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Mechanical Power Department

Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

Chapter 1
Engine classification and engine components.
1.1 Heat Engines Classifications
Heat engine converts chemical energy in a fuel into mechanical energy,
usually made available on a rotating output shaft. Chemical energy of the fuel is
first converted to thermal energy by means of combustion or oxidation with air
inside the engine. This thermal energy raises the temperature and pressure of the
gases within the engine and the high-pressure gas then expands against the
mechanical mechanisms of the engine.

Figure (1-1): Engine Classification


Heat engines can be classified as in figure (1-1); external combustion type in
which the working fluid is entirely separated from the fuel- air mixture (ECE), and
the internal combustion (ICE) type, in which the working fluid consists of the
products of combustion of the fuel- air mixture itself.
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Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

1.1.1 Comparison between the Different Kinds:


1. The Reciprocation Piston Engine:

Figure (1-2): Diagrammatic representation of reciprocating piston engine.


2. Open Cycle Gas Turbine:

Figure (1-3): Diagrammatic representation of gas turbine


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Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

3. The Wankel Engine:

Figure (1-4): Wankel four- process cycle


4. Steam Power Plant:

Figure (1-5): Diagrammatic representation of steam power plant


The Reciprocating I.C.E. is one unit and does not need other devices, the
efficiency of the engine is relatively high, and the fuel used is relatively expensive.
The gas turbine group needs a compressors, its weight is smaller than
reciprocating I.C.E. of the same power, its efficiency is lower, the fuel relatively
cheap, and it is suitable for air craft. Rotary engine is a substitute for the
reciprocating I.C.E.
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Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

Wankel engine has a three lobe rotor which is driven eccentrically in a casing in
such a way that there are three separate volumes trapped between the rotor and the
casing. These volumes perform induction, compression, combustion, expansion
and exhaust process in sequence. This design has a good power/volume ratio. Seal
wear and heat transfer, were some of the initial development problems of the
Wankel engine. These problems have now been largely solved.
The steam turbine is suitable for very large powers, its efficiency is reasonable;
the fuel used in the boiler is cheap. The steam turbine needs a boiler, condenser
and a continuous supply of water.

Advantages of I.C.E. over E.C.E.:


1. More mechanical simplicity and lower weight/power ratio.
2. They do not need auxiliary equipment, such as boiler & condenser.
3. They could be started and stopped in a short time.
4. Their thermal efficiency is higher than other heat engines.
5. Their initial cost is low.
These advantages make I.C.E. more suitable in the transport sector; motor cars,
small ships, submarines, and small aircrafts.
Internal combustion engines can be classified in a number of different ways:
1. Types of ignition
(a) Spark Ignition (SI)
An SI engine starts the combustion process in each cycle by use of a spark
plug. The spark plug gives a high voltage electrical discharge between two
electrodes, which ignites the air fuel mixture in the combustion chamber
surrounding the plug. In early engine development, before the inventor of electric
spark plug, many forms of torch holes were used to initiate combustion from an
external flame.
(b) Compression Ignition (CI)
The combustion process in a CI engine starts when the air-fuel mixture selfignites due to high temperature in the combustion chamber caused by high
compression.
2. Engine cycle
(a) Four-stroke cycle:

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Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

The cycle of operation is completed in four strokes of the piston or two revolution
of the crank shaft. Each stroke consists of 180 of crank shaft rotation. The series of
operations are shown in figure (1.6).

Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

Figure (1-6): Cylinder events of four- stroke cycle


(b) Two-stroke cycle:
In two-stroke engine the cycle is completed in two strokes, i.e. one revolution of
the crank shaft. The difference between two-stroke and four stroke engines is in the
method of filling the cylinder with the fresh charge and removing the products of
combustion. The series of operations are shown in figure (1.7).

Figure (1-7): Cylinder events of two- stroke cycle


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Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

3. Valve location
a. Valves in head (Overhead valve), also called I Head engine.
b. Valves in block (flat head), also called L Head engine. Some historic engines
with valves in block had the intake valve on one side of the cylinder and the
exhaust valve on the other side. These were called T Head engines.
c. One valve in head (usually intake) and one in block, also called F Head Engine;
this is much less common.

Figure (1-8): Classification of engines by valve location


4. Basic Design
a. Reciprocating: Engine has one or more cylinders in which pistons reciprocate
back and forth. The combustion chamber is located in the closed end of each
cylinder. Power is delivered to a rotating output crankshaft by mechanical linkage
with the pistons.
b. Rotary: Engine is made of a block (stator) built around a large non-concentric
rotor and crankshaft. The combustion chambers are built into the non-rotating
block. A number of experimental engines have been tested using this concept, but
the only design that has ever become common in an automobile is the Wankel
engine in several Mazda models. Mazda builds rotary automobile engines with
one, two, and three rotors.
5. Position and number of cylinders of reciprocating engines
a. Single Cylinder: Engine has one cylinder and piston connected to the
crankshaft.
b. In-Line: Cylinders are positioned in a straight line, one behind the other along
the length of the crankshaft. They can consist of 2 to 11 cylinders or possibly more.
In-line four-cylinder engines are very common for automobile and other
applications. See Fig.1.9 (a)
c. V Engine: Two banks of cylinders at an angle with each other along a single
crankshaft, allowing for a shorter engine block. The angle between the banks of
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Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

cylinders can be anywhere from 15 to 120 with 60-90. V engines usually have
even numbers of cylinders from 2 to 20 or more. V6s and V8s are common
automobile engines. Honda makes a true V5 motorcycle engine. See Fig.1.9 (b).
d. Radial engine: Engines with pistons positioned in a circular plane around a
circular crankshaft. The connecting rods of the piston are connected to a master
rod, which in turn, is connected to the crankshaft. A bank of cylinders on a radial
engine almost always has an odd number of cylinders ranging from 3 to 13 or
more. Operating on a four-stroke cycle every other cylinder fires and has a power
stroke as the crankshaft rotates, giving a smooth operation. Many medium and
large size propeller driven aircraft use radial engines. For large aircraft two or
more banks of cylinders are mounted together, one behind the other on a single
crankshaft, making one powerful smooth engine. See Fig.1.9 (c)
e. Opposed Cylinder Engine: Two banks of cylinders opposite to each other on a
single crankshaft (a V engine with 180 deg V). These are common on small aircraft
and some automobiles with an even number of cylinders from two to eight or
more. These engines are often called flat engines (e.g., flat four). See Fig.1.9 (d)
f. Opposed piston engine: Two pistons in each cylinder with the combustion
chamber in the center between the pistons. A single combustion process causes two
power strokes at the same time, with each piston being pushed away from the
center and delivering power to a separate crankshaft at each end of the cylinder.
Engine output is either on two rotating crankshafts or on one crankshaft
incorporating a complex mechanical linkage. These engines are generally of large
displacement, used for power plants, ships, or submarines. See Fig.1.9 (e)

Figure (1-9): Classification of engines by cylinder arrangement


6. Air Intake Process

Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

(a) Naturally Aspirated: Admission of charge at near atmospheric pressure. No


intake air pressure boosts system.
(b) Super charged: Admission of charge at a pressure above atmospheric. Intake
air pressure increased with the compressor driven off of the engine crankshaft.
(c) Turbo charged: Intake air pressure increased with the turbine compressor
driven by the engine exhaust gases.
(d) Crankcase compressed: Two-stroke cycle engine which uses the crankcase as
the intake air compressor. Limited development work has also been done on design
and construction of four-stroke cycle engines with crank case compression.
7. Method of fuel input for spark ignition engines
(a) Carbureted: A device for mixing air and fuel to facilitate the combustion
process
(b) Multipoint port fuel injection: One or more injectors at each cylinder intake.
(c) Throttle body fuel injection: Injectors upstream in intake manifold.
(d) Gasoline direct injection: Injectors mounted in combustion chambers with
injection directly into cylinders.
8. Method of fuel input for compression ignition engines
(a) Direct injection: Fuel injected into main combustion chamber.
(b) Indirect injection: Fuel injected into secondary combustion chamber.
(c) Homogeneous charge compression ignition: Some fuel added during intake
stroke.
9. Fuel used
1. Liquid Fuels
(a) Volatile liquid fuels: petrol, Alcohol, benzene. Fuel /Air mixture is usually
ignited by a spark; Spark ignition.
(b) Viscous liquid fuels: heavy and light diesel oil, gas-oil, bio-fuels. Usually
combustion of fuel takes place due to its contact with high temperature compressed
air (self-ignition); Compression ignition.
2. Gaseous fuels: Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG), Natural gas (NG), Town gas,
ignition usually by a spark.
3. Dual and Multi-Fuels:
Dual fuel engines are operated with two types of fuels, either separately or mixed
together. Multi-fuel engines could be operated by a mixture of more than two fuels,

Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

gaseous; such as: Hydrogen, methane, L.P.G. etc., combined with one or more of
liquid fuels, such as alcohol, ethers, esters, gasoline, diesel etc...

10. Use of the Engine:


1. Marine engine: for propulsion of ships at sea.
2. Industrial engine: for power generation on land.
3. Automotive engine: for transport.
11. Type of cooling
(a) Air cooled
(b) Liquid cooled, Water-cooled.
Several or all of these classifications can be used at the same time to identify a
given engine. Thus, a modern engine might be called a turbocharged,
reciprocating, spark ignition, four-stroke cycle overhead valve, water-cooled,
gasoline, multipoint fuel injected, v8 automobile engine.

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Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

Internal Combustion Engines Terminology:

Figure (1-10) Internal Combustion Engines Terminology


1. Cylinder bore (D): The nominal inner diameter of the working cylinder.
2. Piston area (A): the area of a circle diameter equal to the cylinder bore.
3. Top Dead Center (T.D.C.): the extreme position of the piston at the top of the
cylinder.
4. Bottom Dead Center (B.D.C.): the extreme position of the piston at the bottom
of the cylinder.
5. Stroke (Lst): the distance between TDC and BDC is called the stroke length and
is equal to double the crank radius (l).
6. Swept volume: the volume swept through by the piston in moving between TDC
and is denoted by Vs:

Vst = (/4) D2 (Lst)


7. Clearance volume: the space above the piston head at the TDC, and is denoted
by Vc:

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Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Volume of the cylinder:

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

Vcyl = Vc + Vst

8. Compression ratio: it is the ratio of the total volume of the cylinder to the
clearance volume, and is denoted by (r) or (CR)

r = Vcyl/Vc = (Vc +Vst)/ Vc


9. Mean piston speed: the distance traveled by the piston per unit of time:

Vp = 2 Lst (N) / 60
Where Lst is the stroke in (m) and N the number of crankshaft revolution per
minute (rpm).

I.C. Engine Parts and Details:


The main components of the reciprocating internal combustion engine are
shown in Figure (1-11). Engine parts are made of various materials and perform
certain functions, some of which will be explained: cylinder block (g) it is integral
with crank case (m), both are made of cast iron.
The piston (e) reciprocates inside the cylinder, which include the combustion
chamber. The piston is connected to the connecting rod (h) by piston pin (f). This
end of the connecting rod is known as small end. The other end of the connecting
rod called the big end is connected to the crank arm by crank pin (l).
Camshaft (u) makes the cam (t) to rotate and move up and down the valve
rod through the tappet (r). Mainly each cylinder has two valves; one is admission
or suction valve and the other is exhaust valve.
The ignition system consists of a battery, an ignition coil, a distributor with
cam and breaker points, and spark plug for each cylinder. In diesel engines there is
an injection system instead of ignition system.

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Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

Figure (1-11): S.I. engine parts and details (over-head valve)


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Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

Four stroke Spark Ignition engine cycle:


First stroke: Intake stroke or Induction
The piston travels from TDC to BDC with the intake valve open and exhaust valve
closed. This creates an increasing volume in the combustion chamber which in turn
creates a vacuum. The resulting pressure differential through the intake system
from atmospheric pressure on the outside to the vacuum on the inside causes air to
be pushed into the cylinder. As the air passes through the intake system, fuel is
added to it in the desired amount by means of fuel injectors or carburetor.
Second stroke: Compression stroke:
When the piston reaches BDC, the intake valve cases and the piston travels back to
TDC with all the valves closed. This compresses the air-fuel mixture raising both
the pressure and the temperature in the cylinder. The finite time required to close
the intake valve means that actual compression doesnt start until sometime a
BDC. Near the end of the compression stroke the spark plug is fired and
combustion is initiated.
Combustion: Combustion of an air-fuel mixture occurs in a very short but finite
length of time with the piston near TDC, (i.e. nearly constant volume combustion)
It starts near the end of the compression stroke slightly bad and lasts into the power
stroke slightly a TDC. Combustion changes the composition of the gas mixture to
that of exhaust products and increases the temperature in the cylinder to a very
high peak value. This, in turn raises the pressure in the cylinder to a very high peak
value.
Third stroke Expansion stroke or Power stroke: With all valves closed the high
pressure created by the combustion process pushes the piston away from TDC.
This is the stroke which produces the work output of the engine cycle. As the
piston travels from TDC to BDC, cylinder volume is increased causing pressure
and temperature drop.
Exhaust Blow down: Late in the power strike, the exhaust valve is opened and
exhaust blow down occurs. The pressure and temperature in the cylinder are still
high relative to the surroundings at this point and a pressure differential is created
through the exhaust system when the piston is near BDC. This exhaust gas carries
away a high amount of enthalpy, which lowers the cycle thermal efficiency.
Opening the exhaust valve before bdc reduces the work obtained during the power
stroke but is required because of the finite time needed for exhaust blow down.
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Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

Fourth stroke: Exhaust stroke: By the time the piston reaches BDC, exhaust blow
down is complete, but the cylinder is still full of exhaust gases at approximately
atmospheric pressure. With the exhaust valve remaining open, the piston now
travels the gases out of the cylinder into the exhaust system at about atmospheric
pressure, leaving only that trapped in the clearance volume when the piston reaches
TDC. Near the end of exhaust stroke bad, the intake valve starts to open, so that it
is fully open by TDC when the new intake stroke starts in the next cycle. Near
TDC exhaust valve starts to close and finally is fully closed sometime a TDC. This
period when both intake valve and exhaust valve are open is called valve overlap.
Four stroke Compression Ignition engine cycle:
First stroke: Intake stroke: The same as the intake stroke in the SI engine with one
major difference: no fuel is added to the incoming air.
Second stroke: Compression stroke: The same as in an SI engine except that only
air is compressed and compression is to higher pressures and temperature. Late in
the compression strike fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber when
it mixes with very hot air. This causes the fuel to evaporate and self ignite, causing
combustion to start.
Combustion: Combustion is fully developed by TDC and continues at about
constant pressure until the fuel injection is complete and the piston has started
towards BDC.
Third stroke: Power stroke: The power stroke continues as combustion ends and
the piston travels towards BDC.
Exhaust Blow down; same as with an SI engine.
Fourth stroke: Exhaust strike: same as with an SI engine.

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Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

Chapter (2)
Air- Standard Cycles
During every engine cycle, the medium changes sometimes it is a mixture of
fuel and air or products of combustion, the specific heats and other properties of
the medium change with temperature and composition.
The accurate study and analysis of I.C.E. processes is very complicated. To
simplify the theoretical study "Standard Air Cycles" are introduced, these cycles
are similar to the open cycles, but some simplifying assumptions are made:
1. Cylinder contains constant amount of air and it is treated as ideal gas.
2. The specific heats and other physical and chemical properties remain unchanged
during the cycle.
3. Instead of heat generation by combustion, heat is transformed from external heat
source.
4. The process of heat removal in the exhaust gases is represented by heat transfer
from the cycle to external heat sink.
5. There is neither friction nor turbulence; all processes are assumed to be
reversible.
6. No heat loss from the working fluid to the surroundings.
7. Cycles can be presented on any diagram of properties.

1. The Otto Cycle (constant Volume):


These cycles is applied in petrol (or gasoline) engine, gas engine, and high
speed diesel (oil) engine. The cycle consists of the following processes:
1. Process 1 to 2 is isentropic compression;
Q1-2 = 0

& PV = Constant

2. Process 2 to 3 is reversible heat addition at constant volume


Q2-3 = Qadd = Cv (T3 T2) kJ/kg &V2= V3
3. Process 3 to 4 is isentropic expression;
Q3-4 = 0

& PV = Constant

4. Process 4 to 1 is reversible constant volume cooling


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Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Q4-1 = Qrej = Cv (T4 T1) kj/ kg

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

& V4 = V1

Otto Air Standard Cycle

Air/Fuel Cycle

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Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

This cycle is applied in 4- stroke and 2- stroke engines.


Work of Otto cycle =W = Qadd Qrej
The thermal efficiency of the Otto cycle:

otto=

=1

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Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

otto=1

=1

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

Let:
P = gas pressure in the cylinder (Pa) or (bar)
V = volume in cylinder (m3)
v = specific volume of gas (m3/ Kg)
R= gas constant (Kj/Kg. K)
T = temperature of gas (K)
M= mass of gas in cylinder (Kg)
= density of gas (Kg/m3)
Cp= specific heat at constant pressure (Kj/Kg.K)
Cv= specific heat at constant volume (Kj/Kg.K)

= Cp / Cv
CR= r= compression ratio = V1/V2
rp = pressure ratio = P3/P2
For ideal gas:

Pv = RT
PV= mRT
P= R T

For isentropic process PV = Constant


Therefore;

P4 = P3 (V3/V4)
P2 = P1 (V1/V2)
But,
So,

&
&

T4 = T3 (V3/V4) -1
T2 = T1 (V1/V2) -1

V1= V4 & V2= V3


T2/T1 = (V1/V2) -1 = (V4/V3) -1 = T3/T4 = r -1
T3 = T4 (r -1)

&
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T2 = T1 (r -1)

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otto = 1

So,

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

1/(r-1) -1

otto increased by increasing r


otto increased by increasing
otto independent on the heat added or load.
In modern petrol engines (r) reaches a value of 12.
For Air; Cp = 1.005 Kj/Kg.K
Cv= 0.718 Kj/Kg.K
= 1.4
R = Cp- Cv = 0.287 Kj/Kg.K

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Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

2. The Diesel (or Constant Pressure) Cycle:

This cycle is the theoretical cycle for compression-ignition or diesel engine. For
this cycle:
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Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

1. Process 1 to 2 is isentropic compression;


Q1-2 = 0.

& PV = Constant

2. Process 2 to 3 is reversible heat addition at constant pressure


Q2-3 = Qadd = Cp (T3 T2) kJ/kg

& P2 = P3

3. Process 3 to 4 is isentropic expression;

& PV = Constant

Q3-4 = 0

4. Process 4 to 1 is reversible constant volume cooling


Q4-1 = Qrej = Cv (T4 T1) kj/ kg

& V4 = V1

Work of Diesel cycle =W = Qadd Qrej

Diesel =

=1

Cutoff ratio (rc): is defined as the change in volume that occurs during combustion

rc= V3/V2
& CR= r= compression ratio = V1/V2
rp = pressure ratio = P3/P2 = 1

It can be proved that;

Diesel = 1 ((rc) -1) / (rc -1) **(r-1)


This equation shows that thermal efficiency depends not only on compression ratio
(r) but also on the cut-off ratio (rc ) and the working medium properties . As rc
increase the work done per cycle increase but

Diesel decreases. When r increase

more than 22, the increase in Diesel is small, on the other hand, maximum pressure
increases much and mass of the engine increases.

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Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

Diesel increased by increasing r


otto decreased by increasing rc
3. The Dual Cycle:
The cycle is applied in medium speed and high speed diesel engines. The
engine may be 4 or 2 strokes

1. Process 1 to 2 is isentropic compression;


Q1-2 = 0.

& PV = Constant
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Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

2. Process 2 to 3 is reversible heat addition at constant volume


Q2-3 = Qadd)1 = Cv (T3 T2) kJ/kg

& V2 = V3

3. Process 3 to 4 is reversible heat addition at constant pressure


Q3-4 = Qadd)2 = Cp (T4 T3) kJ/kg

& P3 = P4

4. Process 4 to 5 is isentropic expression;


Q4-5 = 0

& PV = Constant

5. Process 5 to 1 is reversible constant volume cooling


Q4-1 = Qrej = Cv (T5 T1) kj/ kg

& V5 = V1

Qadd)total = Cv (T3 T2) + Cp (T4 T3) kJ/kg


Work of Diesel cycle =W = Qadd)total Qrej

Diesel =
&

=1
Compression ratio = CR= r= V1/V2
Cutoff ratio (rc): rc= V4/V3
Pressure ratio = rp = P3/P2
Expansion ratio re= V5/V4

When rp = 1, then p2 = p3, we obtain diesel cycle. When rc = 1, then V3 = V4,


we obtain Otto cycle. The indicated thermal efficiency of this cycle lies between
that of the Otto and diesel.
Indicated mean effective pressure = W/Vst = W/ (v1-v2)
Relative efficiency= rel = thermal / standard
Specific fuel consumption (S.F.C) = m.f / Power

kpa

= 3600/ thermal * C.V.F (Kg/Kw.hr)

Where C.V.F is the calorific value of the fuel (Kj/Kg)

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Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

Comparison of Otto, diesel and Dual Cycles:


The important parameters in cycle analysis are compression ratio, maximum
pressure, maximum temperature, head input, work output, etc.
1. Equal Compression Ratio and Equal Heat added:
The three cycles start from the same point (1); compression process is the
same (1-2) for all cycles, equal heat added means:

Area (a23ba) = Area (a23\ da) = Area (a22/ 3// ca)


Areas representing heat rejected are:
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Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

area (a14ba) < area( a14// ca) < area (a14/da)


And so,

otto

<

Dual < Diesel

2. Equal Compression Ratio and Heat rejected:

Processes (1-2) and (4-1) are the same in all cycles.


Areas representing heat added are:

area 6235 > area 622/3//5 > area 623/5


Heat rejected area is the same for the three cycles
And so,

WOtto > Wdual > Wdiesel

otto

26

>

Dual > Diesel

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Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

3. Equal Maximum Pressure and Equal Heat added:

Point (1) is common in the three cycles.


Maximum pressure is the same, therefore, compression ratio are different as
indicated in the diagram above.

WOtto < Wdual < Wdiesel


i.e.

otto

<

Dual < Diesel

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Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

4. Equal Maximum Pressure and Maximum Temperature:

Points 1, 3, 4 are common in the three cycles.


Heat rejected is the same in the three cycles
Heat added is highest in diesel cycle:

WOtto < Wdual < Wdiesel


i.e

otto

<

Dual < Diesel

5. Solve with the same compression ratio and work


6. Solve with the same maximum pressure and work

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Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

Real Air-Fuel Engine Cycles


The actual cycle experienced by an internal combustion engine is not a
thermodynamic cycle. An ideal air-standard thermodynamic cycle Occurs on a
closed system of constant composition. This is not what actually happens in an IC
engine, and for this reason air-standard analysis gives, at best, only approximations
to actual conditions and outputs. Major differences include:
1. Real engines operate on an open cycle with changing composition. Not only
does the inlet gas composition differ from what exits, but often the mass
flow rate is not the same. Those engines which add fuel into the cylinders
after air induction is complete (CI engines and some SI engines) change the
amount of mass in the gas composition part way through the cycle.
2. Air-standard analysis treats the fluid flow through the entire engine as air
and approximates air as an ideal gas. In a real engine inlet flow may be all
air, or it may be air mixed with fuel, either gaseous or as liquid droplets, or
both.
3. There are heat losses during the cycle of a real engine which are neglected in
air-standard analysis. Heat loss during combustion lowers actual peak
temperature and pressure from what is predicted. The actual power stroke,
therefore, starts at a lower pressure, and work output during expansion is
decreased. Heat transfer continues during expansion, and this lowers the
temperature and pressure below the ideal isentropic process towards the end
of the power stroke. The result of heat transfer is a lower indicated thermal
efficiency than predicted by air-standard analysis.
4. Combustion requires a short but finite time to occur, and heat addition is not
instantaneous at TDC, as approximated in an Otto cycle.

5. The blow-down process requires a finite real time and a finite cycle time,
and does not occur at constant volume as in air-standard analysis
6. In an actual engine, the intake valve is not closed until after bottom-dead
center at the end of the intake stroke. Because of the flow restriction of the
valve, air is still entering the cylinder at BDC, and volumetric efficiency
would be lower if the valve closed here.
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The Actual Cycle Losses


The actual cycle efficiency is much lower than the air standard efficiency due to
various losses occurring in the actual engine. These losses are as follows:
1- Losses due to variation of specific heats with temperature.
2- Losses due to dissociation.
3- Time losses: In theoretical cycles the burning is assumed to be
instantaneous. Whereas, in actual cycle, burning is completed in a definite
interval of time. The effect of this time is that the maximum pressure will
not be produced when the volume is minimum; but sometime after T.D.C.,
causes a reduction in the work produced.
4- Incomplete combustion loss: Fuel vapour, air, and residual gas are present
in the cylinder; this makes it impossible to obtain perfect homogeneous
mixture. Therefore some fuel does not burn to CO2 or partially burns to CO,
and O2 will appear in the exhaust. Energy release in actual engine is about 90
to 93% of fuel energy input.
5- Direct heat loss: During combustion process and subsequent expansion
stroke, the heat flows from cylinder gases through cylinder walls and
cylinder head into the water jacket or cooling fins. Some heat enters the
piston head and flows through piston rings into the walls of the cylinder or
carried away by the engine oil. The heat loss during combustion and
expansion does not represent a complete heat loss; a part of the heat loss
would be rejected in the exhaust at the end of the expansion stroke.
6- Exhaust blow down loss: The opening of the exhaust value before B.D.C.
reducing cylinder pressure, causing the roundness of the end of the P-V
diagram, this means a reduction in the work done per cycle.
7- Pumping losses: Pumping loss is due to expelling the exhaust gases and the
induction of the fresh charge. In naturally aspirated engine this would be a
negative work.
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8- Friction losses: These losses are due to the friction between the piston and
cylinder walls, the various bearings, and the friction in the auxiliary
equipment, such as pumps, fans, etc

Actual spark ignition engine cycle.

Deviations of actual cycle (indicating variable losses)

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Sheet 1
Air Standard Cycles

1. Cylinder conditions at the start of compression in a SI engine operating at


WOT on an air-standard Otto cycle are 20C and 98 kPa. The engine has a
compression ratio of 9.5:1 and the maximum temperature is 2000C.
Calculate:
a. The heat added per Kg.
b. The heat rejected per Kg.

c. The cycle work done


d. The thermal efficiency.

2. In a diesel cycle, the initial conditions are 27C and 1 bar. The compression
ratio is 20 and the cutoff ratio is 2, calculate:
a. The temperature, pressure and volume at the cycle key points.
b. The heat added, the heat rejected and the cycle thermal efficiency.

3. Cylinder conditions at the start of compression in a CI engine operating at


WOT on an air-standard diesel cycle are 20C and 98 kPa. The engine has a
compression ratio of 12.5:1 and the maximum temperature is 3300C.
Calculate:
c. The heat added per Kg.
d. The heat rejected per Kg.

c. The cycle work done


d. The thermal efficiency.

4. Consider an air standard diesel cycle in which the working fluid has the
following properties at the beginning of compression; temperature = 298 K,
pressure = 1 atm, and specific volume of 0.856 m3/Kg. if the compression
ratio = 15 and the heat added is 200 Kcal/Kg. Calculate:
a. The pressure and temperature and volume at the cycle key points.
b. The thermal efficiency.
c. The output power if the engine consumes 0.2 Kg/sec of air.

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5. In a dual cycle, the heat added at constant volume is equal to the heat added
at constant pressure. The compression ratio is 13.5. The maximum cycle
pressure is 50 Kg/cm2 and the initial conditions are 1 Kg/cm2 and 20C.
Calculate:
a. The heat added, the heat rejected and work done.
b. The thermal efficiency.
6. An Otto cycle has a compression ratio of 6 and starting conditions of 35C
and 1 bar. Heat is added until the pressure becomes 35 bar. Calculate:
a.
b.
c.
d.

The pressure, temperature and volume at each corner.


The heat added.
The mean effective pressure.
If the engine has a relative efficiency of 50%, determine the fuel
consumption per Kw.hr. Assume that the calorific value of the fuel is
42000Kj/Kg.

7. A high speed diesel engine working on ideal dual cycle. Takes in air at 50
C and 1 Kg/cm2 and compresses it to 1/14 of its original volume. At the end
of compression the heat is added so that the maximum pressure attains twice
the value at the end of compression. The rest of heat addition takes place at
constant pressure so that the volume at the end of heat addition is twice the
clearance volume. Calculate:
a. The temperature, pressure and volume at the key points.
b. The cycle thermal efficiency, the cutoff ratio (rc) and the expansion ratio
(re).
8. A compression ignition engine working on dual cycle has a cylinder bore of
20 cm and stroke of 30 cm. It operates with a compression ratio of 8. At start
of compression, the cylinder is full of air at 1Kg/cm2 and 25C. The heat
added at constant volume is timed for maximum pressure of 60 Kg/cm2. The
heat addition at constant pressure continues for 4% of the stroke. Calculate:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Amount of heat added.


Amount of heat rejected.
Thermal efficiency.
The mean effective pressure.
The cutoff ratio and the pressure ratio.
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Chapter 3
Combustion and Fuel
3.1 Definition of Combustion
Combustion is a rapid oxidation generating heat, or both light and heat,
slow oxidation accompanied by relatively little heat and no light (such as some
exothermic chemical reactions). In our study we will restrict the definition to
include only rapid oxidation portion, since most practical combustion devices
belong in this portion. This definition emphasizes the importance of chemical
reactions to combustion, as combustion transforms energy stored in chemical
bonds to heat that can be utilized in a variety of ways.
3.2 Combustion Modes and Flame Types
Combustion can occur in either a flame or non-flame mode. Flames are
categorized as being either premixed flames or non-premixed (diffusion) flames.
The difference between flame and non-flame modes of combustion can be
illustrated by the processes occurring in a knocking spark-ignition engine. In Fig.
3.1(a), we see a thin zone of intense chemical reaction propagating through the
unburned fuel-air mixture. This thin reaction zone is what we commonly refer to as
a flame. Behind the flame are the hot products of combustion. As the flame moves
across the combustion space, the temperature and pressure rise in the unburned
gas. Under certain conditions (Fig. 3.1(b)), rapid oxidation reactions occur at many
locations within the unburned gas leading to very rapid combustion throughout the
volume. This essentially volumetric heat release in an engine is called autoignition, and the very rapid pressure rise leads to characteristic sound of engine
knock.
Knock is undesirable, and a recent challenge to engine designers has been
how to minimize the occurrence of knock while operating with lead-free gasoline.
In compression-ignition or diesel engines, however, auto-ignition initiates the
combustion process by design.

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Fig. 3.1 illustration of the combustion modes


The two classes of flames, premixed and non-premixed (diffusion) are
related to the state of mixedness of reactants, as suggested by their names. In a
premixed flame, the fuel and the oxidizer are mixed prior to the occurrence of any
significant chemical reaction. The spark-ignition engine is an example where
premixed flames occur. While, in a diffusion flame, the reactants are initially
separated, and reaction occurs only at the interface between the fuel and oxidizer,
where mixing and reaction both take place. An example of the diffusion flame is a
simple candle. In practical devices, both types of flames may be present in various
degrees. Diesel engine combustion is generally considered to have significant
amounts of both premixed and diffusion burning. The term diffusion applies
strictly to the molecular diffusion of chemical species, i.e., fuel molecules diffuse
toward the flame from one direction while oxidizer molecules diffuse toward the
flame from the opposite direction.
The Bunsen burner shown in fig. 3.2 has both a premixed flame and
diffusion flame. The air entrained at the base of the burner is not sufficient for
complete combustion with a single premixed flame. Consequently, a second flame

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front is established at the interface where the air is diffusing into the unburnt fue

Fig 3.2 Bunsen burner with premixed and diffusion flames.


Considering character of flow, there are two principal types of flames:
laminar and turbulent flame. Considering change of flame properties with time,
there are two types of flames: steady and unsteady flame

3.3 Fuel and Fuel Characteristics


Fuel is a substance which, when burnt, i.e. on coming in contact and reacting
with oxygen or air, produces heat. Thus, the substances classified as fuel must
necessarily contain one or several of the combustible elements: carbon, hydrogen,
sulphur, etc. In the process of combustion, the chemical energy of fuel is converted
into heat energy. To utilize the energy of fuel in most usable form, it is required to
transform the fuel from its one state to another, i.e. from solid to liquid or gaseous
state, liquid to gaseous state, or from its chemical energy to some other form of
energy via single or many stages. In this way, the energy of fuels can be utilized
more effectively and efficiently for various purposes.
Principles of classification of fuels:
Fuels may broadly be classified, see table 1.2, in two ways, i.e.,
(a) According to the physical state in which they exist in nature solid, liquid and
gaseous.
(b) According to the mode of their procurement natural and manufactured.

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Natural Fuels
Wood
Coal
Oil shale

Petroleum

Natural gas

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Manufactured Fuels
Solid Fuels
Tanbark, Bagasse, Straw
Charcoal
Coke
Briquettes
Liquid Fuels
Oils from distillation of petroleum
Coal tar
Shale-oil
Alcohols, etc.
Gaseous Fuels
Coal gas
Producer gas
Water gas
Hydrogen
Acetylene
Blast furnace gas
Oil gas

Table 2.1: Natural and Manufactured Fuels


3.3.1 Characteristics of Fuel Oils
Characteristics of fuel oil that determine grade classification and suitability
for given applications are:

viscosity
flash point
pour point
water and sediment content
carbon residue
ash
distillation qualities or distillation temperature ranges
specific gravity
sulfur content
heating value
carbon-hydrogen content

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Viscosity is oils resistance to flow. It is significant because it indicates the ease at


which oil flows or can be pumped and the ease of atomization. Differences in fuel
oil viscosities are caused by variations in the concentrations of fuel oil constituents
and different refining methods.
Flash point is the lowest temperature to which oil must be heated for its vapors to
ignite in a flame.
Pour point is the lowest temperature at which a fuel can be stored and handled.
Fuels with higher pour points can be used when heated storage and piping facilities
are provided.
Water and sediment content should be low to prevent fouling the facilities.
Sediment accumulates on filter screens and burner parts. Water in distillate fuels
can cause tanks to corrode and emulsions to form in residual oil.
Carbon residue is obtained by a test in which the oil sample is destructively
distilled in the absence of air. When commercial fuels are used in proper burners,
this residue has almost no relationship to soot deposits, except indirectly when
deposits are formed by vaporizing burners.
Ash is the noncombustible material in oil. An excessive amount indicates the
presence of materials that cause high wear on burner pumps.
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a fuel oil to the density of water at a
specific temperature. Specific gravities cover a range in each grade, with some
overlap between distillate and residual grades. API gravity (developed by the
American Petroleum Institute) is a parameter widely used in place of specific
gravity.
Sulfur content: Air pollution considerations are important in determining the
allowable sulfur content of fuel oils. Sulfur content is frequently limited by
legislation aimed at reducing sulfur oxide emissions from combustion equipment.
These laws require sulfur content to be below a certain level, usually 1.0, 0.5, or
0.3%.
Sulfur in fuel oils is also undesirable because of the corrosiveness of sulfur
compounds in the flue gas. Although low-temperature corrosion can be minimized
by maintaining the stack at temperatures above the dew point of the flue gas, this
limits the overall thermal efficiency of combustion equipment. For certain
industrial applications, the sulfur content of a fuel must be limited because of
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adverse effects on product quality. The applications include direct-fired metallurgy


where work is performed in the combustion zone.
Heating value (Calorific value) is an important property, and is defines as the
amount of heat produced by combustion of a unit quantity of a fuel. We
differentiate between gross and net heating values
Gross (or high, upper) Heating Value
The gross or high heating value is the amount of heat produced by the complete
combustion of a unit quantity of fuel.
The gross heating value is obtained when

all products of the combustion are cooled down to the temperature before the
combustion
the water vapor formed during combustion is condensed

Net (or lower) Heating Value


The net or lower heating value is obtained by

Subtracting the latent heat of vaporization of the water vapor formed by the
combustion from the gross or higher heating value.

Common units used for heating value are:

1 J/kg = 0.00043 Btu/lb = 2.39x10-4 kcal/kg

3.4 Combustion chemistry


Combustion is the conversion of a substance called a fuel into chemical
compounds known as products of combustion by combination with an oxidizer.
The combustion process is an exothermic chemical reaction, i.e., a reaction that
releases energy as it occurs. Thus combustion may be represented symbolically by:
Fuel + Oxidizer

Products of combustion + Energy

Here the fuel and the oxidizer are reactants, i.e., the substances present
before the reaction takes place. This relation indicates that the reactants produce
combustion products and energy. Either the chemical energy released is transferred
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to the surroundings as it is produced, or it remains in the combustion products in


the form of elevated internal energy (temperature), or some combination thereof.
Fuels are evaluated based on the amount of energy or heat that they release
per unit mass or per mole during combustion of the fuel. Such a quantity is known
as the fuels heating value.
In combustion processes the oxidizer is usually air but could be pure oxygen,
an oxygen mixture, or a substance involving some other oxidizing element such as
fluorine. Here we will limit our attention to combustion of a fuel with air or pure
oxygen.
Chemical fuels exist in gaseous, liquid, or solid form. Natural gas, gasoline,
and coal, perhaps the most widely used examples of these three forms, are each a
complex mixture of reacting and inert compounds.
3.4.1 Characterizing Air for Combustion Calculations
Air is a mixture of about 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, and 1% other
constituents by volume. For combustion calculations it is usually satisfactory to
represent air as 21% oxygen, 79% nitrogen mixture, by volume. Thus for every 21
moles of oxygen that react when air oxidizes a fuel, there are also 79 moles of
nitrogen involved. Therefore, 79/21 = 3.76 moles of nitrogen are present for every
mole of oxygen in the air.

At room temperature both oxygen and nitrogen exist as diatomic molecules,


O2 and N2, respectively. It is usually assumed that the nitrogen in the air is nonreacting at combustion temperatures; that is, there are as many moles of pure
nitrogen in the products as there were in the reactants. At very high temperatures
small amounts of nitrogen react with oxygen to form oxides of nitrogen, usually
termed NOx. These small quantities are important in pollution analysis because of
the major role of even small traces of NOx in the formation of smog. However,
since these NOx levels are insignificant in energy analysis applications, nitrogen is
treated as inert here.
The molecular weight of a compound or mixture is the mass of 1 mole of the
substance. The average molecular weight, M, of a mixture, as seen earlier, is the
linear combination of the products of the mole fractions of the components and
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their respective molecular weights. Thus the molecular weight for air, Mair, is given
by the sum of the products of the molecular weights of oxygen and nitrogen and
their respective mole fractions in air. Expressed in words:
Mair = 0.79 Mnitrogen + 0.21 Moxygen = 0.79(28) + 0.21(32) = 28.84 Kg/Kmole
The mass fractions of oxygen and nitrogen in air are then:
mf oxygen = (0.21)(32)/28.84 = 0.233, or 23.3%
and mf nitrogen = (0.79)(28)/28.84 = 0.767, or 76.7%
2.4.2 Combustion Chemistry of a Simple Fuel
Methane, CH4, is a common fuel that is a major constituent of most natural
gases.
Consider the complete combustion of methane in pure oxygen. The chemical
reaction equation for the complete combustion of methane in oxygen may be
written as:
CH4 + 2O2

CO2 + 2H2O

(3.1)

Because atoms are neither created nor destroyed, Equation (3.1) states that
methane (consisting of one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen) reacts with
four atoms of oxygen to yield carbon dioxide and water products with the same
number of atoms of each element as in the reactants. This is the basic principle
involved in balancing all chemical reaction equations.
Carbon dioxide is the product formed by complete combustion of carbon through
the reaction C + O2
CO2. Carbon dioxide has only one carbon atom per
molecule.
Since in Equation (3.1) there is only one carbon atom on the left side of the
equation, there can be only one carbon atom and therefore one CO2 molecule on
the right. Similarly, water is the product of the complete combustion of hydrogen.
It has two atoms of hydrogen per molecule. Because there are four hydrogen atoms
in the reactants of Equation (3.1), there must be four in the products, implying that
two molecules of water formed. These observations require four atoms of oxygen
on the right, which implies the presence of two molecules (four atoms) of oxygen
on the left.
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3.4.3 Combustion in Air


Let us now consider the complete combustion of methane in air. The same
combustion products are expected as with combustion in oxygen; the only
additional reactant present is nitrogen, and it is considered inert. Moreover,
because we know that in air every mole of oxygen is accompanied by 3.76 moles
of nitrogen, the reaction equation can be written as
CH4 + 2O2 + 2(3.76)N2

CO2 + 2H2O + 2(3.76)N2

(3.2)

It is seen that the reaction equation for combustion in air may be obtained
from the combustion equation for the reaction in oxygen by adding the appropriate
number of moles of nitrogen to both sides of the equation.
Note that both Equations (3.1) and (3.2) describe reactions of one mole of
methane fuel. Because the same amount of fuel is present in both cases, both
reactions release the same amount of energy. We can therefore compare
combustion reactions in air and in oxygen. It will be seen that the presence of
nitrogen acts to dilute the reaction, both chemically and thermally.
The diluting energetic effect of nitrogen when combustion is in air may be
reasoned as follows: The same amount of energy is released in both reactions,
because the same amount of fuel is completely consumed. However, the nonreacting nitrogen molecules in the air have heat capacity. This added heat capacity
of the additional nitrogen molecules absorbs much of the energy released, resulting
in a lower internal energy per unit mass of products and hence a lower temperature
of the products. Thus the energy released by the reaction is shared by a greater
mass of combustion products when the combustion is in air.
Often, products of combustion are released to the atmosphere through a
chimney, stack, or flue. These are therefore sometimes referred to as flue gases.
The flue gas composition may be stated in terms of wet flue gas (wfg) or dry flue
gas (dfg), because under some circumstances the water vapor in the gas condenses
and then escapes as a liquid rather than remaining as a gaseous component of the
flue gas. When liquid water is present in combustion products, the combustion
product gaseous mass fractions may be taken with respect to the mass of flue gas
products, with the product water present or omitted.

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3.5 Reactant and Product Mixtures


3.5.1 Stoichiometry
The stoichiometry quantity of oxidizer is just that amount needed to
completely burn a quantity of fuel. If more than a stoichiometric quantity of
oxidizer is supplied, the mixture is said to be fuel- lean, or just lean mixture; while
supplying less than the stoichiometric oxidizer results in a fuel- rich, or rich
mixture.
The stoichiometric oxidizer- (or air) fuel ratio (mass basis) is determined by
writing simple atom balances, assuming that the fuel reacts to form an ideal set of
products (CO2, H2O and N2). For a hydrocarbon fuel given by CxHy, the
stoichiometric relation can be expressed as:
CxHy + a (O2 +3.76N2)

xCO2 + (y/2) H2O +3.76a N2

From a simple balance, we get:


a = x+ y/4.
For simplicity, we assume that the simplified composition for air is 21 percent O 2
and 79 percent N2 (by volume), i.e., that for each mole of O2 in air, there are 3.76
moles of N2.
The stoichiometric air-fuel ratio can be found as
(A/F)stoic =
Where, MWair
respectively.

and MWfuel

are the molecular weights of the air and fuel,

The equivalence ratio, , is commonly used to indicate quantitatively whether a


fuel- oxidizer mixture is rich, lean, or stoichiometric. And affects directly on
combustion products (pollutants), see Fig. 3.3.The equivalence ratio is defined as:

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From this definition, we see that for fuel-rich mixture, >1, and for fuel-lean
mixture, < 1. For a stoichiometric mixture, equals unity. In many combustion
applications, the equivalence ratio is the single most important factor in
determining a systems performance. Other parameters frequently used to define
relative stoichiometry are percent stoichiometric air (excess air) (), which
related to the equivalence ratio as:

= % syoichiometric air =
% excess air =
Example 3.1

* 100%

A small, low-emission, stationary gas-turbine operates at full load


(3950 kW) at an equivalence ratio of 0.286 with an air flow rate of
15.9 Kg/s. The equivalent composition of fuel is C1.16H4.32 .
Determine the fuel mass flow rate and the operating air-fuel ratio
for the engine.

Solution:

Given

= 0.286,

Known

MWair = 28.85 Kg/Kmole ,

m air = 15.9 Kg/s,

fuel is C1.16H4.32
MWfuel = 1.16(12.01) + 4.32(1.008)
= 18.286 Kg/Kmole

From stoichiometric balance


(A/F)stoic = 4.76a *
Where a = x +y/4 = 1.16 +4.32/4 = 2.24. Thus,
(A/F)stoic = 4.76* 2.24 * (28.85/18.286) = 16.82. Kgair/Kgfuel
(A/F)act = 16.82/ 0.286 = 58.8. Kgair/Kgfuel
And so,

m fuel = 15.9/58.8 = 0.27 Kg/s.

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Comment
Note that even at full power, a large quantity of excess air is supplied the engine
(low-emission gas turbine).
Example 3.2

A natural gas-fired industrial boiler operates with an oxygen


concentration of 3 mole percent in the flue gases. Determine the
operating air-fuel ratio and the equivalence ratio. Treat the natural
gas as methane.

Solution:
Given

% O2 = 3

Known

MWair = 28.85 Kg/Kmole , MWfuel = (12.01) + 4(1.008) = 16.04


Kg/Kmole

fuel is methane CH4

Actual combustion equation:


CH4 + a (O2 +3.76N2)

CO2 + 2 H2O + b O2 + 3.76a N2

Where a and b are related from conservation of O atoms,


2 a = 2 + 2 +2b
Or

b=a-2

From the definition of mole fraction,


% O2 = 0.03 = ( NO2 ) / (Nmixture) =

Where, N is the number of moles.


And so,

a = 2.368

The mass air-fuel ratio is expressed as


(A/F)actual =

= 20.23

=
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To find , we need to determine (A/F)stoic from stoiciometric combustion


equation;
CH4 + a (O2 +3.76N2)

CO2 + 2 H2O + 3.76a N2

From balance we will find that a = 2 and hence


(A/F)stoic = 4.76(2)(28.85) / 16.04 = 17.1

From the definition of equivalence ratio


= 17.1 / 20.3 = 0.84
Comment
In the solution, we assumed that the O2 mole fraction was on a wet basis, i.e.,
moles of O2 per mole of moisture-containing flue gases. Frequently, in the
measurement of exhaust species, moisture is removed to prevent condensation in
the gas analyzer; thus %O2 can also be reported on a dry basis.
Example 3.3

The measured dry volumetric products of combustion of a


hydrocarbon fuel of unknown composition are found to be:
CO2 = 9%, CO = 1%, O2 = 8% and N2 = 82%.
Calculate: (a) The mass air-fuel ratio,
(b) The composition of the fuel on a mass basis, and
(c) The percent of stoiciometric (theoretical) air on a
mass basis.

Solution:
The combustion of unknown hydrocarbon composition fuel with air (assume 1
Kmole of fuel) can be written as:
CxHy + a (O2 +3.76N2)

9CO2 + 1 CO + 8O2 + c H2O + 82 N2

By balancing N2

a= 82/3.76 = 21.81

By balancing O2

a = 21.81 = 9 + + 8 + c/2 , then c= 8.62.


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By balancing C

x = 9 + 1 = 10

By balancing H

y= 2c = 17.24

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(a)The fuel-air ratio (by mass) = (A/F) = 21.81(32 + 3.76x28) / (10x12 +17.24x1)
= 21.9

Kgair/Kgfuel

(b) Therefore, the hydrocarbon fuel composition is C10H17.24


The compositions of fuel on a mass basis are:
Carbon = 10x12 / (10x12 + 17.24x1) = 87.44%.
Hydrogen = 17.24x1 / (10x12 + 17.24x1) = 12.56%.
(c) to calculate the % of theoretical air, then it is necessary to calculate the
theoretical air required for complete combustion of fuel and this can be calculated
by:
C10H17.24 + a (O2 +3.76N2)
By balancing O2

10CO2 + 8.62 H2O + a 3.76 N2


a = 10 + 4.31 = 14.31

The theoretical air-fuel ratio = (A/F)stoic = 14.31(32 + 3.76x28) / (10x12 +17.24x1)


= 14.31 Kgair/Kgfuel
Then, the percent of theoretical air = 21.94/ 14.31 = 153.32%.

47

Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

Fig. 3.3 Variation of NO, CO and UHC emissions with equivalence ratio.

48

Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

Sheet 2
Combustion and Fuel
1. For an equivalence ratio of 0.6, determine the associated air-fuel ratios
(mass) for methane, propane (C3H8) and decane (C10H22).
2. A spark ignition engine uses a liquid fuel whose composition by weight is
84% C and 16% H2 and the engine is running at an air-fuel ratio of 14.
Determine the analysis of the exhaust gases by weight.
3. A natural gas-fired industrial boiler operates with excess air such that the O2
concentration in the flue gases is 2 percent (volume), measured after
removal of the moisture in the combustion products. Determine the
equivalence ratio for the system assuming the properties of natural gas are
the same as methane.
4. Assuming complete combustion, write out a stoichiometric balance equation
for 1 mole of an arbitrary alcohol CxHyOz , Determine the number of moles
of air required to burn 1 mole of fuel.
5. Determine the air-fuel ratio and make a complete exhaust analysis for a
gaseous fuel having a volumetric analysis of 6.7% CO2, 1.3% O2, 22.5%
CO, 2.2% H2, 0.4% CH4 and 66.9% N2. If the percentage of O2 in the dry
exhaust is 8%.
6. In a spark ignition engine, the dry exhaust analysis is 9.8% CO2, 0.2% O2,
7.6% CO and 82.4% N2. Determine the air-fuel ratio if:
a. The fuel composition by weight is 86.4%C and 13.6% H2.
b. The fuel is Octane C8H18.

49

Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

Chapter 4
Combustion in SI Engines
Combustion in spark ignition engines normally begins at the spark pluck
where the molecules in and around the spark discharge are activated to a level
where reaction is self- sustaining. Combustion is SI engines may be one or more of
the following types of combustion:
1- Normal combustion.
2- Abnormal combustion.
3- Uncontrolled combustion.
4.1 Normal combustion:
Once ignition has started the flame front expands across the chamber. Two
stages may be distinguished during the normal combustion. The first stage, (AB)
corresponds to the time for the formation of the self propagation nucleus of the
flame. This is mainly a chemical process and depends on the nature of mixture
composition, temperature and turbulence.
The second stage (BC) corresponds to the propagation of the flame
throughout the combustion chamber. The second stage begins at the point where
first measurable rise of pressure can be seen on the indicator diagram. The rate of
pressure rise is proportional to the rate of heat release because during this stage the
combustion volume is nearly constant. The spark occurs at the point A, there is a
"delay period" between the occurrence of the spark and the noticeable pressure
rise from that of motoring compression. This is a time delay which is independent
of engine speed so that as the engine speed is increased the point A must occur
earlier in the cycle to obtain the best position of the peak pressure.
Although the point C marks the completion of the flame travel, it does not
follow that at this point the whole of the heat of the fuel has been liberated, some
further chemical adjustments due to re-association, etc., and what is generally
referred to as after burning, will to a greater or less degree continue throughout
the expansion stroke.

50

Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

Fig 4.1 Pressure-Crank angle diagram of spark-ignition engine.


4.1.1 Effect of engine variables on first stage:

Electrode gap: If the gap is too small, quenching of the flame nucleus may occur
and the range of fuel / air ratio for the development of a flame nucleus is reduced.
51

Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

Turbulence: Turbulence is directly proportional to engine speed. Therefore


increase in engine speed does not affect much ignition lag measured in
millisecond.
4.1.2 Effect of engine variable on second stage:
There are several factors which affect the second stage (flame speed) such as:
1- Fuel / air ratio:

52

Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

2- Compression Ratio:

Actual indicator diagram at different compression ratios.


53

Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

Fig. 9-5 shows the increased speed of combustion with increase of compression
ratio. These diagrams are for Ricardo variable compression ratio engine at CR=4,
5, 6with the same mixture strength and the same ignition timing.
3-Intake pressure and temperature: increase in intake pressure and temperature
increases the flame speed.
4-Engine load: with increase in engine load the cycle pressure increases hence the
flame speed increase.
5-Turbulence: Turbulence plays a very vital role in combustion phenomenon. The
flame speed is very low in non-turbulent miniatures. A turbulent motion of the
mixture intensifies the process of heat transfer and mixing of the burned and
unburned portion in the flame front. These two factors cause the velocity of
turbulent flame to increase.
4.2 Abnormal Combustion:
Normal combustion rarely occurs in a real engine without some trace of auto
ignition appearing. After ignition, the flame front travels across the combustion
chamber. The gas a heat of the flame front called the "end gas ". The end gas
receives heat due to compression by expanding gases and by radiation from the
advancing flame front, therefore, its temperature and density increases. If the
temperature exceeds the self ignition temperature and the un-burnt gas remains at
or above this temperature for a period of time equal to/or greater the delay period,
spontaneous ignition (or auto ignition) will occurs at various locations. Shortly
after words an audible sound called knock appears. If the end gas does not reach
its self-ignition temperature, the combustion will be normal.

54

Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

4.2.1 Effect of Knock:


Knock has the following effects on engine operation:
1. Noise and Roughness.
2. Mechanical damage: increase in engine wear, cylinder head and valves may be
pitted.
3. Carbon deposits.
4. Increase in heat transfer.
5. Decrease in power output and efficiency.
6. Pre-ignition: combustion Occurs before the spark.
4.2.2 Effect of engine variables on Knock:
To prevent Knock in the S.I. engine the end gas should have:
A- Low temperature.
B- Low density.
C- Long ignition delay.
D- Non- reactive combustion.
When the engine conditions are changed, the effect of the change may be reflected
by more than one of the above variables.
55

Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

A- Temperature factors:
The temperature of the unburned mixture is increased by the following factors:
1. Raising the compression ratio.
2. Supercharging.
3. Raising the inlet temperature.
4. Raising the coolant temp.
5. Increasing load.
6. Advancing the spark.
7. Raising the temperature of the cylinder and combustion chamber walls.
B- Density factors:
Increasing density by any of the following methods, will increase the possibility of
Knock:
1. Increasing load.
2. Increasing compression ratio.
3. Supercharging.
4. Advancing the spark.
C- Time factors:
Increasing the time of exposure of the unburned mixture to auto-ignitions by any of
the following factors will increase tendency to knock:
1. Increasing the distance of the flame travel.
2. Decreasing the turbulence of mixture.
3. Decreasing the speed of the engine.
D- Composition:
The probability of Knock in S.I. engines is decreased by:
1. Increasing the octane rating of the fuel.
2. Either rich or lean mixtures.
3. Stratifying the mixture.
4. Increasing the humidity of the entering air.
4.3 Knock rating of S.I. Fuels:
The Knock rating of a gasoline is found by comparing the Knock of the fuel
under test with that of a blend of primary reference fuels (PRF). These fuels are n
56

Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

heptanes (C7H16), which have a very low auto ignition reaction time and treated as
fuel with octane number (ON) of O and 2,2,4- trimethyl pentane (iso- octane),
which has inactive auto ignition reaction and is treated as ON equal to 100. The
fuel is rated by the percent of iso - octane in the n- heptane and iso- octane
mixture.
There are several methods of Knock rating to suit the various matching
conditions for different engines and operating variables, and in each of these
methods, a standard engine built to exacting specifications must be run under
prescribed operating conditions.
The standard engine used for either the research or motor method is the CFR (Co operative Fuel research) engine. Motor and research methods: the engine must first
be calibrated under specified conditions, such as those indicated below:

The sensitivity of a fuel to knock is measured by the difference in the two


knock ratings; the greater the difference the greater the fuel sensitivity. The Octane
rating of fuel is lower in the motor method than in the research method.
4.4 Influence of fuel additive on knock:
It is the possible to raise the Octane number of fuel by refining methods
alone, but these methods are in general expensive. These additives are used to rise
ON of the fuel, control surface ignition, reduce spark plug fouling, resist gum
formation, prevent rust, reduce carburetor icing, remove carburetor or injector
deposits, minimize deposits in intake system, and prevent valve sticking. The most
effective antiknock agents are lead alkyls. Tetraethyl lead (TEL), (C2H5)4 Pb, was
first introduced in 1923.
Tetramethyl lead (TML), (CH3)4 Pb, was introduced in 1960. In 1959 manganese
antiknock compound (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl), MMT, was
introduced. The interest in unleaded gasoline was started in 1970 because of the
issue of legislation in many developing countries which control harmful pollutants.
Lead has toxicological effect in the urban environment and the use of catalytic
57

Mechanical Power Department


Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University

Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals


Dr. Youssef. A. Attai

devices for emission control was introduced. The expanding use of unleaded fuels
has increased interest in other methods of increasing the ON of gasoline, one of
these methods is; the oxygenates (alcohols and ethers) as fuel additives to increase
Octane rating.
4.5 Uncontrolled Combustion:
Under certain conditions the fuel- air mixture is ignited by hot spot in the cylinder.
The hot spot might be the spark plug insulator or electrode, or combustion deposits
etc. When ignition occurs before the spark the phenomenon is called preignition. When the phenomenon occurs after ignition is switched off it is called
running- on. Combustion deposit ignition is called rumbling.

58