thin out
birbirinden belirgin olarak farklı olsa da hepsinin at a remarkable rate, dropping in density by 1%
belirli ortak temel özellikleri vardır. every 100 meters.
A) Many cells of the human body differ markedly B) The atmosphere thins out at a surprising rate,
from each other in certain respects, but dropping in density by about 1% for each 100
nevertheless they have several basic meters in altitude.
characteristics.
C) There is a drop in density of roughly 1 % for
B) Although many cells of the human body differ each 100 meters in altitude, so the atmosphere
markedly from each other in some respects, all really thins out at a noticeable rate.

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of them have certain common basic
characteristics. D) The atmosphere thins out fast; indeed, the rate
is more than a 1% drop in density for each 100
C) Although the cells of the human body all have meters in altitude.
certain basic characteristics, they are strikingly
different from each other in various ways. E) As there is a drop in density of 1 % in every 100
meters in altitude, one is fully aware that the
D) In spite of having certain common basic atmosphere is thinning out.
characteristics, the cells of the human body are
surprisingly different from each other.
E) Since the various cells of the human body are
noticeably different from each other in certain
respects, the basic shared characteristics often
go unnoticed.

39. - 41. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümleye


anlamca en yakınTürkçe cümleyi bulunuz.

39. Resonance is the increase in amplitude of


vibration in a mechanical or acoustic system
37. Yerkürenin çevresinde dönen 150 iletişim uydu- caused by an external influence.
sundan oluşan ağ sayesinde, şimdi dünyanın
herhangi bir yerinden haber yayımlamak A) Rezonans, dışarıdan gelen mekanik veya akus-
mümkündür. tik bir etkiyle bir sistemin titreşiminin genliğinin
artmasıdır.
A) News can now be transmitted throughout the
world as there are 150 communication satellites B) Bir sistemde rezonans, akustik veya mekanik bir
circling Earth. etkinin neden olduğu titreşimin genliğindeki
artıştır.
B) A network of 150 communication satellites
placed around Earth now makes possible the C) Rezonans, mekanik veya akustik bir sistemde
broadcasting of news all around the world. herhangi bir etki sonucu oluşan titreşimin artma-
sı olarak tanımlanabilir.
C) The broadcasting of news from anywhere in the
world is now possible due to a network of 150 D) Rezonans, mekanik ya da akustik bir sistemdeki
communication satellites that circle Earth. titreşimin genliğinde bir dış etkinin neden olduğu
artıştır.
D) It is the 150 communication satellites that circle
Earth, that enable us to transmit news all around E) Rezonans, dış etkilerin mekanik veya akustik bir
the world. sistemdeki titreşimin genliğini artırması olarak
tanımlanabilir.
E) The broadcasting of news throughout the world
would only be possible with the help of 150
communication satellites encircling Earth.

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40. There is no evidence to suggest that weak static 42. — 46. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla okun-
magnetic fields like the Earth's have any duğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan
significant effects on the human body. cümleyi bulunuz.
A) Dünyanınki gibi zayıf statik manyetik alanların 42. (I) Theoretically, large oil tankers can stop within
insan vücudu üzerinde herhangi önemli bir etkisi about 3 km from their typical cruising speed of 30 km
olduğunu gösteren hiçbir kanıt yoktur. per hour. (II) Wind and sea currents can also cause
problems. (Ill) In practice, however, distances can be
B) Dünyadaki statik manyetik alanların insan vücu-
15 km or more. (IV) To stop quickly, a vessel needs to
du üzerinde zayıf da olsa herhangi bir etkisi ol-
reverse its propellers at full power. (V) This can take
duğunu gösteren hiçbir önemli kanıt yoktur.
some time and breaking depends on how efficient
C) Dünyanınkine benzer zayıf statik manyetik a- propellers are in reverse.
lanların insan vücudu üzerinde etkili olduğu
hiçbir şekilde kanıtlanmamıştır. A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

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D) Dünyadaki zayıf statik manyetik alanların insan
vücudu üzerinde herhangi bir etkisi olduğunu
gösteren hiçbir önemli kanıt bulunamamıştır.
E) Dünyanın zayıf statik manyetik alanlarının insan
vücudunu önemli ölçüde etkilediğini kanıtlayan
herhangi bir bulgu yoktur

43. (I) It is convenient to use symbols for the atoms of the


different elements. (II) An atomic symbol is a one-or
two-letter notation used to represent an atom
corresponding to a particular element. (Ill) Today we
know that atoms are not truly indivisible. (IV) Typically,
the atomic symbol consists of the first letter,
41. The discovery of planets outside our solar capitalized, from the name of the element, sometimes
system over the past decade is the first tangible with an additional letter from the name in lowercase.
clue that we may not be alone in the universe. (V) For example, chlorine has the symbol Cl.

A) Son on yılda güneş sistemimiz dışındaki geze- A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V


genlerin keşfi sayesinde artık evrende yalnız ol-
madığımızı ilk kez düşünebiliriz.
B) Evrende yalnız olmadığımızı gösteren elle
tutulur ilk ipucu, son on yılda güneş sistemimiz
dışındaki gezegenlerin keşfi sayesinde elde
edilmiştir.
C) Evrende yalnız olmadığımızın elle tutulur ilk
ipuçlarından biri, güneş sistemimiz dışında yer
alan ve son on yıl içinde keşfedilen
gezegenlerdir.
44. (I) Until recently most big ships were built up to a
D) Güneş sistemimiz dışında yer alan ve evrende standard "Panamax" size so they could pass through
yalnız olmayabileceğimizin elle tutulur ilk kanıtı the Panama Canal. (II) The plan proposes a major
olan gezegenlerin çoğu, son on yılda keşfedil- enlargement of the canal. (Ill) But now new "post-
miştir. Panamax" ships, up to 150 feet across and 1,200 feet
E) Son on yılda güneş sistemimiz dışındaki geze- long, are emerging from Asian shipyards. (IV)
genlerin keşfi, evrende yalnız olmayabileceğimi- Apparently 160 such vessels are due to be built over
zin elle tutulur ilk ipucudur. the next few years. (V) As a result, ports around the
world are being upgraded to accommodate them.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

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45. (I) The newly discovered crater has been named 47. - 51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş
"Silver Pir after the local fishing grounds. (II) It is bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi
situated 140 km off the east coast of Britain and is bulunuz.
around 3 km across and 300 m deep. (Ill) It has
been estimated that the asteroid that caused the 47. Sandy :
crater must have been between 200 and 500 m - Why are people so opposed to introducing
across. (IV) However, it is not the size but the new species to any given area?
structure of a crater that is interesting. (V) As far
as timing goes, the crash-landing must have Mavis :
occurred between 60 and 65 million years ago.
- Well, they can, and generally do, cause a
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V great deal of harm. Take, for example, the
hedgehogs on the Hebridean Islands.

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Sandy :
- ----

Mavis :
- Oh, couldn't they? They've been eating the
eggs of indigenous ground-nesting birds.
A) Surely they wouldn't hurt anything!
B) Why, what have they been doing?
C) They couldn't cause a problem!
D) Well, they are harmless enough!
E) Don't tell me they are proving a nuisance.

48. Peter :
46. (I) Laser light is coherent. (II) This means that the
- What is meant by the International Date
waves forming the beam are all in phase; that is,
Line?
the waves have their maxima and minima at the
same points in space and time. (Ill) The word
laser is an acronym meaning light amplification Jane :
by stimulated emission of radiation. (IV) The - It's an imaginary line that roughly follows
property of coherence of a laser beam is used in the 180° line of longitude.
compact disc (CD) audio players. (V) Music is
encoded on the disc in the form of pits, or
indentations, on a spiral track. Peter :

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V - ----

Jane :
- It keeps dating uniform. The date is put
forward a day when crossing the line going
west, and back a day when going east.
A) Well, what use does it serve?
B) How long has it been in existence?
C) Does everyone recognize it?
D) Who chose that particular line of longitude?
E) Have you ever crossed that line?

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49. Gerald: 51. Lee:
- Is it really possible to drill a hole in glass with a - Have you finished that book I lent you about the
hardened steel drill? future of the world?
Patrick: Reg:
- Apparently it is. But it's a tricky operation and - ----
you've got to keep plenty of turpentine and
Lee :
camphor on the area of contact between drill
- I'm afraid his presentation of him as the planet's
and glass.
most successful predator and most dangerous
Gerald : enemy is utterly convincing.
- ----
Reg:
Patrick: - I agree with you entirely.
- Apparently they act as a coolant and reduce
friction. A) The writer seems rather too optimistic about the

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future.
A) And is that difficult to do?
B) No, I've only just started it. But I liked his
B) How do they help? overview of evolution.
C) Will camphor dissolve in turpentine? C) No; frankly I found it rather boring. There's too
much emphasis on preserving the environment.
D) Are diamonds still being used to drill glass?
D) I have indeed. It was fascinating. What do you
E) Aren't there any more reliable methods? think of the writer's view of man?
E) Yes, I have. And I'm not convinced that the
environment is a vast and unexplored
storehouse of biological treasures.

52. - 56. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçanın


anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek
cümleyi bulunuz.

52. Antoine Lavoisier was one of the first chemists to


try to explain what makes a substance acidic. In
50. Pam : 1777, he proposed that oxygen was an essential
- Do you know anything about Maxwell? James element in acids. But in 1808, Humphry Davy
Clerk Maxwell? I've never heard of him! showed that hydrogen chloride, which dissolves
in water to give hydrochloric acid, contains only
Father: hydrogen and chlorine. ----.
- Few people have. And it's really most unfair. He
was a very great physicist and much admired by
A) Acids react with active metals such as
Einstein. magnesium and zinc to release hydrogen
Pam :
B) The Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius defined
- ----
acids and bases in terms of the effect these
Father: substances have on water
- He demonstrated that electricity and magnetism
were just different aspects of the same C) Then chemists realized that hydrogen, not
phenomenon - electromagnetism. oxygen, must be the essential constituent öf
acids
A) Really? What did he do?
D) Acids and bases were first recognized by simple
B) Then why isn't he better known? properties such as taste
C) Do his theories have any practical application? E) The stronger acids are those that lose their
protons more easily
D) Are his theories of light really basic to colour
television?
E) That's interesting! Did he ever meet Einstein?

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53. The aim is to transform scientific discoveries into 55. Ultimately we should be sending people to Mars
commercially viable products and translate because they can do things that robots cannot do.
academic expertise into industrial strength. ----. ----. It cannot realize that something is interesting
However, over the next 10 years 75 new centres and start to investigate.
will be set up involving the creation of several
thousand new jobs. A) We need to learn much more about the Martian
environment
A) Without financial support the scheme can never
take off B) A robot is programmed with a specific set of
instructions, and cannot go beyond them
B) So far no definite plans have been formulated
C) One day it may be worth sending people to
C) This aspect of the scheme has been widely Mars, but that day has not yet come
criticized
D) Human exploration goes beyond scientific

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D) The universities themselves, came up with the motives
idea
E) People can solve more difficult problems than
E) But this will not happen overnight robots can

54. Satellites are an essential part of modern life. They


give access to dozens of extra television channels 56. Clay Is a natural mixture of very small crystals of
and let people talk on the phone right across the certain silicate sheet minerals. These minerals
world. However, it is worth bearing in mind that form by the weathering of granite. ----. The
they also have a covert, even a disturbing use as resulting wet platelike crystals adhere to one
well, which is why they were invented in the first another to give a plastic mass.
place. ----.
A) During the elevated temperatures of the firing,
A) Satellite spying, in fact, has a history that is just complex irreversible changes occurred
as fascinating as the technology itself
B) Fired clay is a major medium for producing
B) A tiny Proba satellite measures just objects of art
60x60x80 cm
C) When a pure liquid substance freezes, it usually
C) To get a better idea of exactly where the Earth forms a crystalline solid
observation satellites are, the Web includes a
"Sky View" programme D) Clay minerals easily absorb water
D) Therefore, this gave rise to many a space- E) The word "ceramics" comes from a Greek word
related theory for pottery
E) On the contrary, a digital method of image
capture was required to bypass this weak link
and beam photos directly back to Earth

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57. - 60. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 59. We understand from the passage that, on the day
cevaplayınız. of the crash, the weather was cold and damp, ----.
A) but a craft of this type should have been able to
On 31 October 1994, a turboprop airliner heading for handle such conditions
Chicago, Illinois, crashed into a soybean field at
Roselawn in Indiana. All 68 people aboard died. B) and so a dangerous build-up of ice on the wings
Although the weather was cold and damp that day, was to be expected
no one could believe it when investigators revealed
that the crash was caused by a build-up of ice on the C) and so no turboprop airliner should have been
wings. Not only did this modern plane have a fully allowed to fly
functional de-icing system, but according to US
D) and the pilots were uneasy about making the
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) standards, the
flight
French-built ATR-72 should have had no problems
flying in the cold, damp conditions. The pilots even

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E) so the de-icing system was carefully checked
knew their craft was icing up and attempted to clear before take-off
it, following de-icing procedures exactly.

57. The crash described in the passage was found by


investigators to have been caused by a build-up
of ice on the wings, ----.
A) later, however, it became apparent that this was
not the case
B) but everyone regarded this finding as incredible
C) which ATR-72 craft were not designed to
withstand
D) as the weather that day had been particularly wet
and icy-cold
E) which the de-icing system could not be expected
to cope with

60. It seems from the passage that the aircraft


crashed ----.
A) because the design was in some way defective
B) very close indeed to Chicago airport
C) before the pilots had even realized that the wings
were icing up
D) without there being a really convincing reason for
58. According to the passage, when the pilots realized
it to do so
the craft had encountered Icing ----.
E) due to some negligence on the part of the pilots
A) they were nevertheless confident that their
turboprop airliner was not in danger
B) they decided to make an emergency landing
C) it was already too late for them to do anything
about it
D) they also realized that their de-icing system was
not fully functional
E) they immediately carried out the instructions for
de-icing with great precision

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61. - 64. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 62. It is explained in the passage that the cost of
cevaplayınız. transporting food from abroad by air is less
expensive than one might imagine ----.
It cannot be denied that buying locally grown food A) as the fuel an international aircraft consumes is
really does offer big advantages, not just in untaxed
freshness, but also in environmental savings.
Imported foods, especially those flown in from the B) and so imported food usually costs no more than
opposite hemisphere, use up huge amounts of jet locally grown
fuel – 127 calories of fuel per calorie of Californian
lettuce flown to Britain, and 66 calories of fuel per C) but taste and freshness are lost
calorie of South African carrot; that at least is what a
D) but the resulting environmental hazards are
green research group based in London has
increasing at a horrifying rate
estimated. Much of that cost is hidden from
consumers, because air fuel attracts no tax – an

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E) but still prohibitive
advantage guaranteed by international treaty. And
under the Kyoto Protocol, carbon emissions from
international transports aren't added to national
carbon-emission tallies, because nobody can agree
whose account to charge them to. But the fuel used
to import food and drink to Britain continues to
account for four million tonnes of CO2 emissions
annually, which is about 2.5 per cent of the national
total.

63. We learn from the passage that carbon emissions


of aircraft travelling between countries ----.
A) do not have a detrimental effect upon the
environment
B) cannot be measured accurately
C) amount to an insignificant percentage of CO2
emissions worldwide
D) are not ascribed to any particular country
E) could be reduced and should be

64. One important point made in the passage is that


----.

61. The author of the passage quotes figures supplied


A) imported foodstuffs are often quite as fresh as
by a green research group ----.
locally grown ones
A) that help one to judge the freshness of food
B) transport costs make imported food extremely
B) concerning the extent of CO2 aircraft emissions costly

C) which compare the calorific value of carrots C) food grown locally is to be preferred, for several
grown in California and South Africa reasons, to imported food

D) to account for the low calorific value of Californian D) certain international bodies are seeking to tax air
lettuce fuel

E) but gives no assurance of their reliability E) Britain imports more food and drink than any
other country in Europe

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65. - 68. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 66. According to the passage, once the effects of acid
cevaplayınız. rain started to become apparent, ----.
A) acid was blamed for every kind of misfortune
In the first half of the 20th century, acid rain - whether
natural or unnatural - was a hidden phenomenon. By B) rainwater was monitored at locations across
the 1950s, however, its effects were becoming Europe
apparent to scientists in Scandinavia with the loss of
fish from mountain lakes. A network of rainwater C) efforts were made to suppress the extent of the
monitoring stations was set up across Europe, which problem
very soon proved the existence of acid rain as a
D) people everywhere began to panic
result of human activities. Acid rain was also charged
with killing vast tracts of forest in Germany. The E) international conferences were immediately held
effects of long-range sulphur pollution were looking in many European countries
so worrying that the issue was placed before the

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world at the UN Conference on the Human
Environment in Stockholm in 1972. The outcome
was that states are now responsible for ensuring that
their activities do not damage the environment of
other states. This paved the way for the development
of programmes for reducing long-range air pollution.
The most important of these was the Convention on
Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, attended 67. According to the passage, the UN Conference on
in 1979 by the world's leading industrial nations. the Human Environment held in Stockholm in
1972 ----.
A) put each state under the obligation of
safeguarding the environment of other states
B) was called to assess the rate of growth of sulphur
pollution
C) made the world aware for the first time of the
potential short-range danger of sulphur pollution
D) discussed pollution but did nothing about
reducing it
E) hoped to make the world at large more
environmentally conscious

68. It is clear from the passage that once the reality of


65. It is clear from the passage that in Europe, during acid rain had been established, ----.
the first four decades or so of the 20th century,
----. A) ways of overcoming it were soon forthcoming

A) scientists everywhere were aware of the dangers B) industry everywhere set a good example and cut
of pollution, but no one listened to them down on its pollution

B) there was no such thing as acid rain C) it was already too late to do anything much about
it
C) acid rain destroyed large areas of forest land in
central Europe D) those who had caused it were called upon to cure
it
D) there was a certain amount of acid rain but it
went undetected E) it was soon recognized as an urgent international
issue
E) the problems of pollution appeared small in
comparison with other more pressing problems

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69. -72. sorulan aşağıdaki parçaya göre 70. According to the passage, the tracks that area
cevaplayınız. described ----.
A) will rapidly disintegrate if exposed to light for long
After a heavy rain one day 200,000 years ago, periods
someone small walked across some sand. Sand
covered the tracks and eventually they hardened into B) were immediately recognized as being the oldest
sandstone. More centuries passed, and the footprints on Earth
sandstone eroded. Some construction workers on a
break in Nahoon, South Africa, discovered the C) are probably only 30,000 years old though some
tracks, which were thought to be 30,000 years old. have suggested older
Now geologist Dave Roberts, at the Council for
D) were probably made by a child
Geoscience in Cape Town, has redated the
impressions and says they are 200,000 years old, E) were found by some construction workers in
the oldest human footprints on Earth. "We have far

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Nahoon
more powerful dating techniques now", says
Roberts. He used thermoluminescence, a dating
method that measures when sand grains were last
exposed to light. Only about seven inches long, the
prints clearly show five toes and a well-developed
arch.

71. We understand from the passage that the


technique used to date these footprints ----.
A) is just one of several very efficient new
techniques
B) has not always proved reliable
C) was discovered and developed by Roberts
D) is the one most widely used for dating anything
found in sand
E) is a quick and simple one

69. We understand from the passage that at some 72. The footprints that are the subject of this passage
point during the 200,000 years during which the ----.
tracks lay hidden, ----.
A) are the only known example of footprints
A) more and more sand piled up upon them hardening into sandstone
B) others like them were lost through erosion B) turned out to be not quite so old as was originally
C) they could have been washed away by heavy estimated
rains C) are small but clearly defined
D) they turned into sandstone D) were made by feet very different from our own
E) they could easily have been destroyed by teams E) have attracted many geologists to the region in
of construction workers search of similar finds

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73. - 76. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 74. We understand from the passage that cattle that
cevaplayınız. feed on grass ----.
A) need large amounts of pasture land that could be
By 2020, total meat consumption in developing put to better use
countries is predicted to have more than doubled.
Yet livestock, especially in wealthy countries, already B) are a great threat to the environment
munches its way through 36 per cent of the world's
grain harvest. All that grain exacts a heavy C) will never be able to provide the world with an
environmental cost, because the increased demand adequate supply of meat
pulls farmers towards growing maize and soybean
D) produce meat with a lower fat content than grain-
and away from pasture and fodder crops such as
fed cattle
alfalfa that do so much for soil health. And grain-fed
animals tend to be housed in huge feedlots, where E) cause farmers more problems than grain-fed
crowding causes disease and veterinary surgeons

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cattle
use more antibiotics, and where vast mountains of
manure pollute the surroundings. Consumers could
reverse many of these problems by demanding meat
from grass-fed livestock, or simply by eating less
meat. And as an added bonus for overfed
Westerners, the meat from grass-fed cattle is leaner
than that from grain-fed animals.

75. According to the passage, many farmers at the


present time ----.
A) are giving up cattle-farming altogether
B) are giving up pasture land and growing maize
and soybean instead
C) are deeply concerned about the adverse effect
that the growing of maize is having on the soil
D) realize that the production of food is not a local
but an international issue
E) are looking forward to the time when meat
consumption in the world will double

76. It is clear from the passage that the author is


73. One point made in the passage, relating to grain- trying to convince ----.
fed livestock, is that ----.
A) consumers in the developed countries to take a
A) consumers in the developed world are refusing to stand against the meat of grain-fed animals
buy their meat
B) developing countries that there is nothing to gain
B) they tend to be kept in crowded conditions where from eating more meat
disease spreads
C) Western countries to give up meat altogether
C) they are environmentally friendly
D) farmers to grow more grain
D) they are of vital importance to ensure that the
people of developing countries are to be property E) veterinary surgeons that more preventative
fed after 2020 measures should be taken to ensure the health of
livestock
E) farmers are not convinced that they are an
economically sound proposition

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77. — 80. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 79. We understand from the passage that, though
cevaplayınız. motorists would have much preferred a fixed
bridge, ----.
When it came to replacing the bridge at John's
Pass, there were certain special problems to be A) they did agree that it was quite impossible
taken into consideration. The previous bridge had B) such an option was clearly not feasible and could
had a life span of only 30 years, but in that time the not be considered at all
currents had caused extensive damage. But a more
serious problem connected with the currents is that C) this would have proved far too expensive
the bridge has to open on demand, rather than on a
fixed schedule. Currents at the inlet are particularly D) people living nearby feared this would encourage
fierce, and making boats wait would be too even more traffic in the region
dangerous. This unpredictability makes life even
E) they were pleased to learn that the new bridge
tougher for motorists. Yet a fixed bridge would make

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would be opened less frequently
a stretch of the Intracoastal Waterway impassable to
boats taller than 65 feet, so that option was ruled out
almost immediately. When an examination of the
bridge's records showed that increasing the height
would reduce the frequency of closings only slightly,
the state decided to build a new drawbridge with the
same height as the old one.

77. We learn from the passage that one rather special 80. According to the passage, it was decided, after
feature of the drawbridge at John's Pass is that it careful consideration, that the height of the
----. drawbridge ----.
A) is the only one in the region for which a record is A) need not be as high as the former one
kept of the boats that pass under it
B) should be raised so that ships of up to 65 feet
B) is twice as high as the former bridge could pass under it
C) only needs a life span of 30 years C) should be the same as that of the previous one
D) does not need to open for ships of well over 65 D) should be left to the discretion of the engineers
feet building it
E) does not open and close at set times E) should not be allowed to add seriously to the cost
of constructing it

78. It is clear from the passage that the currents at the


inlet where the bridge is ----.
A) have carried several ships onto the rocks
B) vary greatly from season to season
C) can be so violent that boats must not be kept
waiting there
D) make bridge maintenance difficult and dangerous TEST BĐTTĐ

E) are such that it is not a safe route for large ships CEVAPLARINIZI KONTROL EDĐNĐZ.

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CEVAP ANAHTARI

ÜDS FEN - (MART) 2005

1. B 2. D 3. C 4. B 5. E 6. A 7. E 8. D 9. C 10. B

11. D 12. E 13. D 14. E 15. D 16. B 17. C 18. A 19. D 20. C

21. B 22. E 23. D 24. D 25. B 26. E 27. E 28. A 29. E 30. E

31. B 32. C 33. C 34. D 35. B 36. B 37. C 38. B 39. D 40. A

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41. E 42. B 43. C 44. B 45. D 46. C 47. C 48. A 49. B 50. A

51. D 52. C 53. E 54. A 55. B 56. D 57. B 58. E 59. A 60. D

61. E 62. A 63. D 64. C 65. D 66. B 67. A 68. E 69. D 70. E

71. A 72. C 73. B 74. D 75. B 76. A 77. E 78. C 79. B 80. C

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1–18 sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan 4. In years when nut and berry crops are poor,
yerlere uygun düşen kelime veya ifadeyi birds may be forced to ---- their territories and
bulunuz. search for food elsewhere.

1. Fossilized bones are fragile and can easily be A) locate B) reach


damaged by ---- to the air. C) abandon D) reserve

A) exposure B) compression E) exclude

C) resistance D) appearance
E) restoration

2. High-energy cosmic rays, which are more ---- in


space than on Mars or Earth, could deliver
WWW.KPDS.ORG 5. This particular herbicide seems to be
environmental-friendly, and they plan to ---- its
dangerously high radiation doses. effect on broad-leaved plants.

A) impressive B) compulsive A) cope with B) hold up


C) fragile D) innovative C) run through D) try out
E) prevalent E) break into

3. The point-and-click actions of the computer 6. The moon maps are incomplete but it is hoped
mouse have made it an ---- popular alternative that the 2008 lunar orbiter will ---- the gaps for
to keyboard and text-based commands. us.

A) increasingly B) assertively A) make up B) fill in


C) effortlessly D) exactly C) lay out D) put over
E) objectively E) work out

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7. On a broader scientific level, undersea mapping 10. Geologists ---- that the Paleozoic sedimentary
---- fundamental knowledge about the rocks of the Peruvian Andes are made of debris
Geological forces that ---- the ocean floor. that ---- from a neighboring landmass.

A) will provide / would shape A) had found / should have eroded


B) had provided / had shaped B) have found / must have eroded
C) would provide / will shape C) would find / could have been eroding
D) is providing / shape D) find / would be eroding
E) provides / would have shaped E) would have found / was eroding

8. Wolfram's type of research ---- to practical


developments, but it ---- 50 or 100 years before
WWW.KPDS.ORG 11. Seahorses ---- too exotic for British waters, but
a new study ---- that two species live and breed
around Britain's shores.
these developments appear.
A) will seem / would find
A) would have led / would be
B) seemed / had found
B) has led / has been
C) have seemed / may find
C) can lead / could be
D) would seem / is finding
D) may lead / had been
E) seem / has found
E) leads / would have been

9. A good way ---- understanding of the 12. Last January, "Hygens", a space probe built by
geodynamo ---- to compare computer dynamos the European Space Agency, landed ---- Titan,
(which lack turbulence) with laboratory Saturn's largest moon, and began to deliver its
dynamos (which lack convection). data ---- waiting scientists.

A) to be improved / will be A) above / from B) in / with


B) to have improved / has been
C) having improved / could be C) on / to D) off / about
D) improving / could have been E) to / by
E) to improve / would be

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13. Such information is not being used in 16. Many basic issues, ---- the relationship between
engineering applications ---- present, but it is gravity and quantum physics, remain unsolved.
---- much importance to the food and beverage
industry. A) except for B) despite
C) such as D) in case of
A) at /of B) in / with
E) instead of
C) by / to D) on / about
E) from / for

14. ---- jet engines, which are also reaction engines,


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modern rockets carry their own oxygen supply 17. A robot is ---- machine that can make decisions
to burn their fuel and do not require any independent of human control.
surrounding atmosphere.
A) either B) some
A) Instead of B) Even
C) such D) both
C) Whereas D) Unlike
E) any
E) Whereby

15. Most of us think that random events tend to be 18. Roentgen, which is the unit of radiation
equally spread, ---- the contrary seems to be exposure, is defined ---- the number of ions
true: randomness tends to occur in clusters. produced in one cubic centimeter of air by the
radiation.
A) as if B) but
A) in view of B) as well as
C) so D) moreover
E) since C) due to D) in terms of
E) on behalf of

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19. – 23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada 24. – 36. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun
numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya şekilde tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.
da ifadeyi bulunuz.

Bozono, chief engineer of the Phoenix Bridge 24. Non-lethal weapons can offer the prospect of a
Company, was confident that he could build a less violent world ----.
bridge to span the Kinzua gorge; and he did
A) if the military forces themselves are
(19) ----, in just 94 days. When it (20) ---- in 1882,
the Kinzua Viaduct was the tallest bridge in the unconvinced
world. For more than 100 years, it carried trains B) where lethal force is only a last resort
across the Kinzua gorge, but in 2003 its service
came to an (21) ---- end when it took a direct hit C) when the advantages balanced the
(22) ---- a tornado and 23 of its 41 spans (23) ---- in disadvantages

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spectacular fashion in just 30 seconds.
D) though tear gas is less effective

E) unless the alarm goes off accidentally


19.
A) as well B) so C) too
D) only E) both

20.
A) had been finished B) has been finished 25. Engineers removed 70 tonnes of earth from the
base of the Tower of Pisa ----.
C) was finished D) was to be finished
A) so the lean was reduced by 45 cm
E) finished
B) that the Tower's lean was increasing by 1.5 m
every year

C) but on one disastrous day it actually moved 2


mm
21. D) if it would stand secure for another 200 years
A) insufficient B) occasional
E) while it has been closed to visitors
C) eager D) abrupt
E) insecure

22.
A) from B) at C) with
D) over E) for
26. The most south-westerly point on the
Scandinavian peninsula is where you should go
----.
A) while cloud and wind conditions were suitable
23. B) if you want to watch migrating birds
A) violated B) reduced C) reversed
C) when migration reached its peak in September
D) repaired E) collapsed
D) that birds of prey are on the increase

E) before migrating birds had crossed the Baltic

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27. The book tells the fascinating stories behind 30. Although NASA's budget has risen by 7% ever
the great inventions ----. the past two years, ----.

A) however unlikely they seemed to be A) its responsibilities have grown much faster
B) since this covers new ground B) the space station programmes are not targets
for cutting costs
C) that have changed our lives
C) the programme of unmanned missions could
D) which had gone unnoticed
have been discontinued
E) if they were worth recording
D) Earth-observing satellites are of less
importance

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E) in fact, the Voyager probes may be cancelled

31. ---- because it affects the average rate of


28. Chemists have taken a major step forward in material loss across a landscape.
the production of ammonia ----.
A) More moisture also promotes the growth of
A) because it may open up a faster synthesis of vegetation
more complex nitrogen-containing molecules
B) Wetter conditions favour faster rates of erosion
B) until they used a soluble complex made of two
bulky hydrocarbon rings C) Mountains in polar latitudes are the least
vulnerable to erosion
C) so it has meant heating nitrogen and hydrogen
gases to a very high temperature D) Climate is inextricably linked with erosion

D) but their methods will replace the Haber-Bosch E) Mountain glaciers aggressively attack surface
process rock

E) which is crucial for fertilizers and many other


products

32. ---- since Gutenberg invented the printing press


29. Asexual reproduction, ----, is a way of in 1450.
reproducing quickly, and with no risks entailed.
A) The Internet is the greatest advance in
A) whether it would be better in the case of short- information technology
lived organisms
B) The web offers information to everyone at all
B) which is used by organisms such as the water times
flea
C) To start with, the web was really only a handy
C) for these are the common inhabitants of lakes aid for academics
and ponds
D) Information technology did not develop at a
D) that established a new population steady rate
E) if it was observed in stable environments E) Information technology could not continue at
the present rate

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33. As the chess-playing computer Deep Blue can 36. – 38. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye
assess 36 billion moves in three minutes, ----. anlamca en yakın Đngilizce cümleyi bulunuz.
A) chess is far from being a game of chance
36. The NASA geologists want to know how Mars
B) the game had come to an end
became so dry and dusty, and whether the
C) there was no room left for the human element planet holds clues about Earth's own fate.

D) no one has managed to defeat it A) NASA jeologları, Mars'ı bu kadar kuru ve tozlu
hale getiren etkenleri ortaya çıkararak,
E) the game would soon lose its appeal Dünya'nın kaderine ilişkin ipuçlarına ulaşmak
istiyorlar.

B) NASA jeologları, yalnızca Mars'ın neden

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böylesine kuru ve tozlu olduğu konusuyla değil,
ayrıca Dünya'nın kaderine ilişkin ipuçları
saklayıp saklamadığı konusuyla da
ilgilenmektedir.

C) NASA jeologları, Mars'ın nasıl bu kadar kuru ve


tozlu hale geldiğini ve bu gezegenin, Dünya'nın
kendi kaderine ilişkin ipuçları taşıyıp
34. When the comet fragments plunged into taşımadığını bilmek istiyorlar.
Jupiter's atmosphere, ----.
D) NASA jeologları bu kadar kuru ve tozlu olan
A) it has a speed of over 200,000 kilometers per Mars'ın, Dünya'nın kaderine ilişkin ne gibi
hour ipuçları sakladığını bilmek istiyorlar.
B) the same thing can happen to Earth E) NASA jeologlarının bilmek istedikleri,
Dünya'nın kaderine ilişkin ipuçları saklayan
C) they exploded, and released the energy of
Mars'ın nasıl olup da bu kadar kuru ve tozlu
around 50,000 H bombs
olduğudur.
D) Jupiter has been struck at least four times over
the past 100 years
37. Quaoar, which is a spherical object half the size
E) Earth must be guarded against a similar attack of Pluto on the edge of the solar system, is
thought to consist of ice mixed with rock like a
comet.

A) Kuyruklu yıldızlar gibi, kayayla karışık buzdan


oluştuğu sanılan Quaoar, güneş sisteminin
kenarında, Plüton'un yarı büyüklüğünde küresel
bir cisimdir.
35. As long as the world's economies are
measured in purely monetary terms, ----. B) Güneş sisteminin kenarında, Plüton'un yarı
büyüklüğünde küresel bir cisim olan Quaoar'm
A) the effects of deforestation on water supplies bir kuyruklu yıldız gibi, kayayla karışık buzdan
would continue to be ignored oluştuğu düşünülmektedir.
B) loss of species is a natural phenomenon C) Plüton'un yarısı kadar olan ve bazı kuyruklu
C) localized conservation projects have tackled yıldızlar gibi kaya ve buz karışımından oluştuğu
local issues düşünülen Quaoar, güneş sisteminin
kenarındaki, küreye benzer cisimlerden biridir.
D) conservation efforts are moving far too slowly
D) Kuyruklu yıldızlar gibi kayayla karışık buzdan
E) the true value of the environment will be oluşan Quaoar'm, güneş sisteminde Plüton'un
grossly underestimated yarı büyüklüğündeki küresel cisimlerden biri
olduğu sanılmaktadır.

E) Bir kuyruklu yıldız gibi buz ve kaya


karışımından oluştuğu sanılan Quaoar'm güneş
sisteminin kenarında, Plüton'un yarı
büyüklüğünde küresel bir cisim olduğu
düşünülmektedir.

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38. When Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize in 40. Altın-gümüş alaşımları saf altından daha sert
chemistry for the discovery of polonium and olmakla kalmayıp aynı zamanda daha düşük
radium in 1911, she became the first scientist to derecelerde erir ve bu yüzden daha kolay şekil
receive a second Nobel Prize. alır.
A) 1911'de, Marie Curie Nobel ödülünü polonyum A) Gold-silver alloys are not only preferable to
ve radyumun keşfi için alarak, ikinci kez ödül pure gold on account of their hardness but also
alan ilk bilim insanı unvanını kazandı. because they are easy to cast as they melt at
lower temperatures.
B) Marie Curie, 1911'de kimyada polonyum ve
radyumun keşfi için Nobel ödülü aldı ve ayrıca B) Since gold-silver alloys are much harder than
ikinci Nobel ödülünü kazanan ilk bilim insanı pure gold and melt at lower temperatures, they
oldu. are easier to cast.

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C) 1911'de, Marie Curie'ye polonyum ve C) Gold-silver alloys, which are harder than pure
radyumun keşfi için kimya alanında Nobel gold, are easier to cast as they melt at lower
ödülü verildiğinde, daha önce hiçbir bilim temperatures.
insanı iki defa Nobel ödülü almamıştı.
D) It is easy to cast gold-silver alloys as, unlike;
D) Marie Curie, "polonyum ve radyumun pure gold, they are hard and melt at low
keşfinden ötürü 1911'de kimyada Nobel temperatures.
ödülünü kazandığında, ikinci Nobel ödülünü
E) Gold-silver alloys are not only harder than pure
alan ilk bilim insanı oldu.
gold, but they also melt at lower temperatures
E) ikinci Nobel ödülünü alan ilk bilim insanı and are therefore easier to cast
unvanı, Marie Curie'ye 1911'de polonyum ve
radyumun keşfi için kimyada Nobel ödülü
almasıyla verildi.

39. – 41. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümleye 41. Yerkabuğunun derinliklerinde oluşan magma
anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz. yükselir ve daha önceki şiddetli bir fışkırma
sırasında oluşan mevcut bir çöküntünün
39. 1985'te Đngiliz araştırmacılar, Antarktika'nın altındaki haznede toplanır.
üzerindeki ozon tabakasının yıllardır her bahar A) During really violent eruptions, calderas are
hızla azaldığını ancak bir sonraki kış normale
formed and magma generated in the depths of
döndüğünü açıkladılar.
Earth's mantle, rises and accumulates in
A) In 1985, British researchers reported that the reservoirs under them.
ozone layer over the Antarctic had, for years,
B) The magma that has been generated deep in
decreased rapidly each spring but had
the Earth's mantle rises and collects in a
returned to normal the following winter.
reservoir immediately below an existing caldera
B) In a report by British researchers that formed during earlier eruptions.
appeared in 1985, it is pointed out that the
C) Once the magma generated below the Earth's
ozone layer over the Antarctic had, on several
mantle has risen, it accumulates in a reservoir
occasions, decreased drastically in the spring
just below a caldera formed during an even
but returned to normal in the following winter.
more violent eruption.
C) British research team reported in 1985 that the
D) Magma generated deep in the Earth's mantle
ozone layer over the Antarctic had, over a
rises and accumulates in a reservoir beneath
period of years, decreased to an alarming
an existing caldera formed during a previous
extent each spring but had returned to normal
violent eruption.
the following winter.
E) Once it has been generated deep in the Earth's
D) British researchers in 1985 established the fact
mantle, the magma rises and accumulates in a
that the ozone layer over the Antarctic had
reservoir immediately below an existing
thinned out alarmingly each spring for a
caldera formed during a violent eruption.
number of years, but returned to normal each
winter.

E) By 1985 British researchers had confirmed the


fact that the ozone layer over the Antarctic had
decreased suddenly each spring, over several
successive years, but returned to normal each
winter.
7

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42. – 46. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla okun- 44. Cappadocia's extraordinary landscape is partly
duğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan the result of erosion by water, wind and changes
cümleyi bulunuz. in temperature. ----. In winter, extreme
temperature changes cause the rocks to expand
and contract and eventually to disintegrate.
42. For decades, earthquake experts had hopes of
being able to predict the time and place of the A) Volcanic activity in central Anatolia is a product
world's next disastrous shock. ----. So complex of the region's position
indeed, that they concluded that the planet's
largest tremors are isolated, random and utterly B) Around 30 million years ago, erupting
unpredictable. volcanoes blanketed the region with ash
A) By the early 1990s, however, scientists began C) The region is famous for its bewitching natural
to realize that the behaviour of quake-prone formations

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faults was extremely complex
D) Over time, this tuff was wqorn away, creating
B) The stress-triggering hypothesis continues to distinctive formations
gain credibility, and offers hope of being able to
predict quakes accurately E) Rainfall and rivers wear down the tuff and, like
the wind, carry away loose materials
C) Faults are unexpectedly responsive to subtle
stresses they acquire as neighbouring faults
shake

D) Once more, there is hope that more accurate


warnings will be forthcoming

E) Historical records confirm that about one-third


of the world's recorded tremors cluster in time
and space

43. The author of the book is an assistant 45. Polish is made of wax. ----. And, each of them
professor of physics and an amateur ice- has its own melting point. The low-melting-point
hockey player. ----. He supports his idea with wax makes it easier to apply the polish,
reference to thermodynamics, molecular whereas the high-melting-point wax helps the
physics, fluid dynamics and the physics of polish to stay in place.
collisions, and presents his material clearly and
convincingly. A) But, unlike candles, which are also made of
wax, it is a blend of different waxes
A) It's an informative study and certainly original
B) Nobody seems to have done any systematic
B) He claims that ice-hockey involves more research into the chemical components of wax
physics than any other sport
C) On a microscopic level, the surface you are
C) He wonders whether shooting, like skating, polishing is rough, and when you apply the
makes use of a great deal of mechanics polish, it looks dull at first
D) Air drag and ice friction are fully discussed D) This is the same basic concept as that of a
E) There is no advice on how to avoid collisions steamroller on hot tarmac

E) Any oil in the boot has to be burned off and


then layers of polish and beeswax are applied
with a very soft cloth

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46. Scientists generally agree that there are 35 to 40 48. George:
species of seahorse in the world. Though they
resemble miniature horses, they actually - Brian is working very hard to discover a new
belong to the fish family "syngnathidae". They species of mammal.
are monogamous. ----. This unique trait has led Patrick:
people to believe, for some strange reason, that
seahorses have curative powers, and 20 million - Good luck to him! But he’s not likely to do so.
seahorses are exported annually for use in
George:
traditional Chinese medicines.
- ----
A) The Victorians named seahorses
"hippocampus", which means "horse Patrick:
caterpillar" - Because nearly 80% of the mammal species

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B) Intriguingly, they are the only animal in which known today were discovered before 1900.
the male becomes pregnant and gives birth to A) Why do you say that?
live young
B) But he’s good at his job and very determined.
C) Consequently, fishermen have reported a
minimum 50 per cent decline in wild stocks of C) I suppose not. Even though there must be
seahorses in the past five years plenty of unknown species.

D) Their genetic structure has not yet been D) Stop being pessimistic! It shouldn’t be so
identified difficult, should it?

E) The distribution of spiny and short-snouted E) Given a bit of luck, he could.


seahorses is thought to extend from Britain
across the Mediterranean to the Black Sea

47. – 51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş 49. Harry:


bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi
- Have you understood how they've managed
bulunuz.
to make copper that is both strong and
pliable?
47. Michael:
Lee:
- How much freedom do you think the architect
should have in the design of a building? - ----

Dan: Harry:

- Well, I'm all for user participation in the - But doesn't that mean the copper is terribly
planning and design process. brittle, and so breaks easily?

Michael: Lee:

- ---- - It would. But that's not the end of the process.


About a quarter of the grains are then allowed
Dan: to grow coarse thus making the copper
- Or in a factory or a laboratory. pliable.

A) It's the contractor that he really needs to work A) If they could, it would be excellent for various
with! biomedical devices.
B) No. But by all accounts it seems they have
B) Yes, of course. But some buildings, office managed to do so.
blocks for instance, are quite straightforward. C) I only know they start by cooling the copper
C) So am I. The architect doesn't know what's down with liquid nitrogen.
needed, for instance, in a school. D) In theory, yes. They're creating an ultra fine
grain structure for strength.
D) The quality of the materials used is equally E) Small grains make for strength; large ones for
important. pliability.
E) Yes; but within reason. The architect can't
please everyone.

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50. Reg: 52. – 56. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere,
- Why are police so keen to collect bullets after parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için
getirilebilecek cümleyi bulunuz.
a shooting incident?
Matthew:
52. (I) IRAS was one of the most productive satellites in
- ---- the history of astronomy. (II) Though functional for only
Reg: 10 months in 1983, the observations it performed
continue to be a major source of information for
- Really? How do they do that?
astronomers. (III) The satellite undertook a complete
Matthew: survey of the sky in mid- and far-infrared light, with
wavelengths between 12 and 100 microns. (IV) The
- Every gun marks the bullets that pass

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through it in an individual manner, so they spectrum also reveals the geometry of the dust. (V)
can be sure about which bullets come from This part of the spectrum is difficult or impossible to
which gun. detect from the ground so the survey was of immense
importance.
A) There is a spiral of raised lands and shallow,
grooves along the barrel.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
B) The diameter of a bullet tells one quite a lot.

C) There are standard models and longer than


standard.

D) They used a comparison microscope to


inspect, side by side, marks left on bullets and
cartridges.
53. (I) Australia is home to marsupials like kangaroos and
E) They aid firearms identification. koalas. (II) The ability to generate body heat is what
enables mammals to survive in so many different
climates. (III) These are animals that give birth to
underdeveloped young who crawl into the mother's
pouch. (IV) There they develop further until they can
live in the outside world. (V) The way of rearing the
51. Andy: babies is unusual but they are fed in the usual way, on
mother's milk.
- In the wild, monkeys spend something like
90% of the day in search of food.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
Clare:
- Yes, I can believe that. But what are you
trying to tell me?
Andy:
- ----
Clare: 54. (I) Egypt is restricted in the amount of water it is
- Yes, indeed. I'd never thought about that. It allowed to take each year from the Nile. (II) Although
must make life very dull. its population is increasing, the amount of available
water remains the same. (III) Wealthy investors and
A) Think how bored they must be in a zoo where poor farmers alike used the water to grow crops. (IV)
food appears at regular intervals. Moreover, much water is lost through evaporation
B) Do you think animals enjoy hunting for their from the surface of Lake Nasser and from old,
food? inefficient irrigation systems, (V) So Egypt is building a
giant canal which will take water from Lake Nasser's
C) Animals, like people, need to eat a varied diet. overflow basin and carry it to new irrigation systems in
D) In some of the big zoos they actually hide the the desert.
food and the animals go in search of it.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
E) The search for food means the animals get
plenty of exercise and it keeps them happily
occupied.

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55. (I) Amphibians are in decline, and the causes remain 56. (I) The Museum of the History of Science occupies the
controversial. (II) Among the earliest suspected building that was originally the Ashmolean Museum.
culprits were pesticides. (III) Only a very few reports, (II) Here, from the 17th century onwards, there was a
however, have linked amphibian declines to programme of experimentation and discovery. (III)
pesticides in a convincing manner. (IV) Even DDT's Recent building work at the Museum has unearthed
role in wildlife problems took years to decipher. (V) insights into the nature of this work and afforded new
And even in those few studies, the pesticide items for display. (IV) These range from scientific
concentrations appear to be too low to kill apparatus to fragments of everyday life such as
amphibians. specimen labels. (V) Actually, in some science
museums one can even watch scientists at work on
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V their experiments.

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A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

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57.– 60. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 58. According to the passage, a mobile phone ----.
cevaplayınız. A) could be the cause of an explosion at a petrol
station, but not on account of its radio
There have been stories in the press about mobile emissions
phones sparking explosions at petrol stations. But B) has to bear the stamp of the GSM Association
according to the GSM Association, a worldwide body before it goes into use
for mobile phone makers, none of these reports has
ever been traced back to a real event. But there is a C) occasionally emits sparks that are normally
real safety concern, and it's not about radio harmless, but not on all occasions
emissions from mobiles as you might have thought. D) is less likely to cause an explosion than a CD

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Instead, the GSM Association says there is a player or a torch is
theoretical risk that if a hand-held phone is dropped
and the battery separates from the phone, it could E) should be switched off on arrival at a petrol
cause a spark across the contacts. This is equally station
true of other battery-powered devices such as
torches, Walkmans and CD players. But it's far more
likely that mobile phones cause a hazard at petrol
stations by distracting their users while they're
operating a petrol pump.
59. It is pointed out in the passage that any battery-
powered device ----.

A) is sure to emit sparks if dropped

B) is potentially dangerous at a petrol station

C) that is dropped will be permanently damaged

D) has to be approved by the GSM Association

E) can distract a person's attention and cause


accidents

60. It is clear from the passage that much adverse


57. We understand from the passage that publicity ----.
explosions at petrol stations ----.
A) in the press concerning mobile phone users has
A) are extremely rare since so many precautions had far-reaching effects
are taken to prevent them
B) has undermined the authority of the GSM
B) have always been accurately reported by the Association
press
C) has reduced the popularity of all battery-
C) have never been precisely traced to mobile powered devices
phones
D) has been aimed at mobile phones for causing
D) are so rare that no further precautions are explosions at petrol stations
considered necessary
E) of petrol stations, on account of their lack of
E) are theoretically unlikely, due to the safety precautions, has appeared in the press
introduction of serious safety measures

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61. – 64. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 62. We understand from the passage that, in the
cevaplayınız. case of an engine failure, ----.

A) the direction of the aircraft cannot be


All multi-engined aircraft are designed to keep flying controlled
in the event of engine failure. Losing thrust from one B) the balance of the aircraft is maintained
"side of an aircraft unbalances it and causes the through the vertical stabilizer and the rudder
nose of the aircraft to turn in the direction of the failed
engine. Aircraft have a vertical stabilizer (the upright C) the resulting sideways force can only be
at the back) to keep the aircraft's nose into the wind, controlled by the stabilizer
with a rudder attached to it for fine tuning. Moving the D) the nose of the aircraft is pushed down by the
rudder into the airflow creates a sideways force, wind
which turns the aircraft around its vertical axis. When

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this is applied in the direction of the failed engine, the E) the function of stabilizer and rudder are
force created by the rudder will counteract the turn reduced
induced by the uneven engine thrust. The vertical
stabilizer and rudder are sized to control the uneven
thrust caused by an engine failure at the most
demanding limits or the flight envelope, as they must
be capable of generating powerful turning forces.

63. We understand from the passage that the


normal function of the rudder in an aircraft is to
----.

A) counteract engine thrust

B) balance the thrust generated by all the engines

C) control the airflow as it passes the stabilizer

D) lift it and keep it in the air


E) work with the stabilizer to control the direction
of the aircraft

64. It's clear from the passage that, in the event of


an engine failure, ----.
61. According to the passage, when one of the A) rudder and stabilizer will automatically
engines in a multi-engined aircraft falls, ----. separate
A) the other engines enable the aircraft to B) there is no way in which an aircraft can be
continue on safely controlled
B) there is apparently no change in the C) a multi-engined aircraft remains unaffected
functioning of the aircraft
D) the stabilizer and rudder are used to
C) the thrust remains unchanged counterbalance the unequal thrust that results
D) the aircraft immediately begins to tilt upwards E) the aircraft starts to turn away from the failed
E) the other engines begin to generate more engine and move in ever-widening circles
power

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65. – 68. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 66. It is understood from the passage that
cevaplayınız. information concerning GRB afterglows ----.

A) can be used to measure cosmological


Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are among the most distances
intense areas of research in high-energy
astrophysics, and they represent the largest known B) can be obtained and recorded by readily
explosions in the universe. Last year, NASA available optical instruments
launched the Swift satellite to rapidly locate and C) is rarely obtained from the satellite Swift
observe GRBs and their afterglows at x-ray,
ultraviolet and optical wavelengths. These afterglow D) is of marginal importance to high energy
observations are particularly important for the astrophysicists
understanding or these enormous explosions that E) can only be obtained by means of specially

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occur at cosmological distances near the edge of the designed satellites
observable universe. Amateur astronomers, due to
their large numbers, their ability to respond quickly to
the randomly located GRBs and the availability of
highly sensitive CCD cameras, have been able to
provide important, early data on the optical
afterglows of GRBs in the past few years. Indeed, at
least one optical afterglow from a GRB was
discovered by an amateur astronomer. Observations
can be done with even a modest-size telescope, 67. We understand from the passage that GRBs ----.
provided the observations are made quickly enough. A) have not aroused much scientific interest
except among amateur astronomers

B) have only been discovered by NASA in recent


years

C) are explosions that happen in the farthest


regions of the known universe

D) produce afterglows that can only be observed


on a single wavelength

E) leave behind afterglows that last a very long


time

65. It is clear from the passage that our knowledge


68. According to the passage, we can gain some
of GRBs ----.
understanding of the nature of GRBs ----.
A) is partly the result of the work of non-
A) so long as amateur astronomers are willing to
professional astronomers
share their data
B) has progressed very little over the past few
B) only with the assistance of the Swift satellite
years
C) once the Swift satellite starts sending data back
C) is confined to their positions in the universe
to earth
D) has been hindered by the enormous distances
D) even by means of ordinary cameras
involved
E) through a close observation of their afterglows
E) depends solely on x-ray analysis of their nature

Diğer sayfaya geçiniz.

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69. – 72. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 70. It is clear from the passage that the fast-food
cevaplayınız. industry ----.

A) is keen to help solve environmental problems


Formerly, potatoes were grown on unirrigated land, B) has made large, well-shaped potatoes the ideal
which often meant they were small and probably
misshapen. Now, however, farmers routinely irrigate C) is not in the least interested in the size of the
their lands to produce products acceptable to the potatoes it buys
fast-food industry for its French fries. But in D) plays a major role in the development of
Minnesota the groundwater that farmers pump for irrigation systems
potatoes has turned out to be the same water that
helps to sustain the Straight River, a major trout E) agreed to buy smaller potatoes when it became
fishery. Even modest pumping for potatoes, a federal clear that irrigation systems were a threat to

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study eventually concluded, had the potential to the brown trout
reduce the river's flow by one third during the
irrigation season, with adverse impact on the brown
trout. For now, the trout are not in danger, but that
could change if Minnesota were to approve
applications from farmers still eager to see potato 71. We understand from the passage that the
planting and irrigation widen. groundwater Minnesota farmers use for
irrigation purposes ----.

A) could significantly reduce the level of the


Straight River during the irrigation season

B) has reduced the numbers of fish in the Straight


River by one third

C) is quickly replaced once the rainy season


commences

D) has had no obvious effect on the environment

E) is no longer available for irrigation purposes

72. It is implied in the passage that Minnesota


69. According to the passage, small, badly-shaped farmers ----.
potatoes ----. A) have agreed to stop irrigating their fields
A) bring in very little money B) might resist efforts to cut down on irrigation
B) make excellent French fries C) will change to crops that require less water
C) are often the result of inadequate irrigation than potatoes

D) are a poor strain of potato that is being D) have done their best to save the trout fishery of
replaced by better strains the Straight River

E) have led to a drop in the sale of French fries E) have failed to give the fast-food companies the
type of potato they want

Diğer sayfaya geçiniz.

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73. – 76. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 74. As it is pointed out in the passage, it was only
cevaplayınız. after the steam engine had come into being
that ----.
A) anyone could envisage traveling into space
If engineers waited for the development of scientific
knowledge to use and organize into technological B) people understood what engineering could
achievements, ours would be a very different world achieve
from what we know. In engineering, it is not so much
C) people began to value scientific theory
science as it is ingenuity that is applied to solve
problems and satisfy needs and wants. If this were D) aerodynamics attracted any serious attention
not so, the steam engine would never have been
E) the science of thermodynamics really began to
invented in the absence of thermodynamics. The
develop
Wright Brothers would not have flown since they had

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no aerodynamics textbooks. The astronauts would
never have landed on the Moon nor the rovers on
Mars without firm geological knowledge of their
surfaces. Rather than following scientific theories and
discoveries, engineering leads them. Operating
steam engines prompted the development of
thermodynamics, actual powered flight drove
aerodynamics, and Moon and Mars missions brought 75. We understand from the passage that the
back samples and sent back data that led to technological achievements of engineers are ---
increased scientific knowledge about those -.
extraterrestrial bodies. A) frequently the result of inventiveness and
creativity

B) based on a profound knowledge of several


scientific fields

C) best exemplified in the missions to Mars


D) often disappointing as they aim to achieve too
much

E) no longer as impressive as formerly

73. The main point made in this passage is that ----.


76. One point made in the passage is that
A) engineers rely on theoretical science for the inventions ----.
solution of technical problems A) relate more to physics than to chemistry

B) theoretical science and technological B) are made in response to the recognition of a


achievement have always gone hand-in-hand need

C) engineering is very often a step ahead of the C) are almost always based on some degree of
pure sciences scientific knowledge

D) all scientists show equal ingenuity D) are valued more than new scientific theories

E) the steam engine was the greatest invention of E) do not usually relate to our ordinary everyday
all time life

Diğer sayfaya geçiniz.

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78. We learn from the passage that, with opencast
77. – 80. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre mining, ----.
cevaplayınız.
A) dust control is almost impossible
The people of Blaenavon in South Wales were B) the coal is generally of a very poor quality
understandably worried. The opencast mine only 1
kilometer north of their town had served the great C) miners work in better conditions than in
Blaenavon ironworks when they opened in the underground mines
Iate18"1 century. But it had been lying derelict for D) once the coal has been extracted, grass and
decades and now British Coal Opencast wanted to trees have to be planted immediately
mine the remaining 320,000 tonnes of coal. At
opencast sites, for every tonne of coal recovered, up E) a huge amount of rock has to be removed in
to 40 tonnes of rock has to be extracted. So, in the order to get a relatively small amount of coal

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case of Blaenavon, unless precautionary measures
were taken, the air in the town was going to be thick
with dust. Precautionary measures were taken,
based on well-tried techniques. For instance, tall
spray masts were erected around dumps to provide
a curtain of rain to entrap and wash out dust from the
79. According to the passage, the opencast mine
air, and the wheels of every vehicle leaving the site
near Blaenavon ----.
were washed. Further, reclaimed areas were planted
with trees and grass from day one. With these and A) had always given employment to the men in
other measures this turned out to be a success story the town
for all concerned. In fact, during the entire mining and th
B) had been in constant use since the late 18
reclamation project not a single complaint about
century
nuisance dust was made to the local authority.
C) had never been mined economically
D) had been neglected for years and fallen into a
state of decay

E) filled the town with dust even when coal was


not being mined there

80. It is clear from the passage that the measures


employed at the site of the mine to control dust
77. It is clear from the passage that the events ----.
described in the passage amount to a "success
story" ----. A) relied, to a large extent, on the use of water

A) even though very little coal was mined B) were not adequate enough

B) as new methods of dust control were C) were just ordinary, routine measures
developed and tried out D) were devised and implemented by the people in
C) because the coal was mined without the the local town
nearby town suffering from dust E) were set up in a careless half-hearted manner
D) since no one regretted the closing-down of the
mine

E) though the task of controlling the dust had


proved expensive and time-consuming
TEST BĐTTĐ.
CEVAPLARINIZI KONTROL EDĐNĐZ.

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CEVAP ANAHTARI

ÜDS FEN - (ARALIIK) 2005

1. A 2. E 3. A 4. C 5. D 6. B 7. D 8. C 9. E 10. B

11. E 12. C 13. A 14. D 15. B 16. C 17. E 18. D 19. B 20. C

21. D 22. A 23. E 24. B 25. A 26. B 27. C 28. E 29. B 30. A

31. D 32. A 33. D 34. C 35. E 36. C 37. B 38. D 39. A 40. E

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41. D 42. A 43. B 44. E 45. A 46. B 47. C 48. A 49. D 50. E

51. A 52. D 53. B 54. C 55. D 56. E 57. C 58. A 59. B 60. D

61. A 62. B 63. E 64. D 65. A 66. B 67. C 68. D 69. C 70. B

71. A 72. B 73. C 74. E 75. A 76. B 77. C 78. E 79. D 80. A

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4. His efforts to ---- the threat of global warming
1. – 18. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yer-
with new forms of energy have been much
lere uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulu-
appreciated.
nuz.
A) excuse B) counter C) pursue
1. In the life sciences, biologists need to be more
aware of the ---- between science and technology. D) uphold E) deliver

A) approach B) departure C) complexity

D) extremity E) gap

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2. The theory is interesting enough, but is it ----?

A) solvable B) expressive C) intensive 5. The amount of fish caught did not ---- the
massive increase in vessel tonnage and fishing
D) coherent E) resistant effort.

A) pull through B) make do with


C) keep pace with D) come across

E) break out of

3. However incredible we may now find it, engineers 6. Home heating, which ---- less than 7 per cent of
did not ---- welcome the idea of a general purpose all energy consumed in the US, has had a
microchip. commendable efficiency record.

A) instantly B) urgently C) crudely A) accounts for B) comes with C) joins in

D) scarcely E) reliably D) picks up E) brings out

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7. For a long time now, biologists ---- that bits of 10. Over the past eight years, the TES instrument
tissue placed next to each other ----. ---- that Martian rocks and sands ---- almost
entirely
A) had known / may fuse of volcanic minerals.
B) have known / can fuse A) would discover / had been composed
C) knew / had fused B) has discovered / are composed

D) would have known / have fused C) would discover / were composed

E) know / would have fused D) had discovered / had been composed

E) was discovering / would be composed

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8. It ---- that Brazil’s new surveillance system ---- a
useful tool in the protection of the rain forests. 11. In order ---- a good sheep-shearing robot I had to
understand sheep shearers and the skill of
A) may be hoped / would have proved shearing, as well as the technology ---- in
building a robot.
B) was hoped / had proved
A) having built / to have been involved
C) has been hoped / would prove
B) building / to be involved
D) could be hoped / might have proved
C) to build / involved
E) is hoped / will prove
D) to be building / involving
E) to have built / having been involved

12. It is estimated that sulphur pollution costs China


9. Many engineers ---- the thrill of designing a novel nearly 45 billion dollars each year ---- lost
product that then ---- mass production. productivity, health care and damage ---- forests
and crops.
A) are having / is entering
A) from / at B) in / to
B) had had / had entered
C) under / of D) over / through
C) would have / has entered
E) by / for
D) have had / enters
E) were having / have entered

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13. One of the great advances ---- astronomy ---- the 16. Certain reactions, ---- catalytic
past decade has been the discovery of planets methanation, appear to stop before they are
outside our solar system. complete.

A) of / over B) through /at C) in / to A) instead of B) such as C) in place of

D) for / by E) with / for D) in case of E) with reference to

14. He realized that the world could run out of key


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resources, ---- he was a harsh critic of the 17. Engineering structures must conform ---- to their
wastefulness of modern industrial society. type ---- to the laws of physics.

A) so that B) whether C) so long as A) not only / but also B) as / as

D) and so E) but C) more / but D) both / as

E) either / and

15. ---- the car is equipped with a sophisticated 18. The harder a material is, ---- ductile or workable it
protection system, you know you are fully tends to be.
protected.
A) the most B) as much C) the less
A) Until B) Even if C) Although
D) more E) so much
D) So E) Since

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19. – 23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada numa- 24. – 35. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun
ralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da şekilde tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.
ifadeyi bulunuz.
24. Battlefield radios may become obsolete ----.
Natural disturbances, including hurricanes and
earthquakes, have affected coral reefs for millions of A) if software programmable units take over
years. They are typically acute but have short-lived
(19) ----. Reef areas (20) ---- human influences often B) until they are all built to a common standard
recover within a few years (21) ---- water and
substratum quality remain high. Indeed, acute natural C) when local police and fire departments would
disturbances can actually help (22) ---- diversity on also benefit
coral reefs by knocking back dominant species and
allowing (23) ---- competitive species to re-establish D) since other versions had become tailored to their
themselves. needs

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E) while security features are also innovative

19.

A) products B) conditions C) concerns

D) effects E) explanations

25. In biology, isolating particular enzymes is a


tedious process of trial and error ----.
20.
A) though silicon is not the best choice of material
A) down to B) up to C) up against
B) if several hundred steps were involved
D) out of E) away from
C) which involves many different experiments
D) until other problems could be eliminated

E) as lab experiments may prove unnecessary


21.

A) so that B) unless C) though

D) if E) whether

22.
26. Just try shooting at bullet-proof glass ----.
A) to have maintained B) maintaining
A) but you can stand a few meters away
C) having maintained D) to be maintained
B) if you want to be quite sure that it really is bullet
E) to maintain proof

C) while the glass remained unharmed

D) why some gangs have started to fire anti-tank


missiles at armoured cars
23.
E) that it withstood every attack
A) much B) little C) as

D) less E) least

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27. The vast oil output of the Caspian must be piped 29. The engineers ---- took their know-how to
overland to, say, the Mediterranean, ----. Japan and China in the late 19th and early 20th
centuries.
A) that it is not a landlocked sea A) that it would be the world’s largest dam

B) if a pipeline is laid across Iran B) who continue to travel around the world
transferring technology
C) before it can be pumped into tankers
C) who had built railroads and dams across
D) which would also pass through Georgia America
E) as a great deal of diplomacy would be required D) as engineering problems can attract worldwide
interest

E) though the spread of technology is not likely to

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be halted

28. Their latest digital radio is supplied with a pair of 30. Although global warming was outside the
active speakers ----. parameters of their study, ----.
A) if the number keys have been moved to the A) countries with high gasoline prices are more
sides innovative in the field of personal transportation
vehicles
B) that an FM radio is fitted into its compact
dimensions B) battery-powered electric vehicles would not have
been disregarded
C) though the screen itself seemed to be touch-
sensitive C) fossil fuel consumption habits will have to be
curtailed
D) so you don’t have to plug it into an amplifier
D) for the present the focus is on the efficient use of
E) how the graphic display shows the programme fossil fuels
you are listening to
E) it is nevertheless a fact that should have been
faced

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31. ---- as they are today. 34. ----, though none are yet being grown
on a commercial scale.
A) Satellites are providing clear photographs
A) Conifers are dominant trees in northern latitudes
B) The fluctuating magnetic field lies deep in the
centre of Earth B) Trees produce copious pollen, which travels up
to 16 kilometres
C) Several other bodies in the solar system
generate their own magnetic fields C) Genetically modified trees have not been planted
in natural woods and forests
D) Earth’s magnetic poles have not always been
oriented D) Plants demonstrate a remarkable diversity in
size, habit and form
E) Many intriguing explanations are being put
forward E) Genetically modified trees are being developed
for a variety of uses

32. Since mines may have been laid there, ----.

A) these fields had not been cultivated

B) large areas of valuable farmland are being


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overgrown by bamboo

C) immense bamboo thickets would have come into


being

D) the costs of restoring farmland to full production


have always been high

E) faster techniques were called for 35. Because each leaf is characteristic of the plant
on which it grows, ----.

A) most leaves are composed of three parts: a


blade, a petiole and a pair of stipules

B) water loss by evaporation from the leaf’s surface


is unavoidable

C) many plants can be identified by their leaves


alone
33. ---- that solar flares triggered geomagnetic D) all parts of a plant can be damaged by air
storms. pollution, but leaves are particularly susceptible

A) Scientists used to think E) many leaves have special structures through


which water is literally forced out
B) The findings were ambiguous
C) The astronauts were taken by surprise

D) The facts have to be suppressed

E) The results of the experiment surprised


everyone

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36. – 38. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümleye 38. Entropy is a physical property like
anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz. temperature and pressure, and measures how
close a system has come to reaching stagnant
“equilibrium”.
36. The findings of a ten-year study reveal that two
species of seahorses have been living in the A) Sıcaklık ve basınç gibi fiziksel bir özellik olan
waters around Britain without anyone realizing entropi bir sistemin durgun “denge”ye ulaşıp
they were there. ulaşmadığını ölçer.
A) Đngiltere’nin çevresindeki sularda daha önce B) Entropi sıcaklık ve basınç gibi fiziksel bir özel-
onların orada yaşadığını kimsenin bilmediği iki liktir ve bir sistemin durgun “denge”ye ne kadar
tür denizatının olduğu on yıllık bir çalışmayla ulaştığını ölçer.
ortaya çıktı.
C) Bir sistemin durgun “denge”ye ulaşıp ulaşmadığı
B) On yıllık bir çalışmanın bulguları Đngiltere’nin sıcaklık ve basınç gibi fiziksel bir özellik olan en-
çevresindeki sularda onların orada olduğunu hiç tropi ile ölçülür.

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kimsenin farketmediği iki tür denizatının yaşa-
makta olduğunu gösteriyor. D) Entropi hem sıcaklık ve basınç gibi fiziksel özel-
likler arasındadır hem de bir sistemin durgun
C) Đngiltere’nin çevresindeki sularda iki tür denizatı- “denge”ye ne kadar ulaştığını belirlemede yar-
nın yaşadığını ilk kez ortaya çıkaran on yıllık ça- dımcıdır.
lışma bu türlerin hiç farkedilmediğini belirtiyor.
E) Sistemlerin durgun” denge”ye ulaşıp
D) On yıllık çalışmanın sonuçlarına göre Đngilte- ulaşmadığını ölçen entropinin sıcaklık ve
re’nin çevresindeki sularda hiç kimsenin bilme- basınçla ortak olan yanı, fiziksel bir özellik
diği iki tür denizatının yaşamakta olduğu bildiri- olmasıdır.
liyor.

E) Đki tür denizatı hiç kimseye belli etmeden Đngilte-


re’nin çevresindeki sularda yaşarken on yıllık bir
çalışma onları ortaya çıkardı.

39. – 41. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye


anlamca en yakın Đngilizce cümleyi bulunuz.

39. Bilim adamları bir büyük depremin, bir sonrakinin


zamanı ve yeri üzerinde kayda değer bir etkisinin
olmadığını düşünürlerdi; fakat, son araştırmalar
durumun böyle olmayabileceğine işaret ediyor.
37. Though stars appear to the eye as single points
of light, very many of them turn out to be double A) Scientists used to think that there was no
when seen through a telescope. connection between one major earthquake and
subsequent smaller ones, but new studies
A) Teleskopla bakıldığında çift ışık olan yıldızların suggest there may be.
çoğu göze tek ışık noktası gibi görünür.
B) Formerly scientists thought that one large
B) Çıplak gözle bakıldığında yıldızlar tek ışık nokta- earthquake could not possibly affect the timing
sı gibi görünür, çoğuna sadece teleskopla bakıl- or location of the next, but recent research
dığında çift olduğu anlaşılabilir. suggests it may.

C) Göze tek ışık noktası gibi görünen yıldızlara te- C) Contrary to what scientists used to think, recent
leskopla bakıldığında çoğunun çift olduğu göz- research suggests that a major earthquake may
lenir. considerably affect the timing and location of
subsequent earthquakes.
D) Yıldızlar çıplak gözle bakıldığında tek ışık nokta-
sı gibi algılansa da teleskopla bakıldığında aslın- D) Recent research suggests that a major
da çift olduğu görülür. earthquake may influence the time and place of
subsequent earthquakes though this has not
E) Her ne kadar yıldızlar göze tek ışık noktası gibi been the traditional view of scientists.
görünse de pek çoğunun teleskopla bakıldığında
çift olduğu ortaya çıkar. E) Scientists used to think that one large
earthquake had no notable influence on the
timing or location of the next one but recent
research suggests this may not be the case.

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40. Aşağı yukarı aynı büyüklükte ve Güneş’e aynı
uzaklıkta olan Dünya ve Venüs sıklıkla ikiz geze- 42. – 46. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parça-
genler olarak nitelendirilir. nın anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getiri-
lebilecek cümleyi bulunuz.
A) It is usual to refer to Earth and Venus as twin
planets as they are almost the same size and
distance from the Sun. 42. Fragile ecosystems like the Arctic could face
many more years of contamination from PCBs
B) Since Earth and Venus are roughly the same (polychlorinated biphenyls), despite international
size and distance from the Sun it is only natural treaties banning their use. ----. An estimated 1.3
that they should be regarded as twin planets. million tonnes of PCBs were made between the
1930s and 1990s around the world for use in the
C) Earth and Venus, being roughly the same size manufacture of pesticides, lubricants, and
and distance from the Sun, are often regarded plastics. But an investigation to determine the
as twin planets. fate of these PCBs has failed to locate most of
them.

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D) It is because they are exactly the same size and
distance from the Sun that Earth and Venus are A) On the other hand, PCBs may be carried by
known as the twin planets. wind to cold countries where they condense out
in the cold air
E) By the twin planets we mean Earth and Venus
which are nearly the same size and are B) Indeed, soils in temperate lands have captured
equidistant from the Sun. most of the PCBs so far released into the
environment

C) On the contrary, PCBs could pose a threat to


polar bears for years to come

D) That is the conclusion of a study into the fate of


PCBs manufactured worldwide during much of
the 20th century
E) As a result, urban air contains more PCBs than
rural air

41. Dünyanın iç kısmını araştırma konusunda uzman-


laşan bilim adamları, uzun süre, Dünya’nın derin
iç kısmındaki hareketin yüzeydeki dikey değişim-
lerin arkasında olduğundan şüphelendiler.
43. The Kavli Foundation’s approach differs from the
A) Scientists who specialize in studying Earth’s
interior have long suspected that activity deep increasingly utilitarian focus of most funded
inside Earth is behind vertical changes at the research. ----. Kavli opposes this practice for he
surface. believes you have to be willing to fund science
without knowledge of the benefits.
B) Scientists studying Earth’s interior have come to
the conclusion that what goes on deep inside A) To obtain funding from any source, scientists
Earth affects vertical changes at the surface. must usually frame their ideas in the context of
studies already completed and short-term impact
C) It is generally agreed by scientists studying
Earth’s interior that events deep inside Earth’s B) Knowledge about materials and processes in the
core influence vertical changes at the surface. universe could open up benefits that we can’t
even imagine
D) Scientists specializing in the study of Earth’s
interior have long been aware of the fact that C) In fact, the foundation pays for nondirected
activity deep inside Earth may be responsible for research in its three main areas of interest:
vertical change at its surface. astrophysics, nanoscience and neuroscience

E) Scientists specializing in happenings deep within D) It is unrealistic of such agencies to expect these
Earth’s core have, for a long time, suspected a programmes to deliver useful tools and
relationship between them and vertical changes applications rapidly
at the surface.
E) The foundation has chosen disciplines that are
already acknowledged as “growth” areas in
science

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44. Traditionally, the study of planet formation has 46. Can coal ever become a friend of the
proved frustrating, as astronomers have never environment? Coal-fired power stations supply
been sure whether their theories apply to other half the electricity used in many industrial
planetary systems. ----. Now, however, the countries. ----. This, of course, is the most
observations of debris discs around stars of worrisome of the so-called “greenhouse gases.”
different masses and ages are helping to place
our solar system in context. A) New ones will have to comply with the Clean Air
Act
A) Some discs look like gigantic versions of the
rings of Saturn B) They are, however, responsible for 80% of the
power industry’s emissions of carbon dioxide
B) Most of the discs, however, could not be seen
directly C) Energy engineers are already talking about
“clean coal” technology
C) What the recent images show is wonderfully
unexpected D) Clean coal means different things to different

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people
D) This is because the solar system is the only
known example of a planetary system E) Coal treatment and refining processes are rightly
getting a lot of attention as well
E) The dust particles probably result from collisions
among asteroids

47. – 51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş


bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi
bulunuz.

47. Roy:
- If you haven’t already read this account of
Philip Morrison, make sure you do.
45. Isaac Newton presented the earliest scientific
definition of mass in 1687 in his landmark work Michael:
Principium: “The quantity of matter is the - ----
measure of the same arising from its density and
bulk conjointly.” That very basic definition was Roy:
good enough for Newton and other scientists for - That’s what impressed me most. He made
more than 200 years. ----. In recent years, important contributions in quantum
however, the why of mass has become a research electrodynamics among other things, and then
topic in physics. gave courses on physics for poets!

A) The laws of gravity predict that gravity acts on A) Yes, I will. I’ve seen him on TV on several
mass and energy occasions, he’s both charming and amusing.

B) Most people think they know what mass is, but B) Yes, I intend to. What was it that impressed you?
actually they understand only a very small part of
what it entails C) I’ve already done so. The range of his interests
and activities is amazing.
C) Fundamental particles have an intrinsic mass
known as their rest mass D) Did you realize he was an assembler of the first
atomic bomb?
D) Energy and mass are related, as described by
Einstein’s famous equation, E=mc2 E) Of course. I was his student, you know, at
Cornell University.
E) They understood that science should proceed
first by describing how things work and later by
understanding why

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48. Gary: 50. Sam:
- Is this the website you like best when it comes - Do you think NASA’s emergency escape plan
to scientific news? for space-bound astronauts will work?

Philip: Robert:
- Yes, I suppose it is. It’s updated weekly and - That’s hard to say. I suppose really it will
well-linked to related websites. depend on the kind of emergency that presents
itself.
Gary:
- ---- Sam:
- ----
Philip:
- That’s hard to say. So many scientific “facts” Robert:
are being questioned these days. - Actually, the colour is a survival feature too. It
makes a search for the crew easier.
A) Is it university-owned?

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A) It reminds one of science-fiction films, with
B) Does it keep up with recent developments? everything neatly planned.

C) What’s the level? College stuff? B) It seems a bit like a game to me. The suits are a
brilliant orange colour.
D) From a scientific point of view, how reliable is it?
C) The antigravity suit squeezes the legs to prevent
E) Does it cover all the sciences? blood from pooling in them.

D) Apparently shuttle bailout is a last resort, to be


used only if landing becomes impossible.

E) Let’s hope the Challenger catastrophe is not


repeated.

49. Brian:
- Have you read this book, Water Follies?
51. Larry:
Peter: - They’re holding a young designers’ competition
- No I haven’t; but I’ve heard a lot about it. It for designing a robot to put out a house fire.
focuses on how much water is being wasted,
doesn’t it? Tony:
- I think you mean to blow out a candle!
Brian:
- ---- Larry:
- ----
Peter:
- Good! It’s time someone took a firm stand Tony:
against the waste. - But you are right. The final aim is, of course, to
put out house fires.
A) That’s right. And it’s pretty critical of man for
being so unconcerned about this waste. A) Well, at this stage, that’s all they’re asking for.
B) No. It actually concentrates on ground water. B) Do you think they ever will?
C) Yes. Most people seem to think ground water is C) That shouldn’t be too difficult. The real problem
boundless. is to locate the fire.
D) And the gold-mining industry is attacked for its D) If it could set off an alarm even, that would be
vast “dewatering” operations. useful, wouldn’t it?
E) And the consequences include dry rivers and E) Once a fire takes hold it becomes a major
land subsidence. problem.

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52. – 56. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla okun- 55. (I) Nyos is a crater lake formed by a volcanic eruption
duğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan roughly five centuries ago. (II) In these lakes the
cümleyi bulunuz.
gas saturates the bottom water. (III) It is one of many
such lakes, found the world over in volcanic chains.
52. (I) Computer researchers predict that quantum (IV) It is, however, one of only two lakes known to
computers will become a reality within 10 to 15 years. have exploded. (V) And when it exploded a jet of
(II) However, these machines pose a security threat, gas-laden water rose 80 meters high and carbon
because their ability to perform many calculations at dioxide filled the air.
once means they will be able to uncover the
encryption keys that are, for practical purposes, A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
untraceable by today’s “classical” conventional
computers. (III) If that happens, people will be able to
tap into cell phone calls. (IV) A quantum computer can
represent a 0 and a 1 at the same time in a quantum
bit (called a qubit). (V) Furthermore, secure e-

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commerce will be a thing of the past.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

53. (I) Everyone knew that freezing rain could be bad,


but what the researchers learned was frightening.
(II) All aircraft designers are familiar with the
challenge of icing. (III) Manufacturers must
demonstrate that their aircraft are capable of flying
safely in cold, wet conditions where they might ice
up. (IV) In the US, those conditions are specified by
the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA)
“Appendix C”. (V) This appendix clearly states the
kinds of cold weather which an aircraft must be able
to deal with.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V 56. (I) Most of the military robotic systems currently


operating are airborne. (II) This is because robots for
use in a ground war present serious problems as
conditions are more complex and less predictable.
(III) The Army’s first ground robots were devoted to
mine-sweeping. (IV) For instance, what works in a
desert will be unsuited to jungles. (V) Similarly, a
machine designed for use in cities is unlikely to adapt
to mountains.
54. (I) Mother Columbian rainbow boas, Epicrates A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
cenchria maurus, have the strange habit of eating
some of their own young. (II) Now new research
reveals why. (III) Within two weeks, these mothers
regained their lost muscle. (IV) Stillborns and
undeveloped eggs in a clutch, which the mother
consumes soon after laying or giving birth, are rich in
energy and contain a diversity of proteins and
essential nutrients. (V) Therefore, maternal
cannibalism leads to a quick recovery after giving
birth.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

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57. – 60. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre
cevaplayınız. 58. It is pointed out in the passage that the diversity of
life on Earth ----.

How have terrestrial organisms met the environmental A) is far more extensive in temperate climates than
challenges of living on land? Life began in the oceans, in colder ones
but many life forms have since adapted to terrestrial
life in a sea of air. Every single organism living on land B) results from the variety of ways whereby
has to meet the same environmental challenges: organisms meet environmental challenges
obtaining enough water; preventing excessive water C) is related to plants rather than other organisms
loss; getting enough energy; and in polar regions,
tolerating widely varying temperature extremes. How D) becomes far more apparent in spring than
those challenges are met varies from one organism to in winter
another, and in large part explains the diversity of life E) must be maintained through the
encountered on land today. Some animals avoid conservation of the environment
colder temperatures by migrating to warmer climates

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for the winter, whereas others avoid the cold by
passing the winter in a dormant state called
hibernation. Many plants also spend winter in a
dormant state. The aerial parts of some plants die
during the winter, but the underground parts remain
alive; the following spring they resume metabolic
activity and develop new aerial shoots. Many trees 59. One can understand from the passage that, for
are deciduous; that is, they shed their leaves for the deciduous trees, the shedding of leaves ----.
duration of their dormancy. Shedding leaves is
actually an adaptation to the “dryness” of winter. Roots A) increases the amount of water loss, which is a
cannot absorb water from ground that is cold or serious environmental challenge
frozen; by shedding its leaves the plant reduces water
loss during the cold winter months when obtaining B) increases their metabolic activity throughout
water from the soil is impossible. winter

C) is an effective mechanism of resistance to heat

D) is a regular metabolic activity which is not related


to environmental conditions

E) is a kind of hibernation that enables them to


survive the cold winter months

57. It is pointed out in the passage that all terrestrial


organisms ----.

A) in warm regions find it very hard to tolerate 60. It is clear from the passage that, for some
extreme temperatures animals, migration ----.

B) in polar regions live out the winter through A) and hibernation are equally viable options
hibernation
B) is comparatively easy
C) face the danger of extinction due to
environmental challenges C) is indispensable for survival

D) have, one way or another, adapted themselves D) causes a great deal of energy loss
to environmental conditions
E) involves various environmental challenges
E) are most adversely affected by excessive water
loss and cold temperatures

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61. – 64. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 62. It is understood from the passage that, because
cevaplayınız. spins in fighter flights can be fatal, ----.

A) they are referred to as “graveyard spins”


Henrik-Jan Van Veen has carried out a great deal of
research into spinning. This is especially true for B) van Veen has been testing a number of devices
“graveyard spins”, the term for what happens when that could prevent spins
fighter pilots get so disoriented they miscalculate how
to get their plane back on course. They can end up in C) the TNO is making spin-prevention devices a
a dangerous and often fatal spin. Van Veen works at a major research project
research lab run by the Netherlands Organization for
Applied Scientific Research, the TNO. The range of D) many aircraft have been indefinitely grounded
research covered by the TNO is vast, and it sees itself
as a practical problem solver. And for the Dutch air E) all pilots are required to wear a vibrotactile vest
force, the graveyard spin is certainly a problem that
needs solving. Van Veen’s specialty is “vibrotactile

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devices”, which use vibrations to convey information.
His latest project is a vest studded all over with small
discs that can each vibrate independently. In a test
room, a pilot is strapped into a seat in a “cockpit”. At the
push of a button, the lights go out and the chair starts
spinning. After a while the chair is stopped. “He’ll think
he’s spinning the other way now”, says Van Veen. The
pilot is told to correct the spin, but instead, he
overcorrects massively, and the chair begins spinning
63. We understand from the passage that the Dutch
again. In the next test, the pilot dons van Veen’s vest
research centre, the TNO, ----.
and is told that the patch of the vest that is vibrating will
indicate the direction he should force the joystick to A) works in very close association with the Dutch
correct a spin. This time, when the chair stops spinning armed forces
the pilot manages to keep the seat still. Van Veen thinks
the vibrotactile vest could do more than save the lives of B) oversees all major research projects being
fighter pilots. He’s now working on linking the system to carried out in the country
a GPS receiver so that tourists in a foreign city or blind
people in an unfamiliar environment can use the vest C) has put a lot of pressure on van Veen to extend
to find their way around. the uses of vibrotactile devices

D) encourages the application of research for the


solving of problems

E) puts safety devices high on its list of priorities

61. It is clear from the passage that the vibrotactile 64. It is clear from the passage that van Veen’s
vest ----. immediate purpose in developing the vibrotactile
vest is to ----.
A) has contributed significantly to environmental
research A) help fighter pilots to calculate their course more
accurately
B) could be developed to serve a variety of
purposes B) warn pilots in advance that a spin is building up
C) has been in use in military aviation for many C) help the blind find their way about
decades
D) make it possible to reduce the amount of fuel
D) is the product of an expensive research project used by aircraft
undertaken by the Dutch military
E) enable fighter pilots to get over the effects of a
E) could be used to transmit secret military spin and thus, avoid a crash
information

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65. – 68. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 66. It is pointed out in the passage that, prior to the
cevaplayınız. rise of modern science in the 17th century,----.

A) various studies had been made of comets, but


For almost 200 years, the idea of cosmic events Halley disregarded them all
affecting life on Earth was viewed as heretical by the
church, which regarded catastrophe as proof of divine B) the way people viewed cosmic events varied
intervention, and as nonsense by the scientific greatly
establishment, which dismissed it as superstition. Yet
in the end, the sheer weight of evidence has swept C) all kinds of learning had been subject to the
away all doubt about the reality of global approval of the church
catastrophes. Attempts to make scientific sense of
the many legends of global catastrophes date back to D) the Earth had experienced several collisions with
the dawn of modern science itself, in the 17th century. cosmic objects
Following the publication of Newton’s laws of motion
and universal gravitation in 1687, Edmond Halley E) attempts had been made to explain certain

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decided to apply them to the mystery of comets. By catastrophes with reference to gravitational laws
studying records of their appearance, Halley argued
that the bright comets of 1456, 1531, 1607 and 1682
were in fact one comet, later known as the “Halley”
comet, that followed a vast elliptical orbit around the
Sun in agreement with Newton’s laws. But Halley
noted something else as well: a comet crossing the
orbit of the Earth might one day collide with us with
devastating consequences.

67. We learn from the passage that in the opinion of


Halley, ----.

A) the mystery surrounding comets could never be


cleared up

B) Newton’s laws of motion and gravitation needed


to be further clarified and elaborated
C) the earlier appearances of the comet “Halley”
had not been properly recorded

D) global catastrophes could be prevented through


new scientific developments
E) a comet may, at some point in the future, strike
65. According to the passage, Newton’s laws of Earth
motion and gravitation ----.

A) had no impact whatsoever on the rise of modern


science

B) were approached skeptically by Halley and other


contemporary scientists 68. It is clear from the passage that, in the past, the
church ----.
C) helped Halley to identify the comet that bears his
name A) regarded global catastrophes as acts of God

D) convinced Halley that catastrophes were in fact B) was particularly interested in the movements of
acts of divine intervention comets

E) were dismissed right away by the scientific C) consistently banned any research into cosmic
establishment of his time events

D) encouraged scientists to find ways of preventing


global catastrophes
E) wished to suppress all thoughts of cosmic events

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69. – 72. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 70. According to the passage, the question of how
cevaplayınız. Earth’s continents came into being ----.

A) has never attracted much attention


Except perhaps for some remote island dwellers, most
people have a natural tendency to view continents as B) has been one of the concerns of space research
fundamental, permanent and even characteristic and exploration
features of Earth. One easily forgets that the world’s
continental platforms amount only to scattered and C) can best be answered through a comprehensive
isolated masses on a planet that is largely covered by study of the other planets in the solar system
water. But when viewed from space, the correct
picture of Earth becomes immediately clear. It is a D) is not likely to be resolved in the near future
blue planet. From this perspective it seems quite
extraordinary that over its long history, Earth could E) gave rise to considerable disagreement among
manage to hold a small fraction of its surface always scientists
above the sea — enabling, among other things,

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human evolution to proceed on dry land. Is the
persistence of high- standing continents just an
accident? How did Earth’s complicated crust come
into existence? Has it been there all the time, like
some primeval icing on a planetary cake, or has it
evolvedthrough the ages? Such questions engendered
debates that divided scientists for many decades, but
the fascinating story of how the terrestrial surface
came to take its present form is now partly resolved.
That understanding shows, remarkably enough, that
the conditions required to form the continents of Earth 71. The passage calls Earth the “blue planet”
may be unmatched in the rest of the solar system. to underline the fact that ----.

A) the waters of the oceans are crystal clear

B) the geographical features of Earth are not very


distinct when viewed from space

C) many things on Earth are blue

D) there is actually very little land on Earth

E) it is man’s duty to keep the seas clean

69. One important point made in the passage is that


----. 72. The passage suggests that the inhabitants of
small isolated islands ----.
A) new questions concerning the solar system are
constantly coming to the fore A) will be adversely affected if the oceans continue
to be polluted
B) scientists have finally been able to understand
fully the mystery of Earth’s crust B) have frequently chosen to live in comparative
isolation in preference to living in a crowded city
C) people living on remote islands are so cut off
from the rest of the world that they have no idea C) always demonstrate a keen interest in the solar
about what is happening elsewhere system

D) the formation of the continents of Earth may D) depend for their living more on the sea than on
have no parallel elsewhere in the solar system the land

E) the growing pollution of the oceans is causing a E) probably have a better perception of the reality
great deal of concern among scientists of Earth than the majority of us

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73. – 76. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 75. As can be understood from the passage, Ashford
cevaplayınız. is firmly convinced that ----.

A) the development of a space plane would cost no


In his preface to Spaceflight Revolution, David more than two shuttle flights
Ashford recalls how he started his research into rocket
motors. As he later explains, these were motors that B) politicians and financial authorities need to be
would power a space plane — one that would launch careful about investing money in space projects
space travellers and satellites cheaply and reliably
into orbit. That was 1961. Ashford admits he would C) rockets bear no relation to ballistic missiles
probably have taken another job if he’d known that, 42
years later, satellites would still be launched by D) there are many people eager to be space
rockets descended from ballistic missiles. The travellers and willing and able to pay a
technology is there, but political and budgetary reasonable fare
decisions have so far stopped space planes getting off
the ground. But Ashford presents a compelling E) his work on rocket motors has greatly

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argument that a small orbital space plane would cost contributed to space research
relatively little to design and develop — the equivalent
of just two shuttle flights.

73. As we understand from the passage, Ashford’s


space plane project ----.

A) has made space travel extremely cheap and


reliable

B) has been welcomed by political authorities and


received much attention

C) has received no political or financial support


since the early 1960s

D) has been proved faulty in the course of several


trials

E) was originally inspired by ballistic missile


technology
76. It is clear from the passage that there ----.

A) is an ongoing debate on the uses of ballistic


missiles

B) is some discrepancy between Ashford’s words


and his actions

C) is much public support for Ashford’s project


74. According to the passage, Ashford ----.
D) are many technological differences between
A) has not yet completed his research into rocket Ashford’s rocket motors and the conventional
motors rockets currently in use
B) feels that his decades-long work on rocket E) is much concern among space scientists,
motors has been unjustly ignored including Ashford, about the ever-growing costs
of the space programme in general and of
C) has written his book Spaceflight Revolution shuttle flights in particular
mainly to criticize politicians

D) has been recognized as a leading scientist in


space research and rocket technology for quite
some time now

E) has proposed a project which can only be


realized if a sizeable budget is available

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77. – 80. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre
cevaplayınız.

The Wireless Museum has several of the earliest


crystal wireless sets from the 1920s which ran on 79. It is clear from the passage that valve radios ----.
electromagnetic waves with no external power source,
and were easily made at home. Valve radios, which A) were still in widespread use in the sixties and
came along in the 1930s, needed electricity to heat up seventies
the valves and the museum has both mains and
battery-powered valve radios on display. The B) originally operated on electromagnetic waves
collection also has some rare wartime civilian
receivers — the only type of valve radio manufactured C) consumed more electricity than one might
during the Second World War. This was by order of expect

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the government, because at this time most
manufacturing was focused on the war effort. There D) are of two types: mains and battery-powered
are also plenty of modern day transistor radios
including a collection of novelty radios dating from E) were costly products and the government
the sixties and seventies. disapproved of them

77. It is pointed out in the passage that, during World


War II, ----.

A) transistor radios began to replace traditional


valve radios

B) the production of wireless sets was almost


entirely for military purposes
80. This passage is concerned with ----.
C) various types of radios requiring no external
power source were developed A) the exhibits of a wireless museum which cover a
considerable variety
D) the government banned all kinds of civilian
receivers B) the government’s war efforts and production
policies regarding radios
E) the efficiency of valve radios was upgraded
through the introduction of new designs C) the technical features of transistor radios

D) the way a valve radio works

E) why the wireless museum was originally set up


78. We learn from the passage that the very early
crystal wireless sets ----.

A) were the models out of which transistor radios


were later developed